WorldWideScience

Sample records for city area integrated

  1. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  2. DEFINITION OF RATIONAL AMOUNT OF INTEGRATED TRANSPORT COMPANIES IN THE CITY AND AREAS OF THEIR SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Nagornji; Mospan, V.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to the definition of sustainable integrated transport companies in the city and areas of their service is offered. Using this approach, there was determined a rational number of integrated transport companies and areas of their service.

  3. Danube area spatial integration by stimulating the Romanian port cities regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Voica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania is crossed through by the Danube, the main European river course, the Romanian port cities being an important item of the European river network. Ports as Galati, Tulcea, Giurgiu are part of the Pan-European Corridor IV, assuring the Eastern link for the merchandises entering Europe through some of the main ports as Rotterdam, Wien, Mainz or Strasbourg. Their strategic location is offering the Romanian ports the opportunity of becoming the main gate for the water traffic between Asia and Occident. The paper is developing the concept of urban regeneration of the port cities and their spatial integration within the Danube influence area. The objective is to propose an analyze frame for the port – city system, to identify the possible strategies and actions for promoting the local development and port – cities regeneration supporting. The paper process has the following approaches: the assessment of the economic development, tourist opportunities, culture and nature resources as a support for tourism development and strengthening into the port cities. Population relationships, opportunities within the crossing border area these port cities are having in view are analyzed. The intended purpose of the paper is to highlight the functional particularities of port cities and to elaborate a scenario of planning approach to their study implications promoted regeneration of socio-economic and ecological assessments.

  4. Integrating UAV Flight outputs in Esri's CityEngine for semi-urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Sandric, Ionut

    2016-04-01

    One of the most pervasive technologies of recent years, which has crossed over into consumer products due to its lowering prince, is the UAV, commonly known as drones. Besides its ever-more accessible prices and growing functionality, what is truly impressive is the drastic reduction in processing time, from days to ours: from the initial flight preparation to the final output. This paper presents such a workflow and goes further by integrating the outputs into another growing technology: 3D. The software used for this purpose is Esri's CityEngine, which was developed for modeling 3D urban environments using existing 2D GIS data and computer generated architecture (CGA) rules, instead of modeling each feature individually. A semi-urban areas was selected for this study and captured using the E-Bee from Parrot. The output point cloud elevation from the E-Bee flight was transformed into a raster in order to be used as an elevation surface in CityEngine, and the mosaic raster dataset was draped over this surface. In order to model the buildings in this area CGA rules were written using the building footprints, as inputs, in the form of Feature Classes. The extrusion heights for the buildings were also extracted from the point cloud, and realistic textures were draped over the 3D building models. Finally the scene was shared as a 3D web-scene which can be accessed by anyone through a link, without any software besides an internet browser. This can serve as input for Smart City development through further analysis for urban ecology Keywords: 3D, drone, CityEngine, E-Bee, Esri, scene, web-scene

  5. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western's net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western's purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western's net revenue is computed

  6. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  7. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  8. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  9. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 4: Appendixes B-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alter native

  11. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 3: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  12. From city’s station to station city: an integrative spatial approach to the (re)development of station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Conceição, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spaces of station areas do not fully achieve the liveability level sought out by recent redevelopment projects. Additionally, the role that architecture plays in their spatial definition seems to be constrained, likely because of the projects’ highly complex interdisciplinary planning processes.

  13. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  14. Farming City:A Model for the Integration of Undeveloped Urban and Rural Areas%农园城市:欠发达地区城乡一体化的一种新模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清硕

    2015-01-01

    城市不是目的,而是一种手段,一种使人健康舒适生活的手段。过去经常提到的农村城市化,应改为城乡一体化的提法才较妥当。因为只有城市和农村相结合、统筹发展,才能最终摆脱现代城市异化的弊端。借助霍华德田园城市的理论,提出构建城乡一体化的农园城市,其符合我国欠发达地区的实际需求。%s: City is not a goal but an approach which may give a healthy and suitable life style to the people. The concept of integration of urban and rural areas is better than that of the traditional urbanization of rural areas, because only by the coordination and integration of urban­rural development can the city differentiation be broken away. According to the Theory of Garden City by Howard, to build up a coordinated urban­rural farming city is more suitable for the actual situation in the undeveloped areas in China. We believe that the industrialization of modern agriculture is the first step for the building of the farming city.

  15. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous inactive volcanic cones. Two of them, Mount Iya and Mount Kelimutu are included to Ende Regency. The northern foot of Mount Iya is only about 1 km away from the southern outskirts of Ende city. But the presence of Mount Meja and Mount Roja as the barrier, and the orientation of the active crater (K2, the highly explosive eruption of Iya Volcano may not directly endanger the city of Ende. Most pyroclastic flows of previous eruptions and other eruptive material emplaced into the sea, but due to a short horizontal distance between Mount Iya and Ende City, the ejected rock fragments can endanger the city of Ende especially its southern parts. A crack has developed around the active crater (K2 of Iya Volcano. It seems that the crack indicates a major weakness within the volcano, which could result in a giant landslide, entering the sea in future eruptions of Iya Volcano. The kinetic energy which is transmitted through the water may probably generate a tsunami. The Ende City also experienced significant damages in the 1992 earthquake. Luckily this city is located on a solid rock instead of alluvial sediments which can potentially undergo liquefaction.  

  16. Popular Neighborhood and city development: Montevideo and its metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair Jesica MAGRI DÍAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observed from the housing factor, Montevideo and its metropolitan area walk in a model that drives development in the city and not the city development. In this process, we find ways to influence the urban residential structure, through public strategies, market and social. Each sector expressed their aspirations and develop capacities to carry out their interests, composing a scene that defies the guidelines of urban integration and cohesion that progressive governments intend to promote. The AMM intensity expresses the dominance of a functional economic relationship on political and social issues.

  17. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    OpenAIRE

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja; Sugalang Sugalang

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous i...

  18. Agromere: how to integrate urban agriculture in the development of the Dutch city of Almere?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansma, J.E.; Visser, A J; de, Wolf; Stobbelaar, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Urban agriculture produces green city areas with as an extra dimension providing food, energy, care, education or recreation for the civilians. And thus it can contribute to a more sustainable and liveable cities. The objective of the project Agromere is to create a process which will lead to a new residential quarter where agriculture is fully integrated in city live. Agromere is situated in the fast growing city of Almere, the Netherlands. In a combined stakeholder and design process a town...

  19. City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Sunter, Deborah A

    2016-05-20

    To prepare for an urban influx of 2.5 billion people by 2050, it is critical to create cities that are low-carbon, resilient, and livable. Cities not only contribute to global climate change by emitting the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but also are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and extreme weather. We explore options for establishing sustainable energy systems by reducing energy consumption, particularly in the buildings and transportation sectors, and providing robust, decentralized, and renewable energy sources. Through technical advancements in power density, city-integrated renewable energy will be better suited to satisfy the high-energy demands of growing urban areas. Several economic, technical, behavioral, and political challenges need to be overcome for innovation to improve urban sustainability. PMID:27199413

  20. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Van Vliet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civic areas and the identification of issues for city planning. Underlying their work is a commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and children’s rights to active citizenship from a young age. This paper describes approaches used to engage with young people and methods of participation, and reflects on lessons learned about how to most effectively involve youth from underrepresented populations and embed diverse youth voices into the culture of city planning.

  1. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Braun (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? T

  2. The Area and Population of Cities: New Insights from a Different Perspective on Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; Diego Rybski; Xavier Gabaix; Makse, Hernán A.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of the population of cities has attracted a great deal of attention, in part because it sharply constrains models of local growth. However, to this day, there is no consensus on the distribution below the very upper tail, because available data need to rely on the "legal" rather than "economic" definition of cities for medium and small cities. To remedy this difficulty, in this work we construct cities "from the bottom up" by clustering populated areas obtained from high-reso...

  3. City Marketing: Towards an Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Erik

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD thesis deals with city marketing: cities making use of marketing ideas, concepts and tools. Marketing has proved its value in the business environment, but what about applying marketing in the context of cities? How can cities make effective use of the potential of marketing? The first contribution of this study is the development of a clear concept of city marketing that is based on a customer-oriented perspective, acknowledges the important of perceptions of places in t...

  4. The Area and Population of Cities: New Insights from a Different Perspective on Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Rozenfeld, Hernan; Gabaix, Xavier; Makse, Hernan A

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the population of cities has attracted a great deal of attention, in part because it sharply constrains models of local growth. However, to this day, there is no consensus on the distribution below the very upper tail, because available data need to rely on the "legal" rather than "economic" definition of cities for medium and small cities. To remedy this difficulty, in this work we construct cities "from the bottom up" by clustering populated areas obtained from high-resolution data. This method allows us to investigate the population and area of cities for urban agglomerations of all sizes using clustering methods from percolation theory. We find that Zipf's law (a power law with exponent close to 1) for population holds for cities as small as 12,000 inhabitants in the USA and 5,000 inhabitants in Great Britain. In addition the distribution of city areas is also close to a Zipf's law. We provide a parsimonious model with endogenous city area that is consistent with those findings.

  5. Large scale integration of photovoltaics in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We implement the photovoltaics on a large scale. ► We use three-dimensional modelling for accurate photovoltaic simulations. ► We consider the shadowing effect in the photovoltaic simulation. ► We validate the simulated results using detailed hourly measured data. - Abstract: For a large scale implementation of photovoltaics (PV) in the urban environment, building integration is a major issue. This includes installations on roof or facade surfaces with orientations that are not ideal for maximum energy production. To evaluate the performance of PV systems in urban settings and compare it with the building user’s electricity consumption, three-dimensional geometry modelling was combined with photovoltaic system simulations. As an example, the modern residential district of Scharnhauser Park (SHP) near Stuttgart/Germany was used to calculate the potential of photovoltaic energy and to evaluate the local own consumption of the energy produced. For most buildings of the district only annual electrical consumption data was available and only selected buildings have electronic metering equipment. The available roof area for one of these multi-family case study buildings was used for a detailed hourly simulation of the PV power production, which was then compared to the hourly measured electricity consumption. The results were extrapolated to all buildings of the analyzed area by normalizing them to the annual consumption data. The PV systems can produce 35% of the quarter’s total electricity consumption and half of this generated electricity is directly used within the buildings.

  6. Delimitating central areas of cities based on road density: a case study of Guangzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingnian; Lu, Xueqiu

    2009-10-01

    The central area of a city is an important functional unit in many urban studies. It is a region where business concentrates and municipal facilities densely distribute. Traditionally, statistics of economic and social phenomena can be used to delimitate their boundaries. However, traditional methods based on economic and social investigation are labor-intensive and sometimes inaccurate. Alternatively, road networks acting as a kind of infrastructure reflect the association of locations. Thus the concentration of road networks indicates the congestion of social-economic activities and municipal facilities to some extent. Based on density analysis of road networks, the area where roads densely distribute is recognized as the central area of a city. Taking Guangzhou City as an example, the road network was studied on a set of spatial scopes, and the central area was delimitated and analyzed. Results showed that the road-density-based delimitation had to be adjusted according to the road system, and the delimitated area was consistent to the real central area to some extent. Since road data is much accessible, road-based method is useful and practical when short of socialeconomic data.

  7. 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Rodic, Ljiljana; Cowing, Michael J; Velis, Costas A; Whiteman, Andrew D; Scheinberg, Anne; Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh; Stretz, Joachim; Oelz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city's performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat's solid waste management in the World's cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city's solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping 'triangles' - one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised 'Wasteaware' set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both 'hard' physical components and 'soft' governance aspects; and in prioritising 'next steps' in developing a city's solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators are applicable to a broad range of cities with very different levels of income and solid waste management practices. Their wide application as a standard methodology will help to fill the historical data gap. PMID:25458855

  8. Decentralising integration policies: managing migration in cities, regions and localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Penninx

    2009-01-01

    As cities and regions across Europe struggle to manage the integration challenges posed by immigration, a growing number of people are looking to decentralisation for answers. This paper argues that increasing the financial and decision-making power of local authorities is a necessary precondition f

  9. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  10. Kitchen Food Waste Inventory for Residential Areas in Baghdad City

    OpenAIRE

    Salam Bash AlMaliky; Zainab AlKhayat

    2012-01-01

    An inventory and generation rate for the kitchen food waste were determined in residential areas across Baghdad, Iraq as a first step towards more developed and sustainable solid waste management system. The study was based on collecting data from 20 families from 20 different locations across the city for the period from November, 2011 through June, 2012, regarding their total weekly food purchases and wastes in addition to other relevant social information in order to determine statistical ...

  11. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Willem van Vliet; Debra Flanders Cushing; Louise Chawla; Mara Mintzer; Victoria Derr

    2013-01-01

    Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civ...

  12. Integration of nature and technology for smart cities

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Anil

    2016-01-01

    This book is a resumption of the work “Integrated M/E Design: Building Systems Engineering” published by Anil Ahuja in 1997. Together with an international group of authors from the engineering, urban planning, and architecture fields, Mr. Ahuja discussed new trends and paradigms in the smart buildings and smart city sectors and extended the topic of the previous publication from the building to the entire city. A smart, sustainable building is not just about the building itself. There are things happening in the inside of the building and on the outside. A smart building connects the inside with the outside, provides efficiencies on both sides, synchronizes the outside infrastructure with its inside systems, and integrates nature and its occupants in its design. A smart building doesn’t just provide technology solutions. It is about constant exchange between the inside and the outside of the building, the contribution of the building to the quality of the entire neighborhood and the rest of the city, h...

  13. Residential radon exposure in some areas of Bangalore city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to natural airborne radon, indoors, has been identified as the primary mode of radiation exposure. Hence, numerous measurements at various parts of the world along with epidemiological studies regarding the indoor radon and risk o flung cancer have been published in recent years. In India, many researchers have measured the indoor radon levels in dwellings at different regions for health risk assessment and its control. Though, Bangalore (12°152 and 13°132 N latitude and 77°32 and 77°562 E longitude) is one of the major cities of India with a population of about 8 million, only a few radon measurements were reported till date. As a result of ever increasing demand for living places, closely packed high rise residential buildings and apartments are found everywhere and seems to prevent the normal dispersion of radon due to poor ventilation. In view of the above, indoor radon and thoron measurements were carried out using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) in about 50 dwellings of residential areas of Bangalore city namely, K.S. Town, Kengeri, RR Nagar, Nayandanahalli, RPC Layout, Nagarabhavi, Mudalapalya, Malagala, Sunkadakatte, etc. The results obtained were systematically analyzed and discussed

  14. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  15. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion

  16. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect , (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final step is the cartographic representation. In this final step the urban groundwater maps are created. All the methodological steps are doubled

  17. Tools for an integrated systems approach to sustainable port city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Morel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large port cities like Shanghai, Amsterdam and Rio de Janeiro are key cogwheels in international logistics and transport networks but also serve as showcases for the rest of the world; as such, they constitute strategic assets for the host country´s economy and international influence. Historically, a city and its port often developed independently, through sometimes contradictory or even confrontational policies. Today, the growing number of usage disputes over increasingly coveted coastal areas is prompting local managers to incorporate urban and port-related issues in overarching planning programs. In particular, planning of the sea front and the buffer zone between the port and the city must contribute decisively to the deployment of more effective, cleaner transport services for the port city as a whole. In general, one of the key global challenges for planners and decision-makers consists in integrating sustainable development goals (environmental and social components, as well as the stimulation of industrial competitiveness into urban planning. In this context the PHEBUS research group has initiated an international program of research to develop innovative methods and tools that can help territorial stakeholders to design, evaluate, compare and ultimately choose development scenarios for the future of their port cities. The main themes are addressed via a multidisciplinary systems approach on the scale of a coastal urban area with an industrial and port complex. In particular, the themes include sea front planning, the city-port interface, energy optimization (e.g. the introduction and sharing of renewable energies, risk resilience, climate change and multimodal, clean transport.

  18. Integrating Science with Technical and Vocational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Larry; Shreckengast, Craig

    This guide presents learning activities and lesson plans that integrate science with technical and vocational areas. Activities and plans are organized under broad headings such as Environmental Science and Acid Rain Research; Criminal Justice, Chemistry, and Narcotics; Children's Education and Services; Cosmetology; and Health Professions.…

  19. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  20. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  1. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information

  2. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... intercepting any waterbased activity occurring within the active military security zone/s and...

  3. Towards an integrated framework for coastal eco-cities

    OpenAIRE

    Divakaran, Prasanth; Kapnopoulou, Vaso; McMurtry, Erin; Seo, Min-Guk; Yu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a structured and informative analysis of two poignant European and Asian Coastal Eco-City projects. The scholars have recognised the diverse pathways Eco- City developments take within the duration their development; therefore we work towards a framework that draws upon influences from two, polarised developments in Eco-City design. Available data for both cities was not equally distributed for all aspects of the development process; however we present a comprehensive...

  4. DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN ALBA IULIA AREA OF INFLUENCE. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. NICULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development Policies in Alba Iulia Area of Influence. An Integrated Approach. The paper represents an integrated and holarchical perspective on the spatial development policies and its component measures and projects related to the City of Alba Iulia, its area of influence and the all-encompassing County of Alba, Romania. The goal was to see how the development and management policies from all levels merge into a single strategic framework that might create a favourable basis for the sustainable growth of Alba Iulia and its area of influence. As this area surrounding the city is subjected to different hierarchical plans and programmes, some that are not properly correlated, it is extremely clear that this area and Areas of Influence in general need legislative stipulations made specifically for them and also a well-thought holarchical planning approach.

  5. Integrated urban flood risk assessment – adapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kubal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  6. Living environment and energy consumption in cities of Yangtze Delta Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijun Gao [Kitakyushu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Engineering; Xingtian Wang [Shanghai Nikko Architectural Consultation Co. Ltd. (China); Li Haifeng [Building Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Penglin Zhao [Shenzhen Municipal Planning and Land Bureau (China); Jianxing Ren [Shanghai Inst. of Electric Power (China). Dept. of Power Engineering; Ojima,Toshio [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Architecture

    2004-12-01

    In this research, we used the statistical data to investigate the basic condition of living environment and energy consumption for Yangtze Delta Area. Yangtze Delta Area is most developed area in China, the center of which is Shanghai, a largest economical city and largest harbor for industry and trade. Besides Shanghai, this area has many cities with a high economical power and highly developed urbanization. The development of economy and living condition in this area will give a significant impact on other cities in China. Through the study, we found that home energy use increases very fast in this area especially for pipeline coal gas use. Reflecting the dense population and an active economy, the density of automobile traffic in this area is exceedingly high and congestion, particularly in mega cities. The living condition for resident has improved gradually. (author)

  7. Living environment and energy consumption in cities of Yangtze Delta Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.J.; Wang, X.T.; Li, H.F.; Zhao, P.L.; Ren, J.X.; Toshio, O. [University of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Engineering

    2004-12-01

    In this research, we used the statistical data to investigate the basic condition of living environment and energy consumption for Yangtze Delta Area. Yangtze Delta Area is most developed area in China, the center of which is Shanghai, the large economical city and largest harbor for industry and trade. Besides Shanghai, this area has many cities with a high economical power and highly developed urbanization. The development of economy and living condition in this area will give a significant impact on other cities in China. Through the study, we found that home energy use increases very fast in this area especially for pipeline coal gas use. Reflecting the dense population and an active economy, the density of automobile traffic in this area is exceedingly high and congestion, particularly in mega cities. The living condition for resident has improved gradually.

  8. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Determination of coastal areas of recreational activities in the city of Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Özdemir Işık

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The size of the areal use in planning allows for increase in recreational diversity. When considered that recreational needs are the times that people spend to make use of their spare time, it is obvious that the decisions taken based on the user will lead the planner to more accurate planning targets. While determining the recreational planning decisions, decisions should be evaluated in an integrated approach and in accordance with the requests and demands of users. This study aimed at taking planning decisions required for the recreational connections which are on the coast and for the improvement of people's social life between the coastal city and coastal users. Within the study, the diversity of Trabzon coastal area in terms of recreational activity based on measurement and observation was revealed. In the study, subclasses determined for Trabzon coast were formed by sticking to CORINE classification system, and the coast was divided into 9 sections considering the size and clarity of the area. In CBS environment, each section was digitized according to separate layers and areas with ArcCIS program in terms of recreational area usages. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the diversity of activity was more intense in sections where areal use was more intense depending on the size of the area.

  10. Synthesis of Household Yard Area Dynamics in the City of San Juan Using Multi-Scalar Social-Ecological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability discourse promotes the increased use of green infrastructure (GI because of its contribution of important ecosystem services to city dwellers. Under this vision, all urban green spaces, including those at the household scale, are valued for their potential contributions to a city’s social-ecological functioning and associated benefits for human well-being. Understanding how urban residential green spaces have evolved can help improve sustainable urban planning and design, but it requires examining urban processes occurring at multiple scales. The interaction between social structures and ecological structures within the subtropical city of San Juan, the capital and the largest city of Puerto Rico, has been an important focus of study of the San Juan ULTRA (Urban Long-Term Research Area network, advancing understanding of the city’s vulnerabilities and potential adaptive capacity. Here we provide a synthesis of several social-ecological processes driving residential yard dynamics in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, through the evaluation of empirical findings related to yard management decisions, yard area, and yard services. We emphasize the role of factors occurring at the household scale. Results are discussed within the context of shrinking cities using an integrated, multi-scalar, social-ecological systems framework, and consider the implications of household green infrastructure for advancing urban sustainability theory.

  11. The Layout of Post Offices in a New Area of a City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An analysis on the factors which affect the layout of post offices is made. Research on the laws of distribution of post offices in cities is done. The method of determining the number of post offices and the layout of post offices in a new area of a city are put forward in this paper.

  12. Interpolation Grid for Local Area of Iasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Raluca Maria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Definitive transition to GNSS technology of achieving geodetic networks for cadastre implementation in cities and municipalities, enforce establishing a unique way of linking between current measurements and existing geodetic data, with a sufficient accuracy proper to urban cadastre standards. Regarding city of Iasi, is presented a different method of transformation which consist in an interpolation grid for heights system. The Romanian national height system is „Black Sea-1975” normal heights system. Founded in 1945 by Molodenski, this system uses the quasigeoid as reference surface, being in relation with the ellipsoid through the height anomalies sizes in each point. The unitary transformation between the ETRS- 89 ellipsoidal height system and the normal one, at national level is provided through the „TransdatRo” program developed by NACLR (National Agency for Cadastre and Land Registration.

  13. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  14. Integrated assessment framework for quantifying multi-hazard risk in large cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xiaodong; Liang, Qiuhua; Yamazaki, Hiro; Dawson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    To better understand the integrated disaster risk in the region exposed to multiple natural hazards, there is a need for quantitative assessments that comprehensively consider all the regional major natural hazards and their interactions and correlations. This study developed an integrated assessment framework for quantifying water-related multi-hazard risk in costal cities, taking into account the possibility and outcome of the concurrence of river flood, heavy rain and storm surge. As the first part of this framework, copula theory is applied to measure the dependence between the three hazards and fit their joint probability distributions, which are used to simulate the concurrent events under different scenarios of probability. For each of the simulated events, a GPU-accelerated hydraulic model based on 2D Shallow Water Equation is operated to calculate the the flooding area and water depth. Vulnerability curves that illustrate the possible loss of different exposures as a function of hazard (flooding area and water depth) are generated and then applied to calculate the probability of loss at various level. London, which is a typical area threatened by pluvial, fluvial and costal floods, is selected as the study case in this framework. Compared with single-hazard risk, the integrated and quantitative assessment of disaster risk due to the three water-related hazard can provide more scientific reference for regional land-use planning, disaster prevention and emergency management.

  15. Development of a software for predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop a new software system that can directly display the predicted results on an electronic map, in order to get a directly perceived understanding of the affected areas of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. Methods: Three scenarios of events including spreading radioactive materials, dirty bomb attack, and explosion or arson attacks on the radiation facilities were assumed. Gaussian diffusion model was employed to predict the spread and deposition of radioactive pollutants, and both the internal and external doses were estimated for the representative person by using the corresponding dose conversion factors. Through integration of the computing system and Mapinfo geographic information system (GIS), the predicted results were visually displayed on the electronic maps of a city. Results: The new software system could visually display the predicted results on the electronic map of a city, and the predicted results were consistent with those calculated by the similar software Hotspot®. The deviation between this system and Hotspot was less than 0.2 km for predicted isoplethic curves of dose rate downwind. Conclusions: The newly developed software system is of the practical value in predicting the effects of nuclear and radiological terrorism events in city areas. (authors)

  16. Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

  17. Integrating Emerging Technologies in Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances in K-12 Schools in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2015-01-01

    Schools in New York City have made attempts to embrace and support the strand of "making connections", which is laid out in the New York City Department of Dance blueprint for teaching and learning in dance for grades PreK-12. Accordingly, some schools have integrated Ugandan traditional dances into the dance curriculum, and dance…

  18. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available da

  19. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socio- economic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built en...

  20. Integrated approach to solid waste management in Pune city

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay RODE

    2010-01-01

    The solid waste is increasing in Pune city due to growth of population, urbanization, higher per capita income and standard of living, changing lifestyle and food habits. The solid waste created by the household units, shops, restaurant and commercial units are higher. Solid waste is inevitable task in urbanization process and it will increase in future. The collection, segregation, storage, transports and processing of solid waste needs planning and more investment. Clean city improves stand...

  1. An integrative theoretical model for improving resident–city identification

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Zenker; Sibylle Petersen

    2014-01-01

    . Research from social and environmental psychology has shown that identification by residents with a place leads to numerous desirable outcomes like increased commitment and residential satisfaction. Thus, in the competition for residents, cities focus on building a favorable identity of a place to increase identification with the place. However, little is known regarding the predictors of resident–city identification and their link to desirable outcomes. We thus present an interdisciplinary...

  2. Crime report in the cities of Aburra Valley metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Duque

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes crime report in Valle de Aburrá cities, based on a household survey of a representative sample of subjects between 12 and 60 years old, interviewed in 2003-2004. Actually, there is almost no report of non severe aggressions and over 75% of victims of severe aggression do not report to authorities. Sexual aggression is almost no reported by men. According to these high rates of no reporting, it is not advisable to support public policies on such statistical reports.

  3. U.S.-Mexico Integration and Regional Economies: Evidence from Border- City Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether U.S.-Mexico economic integration is causing economic activity in the United States to relocate to the U.S.-Mexico border region. The approach I take is to study U.S.- Mexico border-city pairs. Border cities are natural laboratories in which to study the effects of trade policy. To the extent transport costs are the main non-trade policy barriers to trade, we expect regional economic integration to cause economic activity in border cities to expand. I exploit t...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND SCENARIOS OF URBANIZATION IN ARID AREA -- A Case Study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fei; LI Yu; DONG Suo-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on data of questionnaire and field survey and two developing models of Business As Usual (BAU) and the Intensive Urbanization (IU), this article, taking Wuwei City, a medium size city and typical oasis arid area in Gansu Province with very vulnerable and sensitive natural environment but long history of oasis economy, as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of Wuwei's household energy consumption, waste discharge in transportation industry, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, by the integration of the systematical dynamics model Stella and Polestar language to simulate the future development of the research area. The results showed that, first, the developing model ofIU was propitious to Wuwei City named for oasis economy and vulnerable natural environment. The strategy of"Intensive Urbanization" can change the structure of energy utilization, and improve the efficiency of energy utilization. Second, the proportion of domestic energy consumption will decrease with industrialization and economic development, while that of tertiary industry, secondary industry and transportation will gradually grow up according to strategy of"Intensive Urbanization". Third, the Wuwei City is facing a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional patterns of development and a better future under a sustainable urbanization scenario, in the next 10 to 20 years. The different developing trends were clarified and the relative countermeasures were put forward for the policy makers according to the driving forces.

  5. Integration of Utilities Infrastructures in a Future Internet Enabled Smart City Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sánchez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving efficiency of city services and facilitating a more sustainable development of cities are the main drivers of the smart city concept. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT play a crucial role in making cities smarter, more accessible and more open. In this paper we present a novel architecture exploiting major concepts from the Future Internet (FI paradigm addressing the challenges that need to be overcome when creating smarter cities. This architecture takes advantage of both the critical communications infrastructures already in place and owned by the utilities as well as of the infrastructure belonging to the city municipalities to accelerate efficient provision of existing and new city services. The paper highlights how FI technologies create the necessary glue and logic that allows the integration of current vertical and isolated city services into a holistic solution, which enables a huge forward leap for the efficiency and sustainability of our cities. Moreover, the paper describes a real-world prototype, that instantiates the aforementioned architecture, deployed in one of the parks of the city of Santander providing an autonomous public street lighting adaptation service. This prototype is a showcase on how added-value services can be seamlessly created on top of the proposed architecture.

  6. Integration of utilities infrastructures in a future internet enabled smart city framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis; Elicegui, Ignacio; Cuesta, Javier; Muñoz, Luis; Lanza, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Improving efficiency of city services and facilitating a more sustainable development of cities are the main drivers of the smart city concept. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) play a crucial role in making cities smarter, more accessible and more open. In this paper we present a novel architecture exploiting major concepts from the Future Internet (FI) paradigm addressing the challenges that need to be overcome when creating smarter cities. This architecture takes advantage of both the critical communications infrastructures already in place and owned by the utilities as well as of the infrastructure belonging to the city municipalities to accelerate efficient provision of existing and new city services. The paper highlights how FI technologies create the necessary glue and logic that allows the integration of current vertical and isolated city services into a holistic solution, which enables a huge forward leap for the efficiency and sustainability of our cities. Moreover, the paper describes a real-world prototype, that instantiates the aforementioned architecture, deployed in one of the parks of the city of Santander providing an autonomous public street lighting adaptation service. This prototype is a showcase on how added-value services can be seamlessly created on top of the proposed architecture. PMID:24233072

  7. Agromere: how to integrate urban agriculture in the development of the Dutch city of Almere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Visser, A.J.; Wolf, de P.L.; Stobbelaar, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Urban agriculture produces green city areas with as an extra dimension providing food, energy, care, education or recreation for the civilians. And thus it can contribute to a more sustainable and liveable cities. The objective of the project Agromere is to create a process which will lead to a new

  8. City of Richland 300 Area industrial wastewater permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Labs and Westinghouse Hanford Co. are responsible for operating most of the facilities within the 300 Area; other contractors are also involved. The document gives briefly water/wastewater data: water sources, water usage, water discharge/loss, NPDES permit status, plant sewer outlets size and flow, etc. The document also includes the following attachments: 300 Area building list, Oct. 1993-Oct. 1994 300 Area water balance, waste shipments for CY 1994, complete chemical listing, sanitary sewer sampling results (12/19/94, 1/18/95, 1/15/95), and priority pollutant listings

  9. Smart City and Metropolitan Area: the Energy Component in the Case Studies of Genoa and Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Battarra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Smart City model is now considered one of the opportunities to rethink cities and, in general, the development of urban communities. One of the most relevant themes in the application of the Smart City paradigm is the city/energy relationship and Italian cities are fielding several actions to effectively cope with the energy issues. Nevertheless, actions and projects are often uncritically promoted as ‘smart’, but actually lack innovative contents and methods. Therefore, the aim of this research, of which we present the first findings, is the drafting of a survey, tested through field analysis, of the experimentations of Italian metropolitan areas on the Smart City topic. The in-depth analysis of two case studies, Genoa and Naples, allowed us to compare the actual state of the two cities. We have that they have undertaken a common path in the implementation of strategies to try to transform themselves into Smart Cities, focusing especially on the energy aspects.

  10. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  11. Chinese eco-cities, an integrated sectoral approach or an eco-cities approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCities, aware of their environmental challenges, have introduced policies and programs to deal with issues like climate change and pollution. They want to become more ecological which would secure them the label of ‘eco-city’. Policies found in such cases are: closing the water cycle to

  12. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  13. THE CONTEXT OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN URBAN AREA OF PIATRA-NEAMȚ CITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTĂLINA-ELENA ROȘU; I. A. IRIMUȘ

    2014-01-01

    The context of the geomorphological processes in urban area of Ppiatra-Neamț city. The paper approches the issue induced by the geomorphological processes in the development and planning of Piatra-Neamț city. The methodology used for this study has implied the identification of the slope`s geomorphological processes: rock fallings and landslides produced due to the clay bedrock, precipitation`s water infiltration, deforestation and other human interventions. The identification of these proces...

  14. Toward low energy cities : A case study of the urban area of Liège

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid; Marique, Anne-Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this article, a methodology is proposed for assessing residential energy uses for buildings and transport at the city scale. This method is based on the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of urban and transport criteria. The methodology allows to model buildings and transport energy use at the city scale, as well as to ...

  15. Construction of Chaihu Selenium Industrial Demonstration Area in Zhongxiang City of Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop selenium industry in Jianghan Basin,Hubei Provincial Party Committee decided to build Chaihu selenium industrial demonstration area in Zhongxiang City.This paper introduced general situation of Chaihu Town,analyzed countermeasures for construction of selenium industrial demonstration area in depth,and finally came up with 12 constructive and pertinent recommendations.

  16. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama...

  17. An Integrated Assessment Method for Sustainable Transport System Planning in a Middle Sized German City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schmale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite climate change mitigation and sustainability agendas, road transport systems in Germany and the resulting environmental burden are growing. Road transport is a significant source of emissions in urban areas and the infrastructure has a significant impact on the urban form. Nevertheless, mobility is a fundamental requirement for the satisfaction of the human desire to socially and economically engage in society. Considering these realities and the desire for sustainable development in a growing city (Potsdam, Germany, an integrated assessment methodology was co-developed among scientists and practitioners to prioritize a suite of transport-related measures. The methodology reflects the city’s qualitative and quantitative goals to improve public transport and promote sustainability, capturing synergies in categories that include environmental considerations as well as road safety, eco-mobility, and quality of life. This approach applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA to derive a practically relevant solution for the local traffic and mobility problems that fosters ownership and accountability of all involved. This paper reflects on the process of developing the MCA, and the different aspects that were found important and required consideration during the process. Recommendations on specific traffic-related measures and the assessment of their effectiveness are not given. The aim is that such process information could foster greater collaboration within city departments and similar transdisciplinary efforts.

  18. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  19. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area:...

  20. An urban heat island in tropical area investigated by remote sensing: Belo Horizonte City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inappropriate urbanization process in tropical areas causes local climatic alterations forming heat islands over the cities. In order to guide urban planning in the control of the environmental urban quality, as for the thermal comfort is concerned, it has developed a method to evaluate the thermal behavior of built and urban green areas. Two TM-LANDSAT images from Belo Horizonte City, the study area, were chosen based on summer and winter typical days statistically characterized. Bands 3 and 4 of these images were combined to produce a local vegetation index map. Band 6 was used to observe the warmer and cooler areas in the city. Some heat nucleons were identified through data analysis of remote sensing, meteorological and urban land use. The mean maximum temperature of the principal heat nuclei exceeds, in summer, the limit value of diurnal thermal comfort for the city climate, using Givoni's Bioclimatic Chart. During the day period, the areas with a lower vegetation index, more density and predominating horizontal settlements were the most warmer. The cooling effect of urban green areas was very local. Thus, it should be regularly distributed in the built areas. The limits of occupation density and edification could be fixed, too, considering its impacts on the urban thermal environment

  1. Ecological Integrity in Protected Areas: Two Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Federal environmental legislation and policy in the United States require that managers seek to maintain natural conditions or “naturalness” within national parks, wilderness, and other protected areas.1 A number of experts in protected area management have argued, however, that naturalness should be abandoned as a mandatory goal in these areas. In the recently published book, Beyond Naturalness, leading management experts strongly recommend changes in protected area law and policy to allow a...

  2. [Heavy metals and their sources in outdoor settled dusts in different function areas of cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-yan; Liu, Yan-qing

    2013-09-01

    To study the distribution of heavy metals in outdoor settled dusts in different functional areas, based on the literature published, we described the difference in heavy metal accumulation in functional areas and their sources by comparing and analyzing the data of heavy metal concentrations in some capital cities. The results showed that industrial area had the highest heavy metal concentration, followed in descending order by residential area and commercial area, and finally, traffic area. The levels of Zn and Pb in the four functional areas showed higher spatial variability, while there was little difference in Cu and Cd levels. Compared to the heavy metal concentration in urban soils, industrial area appeared heavily accumulated and traffic area appeared lighter accumulated with heavy metals, while there was little difference among other three functional areas expect industrial area. The accumulation of Cd in the four functional areas showed the lowest spatial variability. PMID:24289018

  3. Green Buildings in Green Cities: Integrating Energy Efficiency into the Real Estate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhan, Ashok; Kroll, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The commercial real estate sector accounts for over a quarter of the energy consumption in the United States.  This paper examines how characteristics of the commercial real estate industry and structural attributes of US cities affect the goals of improving energy efficiency and sustainability of buildings, and improving pollution and emission levels in US cities. We build a detailed picture of the factors involved in integrating energy efficiency into commercial real estate planning, design...

  4. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems: A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available datasets are stored in disparate data silos, using different models and schemas for their description. To overcome this interoperability barrier, the presented framework employs a modular and scalabl...

  5. Energy-Integrating Master Plan for the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: energy conservation element. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The Master Plan describes a coordinated energy-conservation effort for the City, the effective application and ultimate success of which depend primarily on the active involvement of the City government and its functional departments. Following an introductory section, Section XXI, Community Energy Determinants, describes the natural and man-made environment, growth and energy profiles, and the institutional environment. Additional sections are entitled: Energy-Conservation Options (passive energy options and active energy-conservation options); Energy Integration; Community Energy Management; Energy-Conservation Implementation Plan; and an appendix containing an energy-related glossary, a directory to various sources of information on energy conservation, various technical documents, a copy of the National Energy Act, and a bibliography. (MCW)

  6. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    Recent developments in the global positioning system (GPS) and the global system for mobile communications, or third generation technology (GSM/3G), have enabled an increasingly simple and cost-effective tracking of human activity in urban areas through the use of mobile telephony for the...... was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122...

  7. City Energy Management : A Case Study on the Area of Liège in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid; Wallemacq, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liège through the use of GIS tools in order to assess energy uses of residential buildings and transport of residents at the city scale. For each class of this typology, a representative block is selected in order to model energy use at the city...

  8. Gemitis : an integrated and participative risk reduction strategy for the sustainable development of cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GEMITIS method has been implemented since 1995 into a global and integrated Risk Reduction Strategy for improving the seismic risk-assessment effectiveness in urban areas, including the generation of crisis scenarios and mid- to long term- seismic impact assessment. GEMITIS required us to provide more precise definitions of notions in common use by natural-hazard specialists, such as elements at risk and vulnerability. Until then, only the physical and human elements had been considered, and analysis of their vulnerability referred to their fragility in the face of aggression by nature. We have completed this approach by also characterizing the social and cultural vulnerability of a city and its inhabitants, and, with a wider scope, the functional vulnerability of the "urban system". This functional vulnerability depends upon the relations between the system elements (weak links in chains, functional relays, and defense systems) and upon the city's relations with the outside world (interdependence). Though well developed in methods for evaluating industrial risk (fault-tree analysis, event-tree analysis, multiple defense barriers, etc.), this aspect had until now been ignored by the "hard-science" specialists working on natural hazards. Based on the implementation of an Urban System Exposure methodology, we were able to identify specific human, institutional, or functional vulnerability factors for each urban system, which until had been very little discussed by risk-analysis and civil-protection specialists. In addition, we have defined the new concept of "main stakes" of the urban system, ranked by order of social value (or collective utility). Obviously, vital or strategic issues must be better resistant or protected against natural hazards than issues of secondary importance. The ranking of exposed elements of a city in terms of "main stakes" provides a very useful guide for adapting vulnerability studies and for orienting preventive actions. For this

  9. An object-oriented 3D integral data model for digital city and digital mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lixin; Wang, Yanbing; Che, Defu; Xu, Lei; Chen, Xuexi; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Wenzhong

    2005-10-01

    With the rapid development of urban, city space extended from surface to subsurface. As the important data source for the representation of city spatial information, 3D city spatial data have the characteristics of multi-object, heterogeneity and multi-structure. It could be classified referring to the geo-surface into three kinds: above-surface data, surface data and subsurface data. The current research on 3D city spatial information system is divided naturally into two different branch, 3D City GIS (3D CGIS) and 3D Geological Modeling (3DGM). The former emphasizes on the 3D visualization of buildings and the terrain of city, while the latter emphasizes on the visualization of geological bodies and structures. Although, it is extremely important for city planning and construction to integrate all the city spatial information including above-surface, surface and subsurface objects to conduct integral analysis and spatial manipulation. However, either 3D CGIS or 3DGM is currently difficult to realize the information integration, integral analysis and spatial manipulation. Considering 3D spatial modeling theory and methodologies, an object-oriented 3D integral spatial data model (OO3D-ISDM) is presented and software realized. The model integrates geographical objects, surface buildings and geological objects together seamlessly with TIN being its coupling interface. This paper introduced the conceptual model of OO3D-ISDM, which is comprised of 4 spatial elements, i.e. point, line, face and body, and 4 geometric primitives, i.e. vertex, segment, triangle and generalized tri-prism (GTP). The spatial model represents the geometry of surface buildings and geographical objects with triangles, and geological objects with GTP. Any of the represented objects, no mater surface buildings, terrain or subsurface objects, could be described with the basic geometry element, i.e. triangle. So the 3D spatial objects, surface buildings, terrain and geological objects can be

  10. Further Integrating Euro Area Economies: Some Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Trichet

    2006-01-01

    Als Gastredner bei der diesjährigen Jahresversammlung konnte der Vorsitzende der Präsident der Europäischen Zentralbank, Jean-Claude Trichet, gewonnen werden. In seinem Festvortrag ging er der Frage nach, inwieweit die Einführung des Euro die europäische Integration befördert hat und welche Reformen noch ausstehen, um die Wirtschaftssysteme der Euroländer flexibler zu gestalten.

  11. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and m

  12. CITY IS A UNIQUE PUBLIC CORPORATION OF THE INTEGRATED SPIRITUAL AND MATERIAL SOCIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article, from the perspective of developing a regional knowledge economy, examines the modern city as a complex and large system, like a fractal. We have put a scientific problem of developing a set of models that together would be adequate to the Megatrends of development. We explore models of the city as complex and large systems and as a fractal. The article discusses the main elements of a successful city, emphasizing its uniqueness. We have discussed formal criteria of the UN for the success of cities and the perception of its informal judgments of different urban communities. The city, in terms of the structural building conditions in four-sector economy can consist of the following subsystems: historical, mental, national, cultural, institutional, cognitive, symbolic, ecoinnovation technology, property, manufacturing, utilities, social, strategic. This work discusses the mission of the modern city as an environment for the generation of knowledge, culture and innovation. We have proposed a model of the mission of the modern city, in terms of the trend of developing a knowledge economy. The mission of Krasnodar, as a metropolis, preserving the historical identity of the Kuban, providing sustainable and harmonious socio-economic development of the region and the country integrated in space and continued in time, improving the quality of life of residents of the Kuban on the basis of generation, adsorption, selection and distribution of streams of educational, cultural, social and economic innovations and "pollination" of municipalities, consists in the intellectual-spiritual leadership in the region

  13. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah,

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  14. Insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City – an urbanized area adjacent to Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Maity

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salt Lake City or Bidhannagar, a part of East Kolkata Wetland, is an advanced township adjacent to Kolkata. A total of 266 insect species of 206 genera under 74 families belonging to the eleven order are reported in this communication. Of them, Lepidoptera shared maximum species (73 species, followed by Odonata (46 species, Diptera (44 species, Coleoptera (42 species, Hemiptera (25 species, Hymenoptera (17 species, Orthoptera (10 species and Blattaria (06 species. The orders Ephemeroptera, Dermaptera and Mantodea shared single species respectively. Present work is the baseline data of insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City, an urbanized area in the vicinity of Kolkata, West Bengal.

  15. Hydrogeological aspects of groundwater drainage of the urban areas in Kuwait City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashed, Muhammad F.; Sherif, Mohsen M.

    2001-04-01

    Residential areas in Kuwait City have witnessed a dramatic rise in subsurface water tables over the last three decades. This water rise phenomenon is attributed mainly to over irrigation practices of private gardens along with leakage from domestic and sewage networks. This paper presents a comprehensive study for urban drainage in two selected areas representing the two hydrogeological settings encountered in Kuwait City. In the first area, a vertical drainage scheme was applied successfully over an area of 1 km2. The system has been under continuous operation and monitoring for more than 4 years without problems, providing a permanent solution for the water rise problem in this area. The hydrogeological system has approached steady state conditions and the water levels have dropped to about 3·5 m below the ground surface. In the second area a dual drainage scheme, composing of horizontal and vertical elements, is proposed. Horizontal elements are suggested in the areas where the deep groundwater contains hazardous gases that may pose environmental problems. The proposed drainage scheme in the second area has not yet been implemented. Field tests were conducted to assess the aquifer parameters in both areas and a numerical model has been developed to predict the long-term response of the hydrogeological system in the two areas under consideration.

  16. An integrative method to quantify contaminant fluxes in the groundwater of urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiedek, T.; Beier, M.; Ebhardt, G. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Applied Geosciences

    2007-08-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Background, Aims, and Scope. Groundwater in urban areas is often contaminated and emission sources can be located close to groundwater wells. The delineation of contaminant plumes is difficult because of the various potential emission sources. Thus, detection, quantification and remediation of contaminated sites in a city need more integrative approaches. Materials and Methods: A method has been developed which allows quantification of mass fluxes of contaminants in groundwater between control planes. Budget zones along the flow path are defined to calculate a contaminant balance and to quantitatively reveal input areas. Concentrations and water budgets are used to calculate mass balances for each contaminant. The city of Darmstadt (Germany) was chosen to evaluate the method. Results: The groundwater monitoring wells (GMWs) upstream of the city showed anthropogenically superposed background values for all naturally occurring inorganic species. The contaminant concentrations increased in the city (probably influenced by road traffic, gas stations, leaking sewers, etc.). Downstream from the city, concentrations usually decreased. Organic compounds typical for urban environments, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), locally exceeded drinking water regulations. In GMWs with high concentrations of organic contaminants in the city or downstream from industrial areas, a significant increase in Fe{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} could be observed, in some cases coinciding with a decrease in NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4} and an increase in NH{sub 4}. Discussion: For typical urban contaminants, a positive budget was calculated in several zones, which shows that emissions from urban sources are reaching the groundwater. Negative budgets can be mainly explained with diving plumes and degradation. The input calculated from the individual budget zones is usually higher than the input estimated from urban emissions. Differences between the calculated and the

  17. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  18. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  19. THE CONTEXT OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN URBAN AREA OF PIATRA-NEAMȚ CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA-ELENA ROȘU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The context of the geomorphological processes in urban area of Ppiatra-Neamț city. The paper approches the issue induced by the geomorphological processes in the development and planning of Piatra-Neamț city. The methodology used for this study has implied the identification of the slope`s geomorphological processes: rock fallings and landslides produced due to the clay bedrock, precipitation`s water infiltration, deforestation and other human interventions. The identification of these processes was followed by their clasification and inventory and was continued with the mapping process of the affected areas from the territory, such as: southern and western sides of Cozla Hill, the south-western side of Pietricica Hill, Bâtca Doamnei Hill, Humăriei Hill and Vulpea Hill. The geomorphological processes from the study area induce restriction in the development and planning of the city through their associated risks. Furthermore is necesary to search a new methodology to approach the risks induces by the geomorphological processes and this shall imply predictibility, control, risk studies and preservation of the affected areas. The given study is practicaly useful in identifying the development measures for the urban areas by being part of the territorial planning and urban studies.

  20. Cooperation and Mutual Relationships of Cities and their Hinterlands with Regard to the Operation of EU Integrated Development Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binek Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the institutional and factual readiness of cities and villages in the Czech Republic to use Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI. On the basis of a questionnaire survey carried out in May 2014 among representatives of 69 municipalities around the core cities of Brno, Jihlava, Olomouc and Hradec Králové - Pardubice as well as a comparison of several model agglomerations, it identifies the main problems and proposes solutions to them. The main theme of this paper is to evaluate the formation of partnerships of municipalities and the process of creating integrated strategies for metropolitan areas. The paper also deals with the relationships and functional links between cities and villages and their hinterland, the common development issues and the existing structures of cooperation and communication. In the conclusion possible recommendations are given to improve the ITI functioning in the Czech Republic on the basis of both, the assessment of the situation in the Republic itself and the reflection on developments in other EU countries.

  1. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the September 20, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and...

  2. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The... occurring within the active military security zone/s and offering navigational advice to ensure the...

  3. Environmental hazard and ecological infrastructure construction of hilly city: a case of metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Weibo; Zhu Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipally, as an example. Chongqing, located at the tail area of the Three Gorges Reservoir, is a typically in-land hilly city in China. A series of serious eco-environmental hazard affecting hilly city have appeared: the forest landscape has been fragmented; the stability of ecological system has not been maintained; soil erosion has been serious; geological disasters have become more and more frequented; the phenomenon of citv "heat islands" is obvious." and environmental pollution is worsened with low physical self-puri-ficatian. All of the hazards above will affect ecological security of the tail area the the Three Gorges Reservoir and sus-tainable development of Chongqing. In order to guarantee ecological security and health of Chongqing and the Three Gorges Reservoir, the countermeasures for ecological infrastructure construction are put forward: quickly drawing up ecological infrastrueture planning of Chongqing Municipality, strengthening the integration and continuation of hilly, water spatial pattern, maintaining the diversity and stability of local ecosystem, establishing the green space system in-cluding suburban forest farmland and green space, recovering wetland ecosystem, optimizing industrial structure and urrban spatial distribution, developing recycling economy, establishing ecological infrastrucmre monitoring network and information forecast system, carrying out ecological management for Chongqing Municipality and so on.

  4. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rubín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  5. City and mobility: towards an integrated approach to resolve energy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of integration between city, mobility and energy plays a central role in the current EU policies, aimed at achieving energy saving targets, independence from fossil fuels and enhance of the urban systems resilience, but the strategies of the single states are, however, still far from its implementation. This paper proposes a reading of the current policies and of the recent initiatives aimed at improving the energy efficiency of settlements, implemented at both Community and national level, aimed at laying the groundwork for the definition of an integrated approach between city and mobility to resolve energy problem. Therefore, the paper is divided into six parts. The first part describes the transition from the concept of sustainability to the concept of resilience and illustrates the central role played by this one in the current urban and territorial research; the second part briefly analyzes the main and more recent European directives related to city, mobility and energy, while the third part describes how the energy problem is afforded in the current programming and planning tools. The fourth and fifth parts, are intended to describe the innovative practices promoted in some European and Italian cities concerning energy efficiency aimed at the integration between urban and transport systems. The last part of the paper, finally, deals with the definition of a new systemic approach for achieving objectives of energy sustainability. This approach aims at integrating strategies and actions for strategies of mobility governance, based on the certain assumption that the core for the most part of energy problems is mainly represented in medium and large cities

  6. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.;

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...

  7. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OFTHE COMMUNITIES OF FRINGE AREAS: A STUDY OF LUCKNOW CITY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has tried to unveil the environmental health situation of the people of the fringe area through the case study of peripheral locality of Lucknow city. Some selected peripheral villages of the Lucknow city has been taken under the study. The study is based on the primary data collected from the field survey. Paper mainly gives the situation of health of the people of the study area and the situation of pollution mainly on Air, Water and Space. Therefore, this article attempts to investigate the environmental changes in the fringe region by deeply analyzing the issues such as the change in pollution levels and the various factors behind the change in pollution levels and its consequences on human health etc. It also delves deeply upon the endeavours of forestation and preparedness of health care system to meet challenges in such an environment by analyzing coverage of various health care schemes and access to health care professionals and infrastructure.

  9. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, Luc; Marechal, Francois; Dubuis, Matthias; Calame-Darbellay, Nicole; Favrat, Daniel [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, LENI-IGE-STI, Bat. ME A2, Station 9, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland). (author)

  10. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland).

  11. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptoc...

  12. Parental perception of childhood obesity in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco Antonino; Mammina Caterina; Bellafiore Marianna; Farina Felicia; Palma Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate in a sample of parents living in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy, the perception of weight excess as a problem in childhood and the awareness about the role of physical activity, beliefs about contributors and parties having responsibility in counteracting the obesity crisis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed on a convenience sample of...

  13. Drawing the Memory. The image of the city through the integrated representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Calvano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the concept of urban regeneration as a guide in the early stages of urban planning is increasingly affirming. for this reason, the study of urban transformation through the critical reading of the drawings of the project, it is a very topical issue. Modern techniques of integrated digital modeling allows to define new and interesting research methodologies capable to gather a multitude of documentary information. The research carried out by the House of Architecture in Latina started planing to represent some important examples of the imagined city that have found place in the real city, but have undergone profound changes that only the design is able to narrate. This narrative is presented as static and dynamic images capable to represent the imagined city by bringing together current architectures (surveyed with other non-tangible (imagined or scrapped.

  14. Urban agriculture, food production and city planning in a medium sized city of Turin metropolitan area: a preliminary note which compares geography and local policies

    OpenAIRE

    Artuso, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This research is stated on a main question: do urban and periurban agriculture be considered a valuable source for food supply, environmental, economic and social development in a medium sized city? This question has been addressed considering urban agriculture management in the planning policies of Nichelino, a 48.000 inhabitants city in the Turin Metropolitan area. The results addressed the issue of urban and periurban agriculture considering their spatial distribution and relationships wit...

  15. Applications of ERTS imagery to mappings sediments of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS images were compared to surficial geologic maps, prepared through traditional field studies. Lithologic boundaries, bedrock outcrops, bedrock structures, and geomorphologic features were examined. An area southeast of the Twin Cities, located chiefly in northern Dakota County was studied, as well as the New Brighton 15-minute quadrangle located in portions of Ramsey and Anoka Counties. Visual comparison of geologic maps and ERTS imagery demonstrated the limitations of this approach to geological investigations. Bedrock outcrops and bedrock structure in the metropolitan area do not appear on ERTS imagery. However, certain glacial sediments can be identified and are potentially mappable. Certain geomorphological features were also discernable.

  16. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  17. Utilization of Storm Runoff for Groundwater Recharge in Urban Areas- A Case Study of Gujranwala City in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Eh san

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights the significance of storm runoff for groundwater recharge in urban areas. Due to excessive withdrawal of groundwater, the groundwater table is significantly depleting each year. The storm runoff in urban areas should be first stored then it can be used for possible groundwater recharge by adopting feasible recharge techniques. A proper storm drainage system should be functional in order to collect the surface run off from different parts of an urban area. As case study, the Gujranwala city in Pakistan has been taken into consideration. The city has strong potential for a storm water drainage system. Each year a significant amount of storm runoff in Gujranwala city is not utilized due to unavailability of a proper storm water drainage system. Different aspects of hydrology and hydrogeology of this city have been thoroughly studied. Further, design considerations for tube wells have also been elaborated. Based on the available data, different options for groundwater water recharge in city area have been investigated and also a typical design of an inverted well in city area has been proposed. This study strongly recommends the concerned authorities to first provide a suitable storm water drainage system in Gujranwala city and to investigate the feasible options of groundwater recharge keeping in view the hydrological and hydro-geological conditions. This research is intended to provide useful guidelines for feasibility of groundwater recharge techniques in other urban areas of Pakistan and also other parts of the world.

  18. Design of an integrated assessment of re-distributed manufacturing for the sustainable, resilient city

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Rachel; McMahon, Chris; Godfrey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Re-distributed manufacturing (RDM) has the potential to be beneficial to business and society through creating jobs, reducing the environmental impacts of production, and improving organizational and societal resilience to future disturbances. The potential impacts of RDM for a city-region are complex and their exploration requires the consideration of a wide range of issues—societal, technical, logistical, and environmental. This paper discusses the use of an approach called Integrated Asses...

  19. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van Cees J.; Montoya, Lorena; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction” a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  20. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  1. Integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model to describe spatiotemporal building energy demand patterns was developed. • The model integrates existing methods in urban and energy planning domains. • The model is useful to analyze energy efficiency strategies in neighborhoods. • Applicability in educational, urban and energy planning practices was found. - Abstract: We introduce an integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts. The model addresses the need for a comprehensive method to identify present and potential states of building energy consumption in the context of urban transformation. The focus lies on determining the spatiotemporal variability of energy services in both standing and future buildings in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. This detailed characterization facilitates the assessment of potential energy efficiency measures at the neighborhood and city district scales. In a novel approach we integrated existing methods in urban and energy planning domains such as spatial analysis, dynamic building energy modeling and energy mapping to provide a comprehensive, multi-scale and multi-dimensional model of analysis. The model is part of a geographic information system (GIS), which serves as a platform for the allocation and future dissemination of spatiotemporal data. The model is validated against measured data and a peer model for a city district in Switzerland. In this context, we present practical applications in the analysis of energy efficiency measures in buildings and urban zoning. We furthermore discuss potential applications in educational, urban and energy planning practices

  2. International Students Integration Into the City : A Case Study of Jönköping International Business School

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaeus, Amanda; Filipovic, Jelena; Jonsson, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of internationalization in universities today is affecting the cities in which they are located. As the integration of international students adds to the ambiance and culture of a city, the authors argue that mutual participation of universities and communities will influence the development of a city. The aim of this thesis is therefore to explore the collaborations between the two, using Jönköping’s International Business School (JIBS) as a case study. In focusing our attenti...

  3. ‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solid waste management (SWM) is a key utility service, but data is often lacking. • Measuring their SWM performance helps a city establish priorities for action. • The Wasteaware benchmark indicators: measure both technical and governance aspects. • Have been developed over 5 years and tested in more than 50 cities on 6 continents. • Enable consistent comparison between cities and countries and monitoring progress. - Abstract: This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city’s performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat’s solid waste management in the World’s cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city’s solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping ‘triangles’ – one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised ‘Wasteaware’ set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both ‘hard’ physical components and ‘soft’ governance aspects; and in prioritising ‘next steps’ in developing a city’s solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators

  4. ‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David C., E-mail: waste@davidcwilson.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Rodic, Ljiljana [Education and Competence Studies, Wageningen University and Research Centre (Netherlands); Cowing, Michael J. [Independent Consultant (Saint Lucia); Velis, Costas A. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Whiteman, Andrew D. [RWA Group, Sofia (Bulgaria); Scheinberg, Anne [WASTE, Gouda (Netherlands); Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Stretz, Joachim [Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Cairo (Egypt); Oelz, Barbara [GIZ, Eschborn (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste management (SWM) is a key utility service, but data is often lacking. • Measuring their SWM performance helps a city establish priorities for action. • The Wasteaware benchmark indicators: measure both technical and governance aspects. • Have been developed over 5 years and tested in more than 50 cities on 6 continents. • Enable consistent comparison between cities and countries and monitoring progress. - Abstract: This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city’s performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat’s solid waste management in the World’s cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city’s solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping ‘triangles’ – one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised ‘Wasteaware’ set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both ‘hard’ physical components and ‘soft’ governance aspects; and in prioritising ‘next steps’ in developing a city’s solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators

  5. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Souza O. Santana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil -currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation- is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3% with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%. Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  6. Convergence and Optimum Currency Area, as Advanced Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Catalin Andrei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1961, in the earlier stage of the European integration, professor Bela Balassa proposed a five successive phase model. Today, the half century experience on integration and corresponding literature issued lets us see rather two big phases (instead of five. The one would be the incipient integration, that came to enlarge the economic openess and internationalization and shaped: (i free trade area (FTA and (ii customs union; the other would be the advanced integration, in which internationalization would be replaced by the unique-common market and other two commandments would replace or just reshape the older FTA and customs union into: (iii economic convergence and (iv optimal currency area. The last two will be emphasized by our paper, as for their current description-analysis in the literature

  7. Path integral in area tensor Regge calculus and complex connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euclidean quantum measure in Regge calculus with independent area tensors is considered using example of the Regge manifold of a simple structure. We go over to integrations along certain contours in the hyperplane of complex connection variables. Discrete connection and curvature on classical solutions of the equations of motion are not, strictly speaking, genuine connection and curvature, but more general quantities and, therefore, these do not appear as arguments of a function to be averaged, but are the integration (dummy) variables. We argue that upon integrating out the latter the resulting measure can be well-defined on physical hypersurface (for the area tensors corresponding to certain edge vectors, i.e. to certain metric) as positive and having exponential cutoff at large areas on condition that we confine ourselves to configurations which do not pass through degenerate metrics

  8. Quantity of plant leaf area on three major public squares in Kunming City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYan; ZHAOLin-sen; ZHAOYu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Regressive formulae to calculate the quantity of plant leaf area for 13 species of ornamental plants were set up based on investigation data of 30 species on 3 major public squares (Dongfeng square, Shengli square and Guandu square) in Kunruing City, China, which were applied to calculate quantities of plant leaf area of these 13 species. The quantities of plant leaf area for the other 17 ornamental plant species on these squares were directly measured, and the total quantity of plant leaf area of each studied square was obtained individually. The results showed that the quantity of plant leaf area on Shengli square with ornamental plants structure composed of arbor tree species, shrub tree species and turf grass was highest among the three squares. It is believed that the design model of multi-storied vertical structure and proper tending of plant community could not only increase the quantity of plant leaf area, but also play an important role in generating ecological and landscaping benefits.Some corresponding suggestions were put forward on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the plant leaf area quantity of the three representative squares in Kunming urban area.

  9. New approach addressing sustainability in urban areas using sustainable city models

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, José Amarilio; Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    A brief analysis of the environmental, social and economic paradigm of nowadays cities, allows reaching a simple conclusion: current cities are not sustainable. Considering this, it is very important to study the causes of cities problems and to develop city models implementing sustainability practices. There are a limited number of studies developing sustainable city models, but the scientific community lacks even more studies about the rehabilitation of current cities to implement these mod...

  10. AN URBAN ECONOMIC MODEL OF ILEGAL SETTLEMENTS IN FLOOD PRONE AREAS IN PALANGKARAYA CITY, INDONESIA -A PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS-

    OpenAIRE

    Indrawan PERMANA; Yuzuru MIYATA

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study regarding occupations of flood prone areas by illegal settlements in urban area of Palangkaraya city, Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. Such unusual urban land use pattern has been observed in many urbanized cities particularly in developing countries. However, scientific explanations about the urban phenomena were not formulated yet as well as literatures on that topic are quite rare. We developed a partial equilibrium model employing bid rent ap...

  11. Volcanic hazard and risk assessment in a multi-source volcanic area: the example of Napoli city (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, I.; Petrosino, P.; Lirer, L.

    2011-04-01

    The possible emplacement of pyroclastic fall and flow products from Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvio represents a threat for the population living in Napoli city. For this area, the volcanic hazard was always partially investigated to define the hazard related to the Campi Flegrei or to the Somma-Vesuvio activity one at a time. A new volcanic hazard and risk assessment, at the municipality scale, as a vital tool for decision-making about territorial management and future planning, is presented here. In order to assess the hazard related to the explosive activity of both sources, we integrated the results of field studies and numerical simulations, to evaluate the future possibility for Napoli to be hit by the products of an explosive eruption. This is defined for the Somma Vesuvio central volcano through the sum of "field frequency" based on the thickness and distribution of past deposits (Lirer et al., 2001), and for the Campi Flegrei volcanic field by suitably processing simulated events based on numerical modelling (Alberico et al., 2002; Costa et al., 2009). Aiming at volcanic risk assessment, the hazard areas were joined with the exposure map, considered for our purposes as the economical value of artefacts exposed to hazard. We defined four risk classes, and argued that the medium and low-very low risk classes have the largest extent in Napoli municipality, whereas only few zones located in the eastern part of the city and in the westernmost coastal area show a high risk, owing to the correspondence of high economical value and high hazard.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Cordova, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois, during the period May 9 through May 18, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) over a 65-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Quad Cities Power Station and surrounding area and to determine any radiological impact on the area over the past twenty years. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 5 and 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  13. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  14. Evolutionary Computing Based Area Integration PWM Technique for Multilevel Inverters

    OpenAIRE

    S. Jeevananthan

    2007-01-01

    The existing multilevel carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) strategies have no special provisions to offer quality output, besides lower order harmonics are introduced in the spectrum, especially at low switching frequencies. This paper proposes a novel multilevel PWM strategy to corner the advantages of low frequency switching and reduced total harmonic distortion (THD). The basic idea of the proposed area integration PWM (AIPWM) method is that the area of the required sinusoidal (fun...

  15. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  16. 城乡一体化进程中的共生机理探讨%Study on the Symbiotic Mechanism of City and Countryside Integration Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗湖平; 朱有志

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of a symbiotic-based theory, the process of city and countryside integration was dialyzed, the vitality was given to city and countryside system. Thereby, central cities, small and intermediate towns and rural areas would become the symbiotic units for energy exchange and information communication. Finally, the measures of dynamic bidirectional stimulus between the city and countryside symbiont and the environment and the mechanism of symbiotic interface optimization were explored positively, to accelerate the symmetrical and reciprocal symbiosis and integrative symbiosis of city and countryside system.%基于共生理论视角透析城乡一体化进程,赋予城乡系统以鲜活生命体,各中心城市、中小城镇以及农村成为其能量互换、信息交流的共生单元,积极探寻城乡共生体与环境间的动态双向激励举措和共生界面优化的共生机制,力促城乡系统早日达到对称互惠共生和一体化共生状态.

  17. Establishing Integrated Solid Waste Management in the Large Cities of Pakistan Multan : Comprehensive Scope Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a major environment and health hazard in the urban areas of Pakistan. The World Bank is of the opinion that as cities economies are fast growing, business activity and consumption patterns are driving up solid waste quantities. In Pakistan the collection of waste is sporadic and the disposal is poor. Despite the fact that solid waste services represent the s...

  18. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  19. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  20. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  1. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  2. Integrating Technology in Teaching Students with Special Learning Needs in the SPED Schools in Baguio City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn L. Balmeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leading-edge creation and development of technologies including those for the children with special learning needs found common place in the educational system. Allowably, this study’s focal point engages in the integration of technologies in the educational environments where students with special learning needs are housed. Respondents include 53 teachers employed in the special education schools in Baguio City, who were to determine the availability and effectiveness of technology in their schools and the problems encountered in the integration of technologies. Results indicate that availability and effectiveness of technologies are at limited level and that there are problems encountered in technology integration. This is significant for the achievement of the aim of students with special learning needs for they would be guided appropriately in the development of their skills with the challenges of educational attainment and life itself

  3. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  4. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-07-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 - 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries.

  5. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  6. Groundwater salinization mechanism of aquifers beneath Ho Chi Minh City area (Viet Nam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water supplying for domestic and product activities in Hochiminh City is being taken from two both sources: surface water and groundwater. Environmental isotopes technique is emphasized to determine the salinisation mechanism of groundwater. The objectives studied are groundwater of two aquifers mainly being exploited in Hochiminh City area. Based on the national water monitoring wells existing in the studied area and the hydrogeological setting a network of 70 sampling points for both two aquifers was set up. Water samples were collected two times (in rainy season of 2001 and in the end of dry season of 2002). All collected samples were analyzed for hydrochemical and stable isotopes. 30 of them were analyzed for tritium and 15 of them were done for 14C. Analyzing hydrochemical results of collected samples show that the quality of groundwater varies from fresh to saline, soft to very hard and high iron contents in some regions. The analyses of cations and anions by Piper Trilinear Diagram show that in aquifers where saline groundwater distributed the cations are mainly sodium, calcium, and magnesium type while the anions are mainly chloride and sulfate type but in the part where fresh groundwater the cations are mainly sodium, calcium, and type while the anions are mainly bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate type. According to TDS values the distribution of fresh and saline groundwater in studied aquifers is mapped and fresh-saline groundwater boundaries in 1990 and 2000 is also demonstrated. The distribution of groundwater samples collected along the GMWL show that groundwater in this area is recharged directly by rainfall and surface water. High tritium contents and 14C relative radioactivity of groundwater in the area also support this process. Delta values of 18O and Chloride contents plot show that it exists two main salinisation mechanism. The first one is the leaching process and the second one is mixing with seawater process and both these mechanisms are

  7. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  8. Geoenvironmental profile of squares: north area of the city of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concern to the quality and amount of the squares of the north area of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná. The square is a leisure, walk and rest place, besides favoring a closer contact of the population with the nature. The physical aspects of the furniture, presence and type of area of infantile and sporting recreation were analyzed, and also the identification and quantification of the species of trees. The results demonstrated absence of area of infantile recreation, 53% of the squares without furniture and sporting areas in 38% of the places. The amount of trees belonged to 340 individuals, divided in 35 species, with prevalence of 5 species that represents 64% of the total. Such results suggest the improvement of the amount and quality of the furniture, and a better distribution of the species of trees, giving preference for native species. The creation of a GIS, indicating the place of occurrence of the squares and its situation, is important because it facilitates the analysis of the green areas, as well as in the decisions for the urban development.

  9. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  10. Urban management and institutional change: An integrated approach to achieving ecological cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution I will deal with the following topics in this order: 1. Urban Management an integrated approach! 2. Reforms to improve the performance of the municipality 3. What is new in Urban Management: the New Public Management 4. Autonomy OK, but what is accountability? 5. What are the issues? Lets analyze it 6. What about the dynamics of cities? 7. How can we finance urban development alternatively? 8. Who is the real urban manager and what are some relevant books on u...

  11. Toward a Smart Sustainable Development of Port Cities/Areas: The Role of the “Historic Urban Landscape” Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Fusco Girard

    2013-01-01

    After the 2008 crisis, smart sustainable development of port areas/cities should be developed on the basis of specific principles: the synergy principle (between different actors/systems, in particular the socio-cultural and economic system), the creativity principle and the circularization principle. The Historic Urban landscape (HUL) approach becomes the guarantee that the transition toward the smart city development model is based on specific local cultural resources, and not only on techn...

  12. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  13. Composition of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Azevedo, Débora de; Silveira Moreira, Larissa; Soares de Siqueira, Denilson

    The hydrocarbon compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from urban areas of Rio de Janeiro city have been studied to assess the different pollution levels. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol), extracts were prepared and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic compounds. High-resolution gas chromatography and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for the analysis of the organic matter. The results show that all samples contain n-alkanes, but the distributions are different for each sample, reflecting both the biogenic (vascular plant wax input) and fossil fuel contamination sources (vehicular exhaust). The fossil fuel biomarkers, hopanes and steranes, were also observed in all samples except in the Tijuca Forest, which is a mountain forest in the midst of the sea-level city. A decrease in the level of pollution was observed in the sequence for Rebouças Tunnel>Cinelândia (downtown)>Quinta da Boa Vista Park>Tijuca Forest, as expected from the traffic density. Unfortunately, all sites are polluted mainly from vehicular emissions, but at different degrees, with the lowest levels in Tijuca Forest.

  14. Comparative differential bacterial load in chicken meat from different areas of Lahore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of chicken meat has tremendously increased, especially in big cities of Pakistan like Lahore, during last few decades, due to low cholesterol level and lesser price as compared to beef and lamb meat. Non- scientific slaughter methods common in practice have increased the risk of bacterial load on chicken meat making it unsafe for human consumption. Keeping in view, the risk of bacterial contamination on chicken meat present study was conducted to determine bacterial load in different areas (Shad Bagh, Samanabad, Sanda) of city Lahore. Pour-plate method was used with differential media of blood agar, and selective medias of eosinmethylene blue, citrimide agar and mannitol agar. Maximum bacteria] growth (35.3 plus minus 0.77 million per gram) was observed in blood agar in Shad Bagh's poultry meat while in Samanabad's poultry meat maximum bacterial growth was observed in eosinmethylene blue agar (9.6 plus minus 0.40 million per gram) while Sanda's poultry meat showed maximum bacterial growth in cetrimide agar (6.9 plus minus 0.43). (author)

  15. Integrated coastal area management: The case of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Integrated Coastal Area Management: The Case of India G. Narayana Swamy National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula 403004, Goa, India INTRODUCTION Littoral states have both distinct advantages and disadvantages caused by having... along the south Konkan coast. • Fertiliser, chemicals and ore industries in MangaJore coast • Assorted chemical units along the Cochin coast • Coconut rutting all along the Malabar coast • Titanium factory in Thiruvananthapuram • Chemical plants...

  16. Integration and conditional convergence in the enlarged EU area

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitila, Ville

    2004-01-01

    Using pooled mean-group estimation we first analyse conditional convergence in the EU15 area in 1960-2002. Conditional convergence is well documented for the EU15 countries and deeper European integration is mostly shown to have fastened convergence. Also higher investment, lower public consumption and lower inflation have increased GDP growth. Then we apply the same method in order to estimate the conditional convergence of the new EU member countries of Central and Eastern Europe towards th...

  17. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zalidis, George C.; Eleftherios Stavrinos; Silleos, George N.; Yann Chemin; Ines Cherif; Thomas K. Alexandridis

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Med...

  18. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  19. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  20. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  1. Web Design Based on Integrated and Supervision Control System in City Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Xing, Yu; Zheng, Hengchao

    This paper presents a method of setting up WEB System to Integrated Supervision Control System for the requirements of city Rail Transit. First, basic platform and software/hardware architecture of WEB System are discussed. Then the function module, data flow and communication mechanisms are described and a design based on technologies of SVG and Ajax is proposed and the WEB video release function and system security are described. This design makes it possible that important information of Integrated Supervision Control System can be browsed and queried in external Web pages. Watching Real-time images of all cameras in internal network of Rail Transit is possible, which is providing remote viewing and management functions for metro managers.

  2. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  3. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  4. Hydrogeological Model of an Urban City in a Coastal Area, Case study: Semarang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Putranto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Semarang City, groundwater has been exploited as a natural resource since 1841. The groundwater exploited in deep wells is concentrated in confined aquifers. The previous hydrogeological model was developed in one unit of aquifer and refined then by using several hydrostratigraphical units following a regional hydrogeological map without any further analysis. At present, there is a lack of precise hydrogeological model which integrates geological and hydrogeological data, in particular for multiple aquifers in Semarang. Thus, the aim of this paper is to develop a hydrogeological model for the multiple aquifers in Semarang using an integrated data approach. Groundwater samples in the confined aquifers have been analyzed to define the water type and its lateral distribution. Two hydrogeological cross sections were then created based on several borelog data to define a hydrostratigraphical unit (HSU. The HSU result indicates the hydrogeological model of Semarang consists of two aquifers, three aquitards, and one aquiclude. Aquifer 1 is unconfined, while Aquifer 2 is confined. Aquifer 2 is classified into three groups (2a, 2b, and 2c based on analyses of major ion content and hydrostratigraphical cross sections.

  5. The Tourism Development and Property Market in Historical Area- Evidence of Tainan City

    OpenAIRE

    Y. L. Lee; Yeh, K Y; Huang, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The property markets in a traditional cultural city are difficult to develop by market mechanism. It is important to make a balance between urban development and tradition conservation in a fast growing cultural city. Tainan City located in the southern part of Taiwan is the earliest developed district. There are affluent cultural assets around the city and are meaningful for all residents. And we would like to take a clear look at the effects of all the cultural assets, especially regarding ...

  6. Perception of Tourist towards the Potential Development of Tumpa Mountain Area as Integrated Ecotourism, Manado, North Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Irwan Towoliu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumpa is the name of mountain located at the northern part of the Manado City region which bordering The National Park of Bunaken. As a mountainous region with a height of ±623m (asl, it occupies a strategic position. In addition to being adjacent to the park, it is also part of uplands owned by the city of Manado. It serves as buffer zone (green belt of water, horticultural and agricultural areas with mangrove coastal areas. Master Plan of Tourism Development Region in Manado City used as part of ecotourism products from mountain and forest, but so far there has been no in-depth study to assess the holistic perception of tourist in the development potency of the region as an integrated tourism in Tumpa Mountain area. This study was purposed to determine the tourist perception toward the potential development as integrated ecotourism. This research involved a qualitative research approach, described by using figures on the percentage. Fieldwork was used as a questionnaire survey. The analysis measurement using Likert Scale, scoring and analysis combined with the analysis of the interest rate (level of importance. This study result shows that the average respondent answered good with the score range between 3.5 until 4.2. It means the respondents have argued that every indicator; natural, social-cultural and infrastructure that exists in the region Tumpa Mount area is still in good condition. In the level of interest the respondents answered between 3.6 until 4.6 with category important. This means respondents expect that good environmental circumstances will be always maintained and linked with the development of tourist attraction which is very suitable to be developed as ecotourism. In conclusion, the indicators are considered good and important to be developed as an integrated ecotourism area. Keywords: Ecotourism, Integrated, Perception, Tourist, Tumpa Mount.

  7. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  8. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  9. Strategic Study on Integration of Port and City Development in Rizhao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Chengjun; Zhao Gaozheng

    2007-01-01

    agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta(UAYD),one of the most developed regions of China,has witnessed an increasing prevalence in building ecological cities when the ecological cities are pursued by many modem cities,and great achievements have been made in this regard.It is inevitable,however,that certain problems exist during the construction of ecological city,which include but not limited to non-harmonious development of urbancomplex ecosystem,and the difficulty in quantifying eco-city construction or incomplete quantification in assessing the construction of present and future eco-city.Based onthe analysis onsocial-economic conditions and regional conditions of the UAYD.this paper attempts to Set up an index system of eco-cities combining witth local characteristics.and to adopt the indices of eco-city,urban harmony,and eco-city colligate to evaluate the ecological level,urban harmonious development and eco-city construction of cities within the UAYD.Results indicate that among 15 cities in UAYD,Suzhou City ranks the highest in terms of eco-city construction,whereas Nantong ranks relatively lower,sustainable eco-city construction is possible only when cities are developed in every respect of harmony.

  10. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  11. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  12. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18~March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19~March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19~March plume and to help interpret

  13. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  14. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  15. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  16. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2–2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  17. Time series analyses for PM10 and ozone in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icaza del Rio, G. de; Choularton, T.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in a U shape valley at the foothills of the Anahuac cordilleras. Although situated in the tropical latitudes it has the climate of a temperate urban agglomeration. The topography of the valley is dominated by its high altitude, on the average of 2400 m above the mean sea level (msl), and its surrounding mountains that reach to more than 5300 m above msl. Overall the climate on the valley floor is semiarid with an accumulated annual mean precipitation over the city dropping from about 900 to 400 mm as one travels from west to east while the wet and dry seasons are fairly well defined, April to September and October to March respectively. The annual variation of temperature is relatively small but the diurnal range is large. Because of its geographic location, among other factors, the MCMA suffers from severe pollution problems. The altitude of the valley provides abundant solar radiation and its shape reduces the dispersion capabilities of the basin. Ozone and PM10 have been characterized as two of the most dangerous pollutants, because of both their high concentrations and their inherent chemical composition. Trends of both pollutants are examined for the period 1994-96 and the relation with some of their associated pollutants is analyzed. The results from this study show that the concentration of PM10 has increased in the three years and that the ozone concentrations have decreased slightly over the same period. Furthermore, meteorological parameters are incorporated into the analyses to help explain some of the deviations within the time series.

  18. JV Task 99-Integrated Risk Analysis and Contaminant Reduction, Watford City, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry W. Botnen

    2007-05-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a limited site investigation and risk analyses for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a Construction Services, Inc., site in Watford City, North Dakota. Site investigation confirmed the presence of free product and high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants in several wells, the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane, and extremely high levels of electrical conductivity indicative of brine residuals in the tank area south of the facility. The risk analysis was based on compilation of information from the site-specific geotechnical investigation, including multiphase extraction pilot test, laser induced fluorescence probing, evaluation of contaminant properties, receptor survey, capture zone analysis and evaluation of well head protection area for municipal well field. The project results indicate that the risks associated with contaminant occurrence at the Construction Services, Inc. site are low and, under current conditions, there is no direct or indirect exposure pathway between the contaminated groundwater and soils and potential receptors.

  19. Assessment of Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution at Mitm Area, Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from Mitm area to study the possible impact of wastewater treatment percolation into the groundwater and surface water. The objective of the study is to assess the groundwater and surface water pollution due to wastewater treatment at Mitm area of Ibb city, in the Republic of Yemen. The concentrations of various physiochemical parameters include heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, and Dissolved Oxygen (DO, anions and nutrients (F-, Cl-, SO4-2, NO2, NO3-,NH3-N, major cations (Fe, Na, K, Ca, Mg and parameters (COD, BOD5, and coliform group bacteria were measured from the groundwater samples. The results show that three out of five boreholes are contaminated, where the concentration of physic-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's Ministry of Water and Environment (YMWE, 1999. On the other hand, surface water is affected by the discharge of untreated wastewater. The concentrations of physiochemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for irrigation purpose adopted by Yemen's Ministry of Water and Environment (YMWE, 1999. Boreholes 1 and 2 are suitable for drinking water, whereas boreholes 3, 4 and 5 are not suitable for drinking water. Therefore, urgency for wastewater treatment at this site is recommended to prevent further contamination to surface and groundwater.

  20. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  1. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR REDIU, CACAINA AND CIRIC RIVER IN URBAN AREA OF IASI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana – Maria Oişte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, reports on surface water quality include useful information for people, but the language used addresses rather specialists, which leaded to develop an mathematically index, like water quality index (WQI, very useful and efficient for assessing the suitability of water quality as well as for communicating theinformation to the concerned citizens and policy makers. The present study assessed the surface water quality for three rivers from northern part of Iasi city based on WQI. These water courses were not included into monitoring program, the area being highly populated, the citizens wishing to know the real state of the surface water resources in the area they live. For reaching this goal, there have been collected 19 samples, in June 2011, analysed in situ and in the laboratory. For the WQI were used six parameters (pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, five days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,phosphates (PO4, nitrates (NO3. The results have been statistically processed. The result showed that the WQI for each parameter fit into good status for pH, bad status for turbidity and oxygen indicators, excellent for phosphates and bad status for nitrates in Ciric and Cacaina river and good status on Rediu river. General WQI fall in to medium status with variance between 53 for Ciric river and 67 for Rediu, with different values for eachmonitored point, Rediu being the only river that have two monitoring points that suit to good quality status.

  2. Refined estimation of solar energy potential on roof areas using decision trees on CityGML-data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumanns, K.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2009-04-01

    We present a decision tree for a refined solar energy plant potential estimation on roof areas using the exchange format CityGML. Compared to raster datasets CityGML-data holds geometric and semantic information of buildings and roof areas in more detail. In addition to shadowing effects ownership structures and lifetime of roof areas can be incorporated into the valuation. Since the Renewable Energy Sources Act came into force in Germany in 2000, private house owners and municipals raise attention to the production of green electricity. At this the return on invest depends on the statutory price per Watt, the initial costs of the solar energy plant, its lifetime, and the real production of this installation. The latter depends on the radiation that is obtained from and the size of the solar energy plant. In this context the exposition and slope of the roof area is as important as building parts like chimneys or dormers that might shadow parts of the roof. Knowing the controlling factors a decision tree can be created to support a beneficial deployment of a solar energy plant. Also sufficient data has to be available. Airborne raster datasets can only support a coarse estimation of the solar energy potential of roof areas. While they carry no semantically information, even roof installations are hardly to identify. CityGML as an Open Geospatial Consortium standard is an interoperable exchange data format for virtual 3-dimensional Cities. Based on international standards it holds the aforementioned geometric properties as well as semantically information. In Germany many Cities are on the way to provide CityGML dataset, e. g. Berlin. Here we present a decision tree that incorporates geometrically as well as semantically demands for a refined estimation of the solar energy potential on roof areas. Based on CityGML's attribute lists we consider geometries of roofs and roof installations as well as global radiation which can be derived e. g. from the European Solar

  3. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm) sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm) chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the Mexico City urban center, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.5 μg m-3, 3.5 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.36 μg m-3, respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7

  4. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 μm sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 (particulate matter with diameter between 1 and 10 μm chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM1 ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At the T0 measurement site, located in the

  5. Environmental Conservation Simulation for Tianjin in China (III) -Introduction of environmental and energy technology suitable for city and agricultural area-(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yuji; Nakano, Satoshi; KITO Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the environmental and energy technologies suitable for both city and rural area in China are introduced and the effects of environmental improvement due to the installation of these technologies are evaluated. Tianjin city are selected as the area that have both city and rural area and simple wet desulfurization equipment, coal bio-briquette, heat supply system (heat pump), and biogas digester are selected as environmental technologies. The effect of salt-affected soil ameli...

  6. Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M. [Star Science, 8730 Water Road, Cotati, CA 94931-4252 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing and large-area flat panel displays. University and National Laboratory groups are researching new materials and processes to improve these products. The concept of a switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive. Conventional glazing only offers fixed transmittance and control of energy passing through it. Given the wide range of illumination conditions and glare, a dynamic glazing with adjustable transmittance offers the best solution. Photovoltaics can be integrated as power sources for smart windows. In this way a switchable window could be a completely stand alone smart system. A new range of large-area flat panel display including light-weight and flexible displays are being developed. These displays can be used for banner advertising, dynamic pricing in stores, electronic paper, and electronic books, to name only a few applications. This study covers selected switching technologies including electrochromism, suspended particles, and encapsulated liquid crystals.

  7. Study of radon levels in some closed areas in Mansoura city, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt The concentration levels of the radioactive 222Rn inert gas in some dwellings of Mansoura city, the capital of Dakahlia Governorate, have been studied for the first time by long-term passive integrated dosimeters (Can-Technique). Fifteen locations have been selected: nine in different house rooms, four in the library and in the chemistry laboratories, and two different locations in Dar Ibn-Lokman museum.In each location two cans were hanged. Two different sensitive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDS) of the type CR-39 and LR-115 were fixed inside each can and another LR-115 detector was fixed outside the can as a bare detector.The cans were changed every month during a whole year (June 2001-May 2002), and the detectors were etched chemically before counting the tracks of the cc-particles due to radon.The radon activity concentration and the equilibrium factor were measured by the bare and diffusion detectors, the seasonal variation in radon in addition to the yearly effective and equivalent doses, were also calculated

  8. Chemism of the run-off wastewater from urbanized areas based on the Kielce City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the collector of run-off wastewater (Si9, located in Kielce. Silnica River is a small river cutting through the city of Kielce from the North to the South-West. It has its source in Masłowskie Range at a height of 360 m a.s.l. and it flows into Bobrza River. It is ranked among mountain rivers at a 6.4 ‰ gradient. Its river-bed bas belonged to Kielecki Protected Landscape Area since 2006. Next to Szydłowek estate the artificial water body was build - Kielecki Bay. Beneath Kielecki Bay, Silnica River flows in regu1ated river-bed. Because of no separated storm water drainage, the rainwater washes away pollutants among others from industrial plants, houses, pavements, and streets into Silnica River. The wastewater treatment plant is located at the mouth of the Silnica River. It receives rainwater and snowmelt from the central - eastern part of the city with an area of 62 ha. The primary channel has a length of 1569 m and its diameter varies from 600 mm to 1250 mm. Is attached to the side of seventeen channels (with diameters from 300 mm to 1000 mm. The collector wells are 32 inspection and connection, and 24 entries. The side channels are located 119 wells and 82 outlets. The total length of the sewerage system is equal to 5583 m. The decrease of the collector changes to individual sections from 0.04% to 3.9%, and decreases in side channels to reach 2.61%. On average, one groove receives water from the surface of 0.585 ha. Ordinate the highest point in the catchment area is 271.20 m, 260.0 m above sea level the lowest, the average decrease in surface area is equal to 0.71%. Within the basin was isolated six types of surface runoff: roofs (14.3%, walks (8.4%, roads (17.7%, parking (11.2%, green (47.2% and pitch school (1.3%. Generally, paved areas with a high coefficient of runoff represent 52.83% of the total catchment area, which shows the typical urban character. The run-off wastewater is collected from the roofs by

  9. The marketing management of cities and metropolitan areas: from product orientation to marketing orientation

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The application of marketing principles in the administration of cities has been usually reduced to the use of the communication tools to try to diffuse the city’s image among the different target publics. At the same time, the development of cities has habitually been based on the endowment of infrastructures and singular buildings, by means of relatively opaque strategic planning processes. From a marketing vision, we consider indispensable to base the development of cities on the active ci...

  10. Integrated assessment of fluvial and pluvial flood hazards in the city of Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinl, Korbinian

    2014-05-01

    Urban flooding can have various sources including floods from a river ('fluvial flooding'), from heavy rainfall usually from convective storms ('pluvial flooding') or from high tides ('storm surge'). Although awareness of pluvial flooding in the scientific community and among policymakers has been increasing, the term 'flooding' is still often seen as a phenomenon explicitly related to a river. Previous research primarily focused on fluvial flooding, with only very recent literature dealing with pluvial flooding. As a result, there are established methods to assess the hazards from fluvial floods, and a smaller number focusing on pluvial floods. Much less work has been conducted on integrated flood hazard assessment taking into account various types of flood hazards. In this work, an integrative, probabilistic modelling framework was developed to assess the urban flood hazard from fluvial and pluvial flooding in the city of Salzburg (Austria). The framework consists of a stochastic multi-site weather generator, which provides input for the hydrological model HBV. In the city of Salzburg, a kNN algorithm converts the simulated mean discharge into peak discharge as well as daily into sub-daily precipitation. The time series generated in this way make the identification of fluvial events (peak discharge) and pluvial events (sub-daily precipitation) possible. The kNN algorithm inherently considers weather situations to ensure a reasonable disaggregation of daily precipitation. Critical thresholds of pluvial flood events are empirically derived from damage data provided by a local insurer as well as action plans from the local fire service. The modelling framework is then applied to examine the probability of the two single flood hazards, as well as the probability of simultaneous pluvial-fluvial flood events.

  11. An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zali

    2013-01-01

    these districts shows that economic, social and physical situation of these districts aren’t in a good condition. Due to poor sanitary condition and free flow of sewages, keeping animals in some residential units, the possibility of infectious diseases and their development to other parts of the city are increasing. 4– ConclusionThe results show that more than 90% of the residents of these neighborhoods immigrated from near villages which in Shileh-boran involves nearly 95% of residents. Furthermore, more than 80% of the immigrations are of familial form and individual immigration is rare in these areas. Considering the occupational status of these immigrants, 45% are workers with the average salary of 100-150 thousands tomans. In addition, results show that Shileh-boran and Nirougah neighborhoods have poorer economic, social and physical conditions. The problems of ownership, poor housing situation, sewage system and access can be regarded as the important problems in these areas.The analysis of the results of the SWOT show that despite the serious threats and fundamental weaknesses such as high percentage of workers in primary jobs, hidden and seasonal unemployment, high dependency ratio, limited role of women in economy of the family, poor intensity, lack of financial facilities in improving neighborhoods, disorder of streets margin space, lack of balance in void and solid spaces, narrow passages, compression of texture, inefficiency of network access, weak and inappropriate studding, facade and form, low educated ratio, migration of majority of residents, bad sanitary condition, high rate of crime between young people, there are some opportunities for empowerment of the residents and improvement in neighborhood. These opportunities can be the inclination of the municipality in improving neighborhood, government's attention to organizing the informal habitat, international aids for empowerment activities, the existence of the sense of public participation of the

  12. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by

  13. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  14. 农民工子女在城市中的受教育现状研究%Discussion on Children's Education of Migrant Workers Integrate into the City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦莹; 王宁

    2012-01-01

    In the new situation of the urban and rural integrated development, a large number of surplus agricultural labor into the cities, in the process of migrant workers into the city, inevitably, a range of issues was appeared, educational problem of children of migrant workers has been can not be ignored, this factor or even expected to become the fundamental of migrant workers integrate into the city, and promoting urban and rural integrated development. This paper argues that to create the conditions for the next generation of growth is the common aspiration of migrant workers integrates into the city; less worries in their children's education is the inexhaustible power of migrant workers continued integrate into the city; the healthy growth of their children is to consolidate the fundamental guarantee of the outcome of the balanced development of urban and rural areas.%分析了农民工子女在城市中的教育现状,阐述了农民工子女获得平等受教育的意义,探讨了农民工子女教育存在的问题及其影响因素,指出了改善农民工子女教育现状是城乡统筹建设发展的根本保障。

  15. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amul B. Patel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn’t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

  16. Behaviour of the groundwater system in the Santa Catarina area, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the southeast area of Mexico City a line of 14 wells exist and are used as a potable water supply for surrounding towns. The average distance between each well is approximately 400 m. Each well was drilled to an approximate depth of 400 m. The results of vertical electrical soundings, performed as part of another study, indicated the presence of mineralized water down to a depth of approximately 200 m with potable water beneath. The granular aquifer is bounded by basaltic flows related to the Sierras de Santa Catarina in the north and the Chichinautzin in the south. To aid in the determination of the age and origin of the different groundwaters indicated by the geophysics, a geochemical and isotopic monitoring program was completed. Geochemical analysis was limited to the major ions. Isotopic analysis included 18O, 2H, 3H, 34S and 14C. Geochemical and isotopic data was significantly varied within the well field. The geochemical, isotopic and geophysical data was combined to produce a hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical qualitative model for the aquifer that exists around the Santa Catarina well field. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  18. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  19. Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor-A Case Study of Zhangye city

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources; the second is the ecological environment. There are critical soil erosion, frequent natural disaster and outstanding agri...

  20. An Assessment of the Quality of Groundwater in a Textile Dyeing Industrial Area in Erode City, Tamilnadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    P. N. Palanisamy; S. K. Kavitha

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected in Erode city, Tamilnadu, from an area having large number of textile dyeing units. Though people residing in this area use river water supplied by local bodies as their major source for drinking, groundwater is also used as complementary source. The samples collected were subjected to systematic analysis using the standard methods and procedures. The values obtained for different physicochemical parameters were compared with the standard values given by ISI...

  1. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, K.S.; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; Xie, Y; A. Laskin; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign f...

  2. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, K.S.; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; Xie, Y; A. Laskin; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected dur...

  3. Trends in Mortality Disparities by Area-Based Poverty in New York City, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprani, Amita; Li, Wenhui; Hadler, James L

    2016-06-01

    Residing in a high-poverty area has consistently been associated with higher mortality rates, but the association between poverty and mortality can change over time. We examine the association between neighborhood poverty and mortality in New York City (NYC) during 1990-2010 to document mortality disparity changes over time and determine causes of death for which disparities are greatest. We used NYC and New York state mortality data for years 1990, 2000, and 2010 to calculate all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) by census tract poverty (CTP), which is the proportion of persons in a census tract living below the federal poverty threshold. We calculated mortality disparities, measured as the difference in AADR between the lowest and highest CTP groups, within and across race/ethnicity, nativity, and sex categories by year. We observed higher all-cause AADRs with higher CTP for each year for all race/ethnicities, both sexes, and US-born persons. Mortality disparities decreased progressively during 1990-2010 for the NYC population overall, for each race/ethnic group, and for the majority of causes of death. The overall mortality disparity between the highest and lowest CTP groups during 2010 was 2.55 deaths/1000 population. The largest contributors to mortality disparities were heart disease (51.52 deaths/100,000 population), human immunodeficiency virus (19.96/100,000 population), and diabetes (19.59/100,000 population). We show that progress was made in narrowing socioeconomic disparities in mortality during 1990-2010, but substantial disparities remain. Future efforts toward achieving health equity in NYC mortality should focus on areas contributing most to disparities. PMID:27177681

  4. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  5. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  6. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  7. Small-area estimation of the probability of toxocariasis in New York City based on sociodemographic neighborhood composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Walsh

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is increasingly recognized as an important neglected infection of poverty (NIP in developed countries, and may constitute the most important NIP in the United States (US given its association with chronic sequelae such as asthma and poor cognitive development. Its potential public health burden notwithstanding, toxocariasis surveillance is minimal throughout the US and so the true burden of disease remains uncertain in many areas. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted a representative serologic survey of toxocariasis to estimate the prevalence of infection in diverse US subpopulations across different regions of the country. Using the NHANES III surveillance data, the current study applied the predicted probabilities of toxocariasis to the sociodemographic composition of New York census tracts to estimate the local probability of infection across the city. The predicted probability of toxocariasis ranged from 6% among US-born Latino women with a university education to 57% among immigrant men with less than a high school education. The predicted probability of toxocariasis exhibited marked spatial variation across the city, with particularly high infection probabilities in large sections of Queens, and smaller, more concentrated areas of Brooklyn and northern Manhattan. This investigation is the first attempt at small-area estimation of the probability surface of toxocariasis in a major US city. While this study does not define toxocariasis risk directly, it does provide a much needed tool to aid the development of toxocariasis surveillance in New York City.

  8. Definition of an Ontology Matching Algorithm for Context Integration in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Cerdeira, Lorena; Rodríguez-Martínez, Francisco J; Gómez-Rodríguez, Alma

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel proposal in the field of smart cities: using an ontology matching algorithm to guarantee the automatic information exchange between the agents and the smart city. A smart city is composed by different types of agents that behave as producers and/or consumers of the information in the smart city. In our proposal, the data from the context is obtained by sensor and device agents while users interact with the smart city by means of user or system agents. The knowledge of each agent, as well as the smart city's knowledge, is semantically represented using different ontologies. To have an open city, that is fully accessible to any agent and therefore to provide enhanced services to the users, there is the need to ensure a seamless communication between agents and the city, regardless of their inner knowledge representations, i.e., ontologies. To meet this goal we use ontology matching techniques, specifically we have defined a new ontology matching algorithm called OntoPhil to be deployed within a smart city, which has never been done before. OntoPhil was tested on the benchmarks provided by the well known evaluation initiative, Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative, and also compared to other matching algorithms, although these algorithms were not specifically designed for smart cities. Additionally, specific tests involving a smart city's ontology and different types of agents were conducted to validate the usefulness of OntoPhil in the smart city environment. PMID:25494353

  9. A comparison study on the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among city, township and rural area adults in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhou, Biao; Huang, Lichun; Chen, Jiang; Gu, Fang; Zhang, Hexiang; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association of dietary behaviour factors on obesity among city, township and rural area adults. Setting A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed in the present cross-sectional study. On the basis of socioeconomic characteristics, two cities, two townships and two residential villages were randomly selected where the investigation was conducted. Participants A total of 1770 city residents, 2071 town residents and 1736 rural area residents participated in t...

  10. Flexible riser integrity management: areas of concern and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podskarbi, Mateusz [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Flexible risers are key enables for both deep water and shallow water offshore production developments. Number of flexible risers installed worldwide is into several thousands with two main concentration areas - offshore Brazil and North Sea. Flexible risers are subject to significant loads including environmental impacts, vessel motions, internal temperature and pressure as well as substantial installation loads. Excessive loads of one type or a combination of various types of loads can cause damage to the flexible that can lead to a catastrophic failure. Industry observed number of failures increasing in recent years. Operators and manufacturing companies are taking various steps to address this issue. One of possible approaches is to use monitoring instrumentation to measure riser response and integrity in real time. This paper reviews various types of flexible riser damage mechanisms caused by impact damage, corrosion, excessive pressure, armor wire rupture, compromising flexible riser minimum bend radius, excessive fatigue loading, etc. Failure mechanisms are reviewed with particular focus on the consequences that it causes in terms of risk to the infrastructure and detectable changes. Further part of the paper is focused on monitoring techniques employed and available to detect particular types of failure mechanisms. Systematic review of the monitoring techniques is provided with specific attention given to ability of these techniques to provide early warnings of riser failure. Evaluation of monitoring techniques versus modes of operation and failure mechanism is key to selecting appropriate system that ensures effectiveness of the integrity management program. (author)

  11. Is Europe Evolving Toward an Integrated Research Area?

    CERN Document Server

    Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Penner, Orion; Petersen, Alexander M; Riccaboni, Massimo; 10.1126/science.1227970

    2013-01-01

    An integrated European Research Area (ERA) is a critical component for a more competitive and open European R&D system. However, the impact of EU-specific integration policies aimed at overcoming innovation barriers associated with national borders is not well understood. Here we analyze 2.4 x 10^6 patent applications filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) over the 25-year period 1986-2010 along with a sample of 2.6 x 10^5 records from the ISI Web of Science to quantitatively measure the role of borders in international R&D collaboration and mobility. From these data we construct five different networks for each year analyzed: (i) the patent co-inventor network, (ii) the publication co-author network, (iii) the co-applicant patent network, (iv) the patent citation network, and (v) the patent mobility network. We use methods from network science and econometrics to perform a comparative analysis across time and between EU and non-EU countries to determine the "treatment effect" resulting from EU i...

  12. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karydis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m−3 in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m−3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m−3 in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m−3 as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m−3 potassium, 1 μg m−3 magnesium, 2 μg m−3 sodium, and 3 μg m−3 calcium from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m−3 over these areas. PM1−10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m−3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m−3 and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m−3. The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m−3, 3.6 μg m−3, 2.1 μg m

  13. Toward a Smart Sustainable Development of Port Cities/Areas: The Role of the “Historic Urban Landscape” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fusco Girard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 2008 crisis, smart sustainable development of port areas/cities should be developed on the basis of specific principles: the synergy principle (between different actors/systems, in particular the socio-cultural and economic system, the creativity principle and the circularization principle. The Historic Urban landscape (HUL approach becomes the guarantee that the transition toward the smart city development model is based on specific local cultural resources, and not only on technological innovations. In other words, the eco-town/eco-city strategy becomes culture-led. It stimulates places as spatial “loci” for implementing synergies and circularization processes. Without new evaluation tools and a widespread “evaluation culture” the risks in implementing HUL are very high.

  14. CREATING THE PROMOTIONAL MECHANICS FOR THE CITY OF MAGADAN IN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova N. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of countries, regions, cities, corporations carry out special process to form territories images, to create original images of their strategies and concrete products. Such processes in the Kolyma region, concerning the forming of positioning and advance mechanism of our city, are mostly at the research conducting and trial actions stage. Therefore, we consider it timely and relevant to offer the recommendations which can be used by authorities when developing positioning and advance programs of the considered northern city within the country, as well as beyond its boundaries

  15. Narratives on the area: the researcher, the narrator and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Almino de Freitas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect the narratives of storytellers selected socioeconomic and places that occupy different space in the city of Sobral (CE. They are storytellers who have life experiences that can be seen as guided styles in different perspectives. In this text, the researcher appears to be affected by the narratives. Four depositions filed in LABOME - UVA-Sobral/CE - served as a source for understanding the city as an accomplice of the narrators in the exercise of their experiences. The "structural unit" Sobral is relativized in the memories of the narrators who show potential and plural cities that do not separate their adventures along the roads of life.

  16. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  17. Assessment of Geological Security and Integrated Assessment Geo-environmental Suitability in Worst-hit Areas in Wenchuan Quake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenpeng; WEN Dongguang; ZHOU Aiguo; SUN Xiaoming; MENG Hui; SHI Jusong; CHEN Zongyu; XHANG Liqin; FENG Xiaoming; LIU Changli; ZHOU Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and geo-hazards triggered by the earthquake caused large injuries and deaths as well as destructive damage for infrastructures like construction, traffic and electricity. It is urgent to select relatively secure areas for townships and cities constructed in high mountainous regions with high magnitude earthquakes. This paper presents the basic thoughts, evaluation indices and evaluation methods of geological security evaluation, water and land resources security demonstration and integrated assessments of geo-environmental suitability for reconstruction in alp and ravine with high magnitude earthquakes, which are applied in the worst-hit areas (12 counties). The integrated assessment shows that: (1) located in the Longmenshan fault zone, the evaluated area is of poor regional crust stability, in which the unstable and second unstable areas account for 79% of the total; (2) the geo-hazards susceptibility is high in the evaluation area. The spots of geo-hazards triggered by earthquake are mainly distributed along the active fault zone with higher distribution in the moderate and high mountains area, in which the areas of high and moderate susceptibility zoning accounts for 40.1% of the total; (3) geological security is poor in the evaluated area, in which the area of the unsuitable construction occupies 73.1%, whereas in the suitable construction area, the areas of geological security, second security and insecurity zoning account for 8.3%, 9.3% and 9.3% of the evaluated area respectively; (4) geo-environmental suitability is poor in the evaluated area, in which the areas of suitability and basic suitability zoning account for 3.5% and 7.3% of the whole evaluation area.

  18. Long-term TLD measurements of environmental background radiation in the New York City Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of month-long TLD measurements at seven locations within 150 km of New York City are reported for 12 years at a few locations and for up to 18 years at others. At some locations, multiple dosimeters were deployed to acquire concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements. The sites were varied and include an urban high-rise residence, three suburban backyards, a rural hillside, and the wooded outskirts of a nuclear power plant (nonoperational). Long-term mean dose rates in air ranged from 50.8 to 123.1 nGy h-1 (5.8 to 14.1 μR h-1) across the area. The typical seasonal dose rate in air variations are presented for two of the sites and are briefly discussed in terms of soil conditions. The data indicate that it is possible to achieve monthly variations from the long-term mean as high as 20 to 40%. One of these locations was monitored for indoor (2 floors) and outdoor air dose rates. This allowed for a time series comparison to be performed illustrating the changing contribution of terrestrial radiation to the total dose rate relative to the steady building material-derived radioactivity. This site also permitted the calculation of indoor/outdoor ratios for two floors. Another suburban location yielded an indoor/outdoor ratio using ground floor dose-rate-in-air measurements. Also presented are mean annual dose rates in air showing a long-term decrease at some locations. A statistical Kendall test was performed to quantify the magnitude of the decrease. A definitive explanation of this trend requires further study

  19. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  20. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  1. Parental perception of childhood obesity in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate in a sample of parents living in an inner-city area of Palermo, Italy, the perception of weight excess as a problem in childhood and the awareness about the role of physical activity, beliefs about contributors and parties having responsibility in counteracting the obesity crisis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed on a convenience sample of parents of 6-13 year-old children who attended grades 1, 3 and 5 of primary and grades 1 and 3 of secondary public schools, respectively. Thirteen schools were selected in an inner urban district of Palermo, Italy, this district being characterized by having a population of low to medium income residents. Parents were asked to come to the school and participate in the investigation. The survey was administered in the spring of 2006. After a descriptive analysis, role of specific demographic and social characteristics – education, gender, age class and BMI - of respondents was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Three hundred eleven parents completed the questionnaire. Eighty-three percent believed that being obese in childhood is a serious health hazard, but one third still interpreted the child’s weight excess as an expression of health. The most significant contributors to childhood obesity were thought to be junk food and beverages (78.0% and fast food (63.2%, followed by lack of exercise in school curriculum (48.7%. Beliefs about responsibilities for combating childhood obesity significantly varied according to education level.

    Conclusions: Public support for environmental changes could more effectively rise with the increasing public awareness that many interrelated obesogenic factors in the modern environment are playing a key role.

  2. Are Big Cities Bad Places to Live? Estimating Quality of Life across Metropolitan Areas

    OpenAIRE

    David Albouy

    2008-01-01

    The standard revealed-preference estimate of a city's quality of life is proportional to that city's cost-of-living relative to its wage-level. Adjusting estimates to account for federal taxes, non-housing costs, and non-labor income produces more plausible quality-of-life estimates than in the previous literature. Unlike previous estimates, adjusted quality-of-life measures successfully predict how housing costs rise with wage levels, are positively correlated with popular "livability" ranki...

  3. Dengue Outbreaks in High-Income Area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, 2003–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Schiøler, Karin L.; Jepsen, Martin R.; Ho, Chi-Kung; Li, Shu-Hua; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Kaohsiung City, a modern metropolis of 1.5 million persons, has been the focus of dengue virus activity in Taiwan for several decades. The aim of this study was to provide a temporal and spatial description of dengue virus epidemiology in Kaohsiung City by using data for all laboratory-confirmed dengue cases during 2003–2009. We investigated age- and sex-dependent incidence rates and the spatiotemporal patterns of all cases confirmed through passive or active surveillance. Elderly persons wer...

  4. [Assessment of land use environmental impacts in urban built-up area: a case study in main built-up area of Nanchang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Liu, Shi-Yu; Yu, Dun; Zou, Qiu-Ming

    2009-07-01

    Based on the relevant studies of land use environmental impacts and the characteristics of urban land use, a conceptual model on the assessment of land use environmental impacts in urban built-up area was established. This model grouped the land use environmental impacts in built-up area into four basic processes, i. e., detailization, abstractization, matching, and evaluation. A case study was conducted in the main built-up area of Nanchang City, with noise, smell, dust, and hazard as the impact factors. In the test area, noise had a widespread impact, its impacting area accounting for 59% of the total, smell and dust impacts centralized in the east and south parts, while hazard impact was centralized in the southeast part, an industrial area. This assessment model of four basic processes was practical, and could provide basis for the decision-making of urban land use management and planning. PMID:19899480

  5. Illegal occupations in Permanent Preservation Areas: a case study in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pavan de Souza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Preservation Areas are constantly and illegally occupied by the population, either to establish residence, or to develop business activities. In Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, these areas have often been occupied since sugarcane mill suppliers began to use state-owned land to cultivate sugar cane used in ethanol production, molasses and sugar. This article presents aspects of economic development in the city, reviews the history of urban development with the occupation of public spaces, and also presents discussion of regularization in areas of permanent preservation.

  6. On Track to Become a Low Carbon Future City? First Findings of the Integrated Status Quo and Trends Assessment of the Pilot City of Wuxi in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vallentin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Low Carbon Future Cities (LCFC project aims at facing a three dimensional challenge by developing an integrated city roadmap balancing: low carbon development, gains in resource efficiency and adaptation to climate change. The paper gives an overview of the first outcomes of the analysis of the status quo and assessment of the most likely developments regarding GHG emissions, climate impacts and resource use in Wuxi—the Chinese pilot city for the LCFC project. As a first step, a detailed emission inventory following the IPCC guidelines for Wuxi has been carried out. In a second step, the future development of energy demand and related CO2 emissions in 2050 were simulated in a current policy scenario (CPS. In parallel, selected aspects of material and water flows for the energy and the building sector were analyzed and modeled. In addition, recent and future climate impacts and vulnerability were investigated. Based on these findings, nine key sectors with high relevance to the three dimensions could be identified. Although Wuxi’s government has started a path to implement a low carbon plan, the first results show that, for the shift towards a sustainable low carbon development, more ambitious steps need to be taken in order to overcome the challenges faced.

  7. Seasonality in the daytime and night-time intensity of land surface temperature in a tropical city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanlade, Ayansina

    2016-07-01

    Variations in urban land surface temperature (LST) links to the surrounding rural areas result to urban heat island (UHI), which is a global problem challenging both cities in develop and developing countries. Satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), covering the period between 2002 and 2013 were analysed to examine seasonal variability in the daytime and night-time intensity of urban heat island (UHI), using Lagos metropolitan city of Nigeria as a case study. Contribution index (CI) and landscape index (LI) were used to estimate the LST contributions from non-urban and urban areas to UHI and assess the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and LST. The LI showed that both non-urban and urban areas contribute greatly to strengthen the intensity of LST during the daytime (with LI0.90), while R(2) were very low in the night-time especially during dry season. The study indicates that reduction in vegetal cover in Lagos urban areas altered the terrestrial thermal and aerodynamic processes hence resulted in an intensification of UHI in the metropolitan city. PMID:27017074

  8. Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor——A Case Study of Zhangye City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources; the second is the ecological environment. There are critical soil erosion, frequent natural disaster and outstanding agricultural area source pollution; the third is the rural economy. The agricultural structure still can not meet the need of agricultural development in recent years, and the proportion of agricultural product processing is low. It points out that implementation of agricultural recycle economy is the necessary choice of the agricultural development in Zhangye City. Developing recycle economy is conducive to improving ecological environment and realizing agricultural sustainable development; developing recycle economy can solve the agricultural area source pollution to much extent and protect rural environment; developing recycle economy is conducive to adjusting rural industrial structure, increasing job opportunities and increasing farmers’ income; developing recycle economy is conducive to elevating the international competitiveness of agricultural products. The thesis also has put forward the countermeasures of developing agricultural recycle economy in Zhangye City as follows: firstly, fostering the ambience of the development of agricultural recycle economy; secondly, forming the incentive mechanism of development of agricultural recycle economy; thirdly, broadening the investment channel of development of agricultural recycle economy; fourthly, perfecting socialized service system of agricultural recycle economy.

  9. Definition of an Ontology Matching Algorithm for Context Integration in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Otero-Cerdeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a novel proposal in the field of smart cities: using an ontology matching algorithm to guarantee the automatic information exchange between the agents and the smart city. A smart city is composed by different types of agents that behave as producers and/or consumers of the information in the smart city. In our proposal, the data from the context is obtained by sensor and device agents while users interact with the smart city by means of user or system agents. The knowledge of each agent, as well as the smart city’s knowledge, is semantically represented using different ontologies. To have an open city, that is fully accessible to any agent and therefore to provide enhanced services to the users, there is the need to ensure a seamless communication between agents and the city, regardless of their inner knowledge representations, i.e., ontologies. To meet this goal we use ontology matching techniques, specifically we have defined a new ontology matching algorithm called OntoPhil to be deployed within a smart city, which has never been done before. OntoPhil was tested on the benchmarks provided by the well known evaluation initiative, Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative, and also compared to other matching algorithms, although these algorithms were not specifically designed for smart cities. Additionally, specific tests involving a smart city’s ontology and different types of agents were conducted to validate the usefulness of OntoPhil in the smart city environment.

  10. Integrative fuzzy hierarchical model for river health assessment: A case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasingly serious ecological degradation of river systems, the river health research has attracted more and more attention of the researchers and decision-makers. This paper aims to integrate the fuzzy assessment method with analytic hierarchy process to establish the integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model, thus combing qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment and overcoming the disadvantages of subjectivity of the previous evaluation methods. The results show that the proposed assessment method is able to reveal how the river system is disturbed by human activities. Finally, the integrative fuzzy hierarchical method is validated and applied to the case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China.

  11. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  12. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  13. Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols over Lanzhou City and Applications Using an Integrating Nephelometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武; 胡波; 陈长和; 杜萍; 张镭; 冯广泓

    2004-01-01

    The data, measured by a three-wavelength Integrating Nephelometer over Lanzhou City during the winters of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 respectively, have been analyzed for investigating the scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols and exploring their relationship and the status of air pollution. The aerosol particle volume distribution is inverted with the measured spectral scattering coefficients. The results show that the daily variation of the aerosol scattering coefficients is in a tri-peak shape. The average ratio of backscattering coefficient to total scattering coefficient at 550 nm is 0.158; there exists an excellent correlation between the scattering coefficients and the concentration of PM10. The average ratio of the concentration of PM10 to the scattering coefficients is 0.37 g m-2, which is contingent on the optical parameters of aerosol particles such as the size distribution, etc.; an algorithm is developed for inverting the volume distribution of aerosol particles by using the histogram and Monte-Carlo techniques, and the test results show that the inversion is reasonable.

  14. Ozone forming potential and sulfur effects on in-use vehicles of the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest urban areas of Mexico cities have witnessed high levels of air pollution in the past few decades. The most important air pollutants are ozone and particulate matter with levels that are still far above current air quality standard, In this work we studied exhaust and evaporative emissions of Mexico City metropolitan area (MAMC) vehicles using fuels in which sulfur content was varied from 89×10-6 to 817×10-6, and calculated the ozone forming potential of emissions as well as the specific reactivity of the exhaust for each average fleet-fuel combinations. Data on emission levels were compared to those obtained in 2000 for the same vintage of vehicles. The almost twofold increase in emissions found could be due to degradation of the exhaust emissions control systems.

  15. The Assimilation Process of Mexican Immigrants in New York City: From Assimilation to Integration

    OpenAIRE

    González Salazar, Ada Elvira

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the assimilation process of Mexican immigrants in New York City, taking as a case study the work of Tepeyac Association of New York. This case was chosen because Tepeyac Association has been able to mobilize the largest number of Mexican immigrants in that city, serving as a liaison between them and the City's social, economic and political life. The hypothesis is that Mexican immigrants' ideal relation to American life, as compared to that of earli...

  16. Overweight and obesity in school-age children and teenagers of a urban area of Riobamba city, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio David Ramos-Padilla; Tannia Valeria Carpio-Arias; Verónica Carlina Delgado-López; Verónica Dayana Villavicencio-Barriga

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass ...

  17. Vehicle Traffic as a Source of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Linsey C.; GROGAN, LISA A.; Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; MOLINA, LUISAT.; Molina, Mario J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Surface properties of aerosols in the Mexico City metropolitan area have been measured in a variety of exposure scenarios related to vehicle emissions in 2002, using continuous, real-time instruments. The objective of these experiments is to describe ambient and occupational particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with vehicular traffic and facilities using diesel vehicles. Median total particulate PAH concentrations along Mexico City’s roadways range from ...

  18. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need ...

  19. Integrated controlling technique of ecological environment in Shendong Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-sheng; LIU Yu-de; WANG An; WANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    To enclose the interactive relation between the underground mining with suitable protection for surface ecological environments and surface prevention of ecological environments adapting to mining disturbing was researched and developed core of this technique. There are three aspects of controlling ecological environments, to dispose and renew before exploitation, to protect surface ecological environments in the exploitative process and to repair and build up after exploitation. Based on the moving law of overburden strata in shallow seam, the surface subsidence law and the growth law of vegetation in subsidence mine area, the integrated controlling technique has been developed synthetically by methods of theoretic analysis, laboratory simulation, numerical calculation,commercial test etc.. It includes the key techniques of aquifer-protective mining, filtering and purging of mine water through goaf, preventing and extinguishing fire in shallow seam,no-rock roadway layout and waste disposal in underground, frame-building ecological functional sphere before exploitation, frame-building the ecological cycle using system after mining and so on.

  20. Salt Lake City Utah Integrated Projects electric power marketing. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 5: Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  1. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  2. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  3. Risk of Giardia intestinalis infection in children from an artificially recharged groundwater area in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Suárez, Leticia; Espinosa, Martha; Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the risk of infection with Giardia intestinalis in children living in an area with artificial groundwater recharge and potable water reuse in Mexico City. Eligible wells and surrounding homesteads were defined by using a geographic information system. Five wells were tested for G. intestinalis cysts per 400 liters of water. A total of 750 eligible households were visited during two cross-sectional surveys. Stool samples were provided by 986 children in the rainy season study and 928 children during the dry season survey for parasitologic tests. Their guardians provided information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and socioeconomic variables. The prevalence rates of G. intestinalis infection were 9.4% in the rainy season and 4.4% in the dry season. Higher rates of infection were observed in older individuals (9.5% and 10.6%) and girls had a lower risk of infection than boys (odds ratio [OR] =0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34, 0.88 in the rainy season and OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.90 in the dry season). During the wet season survey, a health risk was detected among those storing water in unprotected receptacles (OR = 4.00, 4.69, and 5.34 for those using uncovered jars, cisterns or tanks, and buckets, respectively), and bathing outside the dwelling, i.e., using a tap (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.39). A health risk was also detected among children from households with unsafe food hygiene practices (OR =2.41, 95% CI =1.10, 5.30) and those with no hand-washing habits (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.00, 5.20). Groundwater reserves are at risk of fecal pollution, as indicated by the presence of G. intestinalis cysts. However, the endemic pattern of intestinal infection reflects low standards of personal hygiene and unsafe drinking water storage and food-related practices at household level. Prevention activities must address health education and environmental protection policies. PMID:15238691

  4. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  5. Study on Seamless Service Pattern of Tour Guide for City Tourist Scenic Areas%面向城市导游的无缝服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永; 龙毅; 许越; 郑星雨

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, intelligent tour guide system is not only providing services for single tourist scenic area any more, and it is now developing into providing services for many tourist scenic areas in cities, so the service pattern is usually consisted of both tour guide in scenic area (tour guide) and tour guide on routes which link scenic areas (road guide), and what's more, the city tour guide provides services to individual tourist further, and can runs on any mobile terminal as an application(App). But in general, tour guide system and road guide system are self-contained, so there would be an unavoidable transfer between these two guide systems when a visitor entering and leaving a scenic area, and the progress of transfer is mainly manually operated, which cannot realize automatic and seamless transfer. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a seamless service pattern for any scenic area in one city, and analyses the architecture and work ranchman of the pattern, and then discusses these key technologies such as conforming tourist entering or leaving a scenic area, which is as a trigger for the automatic seamless switching between applications, and seamless integrating tour guide status on the level of content, such as designing data structure, transferring of the seamless integration of tourist status. The instances tests prove that the pattern can realize switch automatically between Apps and city road navigation, and can realize seamless tour guide process with dynamic status transferring, and can be seen as a new service pattern, also a solution to integrate exited tour guide Apps.%智能导游服务已从传统的单一景区导游发展为城市多景区导游,因此,包含了景区间导游和景区内导游两大部分;表现为更加注重面向散客服务、兼容多移动智能终端以应用程序(App)的方式运行。由于景区间导游和景区内导游往往自成系统,在游客进出景区的过程中存在着两种系统

  6. Study on Seamless Service Pattern of Tour Guide for City Tourist Scenic Areas%面向城市导游的无缝服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永; 龙毅; 许越; 郑星雨

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays, intelligent tour guide system is not only providing services for single tourist scenic area any more, and it is now developing into providing services for many tourist scenic areas in cities, so the service pattern is usually consist of both tour guide in scenic area(tour guide)and tour guide on routes which link scenic areas(road guide), and what's more, the city tour guide porvides services to individual tourist futher, and it can runs on any mobile terminal as an application(App). But in general, tour guide system and road guide system are self-contained, so there would be an unavoidable transfer between these two guide systems when a visitor entering and leaving a scenic area and the progress of transfer is mainly manually operated, and cannot realize automatic, seamless transfer. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a seamless service pattern for any scenic area in one city, analyses the architecture and work manchmain mechanism of the pattern, and then discusses these key technologies such as conforming tourist enteriing or leaving a scenic area, which are as triggers for the automatic seamless switching between applications, and seamless integrating tour guide status on the level of content, such as designing data structure, transfering of the seamless integration of tourist status. Through the instances test, it proves that the pattern can realize switch automaticlly between Apps and city road navigation and seamless tour guide process with dynamic status transfering, and can be seen as a new service pattern. It is also a solution to integrate existing tour guide Apps.%智能导游服务已从传统的单一景区导游发展为城市多景区导游,因此包含了景区间导游和景区内导游两大部分;表现为更加注重面向散客服务、兼容多移动智能终端以应用程序(App)的方式运行。由于景区间导游和景区内导游往往自成系统,在游客进出景区的过程中存在着两种系统的

  7. Mapping Urban Areas with Integration of DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light and MODIS Data Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Jing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping urban areas at global and regional scales is an urgent and crucial task for detecting urbanization and human activities throughout the world and is useful for discerning the influence of urban expansion upon the ecosystem and the surrounding environment. DMSP-OLS stable nighttime lights have provided an effective way to monitor human activities on a global scale. Threshold-based algorithms have been widely used for extracting urban areas and estimating urban expansion, but the accuracy can decrease because of the empirical and subjective selection of threshold values. This paper proposes an approach for extracting urban areas with the integration of DMSP-OLS stable nighttime lights and MODIS data utilizing training sample datasets selected from DMSP-OLS and MODIS NDVI based on several simple strategies. Four classification algorithms were implemented for comparison: the classification and regression tree (CART, k-nearest-neighbors (k-NN, support vector machine (SVM, and random forests (RF. A case study was carried out on the eastern part of China, covering 99 cities and 1,027,700 km2. The classification results were validated using an independent land cover dataset, and then compared with an existing contextual classification method. The results showed that the new method can achieve results with comparable accuracies, and is easier to implement and less sensitive to the initial thresholds than the contextual method. Among the four classifiers implemented, RF achieved the most stable results and the highest average Kappa. Meanwhile CART produced highly overestimated results compared to the other three classifiers. Although k-NN and SVM tended to produce similar accuracy, less-bright areas around the urban cores seemed to be ignored when using SVM, which led to the underestimation of urban areas. Furthermore, quantity assessment showed that the results produced by k-NN, SVM, and RFs exhibited better agreement in larger cities and low

  8. The impact of urban conditions on different tree species in public green areas in the city of Poznan

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyżaniak Michał; Świerk Dariusz; Walerzak Miłosz; Urbański Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Parks in urbanised areas fulfil an important function as they create a positive climate in cities and contribute to the good health of their inhabitants. The study gives an answer to the question of which of the species under investigation is the most suitable for planting in urbanised areas. The aim of the research conducted from 2013 to 2014 at selected sites in Poznan (Poland) was to determine the state of health of Tilia cordata Mill., Acer platanoides L. and Quercus robur L. trees and to...

  9. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da; Chassin, Forrest S.; Zhang, Yu; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Warwick, William M.; Fuller, Jason C.; Diao, Ruisheng; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3. Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.

  10. Integrating GIS and Fuzzy Logic for Urban Solid Waste Management (A Case Study of Sanandaj City, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lotfi; K. Habibi; M.J. Koohsari

    2007-01-01

    The city of Sanandaj with population of 340000 in 2003 produces 714 tons of solid waste per day. Waste dumping is the main method of solid waste disposal during the thirty past years. The conditions show that the present site is quite unsuitable because many principles and criteria for site selection are not considered. So in the near future, the severe environmental impacts will threats the health of Sanandaj's inhabitants. The research attempts to integrate fuzzy logic and GIS with the help...

  11. Integrated planning of the development of a city in terms of the diurnal activity of its residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mierzejewska Lidia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The change in Poland’s systemic conditions and its membership of the European Union make it necessary to take a new look at the organisation, structure and operation of the Polish planning system. In place of two, not always well coordinated, types of planning: socio-economic, now called strategic, and physical, integrated planning is proposed which seeks to combine those two categories into a single stream and treat the objects of planning as a functional whole. This type of approach is recommended by international organisations of urban planners (the New Athens Charter and academic planners. Integrated planning of urban development is also written in the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities, an EU urban policy document. However, each planning procedure requires the adoption of certain initial assumptions on which to base the conception of an integrated plan of the socio-economic and spatial development of a city that would accommodate its natural, social and economic spheres. The special character of a city as a living environment (a large population number, high population density, many social structures, etc. demands giving the assumptions an anthropocentric orientation, i.e. with human beings as the addressees of the planned measures. This means that human needs should figure most prominently in the formulation of the assumptions of urban development. And since man’s diurnal activity is one of the best indicators of articulated needs, an analysis of this activity can provide a basis for the formulation of development assumptions. In this paper we present a general model of integrated planning of the development of a city formulated primarily in terms of the diurnal activity of its residents, but also employing other factors.

  12. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  13. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles. PMID:15504511

  14. Ecological Effects of Remote Smallsand Descending on Urban Area: Deduced from the "Mud- Snow" in Changchun City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Donghui; Hu Ke; Wang Yun; Yang Deming; Zhao Wei; Chen Shan

    2000-01-01

    A serious sandstorm occurred in North China from April 5 to April 7, 2000, while the remote smallsand decending took place in even larger area to the far northeast China. In Chanchun city, smallsand descending with snow provides the best samples to conduct a quantitative research on the possible impacts of city- ecology. In the 253km2 urban district area of Changchun city, smallsands accumulated up to more than 3000t on April 7, according to the calculation of four "mud- snow" samples. After naturally melting in room temperature, two samples are taken to do quarantine of "invasion bacteria". As a preliminary result, the individual amount of bacterium in 1 ml sample water is up to 8.9 × 104 or 1.05 × 105, and it is estimated that there are 640 million "invasion bacterium" individuals in one square meter. This study proves that other than the obvious environmental effects of sandstorm, the urban micro- ecosystem is very possible under threat by the "invasion bacterium" accompanied by remote descending smallsand.

  15. An Assesment of Groundwater Quality Index in Bommasandra Area,Bengaluru city,Karnataka State,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprasad H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a natural resource for drinking water .In addition to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization also extend the demand of water. Providing safe drinking water supply to the ever growing urban and sub-urban population is going to be a challenge to the civil authorities, city planners, policy makers and environmentalists. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in both urban and rural areas of Bommasandra. Bommasandra city is rapidly raising population, changing lifestyle and intense competition among users- agriculture, industry and domestic sectors is driving the groundwater table lower. Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminate groundwater, thereby reducing quality of fresh water resources.

  16. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened. PMID:25037965

  17. Waterfront Areas as Hotspots of Sustainable and Creative Development of Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fusco Girard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Sustainability is devoted to a very important sustainability topic, viz. cities and waterfront infrastructure. The presence of—and access to—water has been a critical factor in the long history of settlement patterns of humankind. Water is not only a necessary consumption good for survival, but has also an important production potential in an economic sense. [...

  18. Carbon monoxide pollution from cities and urban areas observed by the Terra/MOPITT mission

    OpenAIRE

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Deeter, Merritt; Emmons, Louisa; Lamarque, Jean-François; Tie, Xue Xi; Massie, Steve T.; Gille, John

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key species for tracking pollution plumes. The Measurement Of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) mission onboard the Terra satellite has already provided 7.5 years of CO atmospheric concentration measurements around the globe. Limited sensitivity to the boundary layer is well known to be a weakness of nadir looking thermal infrared sounders. This paper investigates the possibility of using the MOPITT surface measurements to detect CO emitted by cities and urban ce...

  19. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbritt David W; Dibley Michael J; Huynh Dieu TT; Tran Hanh TM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline ...

  20. Integrated development – essential condition for modernisation of rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Słodowa-Hełpa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The inspiration to take up the issue of integrated development in the context of the modernization of the village was, on the one hand, the conviction of the urgent need of stimulation, on the other hand, there was a concern that it should not be identified entirely with the integrated management system. Although the idea of integrated development is no longer a novelty, but it still remains a declaration and not translated into effective mechanisms for the functioning of local communities. The need to popularise it further does not require an extensive justification. The essence of the modernisation of rural background, characteristics of the integrated management of development, its place in the future EU policy 2014-2020 and in the new system of integrated planning in Poland, will be presented: rural location in the system of integrated management development, declared in selected strategic documents, the role of smart specialization of regions, the Opolskie voivodeship good practice to stimulate development, recommendations for further actions conducive to integrated development, including modernization of the countryside.

  1. The triumph of the smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Oberti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one in two people living in cities, megacities are more than twenty, and both figures are expected to increase. In light of this scenario, the major challenge is the ability to grow the urban areas with efficiency and improving the quality of citizens’ life. In the city of the future, the environment, the people and the technology have to be devised in an integrated and sustainable way: this is what underlies the concept of the smart city.

  2. A Research on Efficiency of Sport Areas in Çankırı City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pekin Timur Ö.B. Timur C. Kuş Şahin C. Dağıstanlıoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; existed conditions, general features, planning principles and standarts of the sport areas in Çankırı provincial center were examined and physical efficiency of these areas were evaluated in terms of field, facility capacity, facility size, facility type, and facility number, also service areas. Service areas were determined by using Geographical Information System (GIS. The total areas of the sport areas in the provincial center were found as 161 decares, for accessing to planning standarts of sport area, it would be determined that needed 241 decares sport areas which has been 28 new sport facilities in the provincial center. As a result, according to planning criteria of sport areas, the sport areas in Çankırı provincial center were found insufficiently in terms of the facility type and number, facility capacity and size and service area and the number of sport area. In addition, it was determined that most of the existing sport areas were neglected by professional maintance and these areas were planned without any considerations with green areas. According to these result, accurate proposal were presented to be sufficient and successful in existing and future sport areas in the provincial center.

  3. Water Service Areas, Water Franchise Areas, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, CITY OF PORTAGE.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described as...

  4. Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition of every element in a complex System...

  5. Sensor Area Network for Integrated Systems Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a...

  6. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  7. Urban Growth Areas, City and Village Comprehensive Planning, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urban Growth Areas dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'City...

  8. "EII META-MODEL" ON INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK FOR VIABLE ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS - CITY PLANNING METAPHOR BASED ON STRUCTURAL SIMILARITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukio NAMBA; Junichi IIJIMA

    2003-01-01

    Enterprise systems must have the structure to adapt the change of business environment. Whenrebuilding enterprise system to meet the extended operational boundaries, the concept of IT cityplanning is applicable and effective. The aim of this paper is to describe the architectural approachfrom the integrated information infrastructure (In3) standpoint and to propose for applying the "CityPlanning" concept for rebuilding "inter-application spaghetti" enterprise systems. This is mainlybecause the portion of infrastructure has increased with the change of information systems fromcentralized systems to distributed and open systems. As enterprise systems have involvedheterogeneity or architectural black box in them, it may be required the integration framework(meta-architecture) as a discipline based on heterogeneity that can provide comprehensive view of theenterprise systems. This paper proposes "EH Meta-model" as the integration framework that canoptimize the overall enterprise systems from the IT city planning point of view. EH Meta-modelconsists of "Integrated Information Infrastructure Map (In3-Map)", "Service Framework" and "ITScenario". It would be applicable and effective for the viable enterprise, because it has the mechanismto adapt the change. Finally, we illustrate a case of information system in an online securitiescompany and demonstrate applicability and effectiveness of EII Meta-model to meet their businessgoals.

  9. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  10. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  11. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  12. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from belt roads, bypass roads and pedestrian areas situated in city centers is noted.

  13. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J. C.; E. I. Kassianov; Ackerman, T. P.; K. Johnson; Zuberi, B.; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2007-01-01

    During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC) specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g). The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These re...

  14. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2003 field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J. C.; E. I. Kassianov; Ackerman, T. P.; K. Johnson; Zuberi, B.; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina

    2007-01-01

    During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC) specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g). The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These results are reasonab...

  15. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rutter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March, 2006.

    Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows:

    i Urban site: PHg=187±300 pg m−3, RGM=62±64 pg m−3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m−3.

    ii Rural site: GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m−3.

    Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM, and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg and RGM were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  16. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rutter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban site, and a rural site on the outskirts of Mexico City, during March 2006.

    Numerous short-lived increases in particulate mercury (PHg and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM concentrations were observed at the urban site during the 17 day study, and less frequent increases in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured at both the urban and rural sites. The episodic increases observed were attributed to plume impacts from industrial point source emissions in and around Mexico City. Average concentrations and standard deviations measured during the study were as follows: i urban site; PHg=187±300 pg m−3, RGM=62±64 pg m−3, GEM=7.2±4.8 ng m−3, and; ii rural site; GEM=5.0±2.8 ng m−3.

    Several source regions of atmospheric mercury to the urban and rural sites were determined using Concentration Field Analysis, in which atmospheric mercury measurements were combined with back trajectory data to determine source regions. Only some source regions correlated to mercury emission sources listed in the Federal Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, leaving the rest unaccounted for. Contributions of anthropogenic mercury point sources in and around Mexico City to concentration averages measured at the urban site during the study were estimated to be: 93±3% of reactive mercury (PHg and RGM, and; 81±0.4% of GEM. Point source contributions to GEM measured at the rural site were 72±1%. GEM and reactive mercury (PHg+RGM were not found to correlate with biomass burning at either of the measurement sites.

  17. Prevalence of tobacco use in urban, semi urban and rural areas in and around Chennai City, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolappan Chockalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

  18. The Wancheng City and Countryside Integrated Construction under the Background of Removing County to District%撤县改区背景下望城的城乡一体化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇

    2012-01-01

    近年来我国"撤县(市)设区"行政区划调整越来越多。其主要目的是促进中心城市规模,理顺中心城市与周边县市之间的关系。然而,调整也带来了许多消极影响。望城县撤县改区后,正式成为长沙市的第六区,机遇与挑战并存,作者认为,需要从基础设施建设、政策对接、资源优势挖潜及建立科学、合理的城市协调发展机制,加强区域规划的编制和实施等方面,处理好新形势下望城区的城乡一体化建设。%In recent years our country design the county to city area more and more .Its main purpose is promotes the key city scale, the straightening out key city and between the peripheral county city relations.However, the adjustment has also brought many negative effects.After Wangcheng County removes the county to change the area, becomes Changsha's sixth area officially, the opportunity and challenge coexisting, the author believed, needs from the infrastructure construction, policy docking, resources superiority tapping latent potentialities and the establishment scientific, the reasonable city coordinated development mechanism, strengthens aspects and so on regional planning establishment and implementation, processes under the good new situation the Wangcheng area city and countryside integration construction.

  19. Social Optimality of Cordon Area Congestion Pricing in an Monocentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harya S Dillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kemacetan lalu lintas merupakan epidemi global yang telah melumpuhkan banyak kota. Dari sudut pandang ekonomi mikro, kemacetan dapat dipandang sebagai eksternalitas negatif dimana diperlukan bea Pigovian sebagai solusi atas ekuilibrium yang kurang optimal tersebut. Eksternalitas ini dirasakan dalam bentuk tundaan perjalanan dan pembangunan kota yang rakus lahan. Meskipun teori mengenai ketepatgunaan bea kemacetan (congestion pricing telah mapan sejak akhir 1970-an, penerapan dan implementasi kebijakan tertunda oleh kendala teknologi. Salah satu bentuk implementasi bayaran kemacetan yang sering dijumpai adalah bea lintas-kordon (cordon charging, dimana penglaju yang masuk ke wilayah pusat dibebani sejumlah biaya. Ketepatgunaan dari bea lintas-kordon telah dikaji secara empiris dan juga dengan simulasi numerik, namun penjelasan teoretis belum dilakukan secara tuntas. Penulis mengembangkan model kota monosentris untuk meneliti dampak kebijakan bea lintas-kordon pada kepadatan kota dan permintaan akan lahan kota (equilibrium rent. Bea lintas-kordon akan menaikkan harga lahan di pusat kota dan memperbesar gradien kurva tawaran-sewa (bid-rent curve. Namun yang lebih penting untuk diperhatikan adalah bahwa besaran ini ditentukan oleh parameter kordon. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa daya manfaat kebijakan ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh pilihan parameter kordon yang dibuat perencana.Kata kunci. kemacetan, bea lintas-kordon, kota monosentris, struktur kotaAbstract. Traffic congestion is a global epidemic that at time has put cities to a state of paralysis. From a microeconomics point of view, congestion can be approached as a negative externality that merits a Pigovian tax to correct the suboptimal equilibrium. Externalities manifest in delays and wasteful urbanization. While the efficiency of congestion pricing has been well established since the late 1970s, policy adoption and implementation have been delayed due to technological

  20. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  1. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  2. Area γ radiation monitoring network systems based on totally integrated automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces a kind of Area γ Radiation Monitoring Network Systems based on Totally Integrated Automation. It features simple and safe process control, easy integration of information network, field bus and field instrumentation, modular design and powerful system expansion, implements management and control integration, is positive importance for localization of Radiation Monitoring System. (authors)

  3. Using models in Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Melaku Canu, Donata; Libralato, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Numerical Models can greatly contribute to integrated ecological assessment of coastal and marine systems. Indeed, models can: i) assist in the identification of efficient sampling strategy; ii) provide space interpolation and time extrapolation of experiemtanl data which are based on the knowedge on processes dynamics and causal realtionships which is coded within the model, iii) provide estimates of hardly measurable indicators. Furthermore model can provide indication on potential effects of implementation of alternative management policies. Finally, by providing a synthetic representation of an ideal system, based on its essential dynamic, model return a picture of ideal behaviour of a system in the absence of external perturbation, alteration, noise, which might help in the identification of reference behaivuor. As an important example, model based reanalyses of biogeochemical and ecological properties are an urgent need for the estimate of the environmental status and the assessment of efficacy of conservation and environmental policies, also with reference to the enforcement of the European MSFD. However, the use of numerical models, and particularly of ecological models, in modeling and in environmental management still is far from be the rule, possibly because of a lack in realizing the benefits which a full integration of modeling and montoring systems might provide, possibly because of a lack of trust in modeling results, or because many problems still exists in the development, validation and implementation of models. For istance, assessing the validity of model results is a complex process that requires the definition of appropriate indicators, metrics, methodologies and faces with the scarcity of real-time in-situ biogeochemical data. Furthermore, biogeochemical models typically consider dozens of variables which are heavily undersampled. Here we show how the integration of mathematical model and monitoring data can support integrated ecosystem

  4. Cultural Industries In The Development Policies Of Cities And Regions: A New Area Of Educationin Spatial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churski Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to present organisational and programme assumptions of a new field of postgraduate studies called Cultural industries in the development policies of cities and regions, prepared by a team of workers of the Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań as a didactic innovation based on a modular system of education that meets contemporary changes in the labour market. The analysis will also embrace experiences following from the educational process implemented under the Human Capital Operational Programme in the years 2013–2015 (Priority IV: Tertiary Education and Science, Measure 4.3: Enhancing the didactic potential of universities in areas of key importance for the Europe 2020 Strategy. They provide a basis for conclusions and recommendations for higher schools interested in the development of this area of education.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of a City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Yousefi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study:  Lack of access to safe drinking water can lead to undesirable aesthetic problems and adverse health effects such as infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of the drinking water distribution network in Divandareh City (Kordestan-western Iran. Materials & Methods:  This study was performed in a 12 months period from March 2011 to February 2012. For purposes  of drinking water resources quality measurement in Divandareh City,  samples from springs, deep and semi-deep wells were analyzed for  residual free chlorines, turbidity, total and fecal coliform. The size of samples was 2088 and the sampling was performed according to guidelines of WHO for water sampling. The results were analyzed using the Statistical software SPSS and Excel and for the comparison between average parameters ANOVA test were used. Results:  In 95% of samples, the residual free chlorine was in the range of 0 to 0.5 mg/L, turbidity 0 to 1.8 NTU and total and fecal coliforms 0 to 240 and 0 to 9.1 (MPN/100mL, respectively. According to data analysis, the chlorine residual and turbidity had significant effect on the amount of thermophilic coliforms (P=0.047. Conclusions:  High rate of total and fecal coliforms in the drinking water is due to failures in the transport system, lack of sanitation in the water resource, and lack or failure in the chlorination system.

  6. An integrated assessment method of urban drainage system:A case study in Shenzhen City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,the urban drainage system in China is facing the dual pressure of renovation and construction.This requires that the integrated assessment for the planning and operation of the urban drainage system is obligatory.To evaluate the urban drainage system,an integrated assessment methodology based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP),integrated simulation,and fuzzy assessment is established.This method is a multi-criteria decision adding approach to the assessment of the urban drainage system comprehensively.Through the integration of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM),a simple wastewater treatment plant model,and a surface water quality model,an integrated modelling system for the urban drainage system is developed and applied as a key tool for assessment.Using the established method,a case study in Shenzhen City has been implemented to evaluate and compare two urban drainage system renovation plans,the distributed plan and the centralized plan.Because of the particularity of this case study,the established method is not applied entirely.Considering the water environmental impact,ecological impact,technological feasibility,and economic cost,the integrated performance of the distributed plan is better.As shown in this case study,the proposed method is found to be both effective and practical.

  7. Co-integration Analysis on the Relationship between Methane Energy Development and Economic Growth in the City of Huixian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the statistical data of Huixian from 1992 to 2010, we analyze the long-term and short-term relationship between Huixian’s methane energy development and GDP by using co-integration test and error correction model. The empirical results show that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between methane energy and GDP in the city of Huixian, and which is the one-way Granger causality of methane and GDP. In conclusion, the paper puts forward some steps about spurring economic growth, methane development and utilization in Huixian.

  8. DEFINITION OF FLOOD HAZARD AREAS VACACAÍ RIVER IN THE CITY OF SAN GABRIEL, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Salvadé Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of studies related to flooding and mappings can be observed by the significant increase in research in recent decades. The municipality of São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Su State, has more than 80% of its population in urban areas. Part of this population is located in the nearness of Rio Vacacaí and has subsequently been affected by flood events. This study aims to map the areas with susceptibility and hazard of flooding in the urban area of São Gabriel. The methodological procedures involved the inventory of events, collection and processing of satellite images and topographic data. The analysis and synthesis of information derived from maps. From the analysis of the thirty years it was found that in sixteen years have records of flooding. A total of sixteen years of events were recorded thirty-two where the population was affected with floods. The total susceptibility area is 3.57Km², representing 7.75% of the entire urban area. The danger areas are added to 0.62Km², representing 17.36% within the susceptibility and 1.34% compared to the urban area. This mapping is an important tool to help prevent and reduce natural disasters associated with floods in the study area.

  9. New CO{sub 2} neutral city area with integrated district heating system of the future in Hoeje Taastrup - Phase 1: Preparation of demonstration. Final report; Denmark; Ny CO{sub 2}-neutral bydel med fremtidens integrerede fjernvarmesystem i Hoeje Taastrup - Fase 1: Forberedelse af demonstration. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaarup Olsen, P.; Hummelshoej, R.M. (Cowi A/S (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    three options are interesting. The 'return heat the solution' has less CO{sub 2} displacement potential, but will require a minimal investment cost compared to a regular connection to the HTF/VEKS district heating network. With the assumptions used, the solution with heat-powered pumps and a central solar heating plant provides t a considerably lower CO{sub 2} displacement price than a solution with central ground and solar heating. It is therefore recommended to further analyse the solution with a heat driven heat pump. To make the energy supply of the district CO{sub 2} neutral in the short term, it will be necessary to install wind turbines with a total capacity of approx. 6 MW, which for that particular area at this time would be the most cost-effective solution, i.e. will have the lowest CO{sub 2} displacement price. (LN)

  10. Integrated geophysical surveys on railroads in permafrost areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Ivanov; S Klepikova; M Shirobokov; A Urusova; A Savin

    2013-01-01

    The zones of thawed ground in the permafrost area are most dangerous from engineer-geologist effect point of view. Detection of such zones, as making forecast of their movement is the main task of engineer-geologist survey been held in railway industry. This paper presents general issues concerning railway construction and operation in permafrost areas. Comprehensive geophysical methods to monitor the development of thawed soils are considered in detail. The main physical parameters which help define permafrost and thawed soil patches are described. Author of current paper pointed out main factors, allowing predicting potential areas of development of thawed grounds. They offered set non-destructive methods:GPR investigations, seismic survey and elec-tric exploration. Whole sets of geophysical data:electric resistivity, velocity of S-wave and P-wave (and their correlation), allow us with high confidence specify characteristics and state of soil either under the line of road, or near it. At the same time the meth-od allows to predict direction of further development of thawed ground area.

  11. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of urban heat island variation in Beijing city and surrounding areas and impact factors based on remote sensing satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jiahua; HOU; Yingyu; LI; Guicai; YAN; Hao; YANG; Lim

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land surface temperature (LST), the land cover classification map,vegetation coverage, and surface evapotranspiration derived from EOS-MODIS satellite data, and by the use of GIS spatial analytic technique and multivariate statistical analysis method, the urban heat island (UHI) spatial distribution of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities and its driving forces are studied in Beijing city and surrounding areas in 2001. The relationships among UHI distribution and landcover categories, topographic factor, vegetation greenness, and surface evapotranspiration are analyzed. The results indicate that: (i) The significant UHI occur in Beijing city areas in the four seasons due to high heat capacity and multi-reflection of compression building, as well as with special topographic features of its three sides surrounded by mountains,especially in the summer. The UHI spatial distribution is corresponding with the urban geometry structure profile. The LST difference is approximately 4-6℃ between Beijing city and suburb areas, comparatively is 8- 10℃ between Beijing city area and outer suburb area in northwestern regions. (ii) The UHI distribution and intensity in daytime are different from nighttime in Beijing city area, the nighttime UHI is obvious. However, in the daytime, the significant UHI mainly appears in the summer, the autumn takes second place, and the UHI in the winter and the spring seem not obvious. The surface evapotranspiration in suburb areas is larger than that in urban areas in the summer, and high latent heat exchange is evident, which leads to LST difference between city area and suburb area. (iii) The reflection of surface landcover categories is sensitive to the UHI, the correlation between vegetation greenness and UHI shows obviously negative.The scatterplot shows that there is the negative correlation between NDVI and LST (R2 = 0.6481).The results demonstrate that the vegetation greenness is an important factor for reducing the UHI

  12. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Lien Lo; Pei-Te Chiueh; Wei-Ting Shang

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water qual...

  13. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  14. Soil Contamination by Arsenic in Urban Areas: A case study of Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Solgi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: It seems that arsenic in soil is controlled by natural and anthropogenic factors. The highest concentrations of arsenic in center and the north areas reflected arsenic loading is originated from anthropogenic sources such as vehicles and industrial processes.

  15. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Han; Weiqi Zhou; Weifeng Li

    2015-01-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 – 2011. We found that: (1) the urban en...

  16. The perception of crime from Albanian families that come from rural areas (Case study in the city of Durres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Milloshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime in the family constitutes one of the major concerns of recent years in Albania. Violence in Albanian families remains unnoticed and is not declared by the majority of those affected. The worst is that there are deep rural areas where violence is accepted as normal within a family. Many studies have come to the conclusion that women who have higher education tend to be better prepared to cope with domestic disputes and solve the problems with communication, so are less likely to be victims of physical violence. The economic, cultural, emotional and social factors are sources that generate violence or crime within the family. The transition from a totalitarian to a democratic society brought not only functional changes, but also differences in their implementation. This was accompanied by misunderstandings of the individual crisis and human rights. This misunderstanding is often associated with deviant behavior or by criminal acts. Poverty, unemployment, jealousy, alcohol and drugs are some of the main reasons that cause domestic violence. Albania has long been considered a patriarchal society where men have more rights than women. This difference has led to a situation where husbands continue to see themselves as more superior, and tend to violate their women or children. In recent years poverty has even increased bringing domestic violence to alarming levels. But besides the major problem of growing violence within the family, the biggest problem is the failure of declaration, because of the mentality, shame, lack of trust in government bodies etc. This problem is even greater in rural areas, where there is a lack of police structures, while NGOs cannot cover the whole country. This study was concentrated in the city of Durres, where 600 surveys were undertaken to people of different ages. This paper is focused in the way of how domestic violence is seen by citizens of the city of Durres and those coming from rural areas.

  17. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  18. An Epidemiological Study Of Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In The Urban Slum Area Of Ahmedabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri A. M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: (1 What is the prevalence of Tuberculosis is slums of Ahmedabad? (2 What is the relation of age, sex and occupation with the prevalence of Tuberculosis? (3 What is the relapse rate? Objective: To study Prevalence of tuberculosis in urban slums of Ahmedabad city and to find out relevant epidemiological factors playing important role. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 30 clusters from slums of the slums and 51 cases of Tuberculosis from this population were taken for detailed study. Study variables: Caste, age, sex, occupation etc, Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, proportions. Results: Overall point prevalence of tuberculosis was found to be 4.69/1000. Higher prevalence was observed among males (5.44/1000 in comparison to females (3.81/1000. Rise in the prevalence with increase in age was seen with highest prevalence in the age group of 60+ (4.81/1000. Retired persons reported high prevalence (25.21/1000. Unemployed and service people were having prevalence of 4.41/1000 and 4.14/1000 respectively. 59.4% of the studied cases had suffered from tuberculosis more than once.

  19. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  20. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%, varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean values of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors are 1.27–1.34, 1.17–1.23, 1.55–1.59 and 2.33–2.48 for clean, dust, urban pollution and mixed pollution periods respectively. An examination of chemical composition of daily filter samples highlighted that aerosol hygroscopicity was generally enhanced with the increasing ratio of ammonium sulfate (AS to organic matter (OMC. Furthermore, strong hygroscopic organic aerosols were observed on 11th (f(RH=80%=2.23 and 15th (f(RH=80%=2.21 of May with organic carbon proportions of PM2.1 reaching 42.3% and 43.0% respectively. Back-trajectory analysis indicated that solar radiation and vertical convective movement along the air mass pathway might strongly influence the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  1. The Role of Education in Teaching Norms and Values to Adult Newcomers: An Analysis of Integration Policy in the Netherlands, with Emphasis on the City of Rotterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Maryan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents research on the current debate in the Netherlands regarding integration and the teaching of 'norms and values' to adult newcomers. Data consisting of national and local (city of Rotterdam) integration policy documents and interviews with those influential in policy making were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The…

  2. Integrating Decentralized Rainwater Management in Urban Planning and Design: Flood Resilient and Sustainable Water Management Using the Example of Coastal Cities in The Netherlands and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized delta areas worldwide share a growing tendency of exposure to water stress induced by the effects of climate change and anthropogenic factors, threatening the operation of infrastructure systems and future urban development. The important synergistic impacts coexisting with freshwater scarcity are increasing urbanization rates, subsiding soils, saltwater intrusion in aquifers and rivers, coastal erosion, and increased flooding. Innovative design strategies and concepts for the integration of decentralized rainwater management measures can contribute to the integrated and climate resilient planning of urban spaces that are threatened by climate change scenarios that worsen the security of urban infrastructures and the future availability of fresh water. Decentralized rainwater management, including retention, storage, and reuse strategies that are integrated into spatial planning and urban design, can reduce flood risks while simultaneously enhancing freshwater availability. This paper discusses a paradigm shift in urban water management, from centralized to decentralized management (that is, from threats to opportunities, using the example of two case studies. Concepts and strategies for building climate resilient cities, which address flood control, the protection of freshwater resources, and the harmonization of a natural and more sustainable water balance, are presented for Almere (Rhine Schelde Delta, The Netherlands and Hsingchu (Dotzpu Delta, Taiwan.

  3. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  4. Integration of time-dependent features within 3D city model

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Hongchao

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an object-oriented event-state spatiotemporal data model for storage and management of both semantic and geometric changes of 3D building objects in a city. The data model is mainly composed of two parts: an event model that describes events happened to building objects; and a hierarchical spatial data model that describes 3D geometries and semantics of building objects including their valid time span. In this way, histories of building objects are modeled.

  5. The Road of Integrated Marketing Communication of City Brand Promotion-Taking Tangshan City as an Example%城市品牌推广的整合营销传播之路--以唐山市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟莲

    2015-01-01

    The core value of city brand lies in its characteristics. Tangshan’s most prominent feature is the “Phoenix Nirvana reborn city”. However, the public’s impression of Tangshan only stays on the single cognitive level of earthquake. In order to change the public inherent impression of Tangshan, and to set up a new image of Tangshan, the use of various marketing communication tools should be integrated. Tangshan city should be introduced as a combination of “cultural city, economy strong city, livable city, beautiful coastal city” to realize its image and city brand as the charming phoenix city.%城市品牌的核心价值在于它的特色,唐山最突出的特色就是“凤凰涅槃”的重生城市。但公众对唐山的印象仅仅停留在“以地震而闻名”的单一认知层面。运用各种营销传播手段,集中传播唐山融“文化名城、经济强城、宜居靓城、滨海新城”为一体的“魅力凤凰城”的形象和城市品牌。

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM OF EMPOWERMENT OF THE WOMEN RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF AMPENAN DISTRICT, MATARAM CITY, LOMBOK IMPLEMENTED IN THE FORM OF LIFE SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Putu Listiawati; Emiliana Mariyah; I Nyoman Kutha Ratna; I Gde Semadi Astra

    2012-01-01

    The program of the empowerment of the women living in Mataram City implemented inthe form of life skills including vocational skill, social skill, and personal skill has been carriedout since 2001. In reality, the attempts already made could not improve the well-being of thewomen in Mataram City in general and the women living along the coastal area of Ampenan,South Ampenan District and Banjar District in particular. Based on the background mentionedabove, the researcher was interested in exp...

  7. Integrated geophysical studies of Baryatino magnetic anomaly area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Baryatino magnetic anomaly is situated in the central part of the East-European craton, approximately 300 km to the south-west from Moscow. It is caused by ferrous quartzite bodies, occurring within the metamorphic basement. The basement is covered by sedimentary complex with total thickness of 500 m and more, which makes mining of iron ore impractical. However, studies of Baryatino area can provide information about the internal structure of the Archean-Proterozoic basement, which is still poorly understood. In 1992 a geophysical training ground for students of Moscow State University and other universities was established in Alexandrovka village, close to Baryatino area (Khmelevskoy et al., 1999). Since then electromagnetic, electrical, magnetic and gravity measurements are performed in the region. Besides, geological and geophysical information, previously obtained in the area, was collected and analyzed (for example, first magnetic exploration was performed here in 1934). The key method of deep investigations is magnetotellurics (MT). More than a hundred of MT soundings were performed in the region. They allowed to trace the top of metamorphic basement and revealed a conductive anomaly in the consolidated crust. Presumably, it is a northern continuation of Kirovograd crustal anomaly, traced from the Black sea to the North of the Ukraine. Currently, MT soundings are performed in the area between Ukraine and Baryatino anomaly to verify this hypothesis (Varentsov et al., 2008). Controlled-source electromagnetic and electrical methods were applied to study the sedimentary cover. In the lower part there is a conductive Devonian complex, consisting of terrigenous rocks, saturated by high-mineralized water. Above there is a resistive, mainly carbonate Carboniferous complex. Near-surface rocks are conductive quaternary moraine sediments, formed during the ice age. Magnetic and gravity and measurements along several profiles

  8. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  9. Conceptual Model for Assessing the Minimum Size Area for an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual model was developed based on the two basic spatial elements of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM), a core area and a buffer zone, to determine the minimum size of the protected area for the program to be technically feasible and economically justifiable. The model consisted of a biological part (insect dispersal) and an economic part. The biological part used random walks and diffusion equations to describe insect dispersal and to determine the minimum width of the buffer zone required to protect the core area from immigration of pests from outside. In the economic part, the size of the core area was calculated to determine the point at which the revenues from the core area equal the control costs. This model will need to be calibrated and validated for each species and geographic location. Tsetse flies and the Mediterranean fruit fly are used as case studies to illustrate the model. (author)

  10. Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremović, J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results

  11. Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City

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    S Golmohamadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

  12. Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas - A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, A.; Chipato, P. T.; Mangore, E.

    Lack of basic sanitation systems threaten environmental and human health in low income urban communities. In 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out a cleanup exercise in urban areas involving the destruction of illegal structures which left many people homeless. As a solution to this problem, the government embarked on an extensive housing construction exercise on unserviced land; the ‘Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle’ development programme. The objective of this paper was to investigate the sanitation status in one such area (Cowdray Park Extension, Bulawayo) and determine a sustainable sanitation system for the improved collection of wastewater from the unserviced low income urban area. The study was carried out between October 2010 and February 2011. The sanitation status as well as the residents’ preferences for improved sanitation and the economic set up of the community for the study area was determined through use of questionnaires to the residents. The local authority was then consulted to recommend sanitation facilities and system for the area that met regulatory requirements. A literature study identified sanitation options that were applicable to low income and high density urban areas. The baseline survey found that 61% of the people in the study area lacked sanitation facilities and practiced open defecation. The majority of the residents (70%) preferred ‘flush and discharge’ system sanitation facilities, which was in line with the local council’s requirements. On-site sanitation options were found not to be feasible as per the council regulations and the findings of the literature study, for areas with a high density of houses. Therefore a sewerage system was designed using the conventional sewerage design approach as well as the simplified sewerage design approach in order to determine the collection system that would best meet the needs of the community. In conclusion, the community was in dire need of a sanitation system and a waterborne

  13. Abundance of Rats and Mice in the selected areas of Dhaka city: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan Sarker; Md. Rokunuzzaman; Roisun Nessa

    2013-01-01

    The study on pattern of abundance and movement of rats and mice was done in two rice godowns; Azad vander and Raj Rice Agencies; of Badamtali, Dhaka. The study was carried out for 8 months, from April to November in the year 2010. The total study area of godown was 5000 sq ft. The area was divided into five blocks. Ten snap traps were placed randomly in the blocks. Traps were placed six times in a month. Total trap placement was 480 and the trapping success was 46.46%. Both the godown stored ...

  14. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for Vietnamese children aged four to five years. Methods The data comes from the baseline measurement of a one year follow-up study on obesity in 670 children attending kindergartens in HCMC. Dietary information for each child at the school and home settings was collected using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs, by interviewing teachers and parents or main caregivers. The average energy and nutrient intake in a day was calculated. The proportion of children with energy intake from macronutrients meeting or exceeding the recommendations was estimated based on the 2006 recommended daily allowance (RDA for Vietnamese children in this age group. Results The dietary intake of the participants contained more energy from protein and fat, particularly animal protein and fat, and less energy from carbohydrates, than the RDA. Most children (98.1% had mean energy intake from protein greater than the recommended level of 15%, and no child obtained energy from animal fat that was in accordance with the recommendation of less than 30% of the total fat intake. Nearly one half of children (46.5% consumed less than the advised range of mean energy intake from carbohydrate (60%–70%. Conclusion In this preschool child population in HCMC, in which obesity is emerging as major public health problem, there is an imbalance in dietary intake. Healthy eating programs need to be developed as a part of an obesity prevention program for young children in HCMC.

  15. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  16. Business establishment mobility behavior in urban areas: a microanalytical model for the City of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2007-09-01

    We present a microanalytical firm mobility model for the City of Hamilton, Canada, developed with data from the Statistics Canada Business Register. Contributing to the scarce literature on firm migration behavior, we explore and model the determinants of mobility among small and medium size firms who retained less than 200 employees between 1996 and 1997. Our exploratory results suggest that short distance moves are more common and tend to occur among smaller firms. Econometric modeling results support these assertions and indicate that the willingness to move can be explained by a firm’s internal characteristics (e.g. age, size, growth and industry type) as well as location factors related to the urban environment where the firm is located. The modeling results will serve as input for the development of an agent-based firmographic decision support system that can be used to inform the planning process in the study area.

  17. [Models for biomass estimation of four shrub species planted in urban area of Xi'an city, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Four common greening shrub species (i. e. Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus bodinieri, Berberis xinganensis and Buxus megistophylla) in Xi'an City were selected to develop the highest correlation and best-fit estimation models for the organ (branch, leaf and root) and total biomass against different independent variables. The results indicated that the organ and total biomass optimal models of the four shrubs were power functional model (CAR model) except for the leaf biomass model of B. megistophylla which was logarithmic functional model (VAR model). The independent variables included basal diameter, crown diameter, crown diameter multiplied by height, canopy area and canopy volume. B. megistophylla significantly differed from the other three shrub species in the independent variable selection, which were basal diameter and crown-related factors, respectively. PMID:24765849

  18. Acanthamoeba spp. in domestic tap water in houses of contact lens wearers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Ramírez-Bautista, Gerardo A; Zamora-Muñoz, Claudia; Ibarra-Montes, María Del Rocío; Ramírez-Flores, Elizabeth; Hernández-Martínez, María Dolores

    2010-09-01

    A survey was carried out in the metropolitan area of Mexico City to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the tap water of houses of contact lens wearers. Water samples were taken from the mains water entry, bathroom sinks and storage containers (roof tanks, cisterns) of 27 houses; and from the solution contained in the contact lens cases. Samples were filtered and cultured onto NNE medium. The isolates were identified based on their morphological features and pathogenicity. Total and fecal coliforms, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and residual free-chlorine were measured by standard methods. Forty five isolates of Acanthamoeba from 200 water samples were obtained. The highest number of amoebae was isolated from cisterns and roof tanks. Most Acanthamoeba isolates were non-pathogenic, however, their presence in tap water is a potential hazard since some species can cause Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. PMID:19995560

  19. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  20. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S.; Khayer, Y.

    2014-11-01

    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing and GIS can improve land surface characterization to better quantify surface run-off and infiltration. This study presents a method to combine airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data for classifying pervious (e.g. vegetation, gravel, and soil) and impervious (e.g. asphalt and concrete) areas within road allowance areas for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Hyperspectral data was acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) at 1 m ground spatial resolution, consisting of 72 spectral bands, and LiDAR data acquired from Leica Airborne LiDAR system at a density of 20 points/m2. A spectral library was established using 10 cm orthophotography and GIS data to identify surface features. In addition to spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation, several spectral indices were developed to discriminate between asphalt, concrete, gravel, vegetation, and shadows respectively. A spectral analysis of selected endmembers was conducted and an initial classification technique was applied using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The classification results (i.e. shadows) were improved by integrating LIDAR data with the hyperspectral data.

  1. A STUDY ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING DENGUE FEVER AMONG PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN AREA OF JHANSI CITY (UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhanshu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is the major public health problem leading to increase in disease burden in terms of disability and deaths. Despite the magnitude of problem no documented evidence exists in India, which reveals the awareness and practices of country’s adult population regarding dengue fever, its spread, symptoms, treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To access the knowledge, attitude and practices among the people living in urban area of Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A field based cross-sectional study was conducted during April –July 2014 among 100 respondents (>18 years from 223 households of green park colony of urban area of Jhansi city. Simple random sampling was used for interview by using a pretested, structured questionnaire. Knowledge was recorded and classified. Data obtained were collected and analysed statistically by simple proportions and chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the total 100 respondents (59% were male. When the socio-demographic characteristics of the study population were analysed, majority were young adults (20-40 years and were literate. Majority of participants cited mosquito bite as the commonest mode of spread. About 80% of the respondents identify fever as the most common clinical symptom. Nearly half of the respondents had insufficient knowledge about the causative agent of dengue. Television and media were important source of information. Around 60% of respondents correctly reported biting time of mosquito vector. Most prevalent preventive method was coils, liquid vaporisers. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that the respondents were quite familiar with dengue. Need for information, education, and communication programme to identify barrier and provide positive preventive practices about dengue. We conclude that there is need to increase health promotion activities to increase knowledge which forms the basis for preventive practices as a part to control dengue.

  2. Seasonal variation and principle of cyanobacterial biomass and forms in the water source area of Chaohu City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangen; Ke, Fan; Li, Wenchao; Feng, Muhua; Shang, Lixia; Fan, Fan; He, Yanzhao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variations in cyanobacterial biomass and the forms of its dominant population ( M. aeruginosa) and their correlation with environmental factors in the water source area of Chaohu City, China from December 2011 to October 2012. The results show that species belonging to the phylum Cyanophyta occupied the maximum proportion of phytoplankton biomass, and that the dominant population in the water source area of Chaohu City was M. aeruginosa. The variation in cyanobacterial biomass from March to August 2012 was well fitted to the logistic growth model. The growth rate of cyanobacteria was the highest in June, and the biomass of cyanobacteria reached a maximum in August. From February to March 2012, the main form of M. aeruginosa was the single-cell form; M. aeruginosa colonies began to appear from April, and blooms appeared on the water surface in May. The maximum diameter of the colonies was recorded in July, and then gradually decreased from August. The diameter range of M. aeruginosa colonies was 18.37-237.77 μm, and most of the colonies were distributed in the range 20-200 μm, comprising 95.5% of the total number of samples. Temperature and photosynthetically active radiation may be the most important factors that influenced the annual variation in M. aeruginosa biomass and forms. The suitable temperature for cyanobacterial growth was in the range of 15-30°C. In natural water bodies, photosynthetically active radiation had a significant positive influence on the colonial diameter of M. aeruginosa ( P <0.01).

  3. Mapping of the Samara city by definition of areas with hydrogen degassing using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Zherdeva Taskina, L. A.; Тregub, N. V.; Selezneva, E. A.

    2015-03-01

    One of the complicating factors for environmental situation is degassing of land. The high concentrations of hydrogen near the bearing metal structures can weaken them as a result of embrittlement. Therefore, the study problems of hydrogen concentration in the soil and hydrogen influence on living organisms are relevant. However, the exit of deep hydrogen has a volley character. This problem can be solved by the plant bioobjects as the local integral indicators. The dandelion (Taráxacum) was selected as the research object. The collection of objects was produced from the degassing zone and a zone without degassing. Selection of degassing zone was driven by information that was provided by the Volga branch of the Institute of Geology and Exploration of fossil fuels of the Samara Region. Experimental studies of the hydrogen influence on the optical properties of plants were conducted using a complex of Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy. Laboratory and field research were conducted. Raman spectroscopy was implemented using the experimental stand that includes a radiation source, a fiber system for collect and feed of radiation and SR-303i spectrophotometer with integrated digital camera ANDOR DV-420A-OE (1024 * 256). The experimental stand allows to work in the spectral range of 180 - 1200 nm and with a registration accuracy about 0.2 nm. A detailed analysis of the structural changes in plant cells under the hydrogen influence was performed by confocal microscopy.

  4. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1 Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2 Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3 The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  5. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  6. Radon and radium in ground water and atmosphere in high background areas of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of levels of radium and radon levels in ground water of different areas of the city is taken up. Seasonal and diurnal variation in radon concentration in air at a location was also measured. Emanometry technique is used for estimation of Radium and measurement of dissolved radon in water. For radon concentration in atmosphere Low Level Radon Detection System is used. Prevailing radiation levels at 32 location in the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad which were covered in this study varied between 0.124 µGy/hr to 0.36 µGy/hr. 13 locations were above 0.20 µGy/hr where as rest are in below 0.20 µGy/hr. 45 bore well water samples were collected from 32 Locations and were analysed for radium concentration. The values were found to be in the range of 4.64 to 20843.01 Bq/ m3. Of which 3 samples were found to have concentration above 10,000 Bq/m3. 2 samples are in the range of 1000 - 10000 Bq/m3. 14 sample are having in the range of 100-1000 Bq/m3. Rest of 23 samples were less than 100 Bq/m3. The water samples of different bore wells in Kushaiguda area of Hyderabad were analysed for dissolved radon. Samples from 14 locations were collected for estimation of dissolved radon concentration in the water. The concentration was found to be in the range of 51 Bq/m3 to 231301 Bq/m3. Of these 9 samples were having concentration above 100000 Bq/m3. 4 samples are in the range of 10000 - 100000 Bq/m3. 4 samples are in the range of 1000 - 10000 Bq/m3. And rest 5 samples were less than 1000 Bq/m3. An study of seasonal variation in atmospheric radon concentration was conducted at one location for over a year. All measurements were done during day time only. Around 1.6 time increase in atmospheric radon concentration was observed in winter months as compared to that in summer months. Similar ratio was observed when data for forenoon and afternoon were compared separately. The study has confirmed the occurrence of high radium and radon concentration in ground water samples

  7. Oxidant and antioxidant status of police officer in the city and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Suyatna

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the biochemical alteration in human caused by free radical accumulation due to air pollution. The policemen recruited were 60 country policemen consisting of 30 non smokers (group I and 30 smokers (group II; 30 smoking policemen with administrative work in Jakarta (group III and 30 smoking traffic policemen from Jakarta (group IV. Our results show that the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA contents of groups I, II, III, IV, respectively were : 3.34 ± 0.81 umol/l; 4.28 ± 0.77 umol/l; 5.20 ± 0.66 umol/l and 5.12 ± 0.78 umol/l which were statistically different (p < 0.01 among each others, except between groups III and IV. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD of the groups respectively, were: 16.75 ± 9.80 U/mg protein; 22.83 ± 6.82 U/mg protein; 26.10 ± 8.50 U/mg protein and 26.90 ± 9.34 U/mg protein, which were statistically different (p < 0.05 between group I vs the other groups. The catalase activity of the groups respectively were : 106.25 ± 47.47 U/mg protein; 118.84 ± 42.73 U/mg protein; 119.83 ± 35.35 U/mg protein and 145.57 ± 61.85 U/mg protein. The statistical difference (p < 0.05 was found between group I & IV. Administration of vitamins C (500 mg and E (300 mg daily for 30 days to the policemen with high oxidant stress caused a decreased in the activities of SOD from 27.34 ± 10.05 U/mg protein to 16.91 ± 6.51 U/mg protein (p < 0.05 and catalase from 134.29 ± 53.28 U/mg protein to 67.07 ± 25.26 U/mg protein (p < 0.05. This study shows us that the oxidant status of city policemen was higher than that of rural policemen and that a combination of vitamins C & E could reduce the oxidant stress to a certain extent. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 77-80 Keywords: malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, population study.

  8. Reconceiving Citizenship: Noncitizen Voting in New York City Municipal Elections as a Case Study in Immigrant Integration and Local Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gilbert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses New York City’s consideration of an amendment to its charter that would extend voting rights to noncitizens in municipal elections as a case study in immigrant integration and local governance.  It argues that New York City’s biggest challenge in moving this issue forward is dealing successfully with two related questions: 1 why the New York City Council should be able to decide who "the People" are without approval from the state government in Albany and 2 whether it should attempt to enact the measure without a referendum.The analysis first examines the role of local government in regulating the lives of immigrants, contrasting enforcement-oriented strategies with those that are more integration-oriented. It then spotlights federal law obstacles to noncitizen suffrage, concluding that while neither federal criminal nor immigration law prevents state or local governments from extending the franchise to noncitizens in state or local matters, federal law imposes impediments that may deter some noncitizens from registering or that could carry serious immigration consequences for those who vote in violation of federal law.  The article then focuses on state law obstacles, including New York’s constitution, its state election law and its home rule provisions. It contrasts other recent experiences with noncitizen suffrage around the country, looking at both municipal and school board elections. Finally, it provides some thoughts on best practices in moving forward the issue of noncitizen suffrage in New York City and other locales. New York law is ambiguous enough that good arguments can be made for why neither Albany’s approval nor a city-wide referendum is required. However, given New York City’s historic relationship with Albany and the state legislature’s power to preempt local law on election matters, if the city council attempts to expand the franchise to noncitizen voters without a referendum or comparable measure

  9. Non-native tree species in urban areas of the city of Nitra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-native plant species are part of our environment. The introduction of these species is huge conditioned by anthropogenic activities, such as the urban environment is characterized by. During the field surveys of selected town Nitra (Chrenova, Mikova Ves, Zobor), we studied the frequency of non-native tree species in the contact zone. Overall, we found out the presence of 10 alien species, observed in this area. Our results show dominant presence of the species Rhus typhina, followed by the Robinia pseudoacacia and Ailanthus altissima. Individual plants were tied largely to the surrounding of built-up areas, often growns directly in front of houses, or as a part of urban green. (author)

  10. 3D city models for CAAD-supported analysis and design of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning-Meister, M.; Gruen, A.; Dan, H.

    A joint research project was conducted at ETH Zurich to develop a user-friendly software environment for the representation, visual manipulation, analysis and design of urban areas. Three groups were involved in the project: (1) the 'Architecture and Planning' group defined the requirements and expectations for the system; (2) the 'Photogrammetry' group acquired and processed raster and 3D vector data to form a 3D model of the urban area; and (3) the 'CAAD' (Computer Aided Architectural Design) group embedded the data into AutoCAD and implemented database functionality. Results of the photogrammetry group are presented, including the implementation of a 'topology builder' which automatically fits roof planes to manually or semi-automatically measured roof points in order to create AutoCAD-compatible 3D building models. Digital orthoimages and derived products such as perspective views, and the geometric correction of house roofs in digital orthoimages also were generated for test sites in Switzerland.

  11. Soil Erosion in the Urban Catchment Area of Baubau City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Baja, Sumbangan

    2012-01-01

    To date, soil and water conservation and land degradation in many different environments have always been placed in the framework of development, both for rural and urban areas. Soil erosion is influenced by a considerable number of factors (including climate, soil, topography, land use and types of land management), so that the information on the quantity and spatial distribution of soil erosion and its related effects can be effectively employed as a baseline data for urban catchment manage...

  12. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  13. The influence of nebulosity on the air pollution in the area of Slatina City

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Maria (Oprea) Constantin; Elena Cofas

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the article is the detailed analysis of the nebulosity and the influence of meteorological parameters on the phenomenon of air pollution in the Slatina area. The nebulosity is described by specific and general climatic parameters: the monthly and annual averages, the monthly average and annual number of sunny days, the monthly average and annual number of cloudy days, the monthly average and annual number of covered days and the frequency monthly and annual average (number of c...

  14. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations's proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations

  15. Urban agriculture, food security and nutrition in low income areas of the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mboganie-Mwangi, A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and those who do not, and one in the Kitui-Kanuku-Kinyago area, viz. households involved in the Undugu Society Urban Agriculture Project (USUAP). The questionnaire results indicate that those who farm...

  16. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  17. iWHAM- Integrated water, health and agriculture management : public health implications of integrated watershed management in a tribal area

    OpenAIRE

    Nerkar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water scarcity remains a major hurdle in the overall development of tribal people living on hilly terrain, and it is one of the major reasons for their various health problems. Integrated watershed management (IWM) aims to increase water availability and to enhance socio-economic development in such areas. There is a lack of information on the implications of IWM on various aspects of public health, especially in hilly tribal areas. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was t...

  18. Integrated head area design of KNGR to reduce refueling outage duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Dae Woong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In the design of KNGR (Korea Next Generation Reactor), we believe that economy is one of the most important factors to be considered. Thus, we reviewed and evaluated the consequences of designing the head area into an integrated package from an economical point of view. The refueling outage durations of the nuclear power plants currently in operation in Korea, some having and others not having integrated head package, are compared. This paper discusses the characteristics of head area design and the critical design issues of KNGR head area to evaluate the effect of the head area characteristics on the outage duration. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  19. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  20. Abundance of Rats and Mice in the selected areas of Dhaka city: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Jahan Sarker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on pattern of abundance and movement of rats and mice was done in two rice godowns; Azad vander and Raj Rice Agencies; of Badamtali, Dhaka. The study was carried out for 8 months, from April to November in the year 2010. The total study area of godown was 5000 sq ft. The area was divided into five blocks. Ten snap traps were placed randomly in the blocks. Traps were placed six times in a month. Total trap placement was 480 and the trapping success was 46.46%. Both the godown stored about 12 kinds of rice and rice was available throughout the year. There were no special preferences observed for any especial kind of rice. Three species of rats and mice were trapped from the study area which were Lesser Bandicoot Rat (Bandicota bengalensis, House Rat (Rattus rattus and House Mouse (Mus musculus. The total number of individual trapped were 223 of which Bandicota bengalensis was 79.82%, Mus musculus was 13.04% and Rattus rattus was 7.17%. Among 223 individuals male was 61.43% and the female was 38.57%. In case of Bandicota bengalensis male was 54.49% and female was 45.51%. In case of Mus musculus male was 65.52% and female was 34.48%. The sex ratio was 1.59:1. The average litter size in Bandicota bengalensis was 5.83, in Mus musculus was 5.20 and in Rattus rattus was 6.5.

  1. Weighted $L^p$ estimates for the area integral associated to self-adjoint operators

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Ruming; Yan, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with some weighted norm inequalities for the so-called horizontal (i.e. involving time derivatives) area integrals associated to a non-negative self-adjoint operator satisfying a pointwise Gaussian estimate for its heat kernel, as well as the corresponding vertical (i.e. involving space derivatives) area integrals associated to a non-negative self-adjoint operator satisfying in addition a pointwise upper bounds for the gradient of the heat kernel. As applications, we...

  2. Collection of entomological baseline data for tsetse area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Leak, Stephen G. A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Ejigu, Dejene

    2015-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) entails the integration of different control tactics against an entire pest population within a circumscribed area, while given adequate attention to human health and the environment. For most insect pests including tsetse, AW-IPM results in more sustainable pest control and the concept has gained significantly in importance in the last decade. These guidelines provide, aside from some basic information on the biology of tsetse flies, guidance o...

  3. City as a major source area of fine particulate (PM2.5) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-11-01

    The PM2.5 concentration in 31% of China's territorial areas was less than 10 μg/m(3), and in 26% of China's territorial areas was higher than 35 μg/m(3). High concentrations of PM2.5 were found in the East China Plain, Sichuan province, and the Taklimakan desert. East China Plain was also found with strong significant positive trends. 73% of artificial surface (L01) was found with significant positive trends, but only 2% with significant negative trends. 76% of cropland (L02) was observed with significant positive trends, but only 2% with significant negative trends. The mean significant trends of PM2.5 concentration were 1.81 μg/m(3)·year for L01 and 1.71 μg/m(3)·year for L02, higher than that for the rest land covers. The PM2.5 pollution brought potential health risk to susceptible population: only 1% of thm lives at a safe level (35 μg/m(3)). PMID:26176632

  4. On the Poverty in the Rocky Desertification Areas of Southwest China Based on AHP: A Case Study of Liupanshui City in

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Haibin; Ren, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification mountain areas are regarded as main positions to wipe out poverty for their large poverty population, wide poverty area, high rate of poverty, etc. This paper takes Liupanshui city as an example where the situation of rocky desertification is very serious. We build the indicator system of poverty alleviation and development by analyzing their poverty and using the AHP method and also find the limiting factors which restrict the development of this area then put for...

  5. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  6. Landscape characteristics impacts on water quality of urban lowland catchments: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    In Dutch lowland polder systems, groundwater quality significantly contributes to surface water quality. This process is influenced by landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, and land use types. In this study, 23 variables were selected for 144 polder catchments, including groundwater and surface water solute concentrations (TN, TP, NH4+, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Cl-), seepage rate in mm per year, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil types (calcite, humus and lutum percentage). The spatial patters in groundwater and surface water quality can largely be explained by groundwater seepage rates in polders and partly by artificial redistribution of water via the regional surface water system. High correlations (R2 up to 0.66) between solutes in groundwater and surface water revealed their probable interaction. This was further supported by results from principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression. The PCA distinguished four factors that were related to a fresh groundwater factor, seepage rate factor, brackish groundwater factor and clay soil factor. Nutrients (TP, TN, NH4+ and NO3-) and SO42- in surface water bodies are mainly determined by groundwater quality combined with seepage rate, which is negatively related to surface water area percentage and elevation of the catchment. This pattern is more obvious in deep urban lowland catchments. Relatively high NO3- loads more tend to appear in catchments with high humus, but low calcite percentage soil type on top, which was attributed to clay soil type that was expressed by calcite percentage in our regression. Different from nitrogen contained solutes, TP is more closely related to fresh groundwater quality than to seepage rate. Surface water Cl- concentration has a high relation with brackish groundwater. Due to the artificial regulation of flow direction, brackish inlet water from upstream highly influences the chloride load in surface water bodies

  7. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities. Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maternini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, “Sustainable” and “Smart” mobility became concepts of fundamental importance and led national government to adopt programmes and measures aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of private and commercial vehicles. The final goal is to pursue the EU objectives of reducing the greenhouse gases emission in transportation sector. The progressive electrification of the circulating vehicles represents a possible solution to the air pollution relating problems. A recent innovative research field, which could significantly contribute to the diffusion of the electric vehicles, consists of the inductive recharge systems for electric vehicles. This technology could also bring to considerably environmental and logistic advantages, especially in urban areas. Starting from the analysis of the main ongoing experimentations of these innovative systems in the world, the present paper proposes a possible application of the inductive recharge technology to the public transport vehicles, through the presentation of the case study of Brescia.

  8. Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements of Pollutant Gases in the Mexico City Urban Area: a Useful Technique to Evaluate Emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Grivicke, R.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, G.; Jobson, T.; Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Ramos, R.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    Direct measurements of emissions of pollutant gases that include all major and minor emissions sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to improve and evaluate emissions inventories. The quality of an urban emissions inventory relies on the accuracy of the information of anthropogenic activities, which in many cases is not available, in particular in urban areas of developing countries. As part of the MCMA-2003 field campaign, we demonstrated the feasibility of using eddy covariance (EC) techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 from a residential district of Mexico City. Those flux measurements demonstrated to be also a valuable tool to evaluate the emissions inventory used for air quality modeling. With the objective to confirm the representativeness of the 2003 flux measurements in terms of magnitude, composition and diurnal distribution, as well to evaluate the most recent emissions inventory, a second flux system was deployed in a different district of Mexico City during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign. This system was located in a busy district surrounded by congested avenues close to the center of the city. In 2003 and 2006 fluxes of olefins and CO2 were measured by the EC technique using a Fast Isoprene Sensor calibrated with a propylene standard and an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA), respectively. Fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs were analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique. In 2006 the number of VOCs was extended using a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site by gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In both studies we found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns were similar, but the 2006 fluxes

  9. Analyzing an Integrated Planning Approach Among Planning Scale and Sector A Case Study of Malang City’s Vision as The City of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Amirudin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated planning is more needed by government today because of the complexity of problems and limited resources. Integrated planning can undertake the problems by giving comprehensive solution and provide how much resources are needed to reach the goal. Integrated planning approach is implied to provide better tools to guide actions towards the development of cities, improvement of human conditions, and ultimately a better urbanism. So the research focused on integrated planning in Malang City based on Malang City’s vision, strategic planning, operational planning, budgeting planning in Malang City to achieve Malang City’s vision as the city of Education. In this study, researcher used qualitative method with descriptive research, which is a research process aims to describe the exact nature / something happened and took place on the research conducted. The research purpose is to identify and describe and analyze the process of Malang City Planning Agency integrate other planning scale and sector in developing planning; and to identify, describe and analyze the process of Malang City Planning Agency integrated all stakeholders in Integrated Planning process. This research use descriptive research method. The reason to use descriptive research method in this study because the principle objectives of this study aimed to describe, illustrate in a systematic, factual and accurate statement of the facts and the relationship between phenomenon. Then qualitative method was directed at the individual's background and a holistic (whole. So in this case should not isolate the individual or organization into a variable or hypothesis, but should view it as part of wholeness. The result of this research in the case study of Malang City has shown thatThe case study of Malang City showed that various sectors recognized but did not pay much attention to Malang City’s vision as City of Education in their plans; however, Regional Mid-term Development

  10. Analyses and Surveys on Urbanized Areas through MIVIS Techniques: Data Classification Applied to the City of Pomezia, Rome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Fiumi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at investigating, in an original and innovative manner, a portion of the territory of the Municipality of Pomezia (Rome by means of remotely sensed data. The airborne MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer imagery was acquired from an altitude of 1 500 m. In fact, the high spectral and good spatial resolution of the MIVIS sensor allowed to provide important information helping us study and better understand complex and diversified situations, such as anthropized areas. The site taken into consideration for this study belongs to the city of Pomezia. Founded more than 70 years ago, Pomezia, originated as rural suburb, has become an important industrial district of Lazio Region territory thanks to its location near Rome and to the fund for the development of Southern Italy. This led to a massive industrialization up to the 90s, a period when industrial activities and urban areas evolved very rapidly without, or in part without, a urban planning followed by a progressive de-industrialization process which is still under way. MIVIS data processing technique, through the classification of objects and materials within urban areas, allowed us to discriminate, with a good level of detail, the distribution of the different spectral classes. Moreover, from a first reading of the View Statistics Files, we can deduce considerations on the evolution of the territory, emphasizing some important environmental aspects, such as the diffuse waterproofing of soils. In fact, we can notice a situation of messy urban and industrial areas growth with high percentages of waterproofed surfaces that are impossible or difficult to reverse. This is a serious environmental issue which led to the loss of vegetation surfaces, increasing negative effects both on the biodiversity and landscape quality which bring about the dissipation of valuable resources, such as the soil, that will represent a serious concern for the environment in

  11. Landslide prediction using combined deterministic and probabilistic methods in hilly area of Mt. Medvednica in Zagreb City, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Watanabe, Naoki; Marui, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The hilly slopes of Mt. Medvednica are stretched in the northwestern part of Zagreb City, Croatia, and extend to approximately 180km2. In this area, landslides, e.g. Kostanjek landslide and Črešnjevec landslide, have brought damage to many houses, roads, farmlands, grassland and etc. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the potential landslides and to enhance landslide inventory for hazard mitigation and security management of local society in this area. We combined deterministic method and probabilistic method to assess potential landslides including their locations, size and sliding surfaces. Firstly, this study area is divided into several slope units that have similar topographic and geological characteristics using the hydrology analysis tool in ArcGIS. Then, a GIS-based modified three-dimensional Hovland's method for slope stability analysis system is developed to identify the sliding surface and corresponding three-dimensional safety factor for each slope unit. Each sliding surface is assumed to be the lower part of each ellipsoid. The direction of inclination of the ellipsoid is considered to be the same as the main dip direction of the slope unit. The center point of the ellipsoid is randomly set to the center point of a grid cell in the slope unit. The minimum three-dimensional safety factor and corresponding critical sliding surface are also obtained for each slope unit. Thirdly, since a single value of safety factor is insufficient to evaluate the slope stability of a slope unit, the ratio of the number of calculation cases in which the three-dimensional safety factor values less than 1.0 to the total number of trial calculation is defined as the failure probability of the slope unit. If the failure probability is more than 80%, the slope unit is distinguished as 'unstable' from other slope units and the landslide hazard can be mapped for the whole study area.

  12. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  13. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  14. Seroepidemiology of Human Hydatidosis Using AgB-ELISA Test in Isfahan City and Suburb Areas, Isfahan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa ILBEIGI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to conduct a sero-epidemiological survey in Isfahan City and suburb areas, central Iran to detect the rate of human hydatidosis using ELISA test.Methods: Overall, 635 serum samples were collected from subjects referred to different health centers in urban and rural regions of the city. Sera were analyzed using Ag-B ELISA test. Ten μg/ml antigens, serum dilutions of 1:500 and conjugate anti-human coombs with 1:10000 dilutions were utilized to perform the test. All subjects filled out a questionnaire and an informed consent. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 18 software. Cut-off was calculated as X+3 SD.Results: Cut-off value was calculated 0.19. Seven cases (1.1% were seropositive for hydatidosis by ELISA test. The sero-prevalence of hydatidosis was 0.27% among females and 2.24% among males (P=0.019. Age group of 60-69 years old, with 2.59% as prevalence had the highest rate of positivity. There was no significant difference as regards age groups, job, residency, contact by dog and literacy. According to job, self-employed people had the highest rate of infection as 3.05%. The sero-prevalence of infection was 1.14% in diploma and 1.13% in illiterates. As regards residency, urban life (1.49% showed no significant difference with rural life.Conclusion: The rate of prevalence in this region showed that necessary cautions should be taken into account to monitor the spread of human hydatidosis in this region. In comparison with other studies, the rate of infection was roughly less than other regions. 

  15. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  16. Potential of the City of Belgrade’s urban areas and establishment of institutional, strategic and planning framework for utilization of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency within the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the potential of renewable energy sources within the area of City of Belgrade, and explores the possibilities of their further implementation in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, in line with mandatory EU Directives. A synergetic approach has been proposed in the recommendations for the implementation of goals/targets and policies in the fields of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency in the City of Belgrade. They put an emphasis on the importance of implementation of the strategic documents of the City. Recommendations on have been provided regarding the required institutional preconditions that have to be met in order for these goals to be achieved, as well as urbanistic and building design-related measures/standards in achieving energy efficiency.

  17. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  18. Integrated Solid Waste Management : A Possible Solution to Environmental and Sanitation Problems in the Ancient City of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Komolafe, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of solid waste generated in Nigeria has increased at an alarming rate over the decades with lack of efficient and sustainable waste management in most cities of the country. This can be attributed to incessant increase in population, expansion of urban areas, industrialization and consumption rates. This study focuses on the ancient city of Ibadan and used Ibadan North Local Government as the case study. There are many environmental and sanitation problems in Ibadan due to improp...

  19. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  20. Integrated Evaluation on Highway Engineering Geological Hazard in Mountainous Area of Enshi, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Bin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the geological features of highway engineering in mountainous area of Enshi, Hubei Province, the principles to set up an integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard are formulated. Then, the integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi is established. In the evaluation system, the first-level evaluation indices are geological development degree, geological conditions, and damaging power, whereas the second-level indices including key factors affecting main kinds of geological hazard. Meanwhile, the borders of indices are determined. At last, the method of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) is adopted to quantitatively evaluate the highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi.

  1. Urban management and institutional change: An integrated approach to achieving ecological cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution I will deal with the following topics in this order: 1. Urban Management an integrated approach! 2. Reforms to improve the performance of the municipality 3. What is new in Urban Management: the New Public Management 4. Autonomy OK, but what is accountability? 5. Wha

  2. Karst rock-desertification of extracting vegetation coverage inversion based on NDVI serial images and dimidiate pixel model: a case study of the Yachi demonstration area in Bijie city of Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Zhongfa; Xie, Jun

    2011-12-01

    With the technological development background of "3S", the research area is Yachi demonstrate area in Bijie city of Guizhou. For traditional methods, NDVI is always used to extract Vegetation information from remote sensing image. Based on theory of dimidiate pixel model,the study region defined NDVISsoil and NDVISveg,vegetation, the inversion dimidiate pixel model was established based on vegetation index(NDVI) to extract vegetation coverage, vegetation coverage can be calculated by using the model of quantifying vegetation fraction from normalized difference vegetation,then acquired relationships between NDVI Serial Images and landscape pattern karst rock-desertification, finally yachi demonstrate area gainer karst rocky desertification landscape pattern of distribution. Using this methods of karst rocky desertification landscape pattern research has significantly improved the accuracy of classification, providing a scientific basis to ecological restoration of karst rocky desertification and other integrated control.

  3. Overweight and obesity in school-age children and teenagers of a urban area of Riobamba city, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio David Ramos-Padilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school students and adolescents of a urban area of the city of Riobamba.Material and Methods: 3680 students between 5 and 19 years, 1581 school students and 2099 adolescents enrolled in 65 units of basic education and high school were studied. The variables studied were: type of educational establishment, sex, age, weight and height. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, the WHO-2007 reference standards of body mass index for were used. School children and adolescents whose standard deviation was found <–2 were considered thin, between –2 and +1 normal weight, >+1 to +2 overweight and >+2 as obesity. Data were analyzed by the computer programs: Anthro Plus v1.0.4 and SPSS v20.Results: Being overweight affects 24.1% of school/adolescents; overweight, 17.8% and 6.3% obese. Excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in school (27.7% than in adolescents (21.5%. Similarly, excess weight is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in children men (31.0% than in women (24,4% at school age. And it is statistically higher (p<0.0001 in adolescent females (23.3% than in adolescent males (19.8%. Being overweight in school/adolescents affects: private schools (27.7%, treasury missionary establishments (25.3% and fiscal establishments (22.9%. Similarly, excess weight is greater among schoolchildren in private schools (28.1% than in fiscal establishments, 27.7% (non statistically p = 0.9984. And it is statistically greater (p <0.0001 in adolescents of private establishments (27.6% than in fiscal establishments (18.4%.Conclusions: The prevalence of weight excess (overweight / obesity in school students and young urban area of the city of Riobamba is high (24.1%, and is higher in school age (27.7% than in adolescents (21,5%. An intervention is needed to prevent and treat this serious public health trend.

  4. Intensive use of energy resources regarding sustainable cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Petrova, K. O.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    Intensive development of cities being a factor of fuel-power complex (FPC) development increases the load on its capacity. This has the negative impact on human health and capacity to work. Therefore, it is important to integrate environmental and recreation components into the urban area through designing the system “production-ecology-recreation” and thus ensuring sustainable development of the city.

  5. Intensive use of energy resources regarding sustainable cities

    OpenAIRE

    Matyugina, Eleonora Grigorievna; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Petrova, K. O.; Strelnikova, Anna Borisovna

    2015-01-01

    Intensive development of cities being a factor of fuel-power complex (FPC) development increases the load on its capacity. This has the negative impact on human health and capacity to work. Therefore, it is important to integrate environmental and recreation components into the urban area through designing the system "production-ecology-recreation" and thus ensuring sustainable development of the city.

  6. A Policy Analysis of Principal Evaluation Instruments in Use in the United States, the State of Missouri, and School Districts in the Kansas City, Missouri Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Maria Bishop; Gaynor, Denise Briscoe; Keith, Stacy Cartmill

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a policy analysis project examining principal evaluation instruments, policies and processes in the fifty United States, the state of Missouri, and 15 Kansas City, Missouri area school districts. Since current research demonstrates that the principal plays a critical role in the success or failure of improvement initiatives,…

  7. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to analyse the clinical and epidemiological data from human parvovirus B19 cases in a six-year study of rash diseases conduct in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 673 patients with acute rash diseases were seen at two primary health care units and at a general hospital. A clotted blood sample was collected from all subjects at the time of consultation. Forty-nine per cent (330 cases of the patients were negative for dengue, rubella and measles IgM or for low avidity IgG to HHV-6. Of these 330, 105 (31.8% were identified as IgM positive to parvovirus B19 by using an antibody capture EIA. During the study period, three distinct peaks of parvovirus infection were detected, suggesting that the disease appears to cycle in approximately 4-5 years. B19 infection was characterized by variable combinations of fever, flu-like symptoms, arthropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequency of fever and arthropathy was substantially higher in adults, 75% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 11.39, p = 0.0007] and 62.5% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 29.89, p = 0.0000], respectively. "Slapped-cheek" appearance and reticular or lace-like rash were seen in only 30.1% of the children. No adult presented this typical rash. The lack of the typical rash pattern in a large proportion of parvovirus B19 and the similarity of clinical manifestations to other rash diseases, specially to rubella, highlight the difficulty of diagnosing B19 infection on clinical grounds alone.

  9. A framework for exploring integrated learning systems for the governance and management of public protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhata, Bimo Abraham; Breen, Charles

    2010-02-01

    This article discusses how the concept of integrated learning systems provides a useful means of exploring the functional linkages between the governance and management of public protected areas. It presents a conceptual framework of an integrated learning system that explicitly incorporates learning processes in governance and management subsystems. The framework is premised on the assumption that an understanding of an integrated learning system is essential if we are to successfully promote learning across multiple scales as a fundamental component of adaptability in the governance and management of protected areas. The framework is used to illustrate real-world situations that reflect the nature and substance of the linkages between governance and management. Drawing on lessons from North America and Africa, the article demonstrates that the establishment and maintenance of an integrated learning system take place in a complex context which links elements of governance learning and management learning subsystems. The degree to which the two subsystems are coupled influences the performance of an integrated learning system and ultimately adaptability. Such performance is largely determined by how integrated learning processes allow for the systematic testing of societal assumptions (beliefs, values, and public interest) to enable society and protected area agencies to adapt and learn in the face of social and ecological change. It is argued that an integrated perspective provides a potentially useful framework for explaining and improving shared understanding around which the concept of adaptability is structured and implemented. PMID:20016984

  10. Digital public service integration in refugee camp: camp to city: just in time bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Husban, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Efficient public service delivery is a primary task of public administration within any governance model. The main theme of modern governance implies an integrated, effective and citizen centric practices of government and administration as a prerequisite for a long term positive development of the economy. Electronic public service delivery via e-government portal has become a convenient means for the customers – Citizens and Businesses- to fulfil their requirements. This thesis investiga...

  11. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    OpenAIRE

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ; TORRESI Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure), and environmental (ecological) nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies...

  12. Integration of terrestrial laser scanning and the Permanent Scatterers technique for instability analyses in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gigli G; Mugnai F.; Falorni G.; Manzo G.; Morelli S.; Leoni L.; Lombardi L.; Casagli N.

    2008-01-01

    Displacement monitoring and analysis in urban areas is one of the most important topics for landslide risk mitigation. Mdina (also known as “Città Notabile” and the "Silent City") is situated in the centre of the island and was the ancient medieval capital of Malta. It has narrow, cobbled streets and from its hilltop position it commands a magnificent view of the Island. The geological setting of the town consists of a stiff, brittle plate belonging to the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation ...

  13. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). PMID:27170193

  14. Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Surya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electronic government needs to carry out in a fundamental public services of democracy. But in practice BPPTSP one door integrated permit service board of Samarinda not able to perform the activities. The aim of this research described analyzing electronic government and public services in a democracy. The methodology used in this research using descriptive qualitative approach the study was on the one door integrated permit service of Samarinda respondents in Samarinda the mayor head of Samarinda the citizen private group of government agencies and interests. Then variable measured in electronic government includes support capacity value and public services including democratic information consultancy and participation. The results of research shows that the variables measured having a deficiency and inability in accommodate aspirations built between citizens and the government in developing electronic democratic government. It is influenced by the absence of elements of liaison which is justice diversity and access electronic between government and public services that make democratic BPPTSP the inability of the city of Samarinda to make changes in depth in an effort to build and create a public being communicative with citizens.

  15. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals. PMID:25116489

  16. Source identification of different size fraction of PM10 using factor analysis at residential cum commercial area of Nagpur city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipalatkar, P P; Gajghate, D G; Khaparde, V V

    2012-02-01

    Particulate size distribution of PM(10) and associated trace metal concentrations has been carried out in residential cum commercial area of Mahal at Nagpur city. Sampling for size fraction of particulate matter was performed during winter season using eight-stage cascade impactor with a pre-separator and toxic metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The average concentration of PM(10) and fine particulate matter (effective cut of aerodynamic diameter ≤2.2 μm) was found to be 300 and 136.7 μg/m(3), respectively which was exceeding limit of Central Pollution Control Board. Maximum mass concentration of 41 μg/m(3) in size range of 9.0-10.0 μm and minimum mass concentration of 19 μg/m(3) in size range 2.2-3.3 μm was observed. Metals (Sr, Ni and Zn) were found to large proportions in below 0.7 μm particle size and could therefore pass directly into the alveoli region of human respiratory system. Factor analysis results indicated combustion and vehicular emission as the dominant source in fine mode and resuspended dust was dominant in medium mode while crustal along with vehicular source was major in coarse mode of particulate matter. PMID:22033656

  17. Estimation of a "radiatively correct" black carbon specific absorption during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA 2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field allowed the inference of the black carbon (BC specific absorption, αλ, defined as the monochromatic absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g. The averaged values of αλ derived from the method here are either 8.9 m2/g or 8.2 m2/g at 500 nm, depending upon the physical and optical parameters assumed for BC. These results are reasonably consistent with those of Schuster et al. (2005, 9.5 m2/g, and Baumgartner et al. (2002, 7.0 m2/g, both measured at 550 nm. The αλ values reported in this paper should only be considered effective, "radiatively correct" values because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances match the measured irradiances at 500 nm. The specific absorption so defined can assume a wide range of values, depending upon: (1 the assumptions made prior to the retrieval (e.g., shell/core aerosol configuration, and (2 values chosen for BC density and refractive index. The range of possible values is large, corresponding to a "worst case" uncertainty of about ±70%, assuming that all errors are additive and of the same sign so that no error cancellation occurs.

  18. Trace elements analysis of crops and vegetables grown around industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala cities using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial effluents pollution is a source of risk to the health of people living in industrial cities of Pakistan. Most of the untreated effluents are discharged to the nearby agricultural fields that pollutes the vegetation grown in such soil. A majority of the industries are not equipped with suitable recycling and effluent treatment plants. Consequently, toxic metals enter our food chain and results in significant health risks and serious diseases. In order to evaluate the concentration of toxic metals (namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se), in crops and vegetable samples collected from the irrigated areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) techniques have been used. All the observed metal concentrations were higher than the reported literature values. Moreover, the highest values of toxic metals of As (0.44 +- .03 mu g/g) and Co (0.5 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Mn (45.3 +- 2.0 mu g/g) and Sb (0.1 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Se (1.28 +- 0.06 mug/g) and Pb (3.84 +- 0.27 mu g/g) were found in tomato, bitter gourd and rice samples respectively. (author)

  19. Emission factors for domestic use of L.P. gas in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main problems found in air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is the presence of high concentrations of ozone at ground level in the atmosphere. The official Mexican standard for ozone concentration in the air (0.11 ppm, one hour, once every 3 years) has been exceeded more than 300 days per year. Ozone is formed due to the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons originated from either combustion processes or vapors emanating from fuel handling operations. The results of an evaluation of several domestic devices like stoves and water heaters with L.P. gas as fuel are presented. A method for the evaluation of hydrocarbon emission was developed. A prototype of domestic installation was constructed. The prototype includes L.P. gas tank, domestic stove, water heater, piping and instrumentation. Several combinations of stoves and water heaters were evaluated. The sampling and analysis of hydrocarbons were performed using laboratory equipment originally designed for the evaluation of combustion and evaporative emissions in automobiles: a SHED camera (sealed room equipped with an hydrocarbon analyzer) was used to measure leaks in the prototype of domestic installation and a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for the measurement of incomplete combustion emissions. Emission factors were developed for each domestic installation

  20. Motorized transport in the city area of Besancon and its impact on energy consumption; Les deplacements motorises dans l`agglomeration bisontine et leurs consequences energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, G.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and environmental burdens due to motor traffic in the city area of Besancon has been determined by statistics, counting and sample surveys. A computer model has been developed to simulate the impact of different elements and policy measures as the development of public transport systems, traffic regulation, limiting the accessibility of certain areas and car pooling. (C.B.) 101 refs.

  1. Integrated multi-criteria decision making techniques AHP with Geographic Information System for Modelling of suitable Landfill location: a case study in Keraniganj of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is approaches a GIS based multi-criteria decision making technique to select potential land fill in Keraniganj of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Site selection of landfill for Municipal solid waste is an important concern for the urban government in whole world. Dhaka city is highly dense populated city in Bangladesh and municipal solid waste generation rate is increase rapidly day by day. These large amount of generated municipal waste needs appropriate landfill considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. The traditional process of site selection process is much difficult, time consuming and costly and needs to replace by a new approaches. An integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is best combination to solve complex decision and used to select suitable site. Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is world widely most popular decision making MCE technique. In this study AHP used as a multi-criteria decision making to compare five suitability attributes with each other and evaluate weight according to attributes potentiality. Various type raster map layer created using GIS tool for this study. Five suitability raster was assigned with the AHP calculated weight value. A combined weighted spatial layer obtained name as suitability map which is overlapped with a restriction raster map, as result a final suitable map was obtained. The result shows that 12.2% of the area is suitable for constructing landfill site where 4.9% is very high suitable, 2.6% is moderate suitable and 4.7% is low suitable. The final site is constructed after detail field investigation, other technical investigation, land ownership status and public acceptancy. Suitable site selection for non-hazardous landfill is not easy and its needs to consider many environmental factor at time. GIS tool combining with many decision making tool such as multi-criteria evaluation can solve this problem. A combining

  2. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  3. Three Dimensional Deformation of Mining Area Detection by InSAR and Probability Integral Model

    OpenAIRE

    H. D. Fan; Gao, X. X.; Cheng, D; Zhao, W. Y.; Zhao, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    A new solution algorithm that combined D-InSAR and probability integral method was proposed to generate the three dimensional deformation in mining area. The details are as follows: according to the geological and mining data, the control points set should be established, which contains correct phase unwrapping points in subsidence basin edge generated by D-InSAR and several GPS points; Using the modulus method to calculate the optimum parameters of probability integral prediction; F...

  4. Integrated conservation in Mexico: reconciling conservation and sustainable development within natural protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia Sarlat, Linabel

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the extent in which integrated conservation as an approach of management for protected areas can reconcile with the effective conservation of biodiversity while supporting the sustainable development of local communities that exist within or surrounding the boundaries of the reserve. It contributes to the global debate on the appropriateness of local community participation in conservation and the potential challenges facing the integration of conservation into local ...

  5. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  6. A Smart Thermo-hygrometric Global Index for the Evaluation of Particularly Critical Urban Areas Quality: the City of Messina Chosen as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the city, as it has grown up to the present day, is no longer sustainable. The design of the city turns toward smart urban development which achieves the theoretical ideal of an environmental sustainability deeply linked to the well-being of the inhabitants. In this perspective, the idea of comfort is related to the achievement of thermohygrometric conditions satisfaction (both indoor and outdoor. The present work proposes an innovative tool evaluating the external environment quality applied to a case study: the Messina’s urban center. The well-being has been investigated from the point of view of temperature and relative humidity, taking not into account other aspects characterizing quality of the urban environment such as traffic, degree of urbanization, air pollution, etc.. For this reason the overall hygrothermal index formulation results of particular interest: this one can be also used to make comparable various results obtained at international level. One of the key properties of the global index is the comparability of the results, when applied to different realities. Such an important property can be exploited to compare the climatic characteristics of different cities and for different areas of the same city. In fact, with the help of multiple monitoring stations within the urban area, you would be able to detect the so-called heat islands. In this way it is possible constructing a map of the hygrometric comfort suitable to achieve better urban planning (for example improving thermal comfort through the construction of green areas.

  7. An Integrated Assessment Method for Sustainable Transport System Planning in a Middle Sized German City

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Schmale; Erika von Schneidemesser; Axel Dörrie

    2015-01-01

    Despite climate change mitigation and sustainability agendas, road transport systems in Germany and the resulting environmental burden are growing. Road transport is a significant source of emissions in urban areas and the infrastructure has a significant impact on the urban form. Nevertheless, mobility is a fundamental requirement for the satisfaction of the human desire to socially and economically engage in society. Considering these realities and the desire for sustainable development in ...

  8. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  9. The Integrative Construction of Railway Transit and City Realty%轨道交通与城市物业的一体化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蔚; 叶霞飞

    2000-01-01

    分析了轨道交通建设对城市布局和土地价值的影响,从城市开发与轨道交通建设资金筹措两方面深入剖析了轨道交通与城市物业一体化建设与开发的规划方法和意义,并对国内外成功案例进行了分析。为我国的城市轨道交通规划设计提出了高效利用城市空间、多方面筹集建设资金、与城市协调发展的有效途径。%The paper analyses the influence of the construction of railway transit on city distribution and the value of land, and also analyses the planning method and significance of the Integrative Construction of railway transit and city realty from aspects of the exploit of city and the fimd collection of railway transit construction. And the successful cases home and abroad are presented. The effective method is put forward for the conceptual design of our countrys city railway transit to utilize the city space, to collect construction fund, and to develop city coordinated

  10. Technology campuses and cities: A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Teresa de Jesús Curvelo Magdaniel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the development of technology campuses as built environments and their role  in stimulating innovation. Technology campuses entail a variety of built environments developed to accommodate technology-driven research activities of multiple organisations. The science park is the most common type of technology campus. Other types include the campuses of universities  of technology and corporate R&D parks.In industrialised countries, the demand for developing  technology  campuses  to  stimulate innovation has been growing in line with the attention given to knowledge in global, national and regional policies. There are over 700 technology campuses worldwide occupying hundred thousands  of hectares in- and around cities. This type of built environments have emerged and developed during critical periods of technological advancements throughout the 20th century, to support technology-based development in industrialised countries. With the adoption of the knowledge- based economy, governments in many countries have encouraged research as an essential activity in their science, technology and innovation policies. The infrastructure that supports research is also gaining momentum. The number of registered science parks is steadily increasing since the late 1990s. The number of programmes supporting research infrastructure is growing in the European policy agenda. Municipalities are formally engaged with other public and private parties in the development of urban areas targeted to stimulate innovation. Governments, universities and R&D companies are investing billions of euros in developing the infrastructure that will not only support their core processes, but will help them to remain competitive by attracting and retaining the best talent. Part of these investments are targeted to develop new buildings or entire areas that often result in campuses as we know them: a concentration of buildings accommodating organisations

  11. System and method for interfacing large-area electronics with integrated circuit devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Naveen; Glisic, Branko; Sturm, James; Wagner, Sigurd

    2016-07-12

    A system and method for interfacing large-area electronics with integrated circuit devices is provided. The system may be implemented in an electronic device including a large area electronic (LAE) device disposed on a substrate. An integrated circuit IC is disposed on the substrate. A non-contact interface is disposed on the substrate and coupled between the LAE device and the IC. The non-contact interface is configured to provide at least one of a data acquisition path or control path between the LAE device and the IC.

  12. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  13. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  14. Estimation of anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions over Asian mega cities by integrating remote sensing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, H.; Takeuchi, W.; Sawada, H.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than 2.5 um (PM2.5) is one of the major pollutants that affect human health with causing asthma and even cancer. Emission standards for PM2.5 are establishing only in some countries and regions mainly because it is difficult to understand the atmospheric behaviors of PM2.5 spatially and temporally. This study aims to estimate atmospheric conditions focusing on PM2.5 with integrating remote sensing measurement and model estimation with bottom-up approach over global mega cities. Firstly, emitted PM2.5 is estimated by bottom-up approach modeling according to emissions sources such as exhaust emissions and biomass burning from 2000 to 2010 over global scale. They are estimated by developed model with paper review and land cover properties obtained by satellite measurements. Exhaust emission PM2.5 is estimated by total numbers of diesel vehicles in use, the number of population and emission standards regulated by governmental raw. Biomass burning PM2.5 is estimated by the number of hot spots detected by Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), fuel loading equivalent to the amount of field biomass, combustion factors estimated by vegetation moisture conditions and PM2.5 emission factors. Secondly, estimation errors of estimated PM2.5 emissions are evaluated by comparing reported PM2.5 emission inventories spatially and temporally. Black carbon and Organic carbon emissions estimated by Streets and REAS emission inventory are employed to compare model estimated PM2.5. Thirdly, integrated exhaust emissions and biomass burning PM2.5 is compared with MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurement which is equivalent to total amount of PM2.5. Spatio-temporal patterns are analyzed between model estimated and satellite measured PM2.5. In case of Asian regions Easter than India, it is found that the highest PM2.5 concentration is observed in Hanoi 3.2 times higher than that in Tokyo over Asian mega cities

  15. Analysis on Soil Degradation Resulted From Human Activities Near City Area in China By Use of DMSP/OLS and Other Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qigang; Shintaro GOTO; Hiroki TAKAMURA

    2001-01-01

    In order to study land use and cover changes (LUCC), especially urbanization accompanied soil degradation, authors used Asia DMSP/OLS data in 1992, Land Cover Data of Asia in 1992 and Global Assessment of Human Induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD, by ISRIC) in 1992, etc. In China the major type of soil degradation is water erosion, which is widely distributed especially in Loess Plateau and in Southeast and Southwest China and happened in forestland, grassland and arable land and mainly resulted from deforestation. The secondary type is wind erosion, which is mainly distributed in Northwest China and happened in arable land and grassland and was mainly caused by overgrazing. Chemical deterioration is mainly distributed in North and Northwest China and happened in paddy, arable land and grassland. Physical deterioration only concentrated in local area in North China and happened in arable land and paddy. Chemical and physical deterioration were resulted from unreasonable agricultural activity. From city to city + 200km with different distance away from city, different types and strength of human activities resulted in different types and distributions of soil degradation. In China human activity mainly concentrated within city+ 50km, therefore, accompanied soil degradation, such as chemical and physical deterioration, mainly happened near and around city.

  16. Eco-Environmental Assessment and Analysis of Tonglvshan Mining Area in Daye City, Hubei Province Based on Spatiotemporal Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. M.; He, G. J.; Wang, M. M.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jiao, W. L.; Peng, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Liu, H. C.; Long, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI), Vegetation Index (VI), Water Network Density Index (WNDI), and Land Degradation Index (LDI). The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard "Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation" HJ/T192-2006 and the "Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion" SL 190-96. Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal analysis of the type and area of land

  17. ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TONGLVSHAN MINING AREA IN DAYE CITY, HUBEI PROVINCE BASED ON SPATIOTEMPORAL METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI, Vegetation Index (VI, Water Network Density Index (WNDI, and Land Degradation Index (LDI. The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard “Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation” (HJ/T192-2006)and the “Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion” (SL 190-96). Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal

  18. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J., E-mail: raul.diaz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jose.lopezm@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear Nabor Carrillo, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: albertoe@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-}2{sub .5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1{sup st} , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil

  19. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  20. Cidades, portos e cidades portuárias na era da integração produtiva Cities, ports, and port cities in the integrated production era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Monié

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a evolução das relações cidades/portos e os desafios impostos na era da globalização. A reorganização dos espaços produtivos e o surgimento de dinâmicas comerciais específicas incluíram um conjunto de mudanças na estrutura mundial dos portos. Dessa forma, a evolução do transporte marítimo sempre esteve associada à agilidade, traduzida pelo aumento da capacidade dos navios, por ganhos em velocidade e por uma diminuição significativa do custo do frete, contribuindo para o encurtamento relativo das distâncias para os homens, as mercadorias e as informações. A partir dos anos 1990, com a intensificação do processo de globalização, caracterizado pela crescente integração das esferas da produção, do consumo e da circulação em todas as escalas geográficas, novas demandas foram colocadas sobre os portos. No caso do Brasil, a ausência de uma política portuária nacional conferiu às iniciativas, federais ou locais, um caráter fragmentado. Apesar dos resultados operacionais positivos, as inovações institucionais, mais especificamente em termos de governança portuária, são escassas. Criar uma nova cultura portuária é um desafio central para a definição de políticas públicas inovadoras e a transformação dos portos em vetores de desenvolvimento. São esses os pressupostos que conduziram este artigo, resultado de pesquisas temáticas acerca de portos e territórios.This article discusses the evolution of city/port relations and the challenges imposed by globalization. The worldwide reorganization of production spaces and the appearance of specific commercial dynamics have included changes in port structures throughout the world. Therefore, progress in maritime transportation has always been associated to agility, translated by larger ship capacity, gains in speed, and a significant reduction of freight costs, contributing to the relative shortening of distances for people, merchandise and

  1. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  2. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  3. Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA 2003 Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign of 2003, measurements of the shortwave radiation field, lidar backscatter, and atmospheric concentrations of black carbon (BC permitted the inference of the BC carbon specific absorption, αλ, defined as the absorption cross section per unit mass (with units of m2/g. This diverse set of measurements allowed us to determine αλ in two ways. These methods – labeled I and II – are distinguished from one another in the manner that the columnar concentration of BC (with units of mg/m2 is determined. This concentration is found by using either surface measurements of BC concentration and lidar estimates of aerosol mixing heights, or a more rigorous method that relies on the columnar aerosol size distribution. The averaged values of αλ derived from these methods agree to about 20%, although we expect that the values obtained from method I are underestimated. These results, along with those of Schuster et al. (2005, suggest that in the MCMA, αλ is in a range of 8 to 10 m2/g at a wavelength of 550 nm. This range is somewhat lower than the commonly accepted value of 10 m2/g for a wavelength of 550 nm, but is consistent with the calculations of Fuller et al. (1999, who suggest that this value is too high.

  4. Street vending and its ability to produce space: The case of the Tepito market in Mexico City downtown area

    OpenAIRE

    Oriard Colin, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Street vending is a widespread phenomenon in the cities of the so-called developing countries. However, city planning systems have responded to the situation in a limited way, among other factors, because street vending is inherently difficult to regulate, especially from current paradigms of ‘public space’ (Brown 2006, Bhowmik 2010, Cross and Morales 2007). Street vending is explored in this thesis as an evolving and complex system that has become capable of transforming space; this perspect...

  5. The Income of Central City and Suburban Migrants: A Case Study of the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    The demographic and urban literature on the decline of central cities often asserts that the cities’ population losses have been especially heavy for middle and upper income households. Attracting middle and upper income residents, and retaining those who live there currently, is then viewed as a crucial ingredient to rebuilding the tax base and civic life of these cities. This paper examines empirically the income and population of the District of Columbia and surrounding Maryland and Virgin...

  6. On the Poverty in the Rocky Desertification Areas of Southwest China Based on AHP: A Case Study of Liupanshui City in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin; ZHU; Xiaodong; REN

    2014-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification mountain areas are regarded as main positions to wipe out poverty for their large poverty population,wide poverty area,high rate of poverty,etc. This paper takes Liupanshui city as an example where the situation of rocky desertification is very serious. We build the indicator system of poverty alleviation and development by analyzing their poverty and using the AHP method and also find the limiting factors which restrict the development of this area then put forward the recommendations to alleviate poverty.

  7. Territories of Integration: The Children of Immigrants in the Schools of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortas, Maria Joao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the responses given in several schools of the 1st Cycle of the Basic Education Level (children aged 6 to 10 years) of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon relating to the issue of integration of immigrant children and children of immigrant descent. The goal was to establish the relationship between the geographical context where…

  8. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  9. Backyard Living – Integrative Policies Towards Migrant Workers: Housing Microfinance in Greater Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Noltze

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban agglomeration of the Vietnamese southeast industrial driving force Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC has become the most outstanding benefi ciary of the remarkable economic growth and foreign investments in the Vietnamese economy since the start of a comprehensive economic reform process in the mid 1980s. The notable development towards the foremost economic centre led to a high influx of migrant workers. In the course of an ongoing expansion process towards a megacity of tomorrow, the defi cient provision of adequate housing remains one of the most challenging problems of rural migrants in Greater HCMC. However, a future-oriented sustainable megacity concept is strongly dependent on the successful integration of migrants into the urban society. Within this context, the housing market is considered to be a key aspect of comprehensive urban planning. Hereby, housing microfinance (HMF will be presented as an alternative housing finance scheme meeting the demand of a noteworthy number of poor and low-income people. Thereby HMF can do both: focus on specifi c needs of migrants with respect to their current life situation and enhance its outreach to a potential target group.

  10. Exchange Rate Pass-Through and Monetary Integration in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Saiki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how monetary integration affects the exchange rate pass-through, by testing whether monetary policy convergence in the euro area led to a convergence in terms of exchange rate pass-through. We conduct a comparative study between the "experiment group" (the euro area) and the "control group" (non-euro industrial countries). We find evidence for stronger convergence of exchange rate pass-through for the euro area economies as a group, especially around th...

  11. PIXE analysis of tree leaves as a possible comparative integral monitor of particulates in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaing integral comparative data for particulate distribution in urban areas from PIXE analysis of tree leaves is discussed in relation to the leaf gross anatomy, to the diffusion of selected tree species in such areas and to the implementation of experimental techniques necessary to make PIXE analysis effective. Multielemental scans were performed on a small set samples; results are compared to PIXE analysis of typical urban aerosols. The validity of the method and the criteria for yearly relative comparisons of different areas are discissed

  12. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  13. Anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water and finished water of community water systems in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2004–05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.; Stark, James R.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Smith, Erik A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, two Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) were conducted during 2004–05 in unconfined parts of the glacial aquifer system and in unconfined parts of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota and Wisconsin. SWQAs are two-phased sampling activities in the NAWQA Program. The first phase evaluated the occurrence of 265 (258 are included in this report) anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) through monitoring source water in 30 of the largest-producing community water system wells completed in the aquifers underlying the Greater Twin Cities metropolitan area. The AOCs included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and other AOCs. During the second phase of the study, 15 of the original community water system wells, those with the greatest number of AOC detections, were resampled along with associated finished water.

  14. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  15. he role of waterfront areas for the historical city and the urban territory. Regeneration experiences in England and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Cuturi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several considerable processes of urban regeneration, carried out in the last decades, have particularly concerned brownfield areas, along sea, rivers and canals.Some operations, run in the wake of European policies for urban areas or programmes related to cultural and sport events, have actually contributed to the renaissance and vitality of territories in decline.Nevertheless, in a period of deep economic crisis and unemployment, urgent environmental emergencies, multiplicity and diversity of social instances, there is a real need for approaches more and more consistent with objectives of both physical/environmental and socio-economic regeneration.English and French experiences of waterfront regeneration are interesting, in different ways, in relation to the process activation/implementation (partnership organisational structure, private/public investment ratio, duration, as to enterprises, employment and innovation (office, retail and leisure space, enterprise localization, cultural attractions and urban design, with regard to local communities, services and cultural heritage (increase of population and local employment, accessibility to housing and integrated services, mobility and transport, conservation and valorisation of buildings and sites of architectural or historic interest, involvement and participation to local planning processes, as to the use of resources and pollution reduction (energy management, building recovery and brownfield regeneration, etc..

  16. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Gondim Calvasina; Cíntia Maria Torres Rocha Silva; Gilka de Albuquerque Forte Aguiar; Milena Rebouças Aguiar; Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Question...

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Soltuzu; Zenovia Olteanu; Lăcrămioara Ivănescu; Constantin Toma; Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache

    2013-01-01

    We present in this paper some physiological changes (photosynthetic and transpiration processes intensity) and biochemical (content of photo-assimilating pigments) induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area. Pollutants monitored by the five stations are represented by gaseous (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and solid pollutants ...

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Soltuzu; Zenovia Olteanu; Lăcrămioara Ivănescu; Constantin Toma; Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache

    2013-01-01

    We present in this paper some morphological changes (presence and size of the surface both normal and necrotic) and biochemical (water content and dry matter) induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area . These stations monitor the presence of gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone ) and solids (powders prone to sedime...

  19. Research on the public city space integration based on transportation function%依托交通功能的城市公共空间整合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing public space integration of Shanghai People' s square and Beijing Xidan Commercial area, the paper points out that realizing modern public city space with complexity, variety and harmonist is the critical to integrate urban ground transportation space with underground and ground architectural space.%通过对上海人民广场和北京西单商业区的公共空间整合分析,提出实现具有复合性、多样性、和谐性特征的现代城市公共空间的关键是整合公共空间中的城市地面交通空间和地上地下建筑空间。

  20. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey: IV. Third Public data release

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; Mendoza, M. A.; Galbany, L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; D. Mast; Aceituno, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J; de Amorim, A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrado-Navascues, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Third Public Data Release (DR3) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. Science-grade quality data for 667 galaxies are made public, including the 200 galaxies of the Second Public Data Release (DR2). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Three different spectral setups are available, i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3749-7500 AA (...

  1. Gamma-ray measurements in uppermost soil profile of a grazing area around Londrina city, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high-resolution .-ray spectrometry, soil profiles were measured to assess the depth distribution of 232Th, 238U, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs. The surveyed soil is the Latossolo Vermelho Distroferrico, clayey texture, in a soft wave relief area used for grazing, near Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. Knowledge of radioelement depth distributions is important to understand their behavior along soil history, and in the same time, give clues about it, from pedogenesis to more recent events, such as weathering, erosion or interaction with biosphere. Five points were sampled, three of them in increment depths of 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 15 cm, 15 to 20 cm, 20 to 35 cm, and for two of them the increment 35-50 cm was collected either. These totalized 27 samples, each of them dried in open air during 48 hours, sieved through 2 mm mesh, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory. It was employed a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain, with a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. Measurement of the efficiency in the range from 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with certified IAEA 375 soil sample. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 232Th (from 15.4 to 25.1 Bq kg-1), 238U (from 11.0 to 18.9 Bq kg-1), 226Ra (from 4.0 to 10.9 Bq kg-1), 40K (from 36.0 to 133.9 Bq kg-1) and 137Cs (from 0.0 to 2.2 Bq kg-1). Average values and respective deviations are 21.0 ± 2.6 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 13.8 ± 1.7 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 7.8 ± 1.9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 72.8 ± 30.5 Bq kg-1 for 40K, and 0.8 ± 0.8 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs. Depth distributions of each radioelement are presented and possible relations among activities are analyzed (author)

  2. The stable carbon isotope composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area air

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Veneroni, D.

    The sources and distribution of carbon in ambient suspended particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10) of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) air were traced using stable carbon isotopes ( 13C/ 12C). Tested potential sources included rural and agricultural soils, gasoline and diesel, liquefied-petroleum gas, volcanic ash, and street dust. The complete combustion of LP gas, diesel and gasoline yielded the lightest δ13C values (-27 to -29‰ vs. PDB), while street dust (PM 10) represented the isotopically heaviest endmember (-17‰). The δ13C values of rural soils from four geographically separated sites were similar (-20.7 ± 1.5‰). δ13C values of particles and soot from diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions and agricultural soils varied between -23 and -26‰. Ambient PM samples collected in November of 2000, and March and December of 2001 at three representative receptor sites of industrial, commercial and residential activities had a δ13C value centered around -25.1‰ in both fractions, resulting from common carbon sources. The predominant carbon sources to MCMA atmospheric particles were hydrocarbon combustion (diesel and/or gasoline) and particles of geological origin. The significantly depleted δ13C values from the industrial site reflect the input of diesel combustion by mobile and point source emissions. Based on stable carbon isotope mass balance, the carbon contribution of geological sources at the commercial and residential sites was approximately 73% for the PM 10 fraction and 54% for PM 2.5. Although not measured in this study, biomass-burning emissions from nearby forests are an important carbon source characterized by isotopically lighter values (-29‰), and can become a significant contributor (67%) of particulate carbon to MCMA air under the prevalence of southwesterly winds. Alternative sources of these 13C-depleted particles, such as cooking fires and municipal waste incineration, need to be assessed. Results show that stable carbon isotope

  3. Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun–Olarinmoye EO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 WO Adebimpe,1 JO Bamidele,2 OO Odu,2 IO Asekun-Olarinmoye,3 EO Ojofeitimi41Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, School of Public and Allied Health, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaObjectives: To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo.Materials and methods: Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents' self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0.Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3% of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP, 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%, ignorance (32.6%, misinformation (25.1%, superstition (22.0%, and culture (20.3%. Some reasons were proffered for respondents' nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents' approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and

  4. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  5. A problem concerning radiation exposure management of resident living in outside of evacuation area. The case of Moriya city in Ibaraki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author points out the problem in the title as exemplified by the City 160 km afar from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The evacuation area is defined to be the zone within 20 km distance from FDNPS, where 60-80 thousands Bq of Cs (Cs-134 + Cs-137)/kg soil in average have been found. The author has found small spots of as high dose (hot) as 460 thousands Bq/kg in gutter materials probably due to the dry (Mar. 15, 2011) and wet (Mar. 21) deposit in the City, and the hot spots have been thought to disperse to form hot areas by measurement (June) with Ge-semiconductor detector of Cs levels at 12 spots including 10 waterway bottom precipitates, as high as 9-71 thousands Bq/kg (actual 0.60-2.74 micro-Sv/h, with NaI scintillation survey meter). The entrance is partly or thoroughly forbidden in some of these areas; however, children playing at other such hot areas can be often seen. This is the problem from the aspect of radiation protection out of the evacuation area and, further, it may be more problematic that resident does not know well about the fact. Although the rapid concentration of Cs like this is conceivably derived from the City's geographical features (many valleys and well-arranged waterway), the prediction of future distribution of Cs is difficult at present, but results may help to predict the extent of contamination in catchment areas of the evacuation zone in future. (T.T.)

  6. Utilizing a data integration approach to analyse the nature of homicide crimes in the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow throughout the past century

    OpenAIRE

    Rourke-McBride, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation uses a data integration approach to study the nature of homicide crimes in the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow over the past century (between 1910 and 2010). Archive records and media sources were used to obtain the specific geographic location of homicide crimes. 226 homicide crimes for Edinburgh were digitized and 451 for Glasgow. The data analysis phase of the project assessed the data from both exploratory and confirmatory perspectives. Hot spot analysis using Neare...

  7. The need for an integrated disaster risk reduction management strategy in North African cities: a case study of urban vulnerability in Algiers (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djillali Benouar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the North African countries, geological, environmental and technological hazards constitute a constant threat to human life and property, sometimes causing major economic losses and disruption. The rapid urbanization, development of critical engineering works such as dams, decaying building stock, implementation of various industries within and around the main cities, industrialization of cities with modern types of buildings and the large concentration of populations, with a heavy dependency on infrastructure and services, living in large cities and/or settling in hazardous areas, are matters of growing concern, as they contribute to heavier loss of life and seriously increasing the economic losses in future disaster damage. The environmental concerns and an increased official and public awareness of various hazards have, in the last decade, led to a rapid rise of interest in hazard and risk evaluations and thus in disaster risk management.

  8. Effects of smoking on chromosomes compared with those of radiation in a high-background radiation area and of environmental mutagenic factors in a large city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking is the most influential factor among the environmental mutagens to increase cancer incidence. In order to know how environmental mutagens affect the induction of translocations caused by smoking we analyzed the translocations in the lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers in a large city, Beijing, and compared them with those reported by us in a high background radiation area (HBRA) and in its control area (CA), remote villages, in the south of China. This paper is the review of our reported studies performed under China-Japan collaborative study on HBRA in China conducted by Prof. Tsutomu Sugahara, Japan, and Prof. Luxin Wei, China. (author)

  9. High-density macroseismic survey in urban areas. Part 1: proposal for a methodology and its application to the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tertulliani

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide an original contribution to the investigation of local macroseismic variations in urban areas by means of questionnaire surveys. In this paper, we propose a methodology to investigate earthquake effects in large cities. This procedure for a high-density macroseismic survey is here applied to the city of Rome (Italy during the September 1997-April 1998 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy seismic sequence. A sort of macroseismic network in the urban area was arranged, thanks to the co-operation of public high schools, where ad hoc macroseismic questionnaires were delivered to students. This method provided us with a large amount of macroseismic information related to the October 14, 1997 (Mw =-5.6; I0 VIII MCS; h ?10 km and March 26, 1998 (Mw = 5.3; I0 = VII MCS;h ?50 km earthquakes. In the first survey, 949 useful questionnaires were collected in 10 high schools and related to 669 observation points. For the second event, 1083 useful questionnaires were collected in 27 high schools and related to 928 (+39% observation points. The mean data density in the urbanized sector reached 3.4 data/km2 in the first survey and rose to 4.7 (+38% data/km2 in the second one. Such a high density was hardly achieved in previous macroseismic surveys in large cities. The sample reliability was checked considering the data distribution versus urban setting inhomogeneity and the percentage distribution of the main lithological units outcropping in the investigated area. Such reliability was also confirmed by the check of the data density distribution. All results confirm that the data sample is largely representative. Both the applications here shown proved that this method can be successfully performed in a large city.

  10. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  11. Greenhouse systems with integrated water desalination for arid areas based on solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaibi, M.Thameur

    2003-01-01

    The limited water resources in arid areas have led to the use of low-quality irrigation water in agriculture which may reduce crop yields and damage the environment. This study is focused on a greenhouse concept with integrated water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations in areas where only saline water is available. In this greenhouse the roof light transmission is reduced as solar radiation is absorbed by a layer of flowing water on a glass covered by a to...

  12. Tight Integration of Digital Map and In-Vehicle Positioning Unit for Car Navigation in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wu; Yu Meng; Li Zhi-lin; Chen Yong-qi; J. Chao

    2003-01-01

    Now GPS has been widely used for land, sea and air navigation.However, due to signal blockage and severe multipath environments in urban areas, such as in Hong Kong, GPS alone can not satisfy most land vehicle navigation requirements. Dead Reckoning (DR) systems have been widely used to bridge the gaps of GPS and to smooth GPS position errors. However,the DR drift errors increase with time rapidly and frequent calibration is required. Under the normal situation, GPS is sufficient to provide the calibration to the DR unit. However, GPS may not be available in urban areas for more than 20 min, and the DR position errors can reach hundreds of meters during the period. As land vehicles have to be on roads, digital map can be used to constrain the locations of vehicles, known as map-matching.One of the main problems for map-matching techniques is mis-matching, that may be caused by the positioning sensor errors and the complexity of city road network. In this paper, a newly developed model to tightly integrate digital map and in-vehicle positioning unit for car navigation is introduced.With this method, it improves the position accuracy by constraining the vehicle location on the roads. Moreover it provides the close-loop controls for the DR drift errors by feeding back the coordinates of the feature points of the road network and road bearings to the DR unit and therefore the navigation system can be used for longer period when GPS is not available.Extensive tests have been carried out in Hong Kong. It demonstrates that this close-loop approach is much better on the reliability of map-matching, as the positioning sensor errors are constantly calibrated by the digital map.

  13. Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

  14. Integration of geophysical datasets by a conjoint probability tomography approach: application to Italian active volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We expand the theory of probability tomography to the integration of different geophysical datasets. The aim of the new method is to improve the information quality using a conjoint occurrence probability function addressed to highlight the existence of common sources of anomalies. The new method is tested on gravity, magnetic and self-potential datasets collected in the volcanic area of Mt. Vesuvius (Naples, and on gravity and dipole geoelectrical datasets collected in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily. The application demonstrates that, from a probabilistic point of view, the integrated analysis can delineate the signature of some important volcanic targets better than the analysis of the tomographic image of each dataset considered separately.

  15. Wireless Technology and System Integration in Body Area Networks for m-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    m-Health integrates mobile computing, medical sensor, and communications technologies for mobile health-care applications. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) of intelligent sensors represent an emerging technology for system integration with great potentials for unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring during extended periods of time. However, system designers will have to resolve a number of issues, such as severe limitations of sensor weight and size necessary to improve user's compliance, sensor resource constraints, intermittent availability of uplink connectivity, reliability of transmission, security, and interoperability of different platforms. We present current and emerging wireless technologies and developments in pervasive and mobile technologies that are vital for implementation of WBAN-based monitors and m-Health system integration. We emphasize the problem of reliable system operation with extremely low power consumption and discontinuous connectivity, which are typical for ambulatory monitoring. PMID:17281927

  16. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers' Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided

  17. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  18. Direct measurement of spatial Wigner function with area-integrated detection

    CERN Document Server

    Mukamel, E A; Walmsley, I A; Dorrer, C; Mukamel, Eran; Banaszek, Konrad; Walmsley, Ian A.; Dorrer, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a novel technique for characterizing transverse spatial coherence using the Wigner distribution function. The presented method is based on measuring interference between a pair of rotated and displaced replicas of the input beam with an area-integrating detector, and it can be superior in regimes when array detectors are not available. We analyze the quantum optical picture of the presented measurement for single-photon signals and discuss possible applications in quantum information processing.

  19. Selected area growth integrated wavelength converter based on PD-EAM optical logic gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selected area growth wavelength converter based on a PD-EAM optical logic gate for WDM application is presented, integrating an EML transmitter and a SOA-PD receiver. The design, fabrication, and DC characters were analyzed. A 2 Gb/s NRZ signal based on the C-band wavelength converted to 1555 nm with the highest extinction ratio of 7 dB was achieved and wavelength converted eye diagrams with eyes opened were presented. (semiconductor devices)

  20. Cities as Spatial Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that Zipf's Law for cities can emerge as a property of a clustering process. If initially uniformly distributed people chose their location based on a specific gravity equation as found in trade studies, they will form cities that follow Zipf's Law in expected value. This view of cities as spatial agglomerations is supported empirically by the observation that larger cities are surrounded by larger hinterland areas and larger countryside populations.

  1. Plight and Strategy of New-generation Peasant Workers’ Integration into City%新生代农民工城市融入困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文华

    2013-01-01

    With the propulsion of our country urbanization course, the large-scale surplus rural labor flows to the city. At present the new-generation peasant laborer has already become fresh troops of city construction. But the peasant laborer has been affected gravely to integrate city life because binary partitioned census register system, job skill deficiency, without definite resident and identity difficulty, has derived from lots of social problems, even the the newly binary structure phenomenon has appeared in the city. Therefore, we must make effort to resolve a variety of obstacles to make the new-generation peasant laborer integrating city really and pushing forward our country urbanization course.%  随着我国城市化进程的推进,大规模的农村富余劳动力向城市流动。目前新生代农民工已成为城市建设的一支生力军。但是由于城乡二元分割的户籍制度、职业技能缺乏、居无定所、身份认同困难等因素严重影响新生代农民工融入城市生活,由此也衍生了诸多的社会问题,甚至在城市出现了“新二元结构”现象。因此,必须着力解决新生代农民工市民化的种种障碍,使他们真正融入城市,以推进我国城市化进程。

  2. Development of an integrated methodology for the energy needs of a major urban city: The case study of Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2012-01-01

    /s to meet the (metropolitan) city's energy needs using Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and additionally implement a techno-economic analysis through a developed tool, in order to find which RES should participate in the city's energy system examining different scenarios focusing not only on the projects......In the present paper a Linear Programming (LP) methodology for the city of Athens, Attica region is implemented trying to identify the energy supply levels based on the energy use, aiming to determine the optimal way for the energy needs to be covered. The final aim was to find the best solution...

  3. Fluorine concentration in snow cover within the impact area of aluminium production plant (Krasnoyarsk city) and coal and gas-fired power plant (Tomsk city)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Osipova, N. A.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Polikanova, S. A.; Samokhina, N. P.; Yazikov, E. G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The fluorine contents in snow melt water find in the impact areas of aluminum production plant and coal and gas-fired power plant are compared. In melt water, soluble fluoride is found in the form of fluoride ion, the content of which was determined by the potentiometric method using ion-selective electrode. According to the measurements of 2013-2014, fluoride content in melt water ranges 10.6-15.4 mg/dm3 at the distance 1-3 km from the borders of Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant with the mean value 13.1 mg/dm3. Four-year monitoring from 2012 to 2015 in the impact area of Tomsk coal and gas-fired power plant showed that fluoride content in melt water in vicinity of the thermal power plant is significantly lower than in the samples from the impact area of the aluminum plant. But higher content of fluoride ion (0.2 - 0.3 mg/dm3) in snow samples in vicinity of coal and gas-fired power plant was revealed in winter of 2015. Intake of soluble fluoride is mostly explained by dust-aerosol emissions of study plants and deposition of fluorine compounds from air.

  4. The possibility of drinking water capture for the city of Ljubljana by means of a water tunnel in the area of Krim mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Urbanc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibility of groundwater capture by means of a groundwater drainage tunnel in the area of Krim mountain range for a supplementary water supply of the city of Ljubljana. Within the scope of the investigation, a detailed geological mapping of the area was carried out, and hydrogeological, geophysical andengineering-geological research was performed. A water balance of the recharge area was calculated, indicating considerable quantities of groundwater which could be captured with an underground drainage tunnel. A course of the tunnel was suggested, with its entrance part located on the southern fringes of Ljubljansko barje south ofthe village Strahomer. The tunnel would run in the south-west direction in the Upper Triassic dolomite. Because of low environmental burden in the recharge area of the tunnel and due to good cleaning properties of dolomite it is expected that drinking water of very good quality could be captured by means of the drainage tunnel.

  5. Innovation of Adult Education Supply in Rural Areas from the Aspect of Rural Public Goods——A Case Study of Quzhou City,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Status of rural adult education in Quzhou City is analyzed from three aspects of supply main body,supply method and fund source.Problems in the rural adult education in Quzhou City are pointed out.Firstly,the top-down supply decision model can not fully meet the needs of farmers.Secondly,education resources can not be best allocated.Thirdly,both rural labor force market and employment service are not perfect.In order to promote the development of rural adult education,the education supply mode of rural adults should be established,which is "supplied by the government,coordinated by the government,participated by the society,operated according to market mechanisms".This needs to set up the leading position of government,to establish the pattern of diversified main bodies of adult education supply in rural areas,and to construct the market operation mechanism driven by interests.

  6. Seismic vulnerability analysis of moderate seismicity areas using in situ experimental techniques: from the building to the city scale ? Application to Grenoble and Pointe-\\`a-Pitre (France)

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Clotaire

    2009-01-01

    Seismic vulnerability analysis of existing buildings requires basic information on their structural behaviour. The ambient vibrations of buildings and the modal parameters (frequencies, damping ration and modal shapes) that can be extracted from them naturally include the geometry and quality of material in the linear elastic part of their behaviour. The aim of this work is to use this modal information to help the vulnerability assessment. A linear dynamic modal model based on experimental modal parameters is proposed and the fragility curve corresponding to the damage state ?Slight? is built using this model and a simple formula is proposed. This curve is particularly interesting in moderate seismic areas. This methodology is applied to the Grenoble City where ambient vibrations have been recorded in 61 buildings of various types and to the Pointe-\\`a-Pitre City with 7 study-buildings. The fragility curves are developed using the aforementioned methodology. The seismic risk of the study-buildings is discuss...

  7. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  8. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program

  9. Summary on smart grid integrated demonstration project of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City%中新天津生态城智能电网综合示范工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开; 刘明志; 于建成

    2011-01-01

    中新天津生态城智能电网综合示范工程涵盖了智能电网6大环节,是生态城市与智能电网融合的示范工程.介绍中新天津生态城智能电网综合示范工程的建设背景、目标、思路、原则、总体架构和各子项工程的内容,分析工程的特点和示范意义,为城市区域智能电网建设提供参考.%Sino-Singapore Tianjin eco-city smart grid integrated demonstration project includes the six aspects of smart grids and integrates eco-city and smart grid. Some basic information about the project, such as construction background, objectives, ideas, principles, framework and each sub-project content, is introduced in this paper. Finally, the characteristics and significance of the project are analyzed. They provide a reference for the construction of smart grid in urban areas.

  10. 城市居民乡村旅游消费行为研究--以武汉市为例%A study on City Dwellers’ Tourist Consumption Behavior in Rural Areas -Based on the Case Study of Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏保国

    2013-01-01

    乡村旅游是解决城乡收入差距的重要手段。通过问卷调查的方式,从人口统计的视角定量研究了武汉市居民乡村旅游消费行为。研究表明武汉市居民乡村旅游的主要动机有欣赏自然景观、呼吸新鲜空气和放松身心,对乡村旅游因子而言,武汉市居民更看重食品安全、特色景观和特色文化。%rural tourism is of great importance to shorten the income gap between urban and rural areas. This study conducts a quantitative study on Wuhan city’s dwellers’ tourist consumption behavior in rural areas by questionnaire survey and demographic statistics. It shows that the motives of rural tourist behavior of Wuhan city dwellers include admiring nature landscape, breathing fresh air and relaxation. Food safety, characteristic landscape and distinctive culture are regarded as important factors of rural tourism for Wuhan city dwellers.

  11. Area-wide integrated pest management of fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are recognised as one of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables. The importance of an Integrated Pest Management approach to fruit fly suppression or eradication has been emphasized over the past 30 years. Integrated Pest Management has, in some instance, a narrow focus on the crop or the orchard or farm, but not adopting an area-wide approach, where much of the activity may be outside the crop or production unit. All of the techniques used to manage fruit flies at the on-farm level may be used on an area-wide basis, preferably in combination to maximise the impact of each technique. There are some techniques, which are better suited to the area-wide approach, but can be used on-farm as well. Techniques include physical control (e.g., bagging), cultural control (e.g., production when fly numbers are low, resistant varieties, crop hygiene, early harvesting, growing refuge crops), biological control, behavioral control (e.g., protein bait spray application technique and male annihilation technique), sterile insect technique, and chemical control. In adopting an area-wide approach, very effective collaboration between many stakeholders is essential. (author)

  12. Multiparameter radar study of rainfall: Potential application to area-time integral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    Multiparameter radars measure one or more additional parameters in addition to the coventional reflectivity factor. The combination of radar observations from a multiparameter radar is used to study the time evolution of rainstorms. A technique is presented to self-consistently compare the area-time integral (ATI) and rainfall volume estimates from convective storms, using two different measurements from a multiparameter radar. Rainfall volumes for the lifetime of individual storms are computed using the reflectivity at S band (10-cm wavelength) as well as one-way specific attenuation at X band (3-cm wavelength). Area-time integrals are computed by summing all areas in each radar snapshot having reflectivities (S band) in excess of a preselected threshold. The multiparameter radar data used in this study were acquired by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CP-2 radar during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) and the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE), respectively. ATI studies were accomplished in this work using multiparameter radar data acquired during the lifetime of six convective events that occurred in the COHMEX radar coverage area. A case study from the COMHEX field campaign (20 July 1986) was selected to depict the various stages in the evolution of a storm over which the ATI and rainfall volume computations were performed using multiparameter radar data. Another case study from the CaPE field campaign (12 August 1991) was used to demonstrate the evolution of a convective cell based on differential reflectivity observations.

  13. Effects of Integrated Exploration in Hydrocarbon-Prospective Areas of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KongFanshu; Zhengli; LiZhiming

    2003-01-01

    The complicated topography, morphology and geology are characteristic of South China, where the frequently covered waters and igneous bodies and widely exposed carbonates are difficult to seismic survey. This paper describes the effect of combining exploration of gravitational, magnetic and electric methods in the complicated hydrocarbon areas in South China by some case histories. Many year''s exploration practices in the exploring areas of more than 20 show that the non-seismic integrated (gravity/magnetic/electric) geophysical prospecting can play an important role not only in regional assessment, basin optimization and early basin evaluation,but also in finding objective of low resistance in areas of exposed carbonate with high resistance, contouring local structure, outlining igneous body and reef, and differentiating rock facies of basement. The results of the non-seismic integrated geophysical survey have pointed out the direction for deploying next prospecting in the specific areas of South China and the valuable experiences have been accumulated to carry out hydrocarbon-hunting in the future.

  14. Area-wide integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management (APM) and integrated pest management (IPM) originated from two different efforts to combine two or more control techniques into programmes in which each method could synergise the effectiveness of others and thus create a level of pest control that was greater than that of a single technique (Perkins 1982). Since then, the concept of APM has evolved to include many aspects of IPM and often is now referred to as area-wide IPM. Still, the element of total population management is central to this approach of insect pest management. In support of APM, Knipling (1998) stated that of the insect pests that were of major concern to agriculture before the newer classes of insecticides were available, most are still pests today, the major exceptions being the screw-worm fly and the boll weevil in the southeastern US cotton growing region. Knipling also noted that both of these pest species were subjected to area-wide suppression programmes. In response to the USDA IPM Initiative (USDA 1993, 1994) which seeks to achieve the national goal of having 75% of the crop acres under IPM by the year 2000, the Agricultural Research Service developed an Area-wide IPM Programme. This programme combines environmentally-sound pest control techniques with the advantages of APM and develops partnerships with other federal, state, local and private sector entities. Technologies such as the integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control may be considered for future programmes

  15. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) bark from a selected heavy road traffic area of Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Netto, Annibal D; Barreto, Renata P; Moreira, Josino C; Arbilla, Graciela

    2007-04-01

    The levels of 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular weights between 128 Da (naphthalene) and 300 Da (coronene) were determined in Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) bark. Tree bark samples were collected in the campus of Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, a green area located in a very intensive traffic area of Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil and about 10 km away from the city center. Samples were submitted to ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual PAH levels varied from 1.23 to 327 ng/g and phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene predominated in all samples. Total PAH levels ranged from 242 to 1640 ng/g with a mean of 628 ng/g. The levels of total PAHs and of total carcinogenic PAHs showed not a clear dependence with tree location and distances to the main routes of that area. No correlation was observed also with PAH levels previously found in total suspended particulate thus indicating that in this area tree bark PAH levels cannot be used to assess their atmospheric levels. PMID:17010512

  16. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  17. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  18. Assessment of transformation parameters between D48 and D96 coordinate systems at the Ormož city area

    OpenAIRE

    Kelenc, Damir

    2008-01-01

    First, with purpose of definition transformation parameters of geodetic network of the city Ormož, we have interpreted the basic theoretical concepts of transformation of coordinate systems, preparation, realization and processing of GPS survey. We have represented basic terms like geodetic datum, coordinate systems and transformation of coordinate systems. We have presented cognitions which were discovered during the preparation and realization of the survey on the fieldwork. We have defined...

  19. Social and demographic determinants for breastfeeding in a rural, suburban and city area of South East China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Shi, Zumin; Spatz, Diane; Loh, Rebecca; Sun, Guiju; Grisso, Jeane

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a traditional practice in China, yet few studies have explored its current trend after socioeconomic reform. This study aims to characterize breastfeeding rates and possible associations with sociodemographic factors using a breastfeeding questionnaire administered to 1,385 mothers of 6-year-old children. Rates were lowest among city residents and negatively associated with parental and grandmother education levels as well as mothers’ professional occupational status. These f...

  20. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  1. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  2. Integration of Government Bond Market in the Euro Area and Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Velimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines analysis of evolution in euro area government bond market integration and interference of European Central Bank with functioning of respective market recently. Since the introduction of euro, government bond yields converged in the euro area, bonds of different countries have become close substitutes in the perception of investors, and overall integration of the market was rather high. At the end of 2008, dramatic shift occurred and ever since disintegrative forces were set in motion. The paper presents the following measures of integration of the government bond markets: yield spreads, dispersion in yield spreads and beta coefficient. All three measures suggest unprecedented market disintegration as of 2010. The paper highlighted relevance of sovereign bond market for the smooth functioning of the monetary policy transmission mechanism in a monetary union context. Three ECB’s programmes aimed at sovereign debt crisis resolution were analysed in details. They proved successful in lowering peripheral countries’ yields and spreads, and calming the markets. If one takes central bank function of the lender of last resort for banks, then these programmes may be viewed as the “buyer of last resort” device for government bonds. Although warranted by exceptional circumstances and need for swift response, a due caution should be paid to these programmes since they pose certain challenges for conduct of monetary policy and might even have unintended consequences.

  3. Integration of three important urban spaces in the city of Patras. A design research on the relationship of characteristics of space and the enriched environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliki Kondyli

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents a design project that focuses on three important urban spaces in the city of Patras. The contribution deals with some of the fundamental problems which depict in these particular areas. Two of the most essential issues of these abandoned and isolated places are the accessibility of pedestrians and the lack of identity. A design experiment is developed, identifying disadvantages of the space and taking into consideration groups of people that are interested in an upc...

  4. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  5. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  6. The Implementation of Integrated One-Stop Service at Licensing Service Agency in Order to Improve Licensing Service to Society (Case Study On Business License Service At Investment And Integrated Licensing Service Agency (IILSA Of Pasuruan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyani Dini Pramita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses about the implementation of integrated one-stop licensing services related to service of SIUP, conducted by the Investment and Integrated Licensing Service Agency (IILSA in Pasuruan City. In general there are any issues related to License for business activities, namely: the complicated procedures, high costs and legal uncertainty. To overcome this problem the government issued Permendagri number 24 of 2006 about Guidelines for the Implementation of One Stop Services. The focus of this study discusses the implementation of an integrated one-stop service, based on the rules associated with seeing some of the following elements: (1 executing actor (2 communication (3 resources (4 bureaucratic structure (5 the target group. This research used descriptive method with qualitative research approach. Activity of data analysis in this study consisted of data reduction, display and verification of data. The result of this research can be said that the implementation is done by IILSA of Pasuruan city has been good although there are a few things that need to be improved related to the internet connection is still an obstacle in the implementation of the operational in the delivery service for SIUP and also the lack of facilities and infrastructure available. Keywords: IILSA of Pasuruan City, Licensing Service, SIUP (Business License, Improve Service, The Implementation.

  7. The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

  8. Web based hybrid volumetric visualisation of urban GIS data. Integration of 4D Temperature and Wind Fields with LoD-2 CityGML models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congote, J.; Moreno, A.; Kabongo, L.; Pérez, J.-L.; San-José, R.; Ruiz, O.

    2012-10-01

    City models visualisation, buildings, structures and volumetric information, is an important task in Computer Graphics and Urban Planning. The different formats and data sources involved in the visualisation make the development of applications a big challenge. We present a homogeneous web visualisation framework using X3DOM and MEDX3DOM for the visualisation of these urban objects. We present an integration of different declarative data sources, enabling the utilization of advanced visualisation algorithms to render the models. It has been tested with a city model composed of buildings from the Madrid University Campus, some volumetric datasets coming from Air Quality Models and 2D layers wind datasets. Results show that the visualisation of all the urban models can be performed in real time on the Web. An HTML5 web interface is presented to the users, enabling real time modifications of visualisation parameters.

  9. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  10. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NOx, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM10) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH4, N2O and CO2), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NOx and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  11. Extraction of multilayer vegetation coverage using airborne LiDAR discrete points with intensity information in urban areas: A case study in Nanjing City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenquan; Zhao, Shuhe; Feng, Xuezhi; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Urban vegetation is of a strategic importance for the life quality in the increasing urbanized societies. However, it is still difficult to extract accurately urban vegetation vertical distribution with remote sensing images. This paper presented an effective method to extract multilayer vegetation coverage in urban areas using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) discrete points with intensity information. It was applied in Nanjing City, one of the ecological cities in China. Firstly, a median filtering algorithm based on discrete points was used to restrain high-frequency noise. The airborne LiDAR data intensities of different urban objects were analyzed and obtained three rules, which can distinguish between vegetation and non-vegetation in urban areas, after removing the influence of topography. According to the footprint size and principles of distribution of the point cloud, multilayer vegetation coverage, including trees, shrubs and grass, was achieved by the inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation method. The results show that the overall accuracy of the vegetation point classification is 94.57%, which is much accurate than that of the methods in TerraSolid software, through comparing with the investigation in the field and Digital Orthophoto Maps (DOM). This method proposed in our work can be applied to in the extraction of multilayer vegetation coverage in urban area.

  12. Housing, Urban Renewal and Socio-Spatial Integration. A Study on Rehabilitating the Former Socialistic Public Housing Areas in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Hui

    2013-02-01

    -technical dimensions in each section.This research framework is presented in my writing. In this book, Part II, following the introductive Part I, reviewed the historical evolution of Beijing’s socialistic public housing in the socio-economic, community-placial and aesthetic-technical dimensions, respectively. Part III subsequently analyzed the current urban housing problem, the existing conditions of Beijing’s former socialistic public housing areas and the dilemma of urban renewal. It concluded by raising the concrete challenges of an alternative approach for renewing those housing areas. These challenges comprise the balance of housing affordability and economic sustainability, the stabilization of mixed community and the alternative physical initiatives instead of the wholesale reconstruction.In order to answer to these challenges, the study in Part IV focused on several successful and referable experiences of urban renewal in cities with a comparable context, i.e. Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Berlin, Vienna and Hong Kong. And Part V, based on two “pilot design research projects” on Sanlihe Neighborhood 1 in Beijing, developed a proposal for rehabilitating the former socialistic public housing areas in Beijing. This proposal is called an integrated plural approach. This approach is made up of six recommended strategies that are also sorted by three dimensions. There are housing re-socialization and economic sustainability in the socio-economic dimension, housing differentiation and community participation in the community-placial, as well as a combination of housing renovation and reconstruction and an integral physical planning/design in the aesthetic-technical dimensions. In conclusion, while those strategies gave answers to the existing practical challenges, the integrated plural approach in all proposed a new establishment of urban rehabilitation to adapt to the hybrid, diverse and plural Chinese situation and to fulfill the ethical task of sociospatial integration

  13. Integrated GPR and ERT as Enhanced Detection for Subsurface Historical Structures Inside Babylonian Houses Site, Uruk City, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khersan, Emad H.; Al-Ani, Jassim M. T.; Abrahem, Salah N.

    2016-03-01

    Uruk archaeological site, which located in Al-Muthanna Governorate southern Iraq, was investigated by integrated geophysical methods, ground penetration radar (GPR) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) to image the historical buried structures. The GPR images show large radar attributes characterized by its continuous reflections having different widths. GPR attributes at shallower depth are mainly representing the upper part of Babylonian Houses that can often be found throughout the study area. In addition, radargrams characterized objects such as buried items, buried trenches and pits which were mainly concentrated near the surface. The ERT results show the presence of several anomalies at different depths generally having low resistivities. It is clear that the first upper zone can be found throughout the whole area and it may represent the top zone of the Babylonian houses. This zone is characterized by its dry clay and sandy soil containing surface broken bricks and slag mixed with core boulders. The second one underneath the top shows a prominent lower resistivity zone. It is probably caused by the moisture content that reduces the resistivity. The thickness of this zone is not equal at all parts of the site. The third deeper zone typically represents the archaeological walls. Most of the main anomalies perhaps referred to the buried clay brick walls. The map of the archaeological anomalies distribution and 3D view of the foundations at the study area using GPR and ERT techniques clearly show the characteristics of the Babylonian remains. A contour map and 3D view of Uruk show that the archaeological anomalies are concentrated mainly at the NE part of the district with higher values of wall height that range between 6 and 8 m and reach to more than 10 m. At the other directions, there are fewer walls with lower heights of 4-6 m and reach in some places the wall foot.

  14. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  15. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2013-11-26

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  16. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  17. The Degree of the Polish and Slovak equity market integration with the euro area equity market

    OpenAIRE

    Slawomir Ireneusz Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline results of investigations into the degree of the Polish and Slovak equity market integration with the euro area equity market. In investigations was used monthly data from the 1999:01-2011:12 period concerning the yield performance of the following indices: WIG, DJ EUROSTOXX, DOW JONES COMPOSITE AVERAGE and SAX. The model of the “increased impact of the common information component on equity market yields” estimated by means of GARCH (1,1) was used as a mea...

  18. A Domino Game Developed To Integrate Basic Disciplines Of Graduation Courses In The Biomedical Area

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Gonçalves; M. S. Leal; C. C. Albuquerque; K. L. Nunes; L.B. Queiroz; M. Gandra

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate students of the biomedical area, such as Medicine, Odontology, Biomedicine,  show considerable difficulty in learni ng basic disciplines, which contributes to the high degree of failure shown in these disciplines. Among them, Biochemistry is “accused” of being the most difficult one and integration of its contents with other  disciplines is still not fully achieved, despite the new technological tools available nowadays. Considering this, some Odontology students produced a domi...

  19. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites

  20. Integrity of Local Ecosystems and Storm Water Management in Residential Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; WANG Weida; GONG Zhaoguo

    2006-01-01

    The authors designed an ecological storm water system in a residential area to replace the conventional underground channels for the collection of storm water so as to reduce the nutrients and sediments discharged. This system contains natural sub-creeks as drainage channels discharging overflow to nearby creeks, an open green trench, a storage pond,and natural sub-creeks. The sub-creeks were designed to be integrated into community landscape, which not only increases the efficiency of water usage, but also improves the aesthetic qualities of the community residence area as required by Agenda 21. This research proved the feasibility of an open storm water collection and utilization system for the design of a community water system.

  1. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations

  2. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarallo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.tarallo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mozzillo, Rocco; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS, C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations.

  3. Modelling the energy transition in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Felix [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwarze, Bjoern; Spiekermann, Klaus; Wegener, Michael [Spiekermann und Wegener Urban and Regional Research, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The history of cities is a history of energy transitions. In the medieval city heating and cooking occurred with wood and peat. The growth of the industrial city in the 19th century was built on coal and electricity. The sprawling metropolis of the 20th century was made possible by oil and gas. How will the city of the 21st century look after the next energy transition from fossil to renewable energy? This paper reports on the extension of an urban land-use transport interaction model to a model of the energy transition in the Ruhr Area, a five-million agglomeration in Germany. The paper presents the planned model extensions and how they are to be integrated into the model and shows first preliminary results.

  4. Urbanization and its impacts on founded areas of big cities in pakistan: case studies of ichra and sanda areas in lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanization put immense pressure on urban infrastructure and services. Burdened with unrelenting pressure, the founded areas of Lahore have now been converted into slums. Poor services, urban infrastructure and dilapidated building have made lives of the resident miserable. A significant proportion of the people is living in dangerous buildings which could be declared unfit for habitation under section 34 of Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001 (PLGO 2001). The paper attempts to highlight situations of two founded areas of Lahore namely, Icchra and Sanda in comparison with slums areas to grade living standards of the people. Actions under PLGO 2001 and urban renewal programs are suggested to revitalize such areas. (author)

  5. Housing, Urban Renewal and Socio-Spatial Integration. A Study on Rehabilitating the Former Socialistic Public Housing Areas in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Hui

    2013-01-01

    The initiative of this study derived from my concern of two critical urban issues in China today: housing and urban renewal. In the recent two decades, the Chinese urban housing stock underwent a significant, if not extreme, transformation. From 1949 to 1998, the urban housing stock in China largely depended on the public sector, and a large amount of public housing areas were developed under the socialistic public housing system in Beijing and other Chinese cities. Yet in 1998, a radical hou...

  6. AlGaInAs MOVPE selective area growth for photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decobert, Jean; Binet, Guillaume; Maia, Alvaro D. B.; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Kazmierski, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    We developed a generic photonic integration platform based on selective area growth (SAG) by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of AlGaInAs/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) material. For efficient and predictive band gap engineering of photonic integrated circuits, different SAG zones of active and passive function heterostructures are precisely modeled and characterized. With the vapor-phase diffusion model, using numerical simulations of finite volumes, we extracted the three effective diffusion lengths of Al, Ga, and In species. In our growth conditions, these lengths were 32, 65, and 14 μm, respectively. The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, a classic approach to describe the growing interface profile, is used. AlGaInAs MQW properties are then simulated in terms of thickness, composition, band gap, and biaxial strain variations. Highly resolved μ-photoluminescence and optical interferometer microscopy measurements confirm the validity of the band gap and thickness variations for both bulk and MQW layers. A new diffractometer, with a submillimeter X-ray spot, was used to study the structural properties of the MQW in the center of the SAG area. As an application, we present the realization and operation of full-monolithic high-speed advanced modulation format transmitters based on novel prefixed optical phase switching by fast electro-absorption modulators.

  7. Social Networks as an Integration Tool in Rural Areas – Agricultural Enterprises of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stočes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have been growing at a rapid pace. Social media represent one of the most significant phenomena of today's world and are more and more integrated from the private sphere into the commercial one (e.g. into marketing where social media already play a substantial role. The present paper is aimed at introducing an initial study on the use of social media in agricultural enterprises. The study was thus targeted at agricultural enterprises – both legal entities (public limited companies, limited liability companies and last but not least cooperatives and natural persons (farmers that farm the total area of more than 100 hectares (a basic selection criterion of the survey. This interesting study was conducted by means of a questionnaire survey that included information on social media awareness, development and use within the respective group of respondents (bigger agricultural enterprises. The paper deals with social media as such and naturally with the survey results. The data retrieved from the questionnaire were used not only for monitoring social networks integration in the agrarian sector (important factor in rural areas but as well for exploring the potential of modern information tools in agriculture promotion. The survey has been carried out in mutual cooperation of the Department of Information Technologies with the Information and Consulting Centre, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague.

  8. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site.

  9. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy's (DOE's) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site

  10. First stage of INTRAMAP: INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRAMAP (INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project is an international effort to merge the magnetic data acquired throughout the "Ross Sea Antarctic Sector" (south of 60°S between 135°-255°E including the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM, the Ross Sea, Marie Byrd Land, and the Pacific coast, and also to begin the compilation efforts for new data over the Wilkes Basin. This project is a component of the continental scale Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP. The first stage of INTRAMAP addresses the analysis and merging of GITARA (1991-1994 and GANOVEX (1984 aeromagnetic surveys together with ground magnetic data (1984-1989. The combined data sets cover an area of approximately 30 km2 over Victoria Land and adjacent Ross Sea. Map and profile gridding were implemented to integrate the data sets. These approaches are studied for improving existing strategies to adopt for the whole magnetic compilation effort. The final microlevelled grid that we produce is a new tool for regional interpretation of the main tectonic and geologic features of this sector of Antarctica.

  11. A Domino Game Developed To Integrate Basic Disciplines Of Graduation Courses In The Biomedical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Gonçalves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate students of the biomedical area, such as Medicine, Odontology, Biomedicine,  show considerable difficulty in learni ng basic disciplines, which contributes to the high degree of failure shown in these disciplines. Among them, Biochemistry is “accused” of being the most difficult one and integration of its contents with other  disciplines is still not fully achieved, despite the new technological tools available nowadays. Considering this, some Odontology students produced a domino game to exercise biochemistry knowledge while integrating it with microbiology, but keeping the fun of the original game. In this version of the classic game the number on the pieces were changed to specific subjects in biochemistry or microbiology. Associating the pieces require not only the ordinary strategies of the classic game, but also the academic experience on the related areas. The  students involved in the  development of this game acknowledged it as a helpful tool to better understanding biochemistry as well as microbiology. The formal presentation of the game to the others students of our class brought up similar considerations. The production and distribution of this kind of games might help young students of their career beginnings.

  12. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBASAKI; Ryosuke

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is pre- sented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users’ decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions, while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for ad- dressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally, the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline. The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  13. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  14. An Example of City Disaster Plan in the Context of Integrated Disaster Management with Un sufficient Legal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disaster management of a city, in coherent, stable and true manner, were realized by understanding and organizing of the disaster plan. When we consider the earthquake hazard of Marmara Region, it was investigated by the scientific studies how -a world city- Istanbul were effected this earthquake. When we consider the scientific data and we take a base the current legal structure of our country, the aim of the disaster plan is to provide the fist and emergency aid for the citizens when the destructive earthquake were occurred and effected the general life. This disaster plan includes base of the coordination and helping each other of the activity which all institution and organizations will do during possible disaster. The aims of making of plan is to provide the cooperation and collaboration between before the disaster and to act urgently during the disaster, and to provide the following necessary activity. This necessary activity as main headlines are; the providing of communication and transportation; regulation of traffic; rescue; emergency medical aid, to transportation patient and injured people to the hospitals; to put out fire; to provide security and public order; eating, dressing, heating and lighting studies; to provide temporary housing; the burial of dead citizens; to remove wreckage; to repair and to re-provide the electrical, water and canalization construction. In this study, it will mainly be presented Istanbul city disaster plan. Disaster plan of this city were produced by the intensive and sacrificial efforts with Turkish legal system. After that, disaster plan must updated as soon as possible. However government must regulate current legal system ( or the body of current law) related disaster plan. City disaster plan, which even construct well, include only the operations after the disaster. Before disaster, methods of preventive precaution against the disaster must add the plan with applicable legal system

  15. The Scale Benefit Analysis of Sugar Clusters in Resource-rich Area of Southweatern Guangxi——A Case of Chongzuo City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the scope economic theory of "resource curse" and industrial clusters,the scale of sugar cluster is calculated by the output of sugarcane and sugar while the scale benefit of sugar cluster is measured by the productivity(rate of sugar production),sales output ratio,industrial output value as well as profit margin.Positive analysis of the scale merit of sugar clusters in resource-rich area of southwestern Guangxi is conducted according to related statistics of Chongzuo City.And the primary problems of sugar clusters are pointed out.The profit created by sugar for the sugar industry in Chongzuo City has already been near capacity.The sugar industry is big but not strong.With much governmental interfernce,there is no effective connections and inadequte competitive forces among subjects of the clusters.The extention of industrial chain is limited.Therefore,measures for developing sugar clusters in resource-rich area of southwestern Guangxi are proposed.Industrial structure is to be adjusted to improve the sugarcane cultivation techniques.The industrial chain should be extended to increase the economic benefits of sugar industry.Industrial support is to be strengthened and capital output for sicence and technology increased.Price regualtion fund of grain sugar is to be established with coordination with the superior region.The transformation from savings to investment should be quickened to evade "resource curse".

  16. Measurement-Based Investigation of Inter- and Intra-Area Effects of Wind Power Plant Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Alicia J.; Singh, Mohit; Muljadi, Eduard; Santoso, Surya

    2016-12-01

    This paper has a two pronged objective: the first objective is to analyze the general effects of wind power plant (WPP) integration and the resulting displacement of conventional power plant (CPP) inertia on power system stability and the second is to demonstrate the efficacy of PMU data in power system stability analyses, specifically when knowledge of the network is incomplete. Traditionally modal analysis applies small signal stability analysis based on Eigenvalues and the assumption of complete knowledge of the network and all of its components. The analysis presented here differs because it is a measurement-based investigation and employs simulated measurement data. Even if knowledge of the network were incomplete, this methodology would allow for monitoring and analysis of modes. This allows non-utility entities and study of power system stability. To generate inter- and intra-area modes, Kundur's well-known two-area four-generator system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC. A doubly-fed induction generator based WPP model, based on the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) standard model, is included to analyze the effects of wind power on system modes. The two-area system and WPP are connected in various configurations with respect to WPP placement, CPP inertia and WPP penetration level. Analysis is performed on the data generated by the simulations. For each simulation run, a different configuration is chosen and a large disturbance is applied. The sampling frequency is set to resemble the sampling frequency at which data is available from phasor measurement units (PMUs). The estimate of power spectral density of these signals is made using the Yule-Walker algorithm. The resulting analysis shows that the presence of a WPP does not, of itself, lead to the introduction of new modes. The analysis also shows however that displacement of inertia may lead to introduction of new modes. The effects of location of inertia displacement (i.e. the effects on

  17. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard B FrancoeurSchool of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples; expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1 developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper- or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations; and (2 expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse

  18. Study on Dividing Environmental Noise Suitable Area in New Fanhe Area of Tieling City%铁岭市凡河新区环境噪声适用区域划分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜威

    2014-01-01

    In order to control noise pollution and ensure high quality sound environment for people,the environ-mental noise suitable area in New Fanhe area of Tieling city was divided according to a national standard of“Tech-nical Specifications to Determinate the Suitable Area for Enironmental Noise of Urban Area”.%为防治噪声污染,保障居民正常生活、工作和学习的声环境质量,按照《城市区域环境噪声适用区划分技术规范》划分铁岭市凡河新区环境噪声适用区域。

  19. Comparison of the climatic indicators of architecture in warm and dry area (case study of Zabol city

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    Fariborz Hadifard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In any geographical region we are witnessing thearchitecture formation proportional to the climate with that specific regionthroughout different generations of human life, which is inevitable and whetheryou like it or not it is created due to different and various climaticconditions. These features eventually will manifest themselves in the form ofsome principles or a general formula which indicate to the architecturespecific to that certain climate. However, gradually with the growingachievement of various forms of energy the principles of the compliance of thebuildings with climatic conditions were ignore and this led to an increase inthe usage of energy. The present paper seeks to provide some solutions forcreating comfort with Building design in harmony with the climate throughstudying the warm and dry climate of our country as well as throughidentification of an appropriate architecture indicator for this climate. Forfocusing on this aim, Zabol city with a warm and dry climate has been selectedand with the use of the data and figures adopted from Statistics courtesy ofMeteorological Agency of Iran for a 15 year period and analyzing them in 5climatic indicators including: Mahoney, Evans, effective temperature (ET, fabriccomfort and bioclimatic of the building and human comfort has been studiedconsidering these indicators and the necessary recommendations have beenprovided and finally comfort has been introduced in Zabol climate and suitablepatterns of architecture have been provided for Zabol city that has beenpresented in the conclusion section at the end of the article. Also, in thispaper it is seen that Mahoney indicator suffices for Zabol climate and in caseof necessity and for completing our work we can use Evans indicator as well andthe indicator of fabric comfort can be exclusively used for textureidentification (outside the building of this climate.

  20. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid