WorldWideScience

Sample records for city air basin

  1. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  2. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  3. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  4. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...

  5. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  6. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  7. Biogeochemistry of the Forest City Basin coalbed methane play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jennifer [Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Martini, Anna [Department of Geology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, 01002 (United States); Petsch, Steven; Huang, Roger [Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9297 (United States); Nuesslein, Klaus [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    Hydrogeochemical and microbial analyses of co-produced formation waters and gas in the Forest City Basin were coupled to determine the origin of methane in shallow coal seams and make comparisons to commercial shale and coal gas plays in the adjacent Illinois, Michigan and Cherokee basins. Forest City Basin coals contain dilute meteoric waters (Cl{sup -} < 411 mM; average {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}D values = - 6.9 permille and - 45.6 permille VSMOW, respectively), no detectable SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and high alkalinity concentrations ({proportional_to} 10 meq/L) with elevated {delta}{sup 13}C values (up to 13.1 permille VPDB). The {delta}{sup 13}C values of coalbed methane (average = - 64.7 permille VPDB) are approximately 72 permille depleted relative to the potential dissolved inorganic carbon source, and the {delta}D values of CH{sub 4} (average - 221 permille VSMOW) are approximately - 175 permille depleted compared with ambient formation waters. Together, these molecular and isotopic signatures of Forest City Basin waters and gas point to a microbial origin for methane. Enrichment cultures of microbial cells inoculated from Forest City Basin coal waters confirm the presence of a microbial community of fermentative bacteria, and both CO{sub 2}-reducing and acetate-utilizing forms of methanogenic Archaea, similar to what has been observed in the Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin. (author)

  8. Aerosol climatology over Mexico City basin: Characterization of their optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali-Sandoval, Giovanni; Valdéz-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonso, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Estévez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    Climatology of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size parameters were analyzed using a 15-year (1999-2014) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations over Mexico City basin. Since urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems that face this megacity, many studies addressing these issues have been published. However few studies have examined the climatology of aerosol taking into account their optical properties over long-time period. Pollution problems in Mexico City have been generated by the daily activities of some 21 million people coupled with the vast amount of industry located within the city's metropolitan area. Another contributing factor is the unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City. The basin covers approximately 5000 km2 of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (ASL) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3000 m ASL. In this work we present preliminary results of aerosol climatology in Mexico City.

  9. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  10. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  11. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  12. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  13. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air ... to shop; availability and safety of bike paths; parking costs; and access to public transportation. Specifically, the ...

  14. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  15. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  16. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  17. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  18. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  19. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  20. Air Quality in Major European Cities. Part II: City Report Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantvoort EDG van; Sluyter RJCF; Larssen S; Eerens HC; Velze K van; Bezuglaya E; Burn J; Gronskei K; LLO; NILU; MGO

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of Europe's Environment programme, commissioned by the EU and co-ordinated by the EEA-Task Force, RIVM, NILU and MGO conducted a study on air quality in a number of cities in Europe. The results of this research were summarised in Sluyter (ed.), 1995 (Air Quality in Major Europe

  1. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  2. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  3. Air-sea linkages in European port cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ducruet, César; Joly, Olivier; Martell Flores, Hipolito

    2005-01-01

    This chapter aims at highlighting the relationships between air, maritime & logistic activities of port cities in Europe. Although recent studies have considered sea-air intermodality as a locational advantage for ports and coastal urban centres, they are still few and isolated case studies. Nevertheless, this subject appears to be of growing interest for transport, logistic players and urban planners to improve port performance in a competitive context. However, there is neither an estimatio...

  4. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  5. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  6. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  8. Air pollution and unleaded gasoline in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Bríd Gleeson Hanna; Alethia Jimenez Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Using a spline regression model and a monthly time series from January 1989 to December 2004 for Mexico City, we test for changes in the time trend for air pollution that coincide with the introduction of a new and relatively expensive unleaded gasoline in September 1990. At this time, new cars were required to have catalytic converters and leaded gasoline was significantly cheaper than unleaded gasoline. The price difference provided an incentive to use leaded gasoline in automobiles that we...

  9. Continuous measurement of gaseous pollutants in Buenos Aires city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Horacio; Martín Negri, R.; San Román, Enrique

    Data on CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations measured in Buenos Aires city using a continuous monitoring station are reported. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in the city, which is, together with its surroundings, the third more populated in Latin America. Measurements were performed during 12 months in one of the principal avenues near downtown. Results indicate that vehicular traffic is the principal source of CO and NO x. The concentration of O 3 is generally quite low and results from the mixing of clean air masses with exhaust gases containing high amounts of NO. The monthly averages of CO and NO decrease from Winter to Summer in correlation with the increase of the mean wind speed and average temperature. These results are compared with previous measurements on the spatial distribution of NO 2 in the whole city using passive diffusion tubes and with the concentration of CO, which is being continuously registered since several years in the downtown area. Measurements performed at a green, windy, low traffic area beneath the La Plata river are also shown.

  10. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-29

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO{sub 2} were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO{sub 2} and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs.

  11. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Negative Air Ion Concentrations in Danqinghe Experimental Forest,Harbin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, air ions, especially of negative air ion has received a universal attention for its health function. The density of negative air ion has become one of the important indexes that measure the air quality grade. With the air ions counter made in Japan, the spatial distribution characteristics of negative air concentrations at specific time in Danqinghe Experimental Forest were measured and studied, Harbin City, and the air quality was assessed by using ion polarity ration (q) and air ion asses...

  12. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  13. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area:...

  14. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  15. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  16. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  17. Analysis on the Characteristics of Environmental Kuznets Curve and Assessment of Air Quality in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the characteristics of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and assess air quality in Qingdao City. [Method] The EKC characteristics of Qingdao from 1996 to 2008 were studied based on air pollutant discharge indices, air pollution indices and economic data from the environmental quality reports and statistics yearbooks of Qingdao, and the air quality of Qingdao City was assessed. [Result] With the increase of GDP per capita, the total discharge of industrial waste gases impro...

  18. FUNGAL FLORA OF THE AIR OF BABOL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Omran

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal conidia and spores are among various organisms found in the air, causing different types of mycoses. In this study (from February 1994 until March 1995 fungal spores and conidia were collected by their settlement on to petri - dishes from 33 locations in Babol city during 4 seasons. Plates of sabouraud dextrose agar were laid 1.5 M. from the ground and then sent to mycology laboratory where they were incubated at room temperature. The fungi were examined by microscop and gross examination. 1520 colonies including 24 genera (Hyphomycetes 27.54% and yeast 25.46% grew on 132 plates (11.5 colonies I plate. The most prevalent fungi isolated in this study were Cladosporiurn, yeast and Penicilliwn, Most of the colonies detected observed in summer (704 colonies, and there had been the least number of colonies isolated in winter (187 colonies.

  19. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  20. Application of SIM-air modeling tools to assess air quality in Indian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2012-12-01

    A prerequisite to an air quality management plan for a city is some idea of the main sources of pollution and their contributions for a city. This paper presents the results of an application of the SIM-air modeling tool in six Indian cities - Pune, Chennai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, and Rajkot. Using existing and publicly available data, we put together a baseline of multi-pollutant emissions for each of the cities and then calculate concentrations, health impacts, and model alternative scenarios for 2020. The measured annual PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micron meter) concentrations in μg m-3 averaged 94.7 ± 45.4 in Pune, 73.1 ± 33.7 in Chennai, 118.8 ± 44.3 in Indore, 94.0 ± 20.4 in Ahmedabad, 89.4 ± 12.1 in Surat, and 105.0 ± 25.6 in Rajkot, all exceeding the annual standard of 60 μg m-3. The PM10 inventory in tons/year for the year 2010 of 38,400 in Pune, 50,200 in Chennai, 18,600 in Indore, 31,900 in Ahmedabad, 20,000 in Surat, and 14,000 in Rajkot, is further spatially segregated into 1 km grids and includes all known sources such as transport, road dust, residential, power plants, industries (including the brick kilns), waste burning, and diesel generator sets. We use the ATMoS chemical transport model to validate the emissions inventory and estimate an annual premature mortality due to particulate pollution of 15,200 for the year 2010 for the six cities. Of the estimated 21,400 premature deaths in the six cities in 2020, we estimate that implementation of the six interventions in the transport and brick kiln sectors, can potentially save 5870 lives (27%) annually and result in an annual reduction of 16.8 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities.

  1. A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BASIN CITY UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city’s UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls “sinking heat island”. From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  2. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  3. Moving towards cleaner air: a progress report on the air quality strategy for the City of Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Toronto Environmental Plan was adapted in principle by City Council in April 2000. The Plan contains 66 recommendations on land, air, water, governance, sustainability, energy, transportation, green economic development and monitoring. As part of the actions on air, the Plan recommended that the City develop a comprehensive strategy to make Toronto's air clean and free of harmful levels of pollutants. This document reports on progress in the development of this comprehensive air quality standard. Work on the standards was undertaken by an Air Quality Strategy Interdepartmental Working Group (AQSI Working Group) consisting of city departmental representatives, which is one of several working groups reporting to the Toronto Interdepartmental Environmental Team (TIE). While the AQSI Working Group has not yet concluded its work, it is able to report a number of preliminary conclusions. Among them are: implementation of several successful city-wide programs. In this context preliminary indications are that program effectiveness will be limited by the availability of staff and appropriate funding. Policy and legal studies that will provide essential information relating to the legal/jurisdictional context are well underway. Modelling and monitoring of Toronto's air quality are in progress, and will be relied upon for information to guide policy development. Final strategy will have to be formulated in a regional context, in concert with the provincial and federal governments, and will have to take into account trans-boundary (inter-regional, inter-provincial and international) issues

  4. The last will be first: Water transfers from agriculture to cities in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komakech, H.C.; Van der Zaag, P.; Koppen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Water transfers to growing cities in sub-Sahara Africa, as elsewhere, seem inevitable. But absolute water entitlements in basins with variable supply may seriously affect many water users in times of water scarcity. This paper is based on research conducted in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania. Usin

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  6. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including “north-low”, “southwest-trough”, “southeast-high”, “trans...

  7. Air pollution and respiratory diseases in African big cities : the case of Cotonou in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotonou is one of the most polluted cities in west Africa because of its preferred mode of transportation for residents, the zemidjan. The zemidjan is a two-wheeled vehicle taxi whose motorcycle exhaust emits air pollution, creating health risks for drivers, passengers and residents. The pollution contributes to respiratory diseases and other ailments such as respiratory infection, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This paper describes and statistically analyses the pollution problem in Cotonou by presenting information on the city of Cotonou, examining environment quality indicators (such as air quality) and presenting an overview of the situation. It also estimates and forecasts the human health risks to Cotonou residents. It reviews the measures taken by central and local governments to protect citizens against these risks. The paper also makes several recommendations including: organize a permanent and formal monitoring system for air quality management in the city; create stronger local laws and rules to regulate air pollution in the city; involve the population living in the city in decision making processes; and, conduct research studies on the perception and behaviour of the population towards environmental issues such as air pollution and air quality. 6 tabs., 1 fig., 11 refs

  8. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  9. Proceedings of the upwind downwind cities air and health conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upwind downwind conference examined the health impacts of poor air quality and how land use decisions impact air quality as well as the roles of industry, community groups, academia and government in improving air quality. Conference attendees included planners, public health officials, policy makers, environmental managers, non-government organizations, academics, industry, community groups and politicians. The conference covered several topics including partnerships between public health and planning with respect to improving air quality in urban environments; the use of science in decision-making and development of new projects, policies and regulations; airshed agreements in North America, in addition to Ontario's new air quality regulations; and examples of citizen groups, non-government organizations, industry, academia and local, provincial and federal governments partnering to improve air quality. A total of 16 presentations were presented at the conference, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The conference also featured several keynote speakers and panel discussions. tabs., figs

  10. Air Quality Over Baghdad City Using Earth Observation And Landsat Thermal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Salah A. H. Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution problem is a major concern in many large cities and becomes increasingly critical in this present-day in developed or developing countries around the world. Mapping of urban air pollution dispersion is very complex as it depends upon various factors including weather conditions, urban structural features and their topologies. Air pollution dispersion distribution can be mapped by using mathematical models and interpolation methods based on ground local measurements of meteorolog...

  11. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  12. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  13. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  14. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  15. Detailed determination of air quality and noise pollution. Improving the local climate in Dutch cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two demonstration projects are discussed in which attention is paid to air quality and noise pollution in Dutch urban areas. One project concerns the relocation of a bus station in a city centre, focusing on the bottlenecks and the impacts of obstacles (screens, buildings) in the combined modelling of air and noise pollution. Another project concerns the exposure of noise and air pollution to occupants of a trailer camp near a highway. For both projects detailed computer calculations (CAR II, WinMiskam, Lasat) were carried out for the impact on air quality and noise pollution

  16. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  17. Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, Claudine; Karatzas, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    The holistic approach to sustainable urban planning implies using different models in an integrated way that is capable of simulating the urban system. As the interconnection of such models is not a trivial task, one of the key elements that may be applied is the description of the urban geometric properties in an "interoperable" way. Focusing on air quality as one of the most pronounced urban problems, the geometric aspects of a city may be described by objects such as those defined in CityGML, so that an appropriate air quality model can be applied for estimating the quality of the urban air on the basis of atmospheric flow and chemistry equations. In this paper we first present theoretical background and motivations for the interconnection of 3D city models and other models related to sustainable development and urban planning. Then we present a practical experiment based on the interconnection of CityGML with an air quality model. Our approach is based on the creation of an ontology of air quality models ...

  18. Stated preferences for improved air quality management in the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Ndambiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study uses contingent valuation (CV framework to assess individuals’ preferences for improved air quality management through motorized emission reductions in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. A conventional payment card (PC is used to draw preferences from individuals in order to estimate the mean and the median willingness to pay (WTP for air quality improvements in the city. Through interval regression analysis, the study finds that individuals are, on average, willing to pay Kshs. 396.57 ($4.67 and a median of Kshs. 244.94 ($2.88 to improve air quality management in the city. These amounts are found to increase with male gender, individuals’ income, certainty about future income and residence in an urban area. These amounts, however, decline with age, residential distance from nearby roads, and motor vehicle ownership. On the whole, the study shows significant public support towards improved air quality management in the city, which is of vital importance for effective formation and implementation of air quality management programmes.

  19. URBAIR. Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia. DKI JAKARTA City Specific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenskei, K.E.; Gram, F.; Hagen, L.O.; Larssen, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsthoorn, Z.; Soedomo, M.; Achmadi, U.F.

    1996-03-01

    Started by the World Bank in 1992, the URBAIR programme develops a generalized Air Quality Management Strategy (AQMS) to be used for Asian cities and applies strategy to develop action plans to improve the air quality in DKI Jakarta, Greater Bombay, Kathmandu Valley and Metro Manila. This report describes the development of an action plan for Jakarta City, based on assessment of emissions and air quality in the metropolitan area, population exposure and health effects (damage), the assessment of costs related to the damage and to a number of proposed abatement measures, and a cost-benefit analysis. This is the main report; there is an accompanying report containing appendices on air quality measurements, emission factors and inventory, exposure calculation etc. 38 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  1. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  2. SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC ACIDS AND LEVOGLUCOSAN IN NEW YORK CITY AIR FOLLOWING 9/11/2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic acid compounds and levoglucosan, an important molecular marker of burning cellulose, are detected in New York City air collected between 9/26/01 and 10/24/01 500 m from Ground Zero. Sampling of Ground Zero emissions at our site is commensurate with a southwesterly wind f...

  3. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  4. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  5. Air Quality in Major European Cities. Part I: Scientific Background Document to Europe's Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter RJCF (ed); Larssen S; Eerens HC; Zantvoort EDG van; Velze K van; Burn J; Gronskei K; Bezuglaya E; Smeets W; Henriksen JF; Lubkert-Alcamo B; National Institute of Public; Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller,; LLO; NILU; MGO

    1995-01-01

    This reports documents the research that RIVM, NILU and MGO have conducted into urban and local air pollution in Europe. The research was carried out in the framework of the Europe's Environment programme, commissioned by EU. Only cities with more than 500 000 inhabitants (105 in total) were describ

  6. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  7. The Last Will Be First: Water Transfers from Agriculture to Cities in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C. Komakech

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Water transfers to growing cities in sub-Sahara Africa, as elsewhere, seem inevitable. But absolute water entitlements in basins with variable supply may seriously affect many water users in times of water scarcity. This paper is based on research conducted in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania. Using a framework drawing from a theory of water right administration and transfer, the paper describes and analyses the appropriation of water from smallholder irrigators by cities. Here, farmers have over time created flexible allocation rules that are negotiated on a seasonal basis. More recently the basin water authority has been issuing formal water use rights that are based on average water availability. But actual flows are more often than not less than average. The issuing of state-based water use rights has been motivated on grounds of achieving economic efficiency and social equity. The emerging water conflicts between farmers and cities described in this paper have been driven by the fact that domestic use by city residents has, by law, priority over other types of use. The two cities described in this paper take the lion’s share of the available water during the low-flow season, and at times over and above the permitted amounts, creating extreme water stress among the farmers. Rural communities try to defend their prior use claims through involving local leaders, prominent politicians and district and regional commissioners. Power inequality between the different actors (city authorities, basin water office, and smallholder farmers played a critical role in the reallocation and hence the dynamics of water conflict. The paper proposes proportional allocation, whereby permitted abstractions are reduced in proportion to the expected shortfall in river flow, as an alternative by which limited water resources can be fairly allocated. The exact amounts (quantity or duration of use by which individual user allocations are reduced would be

  8. Urban air quality forecast for the city of Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranka, G.; Labancz, K.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a forecasting system producing enhanced maps of present and predicted concentrations of air pollutants in Budapest. In addition to the in-situ concentrations observed at a station, this tool will calculate the map of pollutant distribution using other monitored and calculated ambient air concentrations as well as predicted distributions calculated for one or two days using an integrated system of meteorological and dispersion models. The emissions of different primary pollutants from road transport in Budapest have been calculated using the European standard methodology. The emission model is based on emission factors of the well-known COPERT IV. The vehicles were grouped by category and by the emission of the vehicle's EURO standards. COPERT IV contains emission factors for each vehicle categories. The forecasting modelling system recently consists of a version of the MM5 meteorological model and the CHIMERE photochemistry transport model. Output of the CHIMERE dispersion model is the spatial distributions of the daily averages and maximum values that also determine whether or not standards are exceeded and to what degree. Otherwise calculated O3 values generally are in good agreement with measurements. The calculated values showed acceptable results compared to measured concentration, but further statistical evaluation is needed. The temporal variation of calculated O3 values is in good agreement with measurements, which proves that the photochemistry in the model works very well. In course of this research project, the coupled emission-dispersion model system would be established, in which case it will be possible to improve urban air quality using traffic control strategies.

  9. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran in urban air of an Andean city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, B H; Gonzalez, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E

    2011-09-01

    Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air were monitored together with particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) at three sampling sites of the Andean city of Manizales, Colombia; during September 2009 and July 2010. PCDD/Fs ambient air emissions ranged from 1 fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) to 52 fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in particulate fraction. The PM(10) concentrations ranged from 23 μg m(-3) to 54 μg m(-3). Concentrations of PM(10) and PCDD/Fs in ambient air observed for Manizales - a medium sized city with a population of 380,000 - were comparable to concentrations in larger cities. The highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PM(10) found in this study were determined at the central zone of the city, characterized by public transportation density, where diesel as principal fuel is used. In addition, hypothetical gas fractions of PCDD/Fs were calculated from theoretical K(p) data. Congener profiles of PCDD/Fs exhibited ratios associated with different combustion sources at the different sampling locations, ranging from steel recycling to gasoline and diesel engines. Taking into account particle and gas hypothetical fraction of PCDD/Fs, Manizales exhibited values of PCDD/Fs equivalent to rural and urban-industrial sites in the southeast and center of the city respectively. Poor correlation of PCDDs with PM(10) (r=-0.55 and r=0.52) suggests ambient air PCDDs were derived from various combustion sources. Stronger correlation was observed of PCDFs with PM(10). Poor correlation between precipitation and reduced PM(10) concentration in ambient air (r=-0.45) suggested low PM(10) removal by rainfall.

  11. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  12. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  13. Air pollution with particulates and heavy metals in some Syrian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of air pollution in different sites of five Syrian cities (Damascus, Aleppo, Tartous, Homs, and Sweda) was carried out. The concentrations of total suspended particulate less than 10 microns (PM 10) and less than 3 micron (PM3) were measured using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentration, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also determined using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentrations, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also determined using anodic stripping voltammetry. The result showed that TSP, PM10 and PM3 were higher than WHO standards in several times. Mean lead concentrations ranged between 0.58 and 2.96 μg/m3 and 0.56 and 1.53 μg/m3 in Damascus and Aleppo respectively, while in the other cities these concentrations were less than WHO standards (0.5 - 1 μg/m3). (author)

  14. Acute effects of air pollution changes in schoolchildren: the Gardanne coal basin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D.; Kleisbauer, J. P.; Fondarai, A.; Francheterre, A.; Fondarai, J.; Graland, B.; Viala, A.

    1988-12-01

    In the literature, studies devoted to shortterm effects of air pollution episodes in children have provided controversial results. To evaluate if acute air pollution changes in the Gardanne coal basin (France) could have deleterious effects on children's pulmonary function, we studied 160 children on two different days. Each in-school examination consisted of a short questionnaire and a spirometric assessment. The area included districts of high and low pollution levels. In the former, the two examinations took place at different air pollution levels whereas, in the latter, the air pollution levels were comparable. We obtained higher spirometric values during the second examination, regardless of air pollution changes and suggesting a learning effect, which vanished when we used FEV1/FVC ratio. The difference in FEV1/FVC between days of low and high pollution was significant but merely equal to 2%. There was no change of clinical symptom score.

  15. RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN «STREET CANYONS» OF CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Rusakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to state analyze of atmospheric air at its pollution with vehicle emissions in Dnipropetrovsk city, the development a numerical model and applied computing program for research of air pollution level with vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». Methodology. To achieve the research purpose it was studied the dynamic of change concentration of different pollutants that have been fixed on monitoring station of air quality in Dnipropetrovsk city. It was performed level assessment of air pollution from traffic (according to the Main Statistical Office in Dnipropetrovsk region. It was developed methodology for numerical calculation of concentration the atmospheric air pollution from vehicle emissions. To solve hydrodynamic task of determining velocity field of wind flow in streets the model of separated flows of an inviscid fluid was used; to solve the task of the calculation process of dispersion pollution the equation of convective-diffusion transfer of pollutant was used. To implement the proposed methodology we used implicit difference schemes. Findings.In the work a mathematical numerical model was developed and computing programs on its base were created. It allows conducting the computational experiments for evaluation the level of air pollution from vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». As a result of research regulations on change concentration of carbon monoxide near a considered group of buildings at different pollutant emissions were established. Originality.This numerical model was developed which allows accounting the hydrodynamic impact of group buildings on dispersion of pollutants when the wind speed and the vertical diffusion coefficient vary with height. Practical value. Conducting such class of computational experiments is necessary in the case of reconstruction of city

  16. Air Quality in Major European Cities. Part II: City Report Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantvoort EDG van; Sluyter RJCF; Larssen S (eds.); Eerens HC; Velze K van; Bezuglaya E; Burn J; Gronskei K; LLO; NILU; MGO

    1995-01-01

    In het kader van het Europe's Environment programma, in opdracht van de EU en gecoordineerd door EEA-Task Force, hebben RIVM, NILU en MGO een studie uitgevoerd naar de luchtkwaliteit in een aantal steden in Europa. De resultaten van dit onderzoek zijn samengevat in Sluyter (ed.), 1995 (Air

  17. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas...... as physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas....... The results presented show the simplicity of using 3D city models as a physical data input in air quality modelling and the 3D air quality will improve insight for visual impact analysis (i.e. analysing the immersion of are circulation zone). The results are advantageous for city planners, architects...

  18. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence on thermodynamics, gas and aerosol composition of city air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhegova, Nina; Belan, Boris; Antokhin, Pavel; Zhidovkhin, Evgenii; Ivlev, Georgii; Kozlov, Artem; Fofonov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    In the last 40-50 years there is a global tendency of urbanisation, which is a consequence of most countries' economical development. Concurrently, the issue of environment's ecological state has become critical. Urban air pollution is among the most important ecological problems nowadays. World Health Organization (WHO) points out certain "classical" polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), troposphere ozone (O3) (studied here), as well as lead, carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes, soot, benzpyrene and dredges (including dust, haze and smoke) [1]. An evaluation of antropogenic component's weight in the thermodynamical conditions and gas and aerosol composition of a city's atmosphere (by the example of Tomsk) is given in this paper. Tomsk is located at the South of West Siberia and is the administrative center of Tomsk region. The city's area is equal to 294,6 km2. Its population is 512.6 thousands of people. The overall number of registered motor vehicles in the city in 2008 was 131 700. That is, every fourth city inhabitant has a personal car. From 2002 to 2008 the number of motor vehicles in Tomsk has increased by 25 thousands units [2]. This increase consists mostly of passenger cars. There is also a positive trend in fuel consumtion by the city's industries and motor vehicles - from 2004 to 2007 it has increased by 10%. Such a quick rate of transport quantity's increase in the city provides reason to suggest an unfavorable ecological situation in Tomsk. For this study we have used the AKV-2 mobile station designed by the SB RAS Institute of Atmospheric Optics. The station's equipment provides the following measurements [3]: air temperature and humidity; aerosol disperse composition in 15 channels with a particle size range of 0.3-20 µm by use of the Grimm-1.108 aerosol spectrometer; NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2 concentration. This paper describes a single experiment conducted in Tomsk. Date of

  19. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  20. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in nine French cities: a quantitative summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tertre, Alain; Quénel, Philippe; Eilstein, Daniel; Medina, Sylvia; Prouvost, Helene; Pascal, Laurence; Boumghar, Azzedine; Saviuc, Philippe; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Filleul, Laurent; Declercq, Christophe; Cassadou, Sylvie; Le Goaster, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1995, 9 French cities provided data on daily air pollution, total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and respiratory mortality. Personnel in individual cities performed Poisson regressions, controlling for trends in seasons, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, and humidity, to assess the short-term effects of air pollution. The authors describe results obtained from the quantitative pooling of these local analyses. When no heterogeneity could be detected, a fixed-effect model was used; otherwise, a random-effect model was used. Significant and positive associations were found between total daily deaths in these cities and the 4 air pollution indicators studied: (1) Black Smoke, (2) sulfur dioxide, (3) nitrogen dioxide, and (4) ozone. A 50-microg/m3 increase in Black Smoke (24 hr), sulfur dioxide (24 hr), nitrogen dioxide (24 hr), or ozone (8 hr) was associated with increases in total mortality of 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 1.3, 4.4), 3.6% (95% CI = 2.1, 5.2), 3.8% (95% CI = 2.0, 5.5), and 2.7% (95% CI = 1.3, 4.1), respectively. Similar results were obtained for cardiovascular mortality. Except for sulfur dioxide, positive--but not significant--associations were found with respiratory mortality. The internal consistency among the cities studied, as well as consistency with previously published results, favors a causal interpretation of these associations. PMID:12530597

  1. Ion ratios and tritium extents as markers of salinization in the Bacolod City basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium statistics were used in tandem with geochemical information for the characterization of recharge to the Bacolod city basin. Waters were sampled from selected production wells,domestic wells, and surface water sources. The average tritium in the groundwater appeared to be 0.52 TU while surface and rain waters have an average of 0.86 and 0.89 TU, respectively. Physico-chemical properties (pH, conductivity, temperature) of the water were determined on site. Chemical characterization was focused on the determination of major ionic composition Na, K, Mg, Ca, as well as the major anions. Sulfate, (SO4), Chloride (Cl) by ion chromatography and bicarbonate ion by titration. Two portions of the basin displayed salient conductivity and chloride ion values which were strikingly greater than the rest f the other sampling points in the 3 year monitoring period. Tritium extents indicate that wells near the coasts receive potential contribution from modern recharge. Ion mass balance calculations and Br/Cl ratios corroborate tritium results to further validate that sea water intrusion may account for the high conductivities. The salinization and high conductivity of groundwater at points far from the coasts were attributed to connate formation at the deeper layer aquifers. Tritium extents indicated insignificant, sluggish recharge from precipitation before the 1950's, while ion mass balance do not indicate sea water intrusion. Establishment of geochemical data, in tandem with tritium, isotopic and other techniques, help in the identification of the origin and mechanism of recharge to the tapped aquifers which may aid local government units to properly delineate the areas that shall need concerted effort for protection, forest cover preservation and restoration within or outside the reservation area of the watershed. (author)

  2. Research on the Emission Inventory of Major Air Pollutants in 2012 for the Sichuan City Cluster in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; He, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This paper developed a high resolution emission inventory of major pollutants in city cluster of Sichuan Basin, one of the most polluted regions in China. The city cluster included five cities, which were Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, Meishan and Ziyang. Pollution source census and field measurements were conducted for the major emission sources such as the industry sources, on-road mobile sources, catering sources and the dust sources. The inventory results showed that in the year of 2012, the emission of SO2、NOX、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs and NH3 in the region were 143.5、251.9、1659.9、299.3、163.5、464.1 and 995kt respectively. Chengdu, the provincial capital city, had the largest emission load of every pollutant among the cities. The industry sources, including power plants, fuel combustion facilities and non-combustion processes were the largest emission sources for SO2、NOX and CO, contributing to 84%, 46.5%, 35% of total SO2, NOX and CO emissions. On-road mobile sources accounted for 46.5%, 33%, 16% of the total NOx, CO, PM2.5 emissions and 28% of the anthropogenic VOCs emission. Dust and industry sources contributed to 42% and 23% of the PM10 emission with the dust sources also as the largest source of PM2.5, contributing to 27%. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources took 75% and 25% of the total VOCs emission while 36% of anthropogenic VOCs emission was owing to solvent use. Livestock contributed to 62% of NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizer application whose contribution was 23%. Based on the developed emission inventory and local meteorological data, the regional air quality modeling system WRF-CMAQ was applied to simulate the status of PM2.5 pollution in a regional scale. The results showed that high PM2.5 concentration was distributed over the urban area of Chengdu and Deyang. On-road mobile sources and dust sources were two major contributors to the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu, both had an contribution ratio of 27%. In Deyang, Mianyang

  3. Intake fraction of primary pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Marshall; W. J. Riley; McKone, T.E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The intake fraction is defined for a specific species and emission source as the ratio of attributable population intake to total emissions. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study, we combine ambient monitoring data with time-activity patterns to estimate the population intake of carbon monoxide and benzene emitted from motor vehicles during 1996-1999. In addition to exposures to ambient concentrations, three microenvironments are considered in which the exposu...

  4. Simulations of a cold-air pool associated with elevated wintertime ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Neemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are used to investigate the meteorological characteristics of the 1–6 February 2013 cold-air pool in the Uintah Basin, Utah, and the resulting high ozone concentrations. Flow features affecting cold-air pools and air quality in the Uintah Basin are studied, including: penetration of clean air into the basin from across the surrounding mountains, elevated easterlies within the inversion layer, and thermally-driven slope and valley flows. The sensitivity of the boundary layer structure to cloud microphysics and snow cover variations are also examined. Ice-dominant clouds enhance cold-air pool strength compared to liquid-dominant clouds by increasing nocturnal cooling and decreasing longwave cloud forcing. Snow cover increases boundary layer stability by enhancing the surface albedo, reducing the absorbed solar insolation at the surface, and lowering near-surface air temperatures. Snow cover also increases ozone levels by enhancing solar radiation available for photochemical reactions.

  5. Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Crouse, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of environmental justice in Canadian cities have linked lower socioeconomic status to greater air pollution exposures at coarse geographic scales, (i.e., Census Tracts). However, studies that examine these associations at finer scales are less common, as are comparisons among cities. To assess differences in exposure to air pollution among socioeconomic groups, we assigned estimates of exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related pollution, from city-wide land use regression models to respondents of the 2006 Canadian census long-form questionnaire in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Data were aggregated at a finer scale than in most previous studies (i.e., by Dissemination Area (DA), which includes approximately 400-700 persons). We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models, which account for spatial autocorrelation, to identify associations between NO2 exposure and indicators of social and material deprivation. In Canada's three largest cities, DAs with greater proportions of tenants and residents who do not speak either English or French were characterised by greater exposures to ambient NO2. We also observed positive associations between NO2 concentrations and indicators of social deprivation, including the proportion of persons living alone (in Toronto), and the proportion of persons who were unmarried/not in a common-law relationship (in Vancouver). Other common measures of deprivation (e.g., lone-parent families, unemployment) were not associated with NO2 exposures. DAs characterised by selected indicators of deprivation were associated with higher concentrations of ambient NO2 air pollution in the three largest cities in Canada. PMID:26950027

  6. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    OpenAIRE

    P. Huszar; M. Belda; T. Halenka

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban e...

  7. Development and testing of an air quality model for Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; Streit, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cruz, X.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Russell, A.G.; McNair, L.A. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-03-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo have embarked on a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The intent is to develop a modeling system which can address the behavior of pollutants in the region so that option for improving Mexico City air quality can be properly evaluated. In February of 1991, the project conducted a field program which yielded a variety of data which is being used to evaluate and improve the models. Normally the worst air quality for both primary and photochemical pollutants occurs in the winter Mexico City. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of earth surface skin temperatures, and (4) tethersonde measurements of wind, temperature and ozone vertical profiles. A three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence meteorological model (HOTMAC) was modified to include an urban canopy and urban heat sources. HOTMAC is used to drive an Monte-Carlo kernel dispersion code (RAPTAD). HOTMAC also provides winds and mixing heights for the CIT photochemical model which was developed by investigators at the California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.

  8. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment.

  9. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  10. Trends of nitrogen oxides in ambient air in nine European cities between 1999 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Susann; Le Tertre, Alain; Atkinson, Richard W.; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco; Zeka, Ariana; Haluza, Daniela; Analitis, Antonis; Katsouyanni, Klea; Bouland, Catherine; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia; Goodman, Patrick G.

    2015-09-01

    Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has been credited with a general downward trend in NOx (NO2+NO) concentrations in Europe since the 1990's. However, recent studies suggest that traffic (roadside) (TR) NO2 concentrations have not decreased as expected, and in some cases increased, most likely due to the use of oxidation catalysts and particle filters in diesel vehicles (EURO III, IV, V, VI). In this study we describe the time trends in NOx, NO2 and NO concentrations in 9 European cities comparing TR and urban background (UB) monitoring locations. In each city, we collected hourly city-specific NOx, NO, and NO2 data from one TR and one UB monitoring site for each year. We describe hourly, weekly, seasonal and inter-annual patterns for periods corresponding to the implementation dates of various EURO vehicle emission standards regulating NOx emissions. The diurnal patterns in all 9 cities strongly reflected morning and evening traffic. In addition, lower weekend concentrations were observed. The NOx concentrations from the TR sites remain unchanged in the majority of the cities over the study period. When stratified by 3 time periods according to the implementation of the EURO standards, an increasing NO2/NOx ratio in 7/9 cities with time was noted. However, over the same time period the NO/NO2 ratio decreased in 8/9 cities. A permanent inversion of the NO/NO2 ratio was observed to occur in 2003 in 5/9 cities. Our analyses of temporal and diurnal patterns of NOx in European cities show reductions in concentrations consistent with reductions in primary emissions likely arising from the implementation of successive EURO standards. The generally constant or increasing NO2 concentrations in the majority of the cities assessed over the study period underline the need of further regulative measures to meet the air quality standards and consequently to minimise adverse effects on human health. The ongoing collection and analysis of pollution concentrations across

  11. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities : A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  12. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  13. Geological investigation of shaft mine in Devonian limestone in Kansas City, Missouri and other potentially dry excavated subsurface space in part of the Forest City Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.

    1977-10-01

    A high quality limestone is currently being mined from a deep shaft mine (1072 feet) in Middle Devonian rocks (Callaway) within the city limits of Kansas City, Missouri. About 15 acres of essentially dry space (room and pillar) with up to 14-foot ceilings have been developed. There are few natural joints observable in the rock within the mine. Some of these are periodically damp. More than 80% of the mine is dry. Saltwater from aquifers (Pennsylvanian) cut by the shaft accumulates behind the shaft at the pump station at 850 feet and at the bottom of the shaft (Devonian-Ordovician rocks). As long as the pumps lift the water to the surface, the mine can be kept relatively dry. Grouting of the aquifer's rocks in the shaft may seal off that source of water. The Burlington limestone of the Mississippian System is potentially mineable on the property now developed. The Burlington limestone, the Middle Devonian limestone, and the Kimmswick (Middle Ordovician) limestone are all potentially mineable by shaft mining in the northern part of Greater Kansas City and northward into the Forest City Basin.

  14. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases. PMID:26421944

  15. Urban air temperature anomalies and their relation to soil moisture observed in the city of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wiesner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of the urban air temperature for the city of Hamburg is analyzed based upon a one-year dataset of meteorological and pedological measurements. As local air temperature anomalies are subject to land-use and surface cover, they are monitored by a network of measurement stations within three different urban structures. Mean annual temperature deviations are found to be +1.0K$+1.0\\,\\text{K}$ for inner city sites and +0.25K$+0.25\\,\\text{K}$ to -0.2K$-0.2\\,\\text{K}$ for suburban sites compared to a rural reference. The nocturnal urban heat island (UHI is identified and averages +1.7K$+1.7\\,\\text{K}$ at the inner city stations, +0.7K$+0.7\\,\\text{K}$ at a suburban district housing area and +0.3K$+0.3\\,\\text{K}$ at a nearby green space. The observed UHI effect is most prominent when the wind speed is low (≤2ms-1$\\leq2\\,\\text{ms}^{-1}$ and the sky is only partly cloudy (≤6∕8th$\\leq6/8^{\\text{th}}$. In spring 2011 an average inner city UHI of up to +5.2K$+5.2\\,\\text{K}$ is observed during situations matching these conditions, while the extraordinary dry fall of 2011 lead to remarkably high air temperature differences at all observed stations. As expected, no evidence for a significant impact of topsoil moisture on nighttime UHI effect is found. The analysis of air temperature anomalies during daytime results in an annual mean deviation of -0.5K$-0.5\\,\\text{K}$ above unsealed, vegetated surfaces from a sealed site during days with a turbulent mixing induced by wind speed >2ms-1$>2\\,\\text{ms}^{-1}$. Here, there is an indication for a relation between the water content of upper soil layers and the warming of air: 11 to 17 % of the variance of the diurnal air temperature span is found to be explained by the soil water content for selected relevant days.

  16. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  17. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  18. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  19. Distributed modeling of monthly air temperatures over the rugged terrain of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Our analyses of the monthly mean air temperature of meteorological stations show that altitude,global solar radiation and surface effective radiation have a significant impact on air temperature.We set up a physically-based empirical model for monthly air temperature simulation.Combined the proposed model with the distributed modeling results of global solar radiation and routine meteorological observation data,we also developed a method for the distributed simulation of monthly air temperatures over rugged terrain.Spatial distribution maps are generated at a resolution of 1 km×1 km for the monthly mean,the monthly mean maximum and the monthly mean minimum air temperatures for the Yellow River Basin.Analysis shows that the simulation results reflect to a considerable extent the macro and local distribution characteristics of air temperature.Cross-validation shows that the proposed model displays good stability with mean absolute bias errors of 0.19℃-0.35℃.Tests carried out on local meteorological station data and case year data show that the model has good spatial and temporal simulation capacity.The proposed model solely uses routine meteorological data and can be applied easily to other regions.

  20. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  1. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations experiments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4, a global chemical transport model, have been used to provide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well, but some differences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been "tagged" to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmospheric composition in the region around Mexico City when averaged over the month. However, considerable variation in the fire contribution (2–15% of total CO is seen during the month. The transport and photochemical aging of Mexico City emissions were studied using tags of CO emissions for each day, showing that typically the air downwind of Mexico City was a combination of many ages. Ozone production in MOZART-4 is shown to agree well with the net production rates from box model calculations constrained by the MILAGRO aircraft measurements. Ozone production efficiency derived from the ratio of Ox to NOz is higher in MOZART-4 than in the observations for moderately polluted air. OH reactivity determined from the MOZART-4 results shows the same increase in relative importance of oxygenated VOCs downwind of Mexico City as the reactivity inferred from the observations. The amount of ozone produced by emissions from Mexico City and surrounding areas has been quantified in the

  2. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations experiments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4, a global chemical transport model, have been used to provide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well, but some differences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been "tagged" to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmospheric composition in the region around Mexico City, when averaged over the month. However, considerable variation in the fire contribution (2–15% of total CO is seen during the month. The transport and photochemical aging of Mexico City emissions were studied using tags of CO emissions for each day, showing that typically the air near Mexico City was a combination of many ages. Ozone production in MOZART-4 is shown to agree well with the net production rates from box model calculations constrained by the MILAGRO aircraft measurements. Ozone production efficiency derived from the ratio of Ox to NOz is higher in MOZART-4 than in the observations for moderately polluted air. OH reactivity determined from the MOZART-4 results shows the same increase in relative importance of oxygenated VOCs downwind of Mexico City as the reactivity inferred from the observations. The amount of ozone produced by emissions from Mexico City and surrounding areas has been quantified in the model by

  3. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p 100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country. PMID:27486572

  4. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p 100 (defined as “slightly polluted”), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as “severely polluted”). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4–7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country. PMID:27486572

  5. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  6. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  7. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.

  8. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings. PMID:26718946

  9. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  10. Distributed modeling of monthly air temperatures over the rugged terrain of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yan; QIU XinFa; HE YongJian; SHI GuoPing; LIU ChangMing

    2009-01-01

    Our analyses of the monthly mean air temperature of meteorological stations show that altitude, global solar radiation and surface effective radiation have a significant impact on air temperature. We set up a physically-based empirical model for monthly air temperature simulation. Combined the proposed model with the distributed modeling results of global solar radiation and routine meteorological ob-servation data, we also developed a method for the distributed simulation of monthly sir temperatures over rugged terrain. Spatial distribution maps are generated at a resolution of 1 km×1 km for the monthly mean, the monthly mean maximum and the monthly mean minimum air temperatures for the Yellow River Basin. Analysis shows that the simulation results reflect to a considerable extent the macro and local distribution characteristics of air temperature. Cross-validation shows that the pro-posed model displays good stability with mean absolute bias errors of 0.19℃-0.35℃. Tests carried out on local meteorological station data and case year data show that the model has good spatial and temporal simulation capacity. The proposed model solely uses routine meteorological data and can be applied easily to other regions.

  11. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  12. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  13. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  14. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  15. Oxidation rate of K-Basin spent nuclear fuel in moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine the oxidation rate of damaged/corroded N-Reactor fuel material in moist air. Five SNF pieces (with regular geometrical shapes) sectioned from a damaged element stored in the K-West Basin were oxidized in flowing air containing moisture. The SNF oxidation behavior in moist air at a temperature of 198 C can best be fitted by parabolic oxidation kinetics. A linear rate equation gave the best fit to the oxidation data at 250 C and above. The results within the temperature range studied, therefore, show a transition from parabolic oxidation kinetics to linear oxidation kinetics. The transition temperature is somewhere between 198 C and 250 C. The tests at approximately 300 C gave results that were very different from the other tests at temperatures of 198 C, 250 C, and 349 C. The SNF sample weight change at this temperature showed erratic behavior. Visual examination indicated the sample fragmented into small pieces and powder as a result of rapid oxidation and hydration. Additional tests at temperatures close to 300 C (i.e., 300 ± 10 C) are recommended in order to fully understand the oxidation behavior of the damaged/corroded SNF samples in moist air at about 300 C

  16. Incorporating environmental constraints to electricity generation in the city of Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype for an integrated system that includes air quality constraints to the procedure that is presently in use to determine the daily economic dispatch of power plants in Argentina is proposed. The recent incorporation of new machines to the installed capacity of the three power plants located in the densely populated metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the thermal-based future expansion of the power sector and the relatively high nitrogen oxides concentrations that can be associated to electricity generation in the city of Buenos Aires, served to motivate this work. The prototype attempts to generate a dispatch that is compatible with the environment taking into account the present economic dispatch, weather forecast and dispersion models to evaluate ambient air concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) caused by the combined operation of the thermal power plants. Although the prototype deals exclusively with NOx, since these are the pollutants of primary concern considering the fuel consumption pattern of argentinean power plants, its structure is general enough to take into account other pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. (author)

  17. Air quality estimates in Mediterranean cities using high resolution satellite technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Satellite imaging is an essential tool for monitoring air pollution because, unlike ground observations, it supplies continuous data with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. Satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals reflect particle abundance in the atmospheric column. This data provide some indication on the extent of particle concentrations. However, it is difficult to retrieve AOD at high spatial resolution above areas with high surface reflectance and heterogeneous land cover, such as urban areas. Therefore, many crowded regions worldwide including Israel, AOD climatology are still uncertain because of the high ground reflectance and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. This study aims to investigate the spatial variability of AOD within Israeli and several other Mediterranean cities. In addition, we aim to characterize the impact of climatic condition on pollution patterns in-and-between cities and to identify days when cities exhibit the highest variability in AOD. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in pollution levels between adjacent locations. We will report on spatial variability in AOD levels derived from high 1km resolution MAIAC AOD algorithm on a temporal basis, in relation to season and synoptic-meteorological conditions.

  18. Benzene air pollution measuring in the city of Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugrinov Dragan M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pančevo is located at the confluence of the Tamiš and Danube rivers, 8 km from the country’s capital Belgrade. The basic pollution sources are HIP Petrohemija (Oil industry and NIS Rafinerija nafte (Oil refinery which are located south from the city. The measurements of air pollution were done according to the standard methods defined by the regulations of monitoring conditions and air quality requirements, as well as by the procedures for measuring benzene concentration (taking samples with the pump, thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Pančevo has the elaborate system of the measuring points as part of the local system of urban stations for measuring basic and specific polluters. Using this system the measurements were carried out during the course of 24 hours every day in the year 2009 at two measuring points named “Vatrogasni dom” and “Zavod”. By analyzing the obtained results, average yearly concentration is lower at “Vatrogasni dom“ measuring point (2,8g/m3 then at “Zavod” (4,1g/m3. The results that obtained at both measuring points did not exceed the allowed limited value of 5 g/m3.

  19. Application of meteorology of air pollution in nuclear design of the city of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that the urban environment provides the setting for the life framework of a large and growing proportion of the world's population. In consequence, urban dwellers spend much of their lives in a quite distinctive type of man-modified (polluted) climate. This study focuses on two aspects of urban climatology in the city of Tehran: Climate and Urban Form. Each building reacts with its atmospheric envelope and these micro climatic effects are then integrated into macro climatic zones which commonly mirror the form of urban development and major land uses. More specifically this research paper intends to test the hypothesis that concentration or dispersion of urban air pollutants depend on atmospheric conditions and heat island in the urban areas, which is affected in turn, by topography and urban form. By some modifications in urban form, therefore, the atmospheric conditions may be changed (wind direction and speed) in an urban area which will eventually lead to better air quality in the city. Part of the study was based on an experiment in a low speed wind tunnel, which was built for this purpose. Also satellite data was the source of information for preparing the heat islands in Tehran

  20. Air pollution assessment in two Moroccan cities using instrumental neutron activation analysis on bio-accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for the air pollution assessment studies. In this work, lichens and barks have been used as bio-accumulators in several sites in two Moroccan cities (Rabat and Mohammadia). The specific ability of absorbing and accumulating heavy metals and toxic element from the air, their longevity and resistance to the environmental stresses, make those bioindicators suitable for this kind of studies. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultra-trace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrated by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, a preliminary investigation employing lichens, barks and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements distribution in six different areas of Rabat and Mohammadia cities characterised by the presence of many industries and heavy traffic. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high-resolution Germanium-Lithium detectors. More than 30 elements were determined using two modes : short irradiation (1 minute) and long irradiation (17 hours). Accuracy and quality control were assessed using the reference standard material IAEA-336. This was less than 1% for major and about 5 to 10% for traces.

  1. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  2. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Luo

    Full Text Available With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita, the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2 and the air pollution index (API from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC, that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  3. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  4. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  5. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough onsite survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small inter-annual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at 9 state-opertated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively. The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground observations. The inter

  6. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p spatial clustering of elevated API was observed, with the highest API in northwest China in 2012 and with the highest in east China in 2013. In 2012, 5 (4%) of the 120 cities had ≥60 days with API >100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution

  7. Effects of Soil and Air Drying Methods on Soil Plasticity of Different Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashan Ijaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atterberg Limits were initially defined in 1911, by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish scientist. Their purposes are to classifying cohesive soils and determine engineering properties of soils. According to ASTM, all the soils tested by Atterberg limits should be oven dried, it is because drying the soils in different degree will alter their properties significantly. Some of the physical properties of soils will undergo changes that appear to be permanent. Therefore, the soil samples should be in natural or air-dried form. However, in reality, due to time constraint and other factors, many will run the tests by using soil samples that are prepared by oven drying method. They assumed that there is no difference between the results of two types of drying method. However, in reality, the properties of soil will be affected and thus give a misleading result. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two drying methods, air-drying method and oven drying method, on the soil plasticity. Six soil samples from different cities were tested. These tests include sieve analysis, specific gravity test, hydrometer analysis, Plastic limit and liquid limit test. Conclusively, the oven drying method could not replace the air-drying method in soil preparation for both Atterberg limits tests.

  8. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  9. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  10. Air and Ground Surface Temperature Relations in a Mountainous Basin, Wolf Creek, Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadhouse, Emily A.

    The links between climate and permafrost are well known, but the precise nature of the relationship between air and ground temperatures remains poorly understood, particularly in complex mountain environments. Although previous studies indicate that elevation and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) are the two leading factors contributing to the existence of permafrost at a given location, additional factors may also contribute significantly to the existence of mountain permafrost, including vegetation cover, snow accumulation and the degree to which individual mountain landscapes are prone to air temperature inversions. Current mountain permafrost models consider only elevation and aspect, and have not been able to deal with inversion effects in a systematic fashion. This thesis explores the relationship between air and ground surface temperatures and the presence of surface-based inversions at 27 sites within the Wolf Creek basin and surrounding area between 2001 and 2006, as a first step in developing an improved permafrost distribution TTOP model. The TTOP model describes the relationship between the mean annual air temperature and the temperature at the top of permafrost in terms of the surface and thermal offsets (Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Key components of this model are n-factors which relate air and ground climate by establishing the ratio between air and surface freezing (winter) and thawing (summer) degree-days, thus summarizing the surface energy balance on a seasonal basis. Here we examine (1) surface offsets and (2) freezing and thawing n-factor variability at a number of sites through altitudinal treeline in the southern Yukon. Thawing n-factors (nt) measured at individual sites remained relatively constant from one year to the next and may be related to land cover. During the winter, the insulating effect of a thick snow cover results in higher surface temperatures, while thin snow cover results in low surface temperatures more closely

  11. Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors in houses of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors have been obtained in houses from Mexico City, with the purpose of relating them with the local environment. Measurements were performed both outdoors and indoors in 60 unifamiliar houses. Track detectors, LR-115, Type II, were used in several detection arrangements during four recording periods with times of exposure of three months each, with the purpose of analyzing the fluctuations due to seasonal changes. Data were obtained about the construction materials were the detection systems were located in order to establish a correlation of radon levels with the climatic parameters and the construction materials. The results of radon concentrations both indoors or outdoors were lower than the international recommendations (148 Bq/m3) (Author)

  12. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Meneses, F; Ruiz, S; Sienra, J J; Huerta, J; White, M C; Etzel, R A

    1996-08-01

    The relation between air pollution and the exacerbation of childhood asthma was studied in a panel of 71 children (aged 5 to 7 yr) with mild asthma who resided in the northern part of mexico City. During the follow-up, ambient measures of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10, 24-h average) and ozone (1-h maximum) frequently exceeded the Mexican standards for these contaminants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was strongly associated with PM10 levels and marginally with ozone levels. Respiratory symptoms (coughing, phlegm production, wheezing, and difficulty breathing) were associated with both PM10 and ozone levels. An increase of 20 micrograms/m3 of PM10 was related to an 8% increase in lower respiratory illness (LRI) among children on the same day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.15), and an increase of 10 micrograms/m3 in the weekly mean of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was related to a 21% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.08-1.35). A 50 parts per billion (ppb) increase in ozone was associated with a 9% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.03-1.15) on the same day. We concluded that children with mild asthma are affected by the high ambient levels of particulate matter and ozone observed in the northern part of Mexico City.

  13. Optical Remote Sensing Measurements of Air Pollution in Mexico City During MCMA- 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, B.; Mellqvist, J.; Johansson, M.; Rivera, C.; Samuelsson, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    During March 2006 the Optical Remote sensing group at Chalmers University of Technology participated in the MCMA-2006 field campaign in Mexico City, performing measurements of air pollution using a set of different optical remote sensing instruments. This poster gives an overview of the techniques applied and results obtained. The techniques applied were: Solar Occultation FTIR and UV spectroscopy from fixed locations throughout the MCMA area, yielding total columns of CO, CH2O, SO2 and NO2. Long Path FTIR measurements from site T0 located in the north part of central Mexico City. With this instrument line-averaged concentration measurements of CO and CO2 was obtained in parallel with DOAS measurements performed by other partners. MAX-DOAS measurements from site T0, yielding total column and spatial distributions of SO2 and NO2. Mobile DOAS scattered Sunlight measurements of total columns of SO2 and NO2 in and around the MCMA area. Mobile and stationary DOAS measurements in the vicinity of Tula and Popocatépetl in order to quantify emissions from industry and volcano.

  14. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  15. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  16. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  17. Assessing the regional impacts of Mexico City emissions on air quality and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mena-Carrasco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Mexico City (MCMA emissions is examined by studying its effects on air quality, photochemistry, and on ozone production regimes by combining model products and aircraft observations from the MILAGRO experiment during March 2006. The modeled influence of MCMA emissions to enhancements in surface level NOx, CO, and O3 concentrations (10–30% increase are confined to distances <200 km, near surface. However, the extent of the influence is significantly larger at higher altitudes. Broader MCMA impacts (some 900 km Northeast of the city are shown for specific outflow conditions in which enhanced ozone, NOy, and MTBE mixing ratios over the Gulf of Mexico are linked to MCMA by source tagged tracers and sensitivity runs. This study shows that the "footprint" of MCMA on average is fairly local, with exception to reactive nitrogen, which can be transported long range in the form of PAN, acting as a reservoir and source of NOx with important regional ozone formation implications. The simulated effect of MCMA emissions of anthropogenic aerosol on photochemistry showed a maximum regional decrease of 40% in J[NO2→NO+O], and resulting in the reduction of ozone production by 5–10%. Observed ozone production efficiencies are evaluated as a function of distance from MCMA, and by modeled influence from MCMA. These tend to be much lower closer to MCMA, or in those points where modeled contribution from MCMA is large. This research shows that MCMA emissions do effect on regional air quality and photochemistry, both contributing large amounts of ozone and its precursors, but with caveat that aerosol concentrations hinder formation of ozone to its potential due to its reduction in photolysis rates.

  18. Assessing the regional impacts of Mexico City emissions on air quality and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mena-Carrasco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Mexico City (MCMA emissions is examined by studying its effects on air quality, photochemistry, and on ozone production regimes by combining model products and aircraft observations from the MILAGRO experiment. The influence of MCMA emissions to enhancements in surface level NOx, CO, and O3 concentrations are confined to distances <200 km. However, the extent of the influence is significantly larger at higher altitudes. Broader MCMA impacts (some 900 km Northeast of the city are shown for specific outflow conditions in which enhanced ozone, NOy, and MTBE mixing ratios over the Gulf of Mexico are linked to MCMA by source tagged tracers and sensitivity runs. This study shows that the "footprint" of MCMA on average is fairly local, with exception to reactive nitrogen, which can be transported long range in the form of PAN, acting as a reservoir and source of NOx with important regional ozone formation implications. The simulated effect of MCMA emissions of anthropogenic aerosol on photochemistry showed a maximum regional decrease of 40% in J[NO2→NO+O], and resulting in the reduction of ozone production by 5–10%. Observed ozone production efficiencies and photolysis rates are evaluated as a function of distance from MCMA, and by modeled influence from MCMA. These tend to be much lower closer to MCMA, and with higher MCMA influence. This research shows that MCMA emissions have a discernible effect on regional air quality and photochemistry, both contributing large amounts of ozone and its precursors, but with caveat that aerosol concentrations hinder formation of ozone to its potential due to its reduction in photolysis rates.

  19. 14C AMS measurements of tree leaf samples to monitor air pollution induced by city traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, many radiocarbon measurement have been made for environmental studies such as source apportionment of air-borne particulates, and studies of the anthropogenic effects of nuclear power plants. In this presentation we report our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon on tree leaf samples to investigate the impact of city traffic on our living-environment. The fossil-burning vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2) free of 14C content and, when mixed with the clean air CO2, lower 14C ratio compared to the normal reservoir value. This so-called Suess effect can be incorporated to monitor air quality in our living environments, since metabolic processes maintain the 14C content of living organism in equilibrium with atmospheric 14C. In other words, dead CO2 is admixed to the normal atmospheric CO2 and then photo-synthetically assimilated by the plants. Two kinds of tree leaf samples; pine tree needles and Ginkgo tree leaves were collected during a one-week period in the summer 1996 at five different locations with various traffic conditions in the region, within a 10-km diameter circle, south of the River Han, Seoul. The AMS targets were made by a simple sample-making procedure. The leaves have been pretreated by a standard acid-alkali treatment and then charred in a vacuum evaporator by applying ca. 800 deg C heat. The charred samples were mixed with Ag powder and pressed into the Al target holder for the AMS measurement.The AMS measurements were made using the accelerator mass spectrometry facilities of the Leibniz-Labor at the Christian-Albrecht University, Kiel,Germany. The observed Δ14C values, which ranged from 60TM to 158TM, have a good correlation with the traffic conditions in the places where the sampling took place and show a remarkable capability of 14C AMS measurements to monitor our fossil burning environment. The volume ratios of clean air to air from fossil-burn origin in the environmental CO2 reached to a level of 8

  20. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  1. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2005-2006 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Mickie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated two fish screen facilities in the Walla Walla River basin in 2005 and early 2006. The Garden City/Lowden screen site was evaluated in April and June 2005 to determine whether the fish screens met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to provide safe passage for juvenile salmonids. Louvers behind the screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway were modified in fall 2005 in an attempt to minimize high approach velocities. PNNL evaluated the effects of those modifications in March 2006. Results of the Garden City/Lowden evaluations indicate the site performs well at varying river levels and canal flows. Approach velocities did not exceed 0.4 feet per second (fps) at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder in March but not in June. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. At Nursery Bridge, results indicate all the approach velocities were below 0.4 fps under the moderate river levels and operational conditions encountered on March 7, 2006. Sweep did not consistently increase toward the fish ladder, but the site generally met the criteria for safe passage of juvenile salmonids. Modifications to the louvers seem to allow more control over the amount of water moving through the screens. We will measure approach velocities when river levels are higher to determine whether the louver modifications can help correct excessive approach velocities under a range of river levels and auxiliary water supply flows.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  3. Tritium clouds environmental impact in air into the Western Mediterranean Basin evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P., E-mail: paloma.castro@ciemat.es [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association, LNF Fusion National Laboratory, BBTU, Avda Complutense,40 28040 Madrid (Spain); Velarde, M. [ETSII Nuclear Fusion Institute: DENIM, Madrid (Spain); Ardao, J. [AEMET, Environmental Applications Service, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [ETSII Nuclear Fusion Institute: DENIM, Madrid (Spain); Sedano, L. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association, LNF Fusion National Laboratory, BBTU, Avda Complutense,40 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The paper considers short-term releases of tritium (mainly but not only tritium hydride (HT)) to the atmosphere from a potential ITER-like fusion reactor located in the Mediterranean Basin and explores if the short range legal exposure limits are exceeded (both locally and downwind). For this, a coupled Lagrangian ECMWF/FLEXPART model has been used to follow real time releases of tritium. This tool was analyzed for nominal tritium operational conditions under selected incidental conditions to determine resultant local and Western Mediterranean effects, together with hourly observations of wind, to provide a short-range approximation of tritium cloud behavior. Since our results cannot be compared with radiological station measurements of tritium in air, we use the NORMTRI Gaussian model. We demonstrate an overestimation of the sequence of tritium concentrations in the atmosphere, close to the reactor, estimated with this model when compared with ECMWF/FLEXPART results. A Gaussian 'mesoscale' qualification tool has been used to validate the ECMWF/FLEXPART for winter 2010/spring 2011 with a database of the HT plumes. It is considered that NORMTRI allows evaluation of tritium-in-air-plume patterns and its contribution to doses.

  4. Spatial difference features and organization optimization of cities and towns in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban spatial structure of Tarim River Basin from the perspectives of urbanization, urban density, grading scales and spatial evolution patterns, using geographical theories and methods, such as fractal theory, principle component analysis, urbanization imbalance index, urban scale imbalance indicator, and urban spatial interaction. The results show that the urban spatial structure displays balanced distribution in the overall pattern, while an imbalanced distribution in each region. The development of town pattern tends to be gathering to the central towns in the oasis of Tarim River Basin and a development axis has begun to form along the southern Xinjiang railway. Based on the division of urban hinterland, and the development characteristics of oasis economy, this paper puts forward an urban spatial organization model. This model uses "breakpoint model" and divides Tarim River Basin into five urban clusters: Korla urban cluster, Kuqa urban cluster, Aksu urban cluster, Kashgar urban cluster and Hotan urban cluster. As a conclusion, this article puts forward an overall framework of urban spatial organization in Tarim River Basin: "one axis, double core, and five groups".

  5. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts: 1999 Report to the Tri-Cities Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, Judi; Stroup, Jill

    The administration of Columbia Basin College (CBC) that serves Benton and Franklin Counties in Washington State compiled an annual report for 1999 on the status and accomplishments of the college. Founded in 1955 as part of the public school system, CBC now serves about 12,500 students each year in over 50 academic and technical fields, and offers…

  6. "Zafar," So Good: Middle-Class Students, School Habitus and Secondary Schooling in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how students from the "loser" sections of the middle class dealt with the game of secondary schooling in a "good" state school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It engages with Bourdieu's theory of social practice and, in particular, with its concepts of game, habitus and cultural capital. It argues that middle-class…

  7. How much spatial detail in meteorological parameters is needed to model air-quality in a city? A case study for the city of Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Demuzere, Matthias; van Lipzig, Nicole; Brisson, Erwan; Lauwaet, Dirk; Viaene, Peter; Deutsch, Felix; Veldeman, Nele

    2013-04-01

    There exists a large discrepancy between the rural and urban land cover in terms of soil water, aerodynamical, thermal and radiative characteristics, and anthropogenic heat. This results in urban-scale meteorological features such as the urban heat island, reduced wind speed and the city breeze. Some of these effects have a considerable impact on human health in cities when the nocturnal cooling is reduced during heat waves or when air quality is affected during smog episodes. The question rises what impact does urban climate have on air quality in cities. The Regional climate model COSMO-CLM updated with the urban parameterization (TERRA_MLU) and the air-quality AURORA (VITO NV, Belgium) are used to quantify and understand the interactions between (urban) climate and air quality on different scales. COSMO-CLM is currently cascade-nested inside ECMWF 12.5km analysis up to a horizontal resolution of 1km over Antwerp (Belgium). The urban parameterization TERRA_MLU is implemented in COSMO-CLM using a tile approach in which the urban surface can coexist with the natural area in one grid-cell. The inclusion of anthropogenic heat is based on country-specific data of energy consumption downscaled with population density and urbanization. Meteorological model data from COSMO-CLM is used as forcing for the air-quality model AURORA. Results, in particular the urban heat island effect, are evaluated with urban/rural meteorological measurements in Antwerp, Ghent and Brussels starting from 2012. It is investigated whether air-quality modeling can be improved when forcing AURORA with (urban) microscale meteorological data from COSMO-CLM rather than with coarser meteorological data from ECMWF. Therefore each nesting step of COSMO is subsequently used as input for the air-quality model. In order to set priorities for the improvement of air-quality modelling in the future, the relative importance of orography, urban climate and the impact of uncertainty in pollutent emissions to

  8. Impact air quality by wildfire and agricultural fire in Mexico city 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Campos, Alejandra; Agustín García Reynoso, José; Castro Romero, Telma Gloria; Carbajal Pérez, José Noel; Mar Morales, Bertha Eugenia; Gerardo Ruiz Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale process natural combustion where different types of flora and fauna of different sizes and ages are consumed. Consequently, forest fires are a potential source of large amounts of air pollutants that must be considered when trying to relate emissions to the air quality in neighboring cities of forest areas as in the Valley of Mexico. The size, intensity and occurrence of a forest fire directly dependent variables such as weather conditions, topography, vegetation type and its moisture content and the mass of fuel per hectare. An agricultural fire is a controlled combustion, which occurred a negligence can get out of control and increase the burned area or the possibly become a wildfire. Once a fire starts, the dry combustible material is consumed first. If the energy release is large and of sufficient duration, drying green material occurs live, with subsequent burning it. Under proper fuel and environmental conditions, this process can start a chain reaction. These events occur mainly in the dry season. Forest fires and agriculture fires contribute directly in the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere; The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by a wildfire are the PM10, PM2.5, NOx and VOC's, the consequences have by fire are deforestation, soil erosion or change of structure and composition of forests (Villers, 2006), also it affects ecosystems and the health of the population. In this study the impact of air quality for the emissions of particulate matter less than ten microns PM10, by wildfire and agricultural fire occurred on the same day and same place, the study was evaluated in Mexico City the Delegation Milpa Alta in the community of San Lorenzo Tlacoyucan, the fire occurred on 3rd March, 2015, the wildfire duration 12 hours consuming 32 hectares of oak forest and the agricultural fire duration 6 hours consumed 16 hectares of corn. To evaluate the impact of air quality the WRF-Chem, WRF-Fire and METv3

  9. A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Ma, Stefan; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2002-01-01

    The causal interpretation of reported associations between daily air pollution and daily admissions requires consideration of residual confounding, correlation between pollutants, and effect modification. If results obtained in Hong Kong and London--which differ in climate, lifestyle, and many other respects--were similar, a causal association would be supported. We used identical statistical methods for the analysis in each city. Associations between daily admissions and pollutant levels were estimated using Poisson regression. Nonparametric smoothing methods were used to model seasonality and the nonlinear dependence of admissions on temperature, humidity, and influenza admissions. For respiratory admissions (> or = 65 years of age), significant positive associations were observed with particulate matter ozone in both cities. These associations tended to be stronger at shorter lags in Hong Kong and at longer lags in London. Associations were stronger in the cool season in Hong Kong and in the warm season in London, periods during which levels of humidity are at their lowest in each city. For cardiac admissions (all ages) in both cities, significant positive associations were observed for PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) with similar lag patterns. Associations tended to be stronger in the cool season. The associations with NO(2) and SO(2) were the most robust in two-pollutant models. Patterns of association for pollutants with ischemic heart disease were similar in the two cities. The associations between O(3) and cardiac admissions were negative in London but positive in Hong Kong. We conclude that air pollution has remarkably similar associations with daily cardiorespiratory admissions in both cities, in spite of considerable differences between cities in social, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The results strengthen the argument that air pollution causes detrimental short-term health effects. PMID:11781167

  10. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  11. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  12. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  13. Statistical persistence of air pollutants (O3,SO2,NO2 and PM10) in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Femat, R.; Echeverria, J. C.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2015-06-01

    The rescaled range (R / S) analysis was used for analyzing the statistical persistence of air pollutants in Mexico City. The air-pollution time series consisted of hourly observations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter obtained at the Mexico City downtown monitoring station during 1999-2014. The results showed that long-range persistence is not a uniform property over a wide range of time scales, from days to months. In fact, although the air pollutant concentrations exhibit an average persistent behavior, environmental (e.g., daily and yearly) and socio-economic (e.g., daily and weekly) cycles are reflected in the dependence of the persistence strength as quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent. It was also found that the Hurst exponent exhibits time variations, with the ozone and nitrate oxide concentrations presenting some regularity, such as annual cycles. The persistence dynamics of the pollutant concentrations increased during the rainy season and decreased during the dry season. The time and scale dependences of the persistence properties provide some insights in the mechanisms involved in the internal dynamics of the Mexico City atmosphere for accumulating and dissipating dangerous air pollutants. While in the short-term individual pollutants dynamics seems to be governed by specific mechanisms, in the long-term (for monthly and higher scales) meteorological and seasonal mechanisms involved in atmospheric recirculation seem to dominate the dynamics of all air pollutant concentrations.

  14. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Amelija; Ristić Goran; Živković Nenad; Todorović Branimir; Hristov Slađan; Milošević Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution). The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the in...

  15. An air pollution modeling study using three surface coverings near the New International Airport of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Arón D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis-Gerardo

    2003-10-01

    The dry lakebed of what once was the lake of Texcoco is the location selected for the New International Airport of Mexico City. This project will generate an important urban development near the airport with regional implications on air quality. Using a prognostic air quality model, the consequences of photochemical air pollution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City resulting from three possible coverings for the areas of the lakebed that are not occupied by the runway and terminal building are investigated. These coverings are desert, grassland, and water and occupy an area of 63 km2. This study is based on a representative high pollution episode. In addition to reducing the emission of primary natural particles, the water covering generates a land-water breeze capable of maintaining enough ventilation to reduce pollutant concentrations over a localized region of the metropolitan area and may enhance the wind speed on the coasts of the proposed lake.

  16. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  17. Climate changing characteristics of Zhangye City in Heihe River basin during 1968-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At present,researches on climate change of the Heihe River basin mainly focus on the relationship between basin climate change and regional water resources,regional desertification and dynamic climatic seasons of sandstorm,but less on climate change of oasis region,where there are more intense and frequent human activities.Based on data of precipitation,temperature,strong wind and dust events frequencies obtained from the six meteorological stations of Zhangye region in Heihe River basin,the features of climate change during 1968-2005 were carefully studied.Results show that the regional temperature rise rate exceeded the average level of China.The annual precipitation changed a little,but the precipitation had a slowly increasing trend in spring and winter.Frequencies of strong wind and sandstorm days show obviously descending trends,which had a close correlation with the regional temperature rise and the precipitation increase in spring and winter.Meanwhile,further human economic activities and exploitations to the oasis in the inland valley of arid regions also affected the climate change of this region,which has a sensitive and fragile eco-environment.

  18. Morphology of single inhalable particle in the air polluted city of Shijiazhuang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zanhong; ZHANG Lingzhi; ZHANG Yuliang; ZHAO Zhou; ZHANG Sumin

    2008-01-01

    In the typical air polluted city of Shijiazhuang,single inhalable particle samples in non-heating period,heating pened,dust storm days,and snowy days were collected and detected by SEM/EDS(scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry).The particle morphology was characterized by the 6 shape clusters,which are:irregular square,agglomerate,sphere,floccule,column or stick,and unknown,by quantitative order.The irregular square particles are common in all kinds of samples;sphere particles are more,and column or stick are less in winter samples;in the wet deposit samples,agglomerate and floccule particles are not found.The surface of most particles is coarse with fractal edge,which can provide suitable chemical reaction bed in the polluted atmospheric environment.New formed calcium crystal is found to demonstrate the existence of neutralized reaction,explaining the reason for the high SO2 emission and low acid rain frequency in Shijiazhuang.The three sorts of surface patterns of spheres are smooth,semi-smooth,and coarse,corresponding to the element of Si-dominant,Si-Al-dominant,and Fe-dominant.The soot particle is present as floccule with average size around 10 μm,considerably larger than the former reported results,but wrapped or captured with other fine particles to make its appearance unique and enhance its toxicity potentially.The new formed calcium crystal,the 3 sorts of sphere surface patterns,and the unique soot appearance represent the single inhalable particle's morphology characteristics in Shijiazhuang City.

  19. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  20. Review of the efficacy of low emission zones to improve urban air quality in European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Claire; Harrison, Roy; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Many cities still exceed the European Union (EU) air quality limit values for particulate matter (PM10, particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) and/or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In an attempt to reduce emissions approximately 200 low emission zones (LEZs) have been established in 12 EU countries. These restrict the entry of vehicles based on the emission standard the vehicles were originally constructed to meet, but the restrictions vary considerably. This paper reviews the evidence on the efficacy of LEZs to improve urban air quality in five EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and UK), and concludes that there have been mixed results. There is some evidence from ambient measurements that LEZs in Germany, which restrict passenger cars as well as heavy duty vehicles (HDVs), have reduced long term average PM10 and NO2 concentrations by a few percent. Elsewhere, where restrictions are limited to HDVs, the picture is much less clear. This may be due to the large number of confounding factors. On the other hand there is some, albeit limited, evidence that LEZs may result in larger reductions in concentrations of carbonaceous particles, due to traffic making a larger contribution to ambient concentrations of these particles than to PM10 and PM2.5. The effects of day to day variations in meteorology on concentrations often mask more subtle effects of a LEZ. In addition, separating the direct effects of a LEZ from the effects of other policy measures, the economy and the normal renewal of the vehicle fleet is not easy, and may give rise to false results.

  1. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  2. Air Quality Bioindicator Using the Population of Epiphytic Macrolichens in Bogor City, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about lichens and pollution in South-East Asia are restricted because the lichens are poorly known. A research project about air quality bioindicator using epiphytic macrolichens in Bogor City was conducted from March 2012 until July 2013. Purposive sampling method was applied in 3 plots: plot 1 was in the centre of Bogor Botanical Garden (BBG that far from busy roads, plot 2 was in a part of BBG adjacent to main and busy roads, and plot 3 was along busy roads and near a factory. In each plot, macrolichens were observed in 8 canary trees using 2 mini quadrats (32 x 20 cm2. The population conditions of epiphytic macrolichens were analyzed and to be used as bioindicator of air quality. Seven genera of macrolichens were found: Coccocarpia, Leptogium, Canoparmelia, Parmotrema, Dirinaria, Physcia, and Pyxine. Plot 1 was having Coccocarpia and Leptogium that were not found in other plots and therefore they can be used as sensitive bioindicators, none of Canoparmelia and Pyxine, a few and infrequent Dirinaria but with larger average coverage (AC = 6.15 cm2, and Physcia was found abundantly (sensitive bioindicator. Conversely, plot 2 and 3 were having none of Coccocarpia and Leptogium, few or many Canoparmelia and Pyxine and therefore appeared to be tolerant, many and frequent Dirinaria but with smaller AC (plot 2 = 2.85 cm2, plot 3 = 1.16 cm2, and few or none of Physcia was found. Being found in all plots, Dirinaria showed a clear pattern of increasing thallus number and decreasing AC from plot 1 to plot 3, so it can be used as tolerant bioindicator. Conversely, Parmotrema had unclear pattern of population condition. Similar researches on different trees are necessary to explore more details regarding epiphytic macrolichens population condition.

  3. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  4. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  5. Sources of bacteria in outdoor air across cities in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Robert M; Sullivan, Amy P; Costello, Elizabeth K; Collett, Jeff L; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria are abundant in the atmosphere, where they often represent a major portion of the organic aerosols. Potential pathogens of plants and livestock are commonly dispersed through the atmosphere, and airborne bacteria can have important effects on human health as pathogens or triggers of allergic asthma and seasonal allergies. Despite their importance, the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms remain poorly understood. We used high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze bacterial communities present in the aerosol fraction containing fine particulate matter of ≤2.5 μm from 96 near-surface atmospheric samples collected from cities throughout the midwestern United States and found that the communities are surprisingly diverse and strongly affected by the season. We also directly compared the airborne communities to those found in hundreds of samples representing potential source environments. We show that, in addition to the more predictable sources (soils and leaf surfaces), fecal material, most likely dog feces, often represents an unexpected source of bacteria in the atmosphere at more urbanized locations during the winter. Airborne bacteria are clearly an important, but understudied, component of air quality that needs to be better integrated into efforts to measure and model pollutants in the atmosphere.

  6. 76 FR 29647 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... 400 yards south of the shoreline of Morehead City. (b) Definition: For the purposes of this section..., Morehead City, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... held over the waters of Bogue Sound, adjacent to Morehead City, North Carolina. This Safety Zone...

  7. Brucelosis canina en perros de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Canine brucellosis in dogs in the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Boeri

    2008-08-01

    8 areas of the city of Buenos Aires. We studied 219 dogs: 184 females and 35 males, that tested negative to the buffered plate antigen test (BPAT, which ruled out infection with smooth species of Brucella. We detected anti-B. canis antibodies in 16 dogs (7.3%: 9 females and 7 males, relevant data since the urine of males is considered one of the vectors for the spread of the infection. Although we could run blood cultures on only 175 animals, we isolated B. canis in 3 (2 females and 1 male. Only 3 of the owners of dogs that tested positive consented to a serological diagnosis and two of them were positive. We highlight that the agar gel immunodiffusion test (IGID proved to have low sensitivity, having detected only one of the 16 positive cases and none of the three confirmed by isolation. We conclude that in the areas studied, the detection of serologically positive dogs and the isolation of B. canis in 3 cases are indicators of the health hazard for the population exposed to it.

  8. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  9. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins.

  10. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  11. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming.

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Field; J.J. Soltis; P. Pérez-Ballesta; E. Grandesso; D. C. Montague

    2015-01-01

    Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed to assess the spatial variability of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG) developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC) including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers), and volatile ...

  12. The Lagrange Street story: the prevention of aromatics air pollution during the last nine years in a European city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, R.; Bugliosi, E.H.; Schiliro, T.; Gilli, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Public Health and Microbiology

    2001-01-01

    Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) air pollution is a very important topic for environmental health, due to the toxicity and/or mutagenic or carcinogenic properties of these aromatics and the commercialisation of the unleaded gasoline containing amount of BTX. We measured BTX in the air of Turin city, the capital of Piedmont region (north-western Italy), during 10 years, from 1989 to 1998. The sampling site selected was Lagrange Street (LS), an 'urban canyon' placed in the centre of the city. The behaviour of BTX in LS was conditioned by some local and national legislative measures enforced during 1990s for the reduction of automotive traffic and BTX air pollution, respectively. Taking into account the existence of similar measures undertaken also in several cities in the developed countries, largely described but never discussed, the aim of this study was to verify in LS the preventive effects of these regulatory actions by means of a longitudinal survey extended over 10 years. Results obtained in Lagrange Street highlight seasonal trends, typical of this kind of pollutants, and an important reduction (from 42.6 to 15.9ppbv) of aromatic hydrocarbons (sum of benzene, toluene and xylenes) in atmospheric air from 1990 to 1997. In particular, the annual level of benzene in air showed a mean from 9.2ppbv in 1990 to 2.0ppbv in 1997, almost half of the 3.1ppbv imposed by law since 31 December 1998. In conclusion, the present findings induce a consistent optimism about the usefulness and the effectiveness of these types of regulatory actions enforced to reduce the human exposure to BTX, which could be extended also to other trafficated sites where the aromatics air pollution has to be reduced. (Author)

  13. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  14. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  15. Measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons in Taipei city and their impact on ozone formation in relation to air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Sree, Usha; Chiu, Konghwa; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2006-08-18

    Air pollutants data from semi-continuous measurements at multiple sampling sites in Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan was obtained by collecting air samples in canisters. The hydrocarbon composition was determined by using GC/MS and GC/FID. The air samples were pre-concentrated onto glass beads prior to separation by PLOT and DB-1 columns of GC. The method showed detection limit of NO2 were measured by UV-differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS), and were utilized to determine the relative importance of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and significant contribution of NO2 in limiting ozone formation. The obtained results suggest that ozone formation in Taipei city is probably limited by the supply of non-methane hydrocarbons. The concentration profile of targeted pollutants was compared to other metropolitan areas to determine air quality and the pollutant sources. PMID:17723619

  16. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  17. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities. Results from the APHEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.R. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Spix, C. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. for Epidemiology, Neuherberg (Germany); Medina, S. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city`s regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 {mu}g x m{sup -3} increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. (au) 42 refs.

  18. Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Awan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended particulates (TSPs in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3 in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.

  19. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from belt roads, bypass roads and pedestrian areas situated in city centers is noted.

  20. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. N. M. Pappoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congestion and its attendant air pollution are investigated and analyzed using causal loop diagrams. The paper further suggests mechanisms by which the negative externalities associated with road transport in the city of Accra can be addressed.

  1. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer. -- Air pollution has a greater influence on acute human mortality than weather type, with significant differences in risk from exposure to gaseous air pollution based on cause of death

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Air Pollutants and Inversion in the ABL over the City of Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; LI Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the pollutant concentrations over the urban area and over the rural area of the city of Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, the relationships between the daytime inversion intensity and the pollutant concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are studied with the consideration of wind speed and direction, potential temperature, specific humidity profiles, pollutant concentration in the ABL, the surface temperature, and global radiation on the ground. It was shown that the daytime inversion is a key factor in controlling air pollution concentration. A clear and positive feedback process between the daytime inversion intensity and the air pollutants over the city was found through the analysis of influences of climatic and environmental factors. The mechanisms by which the terrain and air pollutants affect the formation of the daytime inversion are discussed. The solar radiation as the essential energy source to maintain the inversion is analyzed, as are various out-forcing factors affecting the inversion and air pollutants. At last, aphysical frame of relationships of air pollution with daytime inversion and the local and out-forcing factors over Lanzhou is built.

  3. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  4. Distributed attraction: the effects of street network connectivity upon the distribution of retail frontage in the City of Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D Scoppa; John Peponis

    2015-01-01

    The City of Buenos Aires has a radial street plan, regular blocks, and a clear central place. On the basis of an analysis of the city’s GIS database, we show that measures describing the syntax of its street network have a significant relationship with commercial frontage density, over and above the impact of central business district attraction. These results are obtained while controlling for the effects of population and employment density, distance from public transportation stations, and...

  5. The occurrence of fungi in the air of the monumental buildings in the city of Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mędela-Kuder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycological examinations have been carried out in several rooms of the seven monumental architectural complexes situated in the old city of Kraków. The results of examinations have shown considerable pollution in the investigated rooms. Species, such as: Penicillium, Aspergillus and Aureobasidium, have been represented in the most numerous way. In general about thirty species of fungi have been isolated from the air and from the building dividing walls.

  6. A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Ma, Stefan; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2002-01-01

    The causal interpretation of reported associations between daily air pollution and daily admissions requires consideration of residual confounding, correlation between pollutants, and effect modification. If results obtained in Hong Kong and London--which differ in climate, lifestyle, and many other respects--were similar, a causal association would be supported. We used identical statistical methods for the analysis in each city. Associations between daily admissions and pollutant levels wer...

  7. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; SPANTO, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber sys...

  8. Study on an air quality evaluation model for Beijing City under haze-fog pollution based on new ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Dong-Jun

    2014-08-28

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive evaluation model based on an entropy weighting method and nearest neighbor method was developed. The entropy weighting method was used to determine the weights of indicators, and the nearest neighbor method was utilized to evaluate the air quality levels. Then the comprehensive evaluation model was applied into the practical evaluation problems of air quality in Beijing to analyze the haze-fog pollution. Two simulation experiments were implemented in this study. One experiment included the indicator of PM2.5 and was carried out based on the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012); the other experiment excluded PM2.5 and was carried out based on the old Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-1996). Their results were compared, and the simulation results showed that PM2.5 was an important indicator for air quality and the evaluation results of the new Air Quality Standards were more scientific than the old ones. The haze-fog pollution situation in Beijing City was also analyzed based on these results, and the corresponding management measures were suggested.

  9. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  10. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  11. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  12. Impact of the Popocatepetl's volcanic activity on the air quality of Puebla City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Gay, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Flores, Y. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report measurements of atmospheric pollutants in Puebla City, including those registered during the period characterized by intense volcanic activity from Popocatepetl volcano between December 2000 and January 2001. We used a gaussian air dispersion model to calculate the impact of sulfur compounds from volcanic emissions on the measurements of these compounds in the stations belonging to Puebla City Atmospheric Monitoring Network. The data show that during the analyzed period, this volcanic emissions affected the air quality, increasing the indexes of PM{sub 1}0, CO and sulfur compounds. Also, the results of applying a Gaussian air dispersion model to these sulfur compounds explains the measurements from Tecnologico station for days with intense volcanic activity and wind coming from the volcano to Puebla City. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reportan mediciones de contaminantes atmosfericos en la ciudad de Puebla, incluyendo las registradas durante el periodo caracterizado por una intensa actividad del volcan Popocatepetl, entre diciembre de 200 y enero de 2001. Aplicamos un modelo de dispersion gaussiano para calcular el impacto de las emisiones volcanicas de compuestos de azufre en las mediciones de estos compuestos en las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo Atmosferico de la ciudad de Puebla. Los datos muestran que durante el periodo analizado, las emisiones volcanicas afectaron la calidad del aire incrementando los indices de PM{sub 1}0, CO y compuestos de azufre. Ademas, los resultados del modelo gaussiano de dispersion del aire para los compuestos de azufre, explican las mediciones de la estacion Tecnologico para los dias con intensa actividad volcanica y viento viniendo del volcan hacia la ciudad de Puebla.

  13. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA, secondary OA (SOA, total OA (TOA, and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  14. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  15. [Transparency in public sector acquisitions. The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of

  16. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  17. Land use changes assessment using spatial data: Case study in Cong river basin - Thai Nguyen City - Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu

    Land use changes are being interested in most countries, especially in developing countries. Because land use changes always impacts on sustainable development not only in a region or a country but also in whole the world. Viet Nam is a developing country, in the last 10 years, land uses have rapidly changed in most provinces. Many of agriculture areas, forest areas have changed for various purposes as urban sprawl, establishing new industrial parks, public areas, mining and other land uses relate to human activities or economic function associated with a specific piece of land. Beside efficiencies of economic and society, then environment issues have been threatening serious pollution, are from land use changes. Remote sensing images application on studying land use changes, has been done in many countries around the world, and has brought high efficiencies. However, this application is still very new and limited in Viet Nam due to lacking of materials, tools, experts of remote sensing. This study used spatial data as Landsat TM images, SPOT5 images and land use planning maps to rapidly assess on happenings of land uses in the period 2000 -2010 in Cong river basin (Thai Nguyen City, Viet Nam), and to forecast the changes of land uses in the period 2010 - 2020. The results had a good accuracy and to be important references for authorities, policy makers in local land use.

  18. Morphometric analysis of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The State of São Paulo Water Resources Policy established, in 1991, the Integrated Water Resources Management System (SIGRHI and defined the basic principles for water management, adopting the watershed as the basic unit for studies, integrated planning for sustainable development. This study characterized the morphology of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP. Morphometric analysis involved the characterization of geometric parameters, topography and drainage network, and the analysis of land use and land cover of the sub-basins. The morphometric characterization revealed that Perdizes sub-basin has an area of 12.70 km², a perimeter of 19.85 km, and a main channel length of 6.86 km, while Fojo sub-basin has a drainage area of 13.97 km ², a perimeter of 19.74 km, and a main channel length of 6.94 km. These results indicate similarities between the two sub-basins. The compactness coefficient (Kc for Perdizes was 1.56 and for Fojo 1.41. These values associated with the respective form factors, F = 0.27 and F = 0.29, indicate that these sub-basins, under a normal precipitation regime are not susceptible to flooding. The results of these indices are consisted with the circularity index (CI found: CI = 0.41 for Perdizes and CI = 0.45 for Fojo, respectively. As CI values found are far from one, they indicate that these sub-basins tend to have a more elongated shape and, therefore, lower flow concentration tendency. The results obtained for the maintenance coefficient indicate that in order to maintain the flow of each channel meter, Perdizes sub-basin needs 286.5 m² and Fojo sub-basin needs 243.9 m². Land cover and land use analysis revealed that among the four existing vegetation cover types, Forest is dominant in both sub-basins with 649 ha (51.1% in Perdizes, and 608.8 ha (43.6% in Fojo; Reforestation cover ranks second with similar areas in both sub-basins, Perdizes with 218 ha (17.2% and Fojo with approximately

  19. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H R; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, J P; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city's regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 microg x m(-3) increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. PMID:9163648

  20. The web system for operative description of air quality in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. A.; Starchenko, A. V.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Development and implementation of information-computational system (ICS) is described. The system is oriented on the collective usage of the calculation's facilities in order to determine the air quality on the basis of photochemical model. The ICS has been implemented on the basis of the middleware of ATMOS web-portal [1, 2]. The data and calculation layer of this ICS includes: Mathematical model of pollution transport based on transport differential equations. The model describes propagation, scattering and chemical transformation of the pollutants in the atmosphere [3]. The model may use averaged data value for city or forecast results obtained with help of the Chaser model.[4] Atmospheric boundary layer model (ABLM) [3] is used for operative numerical prediction of the meteorological parameters. These are such parameters as speed and direction of the wind, humidity and temperature of the air, which are necessary for the transport impurity model to operate. The model may use data assimilation of meteorological measurements data (including land based observations and the results of remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere) or the weather forecast results obtained with help of the Semi-Lagrange model [5]. Applications for manipulation of data: An application for downloading parameters of atmospheric surface layer and remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere from the web sites (http://meteo.infospace.ru and http://weather.uwyo.edu); An application for uploading these data into the ICS database; An application for transformation of the uploaded data into the internal data format of the system. At present this ICS is a part of "Climate" web site located in ATMOS portal [5]. The database is based on the data schemes providing the calculation in ICS workflow. The applications manipulated with the data are working in automatic regime. The workflow oriented on computation of physical parameters contains: The application for the calculation of

  1. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  2. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  3. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents from Southeast Bulgarian cities with different levels of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Zlatka Georgieva; Kostadinova, Gergana Stoianova; Popov, Borislav Nikolov; Petkov, Georgi Stefanov; Stanilova, Spaska Angelova

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the exposure of different air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) has been related to adverse effect on immune system. Current study was designed to investigate cytokines in blood plasma of adolescent persons continuously exposed to different degrees of ambient air pollutions. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, and IL-10 were chosen as cytokines of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune response. The peripheral venous blood was taken from adolescents living in the cities of Stara Zagora region, Southeast Bulgaria, that is, in Stara Zagora, Kazanlak, and Chirpan. The quantity of cytokines in plasma samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results demonstrated that youths living in Stara Zagora showed significantly smaller quantity of TNF-α, compared with adolescents from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Moreover, adolescents living in Stara Zagora showed significantly higher quantity of IL-10 than students from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Analysis of the data of air quality gives reason to assert that PM10 and PM2.5 have been the main atmospheric pollutants around the monitoring points. The complex air quality assessment based on these criteria determined that the highest air pollution was in the city of Stara Zagora, followed by Chirpan and the relatively unpolluted town was Kazanlak. We concluded that air pollutants, mostly PM2.5, can modulate cytokine production and can change the balance between proinflammatory TNF-α and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production. Increased levels of IL-10 combined with decreased level of TNF-α in adolescents living in Stara Zagora can serve as a biomarker for suppression of T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity and exacerbation of Th2 humoral immune response and could be a prerequisite for the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23771874

  4. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. - Highlights: • We model effect modification of aeroallergens on air pollutant–asthma association. • The air pollutant association was modelled in seven synoptic weather types. • Aeroallergens modify CO, O3, NO2, SO2, and PM2.5 effect on asthma hospitalisations. • Synoptic weather types modify the air pollutant and asthma association. - We identify a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the relationship between air pollutants and hospitalisation rates for asthma, that differs under specific synoptic weather types

  5. Soil Water Surplus in Salado River Basin and Its Variability during the Last Forty Years (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Daniel Capriolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water surplus and deficit occur frequently in Buenos Aires province in Argentina. This paper analyses the soil water surplus in a sub-area, the Salado River basin, in the period 1968–2008. This basin is divided in seven drainage areas, delimitated according to the National Water Resources. The series of soil water surplus data were adjusted by means of the theoretical normal cubic-root probability distribution, and the mean areal soil water surplus value of 300 mm was considered as a threshold above which floods can cause severe damage. An increase in the frequency of extreme events and in their tendency exists during the recent years, coherent with the increase of precipitation recorded in the region. The statistical significance of the results was assessed using the Mann Kendall and MAKESENS tests. The results showed a relevant temporal variability, but did not show significant tendencies.

  6. Flood risk analysis and adaptive strategy in context of uncertainties: a case study of Nhieu Loc Thi Nghe Basin, Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Long-Phi; Chau, Nguyen-Xuan-Quang; Nguyen, Hong-Quan

    2013-04-01

    The Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe basin is the most important administrative and business area of Ho Chi Minh City. Due to system complexity of the basin such as the increasing trend of rainfall intensity, (tidal) water level and land subsidence, the simulation of hydrological, hydraulic variables for flooding prediction seems rather not adequate in practical projects. The basin is still highly vulnerable despite of multi-million USD investment for urban drainage improvement projects since the last decade. In this paper, an integrated system analysis in both spatial and temporal aspects based on statistical, GIS and modelling approaches has been conducted in order to: (1) Analyse risks before and after projects, (2) Foresee water-related risk under uncertainties of unfavourable driving factors and (3) Develop a sustainable flood risk management strategy for the basin. The results show that given the framework of risk analysis and adaptive strategy, certain urban developing plans in the basin must be carefully revised and/or checked in order to reduce the highly unexpected loss in the future

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  8. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanti, Brooke A; Chang, Howard H; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong associations between asthma morbidity and major ambient air pollutants. Relatively little research has been conducted to assess whether age is a factor conferring susceptibility to air pollution-related asthma morbidity. We investigated the short-term relationships between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and ambient ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta (1993-2009), Dallas (2006-2009), and St. Louis (2001-2007). City-specific daily time-series analyses were conducted to estimate associations by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-39, 40-64, and 65+ years). Sub-analyses were performed stratified by race and sex. City-specific rate ratios (RRs) were combined by inverse-variance weighting to provide an overall association for each strata. The overall RRs differed across age groups, with associations for all pollutants consistently strongest for children aged 5-18 years. The patterns of association across age groups remained generally consistent when models were stratified by sex and race, although the strong observed associations among 5-18 year olds appeared to be partially driven by non-white and male patients. Our findings suggest that age is a susceptibility factor for asthma exacerbations in response to air pollution, with school-age children having the highest susceptibility. PMID:26350981

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  10. Air Quality Monitoring in major Norwegian cities. October 1994 - March 1995; Maalinger av luftforurensninger i by/tettstedsprogrammet. Oktober 1994-mars 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, L.O.; Johnsrud, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report gives the results from the measurements of nitrogen oxides, suspended particles and meteorological conditions in major Norwegian cities during the winter half year 1994/95. Norwegian air quality guidelines were exceeded at most stations. In a colder winter with poorer dispersion conditions, air quality guidelines probably could be expected more frequently. 1 ref., 67 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    CERN Document Server

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  12. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the chemical

  13. Voices and views. Indian social agents in the legal framework. Buenos Aires city and countryside in the late colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Elsa Aguirre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned to examine the actions of Indian social network caught in the court, either as victims or suspected of a crime, in the campaign and Buenos Aires city in the late colonial period. The aim is to investigate the configuration and the settlement of disputes that involve indigenous, noting both its positioning as the judicial officers, clergy or individuals with certain power at the local level who are involved in these cases. This analysis facilitate the entry into to social interweaving of that time, providing keys to understand it, unveiling a diversity of voices and looks involved in the process of setting and prosecution of crimes

  14. Mezcla génica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Gene mixture in a population sample from Buenos Aires City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Avena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la mezcla génica en la población de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, a partir de muestras de dadores de sangre provenientes de un centro público de salud (Hospital de Clínicas. Los estudios se realizaron sobre 218 personas no emparentadas que donaron su sangre durante el año 2002. Se analizaron 8 sistemas genéticos eritrocitarios y los alotipos GM/KM. Se realizó una encuesta con la finalidad de obtener información sobre lugar de nacimiento, residencia actual y datos genealógicos de los dadores. Las frecuencias génicas se determinaron empleando métodos de máxima verosimilitud. Para calcular la mezcla génica se aplicó el programa ADMIX (trihíbrido. Se registró un 15.8% de aporte indígena (AI y 4.3% de africano (AA. Estos datos se compararon con un estudio previo realizado en un centro privado (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, no observándose diferencias significativas salvo en el sistema Km. Los resultados obtenidos se corresponden con la información histórica y demográfica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.The aim of this study is to estimate the gene admixture in the population of Buenos Aires City from samples of blood donors, which come from a public health centre (Hospital de Clínicas. These studies were performed on 218 unrelated people, who donated blood during the year 2002. Eight erythrocyte genetic systems and GM/KM allotypes were analysed. A survey to obtain information about place of birth, present residence and genealogical data of the donors was performed. The gene frequencies were determined using a method of maximum likelihood. The genetic admixture was calculated through the ADMIX program (trihibride. The Amerindian and African contributions were 15.8% and 4.3% respectively. These data were compared with those obtained in a previous study performed in a private centre (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires and significant differences were observed, except in the KM system. The

  15. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection...... resolution of less than 2 km. Furthermore in urban areas, the pollutant dispersion movements are trapped between buildings initiating it to move vertically causing visualization complications which imply the limitations of existing visualization scheme that is based on two-dimensional (2D) framework...... commonly available on the web, by having a unified data model shows the advantages in easy data acquisition, 3D visualization of air pollution dispersion and improves visual analysis of air quality monitoring in urban areas....

  16. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Kirenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja. PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3 and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3 but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3. In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  17. Recent changes in ground surface thermal regimes in the context of air temperature warming over the Heihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QingFeng Wang; TingJun Zhang; XiaoQing Peng; Bin Cao

    2014-01-01

    Changes-in-ground-surface-thermal-regimes-play-a-vital-role-in-surface-and-subsurface-hydrology,-ecosystem-diversity-and-productivity,-and-global-thermal,-water-and-carbon-budgets-as-well-as-climate-change.-Estimating-spring,-summer,-autumn-and-winter-air-temperatures-and-mean-annual-air-temperature-(MAAT)-from-1960-through-2008-over-the-Heihe-River-Basin-reveals-a-statistically-significant-trend-of-0.31-°C/decade,-0.28-°C/decade,-0.37-°C/decade,-0.50-°C/decade,-and-0.37-°C-/decade,-respectively.-The-averaged-time-series-of-mean-annual-ground-surface-temperature-(MAGST)-andmaximum-annual-ground-surface-temperature(MaxAGST)-for-1972-2006-over-the-basin-indicates-a-statistically-significant-trend-of-0.58-°C/decade-and-1.27-°C/decade,-respectively.-The-minimum-annual-ground-surface-temperature-(MinAGST)-in-the-same-period-remains-unchanged-as-a-whole.-Estimating-surface-freezing/thawing-index-as-well-as-the-ratio-of-freezing-index-to-thawing-index-(RFT)in-the-period-between-1959-and-2006-over-the-basin-indicates-a-statistically-significant-trend-of-42.5-°C-day/decade,-85.4-°C-day/decade-and-0.018/decade,-respectively.

  18. Revitalización de subcentros metropolitanos. Buenos Aires entre la ciudad dispersa y la ciudad compacta / Revitalization of metropolitan subcentres. Buenos Aires between the dispersed city and the compact city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccolella, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas se debaten actualmente entre dos procesos de transformación socio-territorial convergentes: la densificación y verticalización de las áreas centrales, y la expansión cada vez más difusa y fragmentada de los suburbios. Esta dicotomía entre ciudad compacta y ciudad dispersa parece mostrar procesos singulares en el caso de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires. A partir de los años dos mil, se han ralentizado los nuevos lanzamientos de urbanizaciones cerradas y, paralelamente, han comenzado a manifestarse algunos casos de revitalización de antiguas subcentralidades del sur de la metrópolis, que habían entrado en una fase de estancamiento y deterioro desde mediados de los años setenta, y actualmente experimentan una aceleración de la producción de vivienda multifamiliar de calidad. Este trabajo explora y muestra algunas experiencias concretas de esta tendencia, con la hipótesis que, al menos en Buenos Aires, los procesos de transformación y reestructuración metrolitana muestran complejidades y diversidades según los contextos temporales y territoriales que se analicen. The large Latin American cities are currently experiencing two convergent socio-territoria transformation processes: the densification and verticalization of central areas, and the increasingly diffuse and fragmented suburban expansion. This dichotomy between the compact city and the dispersed city seems to show unique features in the case of the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. After the 2000s, the expansion of gated communities has slowed down and at the same time some old subcentralities in the South of the metropolis have begun to revitalize. Since the mid-1970s, they had entered a phase of stagnation and deterioration, and at present the production of quality multifamily housing is rapidly growing. This paper reflects on this trend and show some concrete experiences. Our hypothesis is that in Buenos Aires the process

  19. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  20. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks. PMID:23989624

  1. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil–air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002–0.53 ng g−1 in the surface soils while 1.43–22.1 and 0.19–7.59 pg m−3 in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04–0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta–bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil–air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC−A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. - Highlights: • Model based calculations of black carbon-air partition coefficients for PBDEs. • Soil and air levels of PBDEs and DPs reported first time for ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. • Both, fBC and fTOC showed combined influence on soil–air partitioning of PBDEs in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. - BC and TOC showed combined influence on soil–air partitioning of POPs i-e., PBDEs in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan

  2. Analysis of Mexico City urban air pollution using nitrogen dioxide column density measurements from UV/Visible spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Grutter, M.; Melamed, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The differential optical absorption spectroscopy method (DOAS) was used to get column densities of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the analysis of zenith sky UV/visible spectra. Since the optical path length provides critical information in interpreting NO2 column densities, in conjunction with NO2 column densities, the oxygen dimer (O4) column density was retrieved to give insight into the optical path length. We report observations of year round NO2 and O4 column densities (from august 2009 to september 2010) from which the mean seasonal levels and the daily evolution, as well as the occurrence of elevated pollution episodes are examined. Surface nitric oxide (NO) and NO2 from the local monitoring network, as well as wind data and the vertical aerosol density from continuous Lidar measurements are used in the analysis to investigate specific events in the context of local emissions from vehicular traffic, photochemical production and transport from industrial emissions. The NO2 column density measurements will enhance the understanding Mexico City urban air pollution. Recent research has begun to unravel the complexity of the air pollution problem in Mexico City and its effects not only locally but on a regional and global scale as well.

  3. Building Nanyang into a Central City in the Han River Basin%谈南阳汉水流域中心城市的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜汉华

    2015-01-01

    南阳文化底蕴深厚,自然资源丰富,人口众多;南阳人特别有智慧,名人名家多如繁星;南阳曾经是汉水流域历史上出现最早、为时最长的中心城市,在海内外有过巨大的影响。只要南阳市进一步重视人才,擅于聚集南阳和天下人的智慧,找出南阳市突破性发展的正确路径,引进世界遗产的保护理念,完全有条件和襄阳竞争一番,争取引领汉水流域的文化旅游产业,再次率先成为汉水流域的中心城市。%The city of Nanyang boasts profound cultural deposits , abundant natural resources and an enormous pop-ulation.Nanyang is also a place laden with numerous outstanding personages .The city used to be the earliest and longest-lasting central city in the Han River basin , projecting its influence both at home and abroad .As long as Nanyang municipality attaches greater importance to attracting talents , draws on the collective wisdom of all con-cerned , blazes a new trail in achieving frog-leaping development and infuses innovative ideas into the cause of pre-serving and protecting World Heritage sites , it is fully capable of taking the ascendancy in its rivalry with Xiangyang for regional clout and regaining its lead in becoming a central city in the Han River basin whilst spearheading the development of the area ’ s cultural and tourism industries .

  4. Characteristics and distributions of organic substances in the air of some American cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, L.A.; Tabor, E.C.; Foter, M.J.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary analyses obtained through 18 months of operation of a nation-wide air sampling program are reported. The sampling program reported includes more than 30 metropolitan complexes in the USA and one in England.

  5. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  6. Sources and transport of Δ14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1 relatively few samples (23% were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57±2‰ despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2 frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. Likely sources include the release of 14C-enhanced carbon from bomb 14C sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2 from other "hot" sources. Plausible perturbations from local point "hot" sources include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions and is unaccounted for as a source of the elevated CO2 observed above local background. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  7. Sources and transport of Δ14C on CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1 relatively few samples (23% were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57‰ despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2 frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. These sources included the release of bomb or "hot" radiocarbon sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2. Plausible large local perturbations include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottoms-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  8. Sources and transport of Δ14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Tyler, S. C.; Choi, Y.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Singh, H. B.

    2009-07-01

    Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1) relatively few samples (23%) were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57±2‰) despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2) frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. Likely sources include the release of 14C-enhanced carbon from bomb 14C sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2 from other "hot" sources. Plausible perturbations from local point "hot" sources include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions and is unaccounted for as a source of the elevated CO2 observed above local background. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  9. Sources and transport of Δ14C on CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Tyler, S. C.; Choi, Y.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Singh, H. B.

    2009-03-01

    Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1) relatively few samples (23%) were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57‰) despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2) frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. These sources included the release of bomb or "hot" radiocarbon sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2. Plausible large local perturbations include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottoms-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  10. Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Fen Chiu; Yi-Hao Weng; Ya-Wen Chiu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on w...

  11. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  12. Air quality and emissions reduction initiatives at the City of Calgary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To conserve, protect and improve the environment for the benefits of the citizens living in Calgary, the City of Calgary is committed to environmental leadership, as declared by the author as an opening statement to this Power Point presentation. The author described some of the partnerships and alliances to which the City of Calgary adheres, such as partner for climate protection program, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). The City is aiming at a 20 per cent reduction of 1990 greenhouse gas emission levels within ten years for municipal operations. The Greenhouse Gas Reduction Commitment is divided in three parts: (1) baseline inventory, (2) economic and emissions abatement assessment, and (3) implementation and each phase was explained. Phase 1 relates to an inventory of equivalent carbon dioxide as a standardized measure of greenhouse gases. Both municipal and corporate reduction targets have been identified, as well as targets for buildings. An innovative cooperative partnership with private industry has been initiated, called the energy performance contracting (EPC), where EPC provides upgraded building infrastructure with more energy efficient equipment. The entire concept was detailed. Other initiatives include green power substitutions and street lighting retrofits. The author concluded by providing a greenhouse gas reduction score sheet. Some initiatives at the community level include Web business office/Web initiatives, a public education outreach program and third party agencies. figs

  13. Dynamic downscaling of near-surface air temperature at the basin scale using WRF-a case study in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoduo PAN; Xin Li; Xiaokang SHI; Xujun HAN; Lihui LUO; Liangxu WANG

    2012-01-01

    The spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs) is too coarse to represent regional climate variations at the regional,basin,and local scales required for many environmental modeling and impact assessments.Weather research and forecasting model (WRF) is a nextgeneration,fully compressible,Euler non-hydrostatic mesoscale forecast model with a run-time hydrostatic option.This model is useful for downscaling weather and climate at the scales from one kilometer to thousands of kilometers,and is useful for deriving meteorological parameters required for hydrological simulation too.The objective of this paper is to validate WRF simulating 5 km/ 1 h air temperatures by daily observed data of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) stations,and by hourly in-situ data of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research Project.The daily validation shows that the WRF simulation has good agreement with the observed data; the R2 between the WRF simulation and each station is more than 0.93; the absolute of meanbias error (MBE) for each station is less than 2℃; and the MBEs of Ejina,Mazongshan and Alxa stations are near zero,with R2 is more than 0.98,which can be taken as an unbiased estimation.The hourly validation shows that the WRF simulation can capture the basic trend of observed data,the MBE of each site is approximately 2℃,the R2 of each site is more than 0.80,with the highest at 0.95,and the computed and observed surface air temperature series show a significantly similar trend.

  14. Temperature modifies the association between particulate air pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho

    2015-08-15

    Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of air pollution and temperature on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the temperature modification effect on acute mortality due to air pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of temperature on the relationship between air pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of temperatures at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on extremely hot days (daily mean temperature: >99th percentile) in individuals aged effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest temperature range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high temperature range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that temperature can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.

  15. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3...

  16. Respirable mineral fibres in the atmospheric air of the city of Wroclaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpentine asbestos from the Naslawice mine, which contains mineral impurities of the serpentinite group-chrysotile and antigorite, has been used to built school sports grounds as well as roads and playgrounds within residential areas. The study was aimed to measure concentrations of respirable mineral fibers in the atmospheric air at the time children were playing on one of the playgrounds as well as at four other sites of Wroclaw. Air samples were collected using individual dosimeters and distributions of length and concentration of fibers were measured by means of a laser fiber monitor FM7400. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were used to determine the mineral composition of raw material collected from the playground. Morphology of particles of dust from the atmospheric air was analyzed by means of electronic microscopy. It was found that the concentration of mineral fibers in the air in question depended on the number of children playing, namely when 7 children were playing the concentration value was equal to 165 fibers/liter and 549 fibers/liter with the number of 20 children. The concentration of fibers in a flat in the vicinity of the playground covered with serpentinite was about 11 times higher than at a street crossing with heavy traffic of motor vehicles. Antigorite and chrysotile were found in samples of raw material used to cover the playground. Numerous particles of fibrous structure were observed in the electronic microscopy image of air dust samples collected from the playground. (author). 11 refs, 3 tabs, 4 figs

  17. Air pollution impact on aerosol variability over mega cities using remote sensing technology: case study, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution problems over mega cities differ greatly and are influenced by a number of factors, including topography, demography, meteorology, level and rate of industrialization and socioeconomic development. Cairo is considered a key city for economy, education, politics industry and technology in the Middle East.Increasing business and industrial activities in the city accompanied by shortage of the institutional capabilities for monitoring and control, in addition to environmental impact negligence that prevails over many of the production sectors, have contributed to excessive air pollution problems that have reached the level of crisis. A contributor to this problem is natural and man made effects such as dust and aerosols uptakes. Such pollution episodes are observed during the months of October showing the so called Black Cloud. Such pollution leads to wide variability of aerosols behavior over Cairo. Hence, aerosol related parameters obtained from satellite measurements have been studied here. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) behavior showed a dual maxima nature in each year from 2000 till 2005 during the months of (April, May) and October confirming dust and air pollution events, respectively. Such behavior is confirmed by the high negative correlation with the aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) reaching -0.75. FMF product confirms a higher value during the months of October representing the Black Cloud episodes due to fine particles contribution in these events rather than during the dust events. However, lower values are observed in the last two years due to the new control measures enforced by the government for the environment protection. The difference between the AOD and FMF showed a higher contribution of the fine grains during the Black Cloud events rather than coarser grains during dust events as expected. Among the sources known to contribute to the black cloud formation is the fire burns over the Nile Delta region during the months of September and

  18. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  19. Parametric time-series analysis of daily air pollutants of city of Shumen, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Boyadzhiev, D.

    2012-10-01

    The urban air pollution is one of the main factors determining the ambient air quality, which affects on the human health and the environment. In this paper parametric time series models are obtained for studying the distribution over time of primary pollutants as sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and a secondary pollutant ground level ozon in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The methods of factor analysis and ARIMA are used to carry out the time series analysis based on hourly average data in 2011 and first quarter of 2012. The constructed models are applied for a short-term air pollution forecasting. The results are estimated on the basis of national and European regulation indices. The sources of pollutants in the region and their harmful effects on human health are also discussed.

  20. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  1. El acceso temático en las Bibliotecas Públicas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Subject access in public libraries of the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Chahbenderian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un trabajo de campo realizado en 2003, con el objetivo de conocer las herramientas de recuperación por materia ofrecidas por las bibliotecas públicas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se describen el vocabulario y el sistema de clasificación utilizados; como así también, las posibilidades de acceso temático a través de estanterías abiertas, con un orden físico de la colección por materia, y catálogos en línea de acceso público. Se sugieren, al final, algunas recomendaciones para mejorar la eficiencia en la búsqueda por materia en las bibliotecas públicas.The article presents the results of a field work carried out in 2003 to verify the tools of subject retrieval offered by public libraries in the city of Buenos Aires. It describes the vocabulary and the classification system used and also the possibilities of subject access by open stacks with a physical arrangement of the collection by subject, and online public access catalogs. It concludes with some recommendations to improve the efficiency of subject searching in public libraries.

  2. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

  3. Air pollution exposure and daily clinical visits for allergic rhinitis in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant level exposure and daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis (AR) in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for AR and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2011. The relative risk for clinic visits for AR was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23ºC) significant positive associations were found for increased rate of AR occurrence and ambient levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (air pollutants were significantly associated with elevated number of AR visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3, and NO2 were significantly associated with higher rate of AR visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO levels remained significantly related with increased AR visits in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air contaminants enhance the risk of elevated frequency of clinic visits for AR. PMID:27294298

  4. Intra-urban air pollution in a rapidly growing Sahelian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J; Boman, J; Holmer, B; Thorsson, S; Eliasson, I

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we analyze spatial and temporal variations of air pollution (PM(1), PM(2.5), PM(10), CO, NO(x), O(3), Toluene and Benzene) and climate in areas of different development typology in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Analyses are based on measurements from fixed sites and car traverse measurements during field studies in 2007 and 2010. Large spatial and temporal variations were found, showing a generally poor air quality situation, with extreme levels of PM(10), commonly exceeding air quality guidelines of WHO. Pollution levels increase considerably with increased atmospheric stability. Important sources were transported dust and re-suspension of dust from unpaved roads, but also traffic emissions and biomass burning. The spatial variations are examined with focus on effects for variations in potential exposure depending on for example area of residence and daily activity pattern, showing that great differences are likely to exist. Ouagadougou, like most developing countries worldwide, currently experiences an extremely rapid population growth in combination with limited financial means. This is likely to create increasingly harmful air pollution situations for the rapidly growing populations of these areas, and shows an urgent need for increased understanding of the pollution situation as well as development of mitigation strategies.

  5. Evaluation Clean Air Effects on Tehran City Residential Houses Price in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour Sabbagi M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundsandObjectives: Environmental activitiesunknownprice and value caused establishing of some unique characteristics for mentioned commodities. One of these characteristics was existing gap between private and social cost and benefit. For assessing these activities different approaches include travel cost, willingness to pay and hedonic price had been suggested. According to Tehran's air pollution problem, in this study Hedonic approach had was used for the assessment of healthy air on Tehran's residential house price.Materials and Method : Hedonic approach is one of the methods that are used for evolution environmental goods. In this method, each good's price is estimated as a functions of that good`s properties. To gather this study information 300 questionnaires has been collected by random sampling from different area of Tehran.Result: Results revealed that activities in order to reduce air pollutions, in addition to environmental value have economical value form the point of view of consumers. Also, results show that willingness to pay of every Tehran's citizens for every square meter of house located in region with less pollution is between 1120 to 1350 thousands Rials.Conclusion: According to the obtained results can be said that, clean air as an environmental good from the viewpoint of consumers has economic value that can be calculated this value using methods such as Hedonic.

  6. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    NOx (due to suppressed titration often leads to increased O3. The influence over rural areas is however always in favor of improved air quality, i.e. both NOx and/or NMVOC reduction ends up in decreased ozone pollution, mainly in terms of exceedances.

  7. Performance analysis of solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in subtropical city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The meteorological data during the working period of air conditioning was measured. • The suitable working range of collector temperature of system was gotten. • The characteristic of hourly and monthly total efficiency of system were obtained. • The yearly performance of system was calculated. - Abstract: Due to the absence of cooling tower and independent on water, the air cooled solar double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system is more convenient to be used in commercial building and household use. The performance with collector temperature is an important field for such system. The paper mainly deals with the performance with collector temperature for the solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in subtropical city. The parameters of system are: aperture area of collector array is 27 m2, tilted angle of collector with respect to the horizontal plane is 20 toward to south evaporator temperature is 5 °C and the cooling capacity is 20 kW. The simulation is based on the meteorological data of monthly typical day which was summarized from a year round measured data. A corresponding parametric model was developed. The hourly and average performance with the collector temperature for monthly typical day was obtained and discussed. It was found that the suitable working range of inlet temperature of collector is 110–130 °C to improve performance and lower the risk of crystallization. The difference of hourly total efficiency in 9:00–16:00 is less, and the monthly total efficiency from May to October is approximate. The yearly performance of system including total efficiency, cooling capacity per area of collector and solar fraction was given. Furthermore, the effect of effectiveness of heat exchanger and pressure drop on total efficiency and solar fraction was studied and compared. The paper can serve as a preliminary investigation of solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in

  8. The Chilean granite (austral mountains of Buenos Aires-Argentina): preludial testimony of the Rifting Jurassic-Cretaceous in the Colorado and Macachin Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tectonic significance of Los Chilenos (140 16 Ma), forming the crystalline basement of the Sierras Australes de Buenos Aires, is out lighted as a preludial testimony of Jurassic-Cretaceous rifting which controlled the sedimentation in neighbouring Colorado and Macachin basins. (author)

  9. Soil concentrations, occurrence, sources and estimation of air-soil exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Breivik, Knut; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-08-15

    Past studies have shown potentially increasing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indian environment. This is the first attempt to investigate the occurrence of PCBs in surface soil and estimate diffusive air-soil exchange, both on a regional scale as well as at local level within the metropolitan environment of India. From the north, New Delhi and Agra, east, Kolkata, west, Mumbai and Goa and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern India were selected for this study. 33 PCB congeners were quantified in surface soil and possible sources were derived using positive matrix factorization model. Net flux directions of PCBs were estimated in seven major metropolitan cities of India along urban-suburban-rural transects. Mean Σ33PCBs concentration in soil (12ng/g dry weight) was nearly twice the concentration found in global background soil, but in line with findings from Pakistan and urban sites of China. Higher abundance of the heavier congeners (6CB-8CB) was prevalent mostly in the urban centers. Cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata with evidence of ongoing PCB sources did not show significant correlation with soil organic carbon (SOC). This study provides evidence that soil is acting as sink for heavy weight PCB congeners and source for lighter congeners. Atmospheric transport is presumably a controlling factor for occurrence of PCBs in less polluted sites of India. PMID:27136304

  10. Seasonal distribution of air-borne pathogenic and free-living amoebae in Mexico City and its suburbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, F.; Bonilla, P.; Ramirez, E.; Calderon, A.; Gallegos, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Ortiz, R.; Hernandez, D.; Rivera, V. (ENEP-Iztacala, Tlalnepantla (Mexico). Lab. of Environmental Microbiology)

    1994-03-01

    A survey was carried out over a one-year period to isolate amoebae suspended in the air of Mexico City and its suburbs. Sampling stations were placed at the four cardinal points of the metropolitan area. Selective media were used to culture the amoebae isolated. Specialized taxonomic keys and physical and physiological tests were used for identification, and a statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlations between physico-chemical and biological parameters. 108 strains were isolated, of which 19 were pathogenic via intracerebral inoculation and 9 via intranasal inoculation. Species of the genera Acanthamoeba, Vahlkampfia and Hartmannella were most abundant. Acanthamoeba polyphaga showed the highest abundance. Several times during the period of the study SO[sub 2], O[sub 3], CO NO and NO[sub 2] exceeded the permissible levels established by the Mexican government. The ability of amoebae to form cysts and cyst size were important factors for their presence, survival, abundance and diversity in the atmosphere. The main source of air-borne amoebae was the soil. Factors that favored the incidence and diversity of the isolates were wind speed and direction, low relative humidity, generation of frequent dust-storms, resuspension of amoebae by vehicular traffic, proximity to garbage dumps and large extensions of bare soil. Soil cover was a factor associated with a reduction in the incidence and diversity of the aerial amoebae. This study demonstrates that there are viable cysts of amoebae in the atmosphere of Mexico City, that may have potential importance in the case of certain kinds of human allergies and diseases. Further research is needed to find out the aerial presence of viable cysts of obligatory, amphizoic or opportunistic amoebic parasites, and to clarify the qualitative and quantitative effects of the local meteorological and physico-chemical environment on the free-living amoebae present in the atmosphere. 48 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Air borne heavy metal pollution of Cedrus libani (A. Rich.) in the city centre of Konya (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Serpil; Dursun, Sukru

    The contents of heavy metal accumulated by air pollution in the cedar tree needles from the green area of Konya city centre were measured by chemical analyses. The needle samples were collected from two types of trees (about 10-15 and 20-25-years-old trees) from eight different pollution regions for two different sampling periods. Results of sulphur dioxide and particle matter analyses were used for measurement of air pollution effect on accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetation. Contents of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Cd and V) were determined for sampling periods, tree ages and sampling places. Results of the present study showed that accumulations of heavy metals in the old trees were generally higher than those of young trees. Similarly, heavy metal contents of needles collected in spring 2004 were higher than those of needles collected in autumn 2003. Accumulation of heavy metals via sulphur dioxide pollution and particle matter originated from usage of low quality fossil fuels, which might affect the living organisms in the city centre. On the other hand, Pb levels in the samples from Karatay Industry Park (3.53 ppm in 2004) showed that people are health living around the industry, and heavy traffic area is under risk. According to the other sampling areas, the chromium levels were also very high around the Chrome-Magnesite Factory Garden (87.15 ppm in 2004); it could be a toxic risk for people working around the factory. The heavy metal levels obtained from the other samples were not as high a risk level for the living organisms in the sampling areas.

  12. Isotope hydrology application in Cuba for assessment of water resource management in the most important Basin of Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows the results obtained during the investigations carried out in two research and development projects; a national project (2002-2005) and an international collaboration project jointly carried out between Cuba and Argentina (2005-2006). Isotope hydrology tools are applied to the assessment the 'Almendares-Vento' karstic basin, which is the main water supply system to the Cuban capital. The basin is affected by the overexploitation of its water resources and discharges of industrial and urban wastewaters. Additionally, an extensive period of drought, justify the necessity of carrying out an integral characterization of the basin for a better management. Using a monitoring network of groundwater and surface waters, a preliminary isotopic study (3H, 18O and 2H) including rainfall analysis in the basin was accomplished. Also, a detailed geochemistry characterization, including the integral geologic study the determination of the major aniotis and cations (HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and physico-chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, pH, TDS) was achieved. The isotope composition indicates their meteoric origin. Groundwater and surface water fit on an evaporation line, but not all samples follow an evaporation pattern. The isotope variations respond to processes such as selective infiltration or direct infiltration through preferential channels through the karst. The used models show good water mixing and the aquifer receives fresh recharge annually, but not in the whole extension. The aquifer is overexploited in the main water extraction point of the basin. The vulnerable zones associated to the contamination by saline water intrusion and the human activities in the urban areas are observed in the basin west side. Also were clarified some geologic and hydrogeology uncertainties of the basin. The utility of the isotope hydrology to assess the water resources management was established. (author)

  13. Isotope hydrology application in Cuba for assessment of water resource management in the most important basin of Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the results obtained during the investigations carried out in two research and development Projects, a national Project (2002-2005) and an international collaboration Project between Cuba and Argentina (2005-2006). The isotope hydrology is applied to assessment the 'Almendares-Vento' karstic basin, which is the main supplier to the Cuban capital. The basin is affected by the overexploitation of its water resources and discharges of industrial and urban wastewaters. Additionally, an extensive period of drought, justify the necessity of carrying out an integral Basin characterization for a better water resources management. Using a monitoring network of the groundwater and surface waters, a preliminary isotopic study (3H, 18O and 2H) including the rainfalls analysis in the Basin was accomplished. Also a detailed geochemistry characterization, including the integral geologic study, the determination of the major anions and cations (HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and physico-chemical parameters (electrical conductivity, pH, TDS) was achieved. The isotope composition indicates their meteoric origin. Groundwater and surface water fit on an evaporation line, but not all samples follow an evaporation pattern. The isotope variations respond to processes as selective infiltration or direct infiltration through preferential channels through the karst. The used models show good water mixing and the aquifer receives fresh recharge annually, but not in the whole extension. The aquifer is overexploited in the main water extraction point of the Basin. The vulnerable zones associated to the contamination by saline water intrusion and the human activities in the urban areas are observed in the basin west side. Also were clarified some geologic and hydrogeology uncertainties of the Basin. The utility of the isotope hydrology to assessment the water resources management was established. (author)

  14. 76 FR 53400 - Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... information should contact Dave Slepnikoff, Team Leader and Project Manager, at the Mystic Ranger District..., Project Manager, Black Hills National Forest, 8221 South Highway 16, Rapid City, South Dakota 57702;...

  15. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  16. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Anahí Magdaleno; Ángela Beatriz Juárez; Valeria Dragani; Magalí Elizabeth Saenz; Marta Paz; Juan Moretton

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was per...

  17. Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Chiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on warm days (>23 °C statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of headache occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, and ozone (O3. On cool days (<23 °C, all pollutants were significantly associated with increased headache visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of headache visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increase the risk of clinic visits for headache.

  18. Meteorological and air quality characterization of the Deaf Smith and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meteorological and air quality characteristics of the Permian Basin locations in Deaf Smith County and Swisher County, Texas, are described using data from eight climatological stations in the vicinity. Meteorological conditions are reasonably represented by these data because of the generally flat terrain over the area and the geographical proximity of the climatological stations to the locations. Information regarding atmospheric transport and dispersion conditions is derived from data for the period 1976 to 1980 provided by the National Weather Service station at Amarillo, Texas. On an annual basis, southerly winds predominate and the average wind speed is 6.1 m/s (13.7 mph). The analysis of dispersion climatology indicates that neutral atmospheric stability also predominates over the year. This, in combination with high average wind speeds, is characteristic of relatively good dispersion conditions in the area. Significant topographic features are far enough away from the locations that their effects on local dispersion conditions are negligible. The closest available air quality data were collected around population centers and may not accurately represent conditions at these rural and undeveloped locations. The area has been declared ''attaining'' for particulate and sulfur dioxide standards and ''cannot be classified as better than ambient standard'' for nitrogen oxides, ozone, and carbon monoxide. 49 references, 5 figures, 18 tables

  19. Monitoring of tobacco smoke particulate matter air pollution in the universities of Kazan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyev, V.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM measurements were conducted in the premises of eight universities in Kazan city. Where smoking is allowed, PM concentrations reach dangerous levels. Smoking mostly takes place in rest-rooms, hallways, corridors, and kitchens of student dormitories. In premises where nobody smokes of the buildings where smoking is not fully forbidden, PM concentrations may be dangerous even for healthy people. Smoke-free policies in university buildings do not cause compensatory smoking at the entrances. PM concentrations at the upper floors of the buildings are generally higher, which needs to be taken in to account while interpreting the results of PM measurements. Smoke-free policies must cover both university buildings and student dormitories. (Full text is in Russian

  20. Resource allocation for mitigating regional air pollution–related mortality: A summertime case study for five cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important issue of regional air quality management is to allocate air quality management funds to maximize environmental and human health benefits. In this study, we use an innovative approach to tackle this air quality management issue. We develop an innovative resource allocation model that allows identification of air pollutant emission control strategies that maximize mortality avoidances subject to a resource constraint. We first present the development of the resource allocation model and then a case study to show how the model can be used to identify resource allocation strategies that maximize mortality avoidances for top five Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Philadelphia) in the continental United States collectively. Given budget constraints in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Air Act assessment, the results of the case study suggest that controls of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbon (PC) emissions from EPA Regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9 would have significant health benefits for the five selected cities collectively. Around 30,800 air pollution–related mortalities could be avoided during the selected 2-week summertime episode for the five cities collectively if the budget could be allocated based on the results of the resource allocation model. Although only five U.S. cities during a 2-week episode are considered in the case study, the resource allocation model can be used by decision-makers to plan air pollution mitigation strategies to achieve the most significant health benefits for other seasons and more cities over a region or the continental U.S.Implications: Effective allocations of air quality management resources are challenging and complicated, and it is desired to have a tool that can help decision-makers better allocate the funds to maximize health benefits of air pollution mitigation. An innovative resource allocation model developed in

  1. Source apportionment profile of the fine air particulate pollution in a sampling site in Quezon City (Philippines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter (PM10) was monitored and collected at a sampling site in Quezon City, Philippines since 1998 for the purpose of source identification and source apportionment. For such to be achieved, parameters like particulate mass, black carbon, and elemental concentration and identification must be determined. These were attained by using gravimetry, reflectometr, and particle-induced x-ray emissions (PIXE) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), respectively. Source apportionment was attained with the use of Positive Matrix Factorization 2 (PMF2). This resulted to the identification of six air pollution sources. These are vehicular emissions (49%), smoke (14%), secondary S (22%), fine soil (8%) and industry (7%). Data also showed PM10 compliance to the Philippines 1-year guideline value of 60μg m-3 but in excedance of the WHO 1-year guideline value of 20μg m-3. Furthermore, PM2.5 levels are in exceedance of the WHO 1-year guideline value of 15μg m-3 and the WHO 1-year guideline value of 10μg m-3. Also worth noting, particulate lead (Pb) levels of the fine fractions observed to follow a decreasing pattern that coincides well with the introduction of unleaded-gasoline in 1998, and the eventual phase-out of the leaded-gasoline in 2001.(author)

  2. Air-Photograph Based Estimates of Channel Widening within the Minnesota River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, C.; Conway, J.; Graves, J.; Lauer, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Minnesota River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River that has experienced a roughly two-fold increase in mean April-November discharge over the past century. Because the Minnesota River supplies the majority of sediment to the Mississippi at the confluence, sediment sources within the basin, and in particular within the Le Sueur River sub-basin, have recently been the subject of several detailed sediment budget studies. One of the potential sediment sources is associated with channel widening. In the present study, we focus on channel widening as a potential source of sediment in the Minnesota, Little Cobb, Maple, Blue Earth, Le Sueur, Redwood, Cottonwood, and Watonwan Rivers, Minnesota. Using aerial photographs, changes in channel bankfull width were measured over the period from 1937 to 2009. Historic photographs were georeferenced to recent high-resolution imagery using a minimum of ten ground control points and a second order polynomial transformation in ArcGIS 9.3. Water surface width and the width between vegetation lines (which we take to be equivalent to the bankfull width) were determined by hand for representative reaches of a minimum of ten meander bends along each river. We chose to digitize by hand to avoid computer misclassification associated with the highly variable color spectra in the historic photographs and because this allowed us to visually interpolate the bank line where scattered overhanging vegetation partially obscured the banks. In general, bankfull width has increased steadily by between 20 and 50 percent over the period of photographic record. However, because our basic method focuses only on the vegetation line, it is possible in principle that the observed changes in width are primarily related to ecological change (i.e. to a change in the elevation at which vegetation colonizes the banks) and not directly to an increase in channel volume (and hence to a net export of sediment from these reaches). To determine whether the

  3. METODOLOGÍA PARA EVALUAR EL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LOS PROYECTOS DE REDISEÑO DE RUTAS DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO COLECTIVO EN LAS CIUDADES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: MEDELLÍN METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN PROJECTS REDESIGNING COLLECTIVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES IN THE CITIES. CASE STUDY: MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento establece la metodología y los procedimientos necesarios para evaluar el impacto ambiental sobre la calidad del aire en los proyectos de rediseño de rutas de transporte público colectivo en las principales ciudades del mundo. Para este propósito, se formuló un caso hipotético en la ciudad de Medellín teniendo en cuenta las rutas de transporte público colectivo complementarias al sistema integrado de transporte en el Valle de Aburrá, convirtiendo algunas rutas radiales en rutas transversales o de migración a otras cuencas. Con la reconfiguración propuesta para las rutas de transporte público colectivo la emisión de contaminantes proveniente de los buses no presentó cambios sustanciales. Sin embargo, la concentración de partículas aumentó en ciertos puntos de la zona de estudio y alcanzó valores que superan la norma anual de calidad del aire (50 µg/m³.This document provides the methodology and necessary procedures to assess the environmental impact on air quality in the projects of redesign of collective public transport routes in main cities around the world. For this purpose, it has been formulated a hypothetical case in the city of Medellin keeping in mind the public transport routes that are complementary to the integrated transport system in the Aburrá Valley, transforming some radial routes in transversal routes or migration to other basins. With the reconfiguration proposed for collective public transport routes, pollutant emissions from buses did not show substantial changes. However, the concentration of particles increased at certain points in the study area, reaching values that exceed the annual standard for air quality (50 µg/m³.

  4. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  5. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory (with a horizontal resolution of 3 × 3 km) of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed, incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough on-site survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small interannual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at nine state-operated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground

  6. Regional climate, local climate and ozone air pollution in Tours and Orleans cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the relations between climate and the air pollution justifies the interest related to the role of the urban heat island of heat with respect to the night persistence of ozone in urban environment. When the days are favourable with important ozone concentrations, the agglomerations of the area observe a dynamics day laborer of ozone different from that observed in rural environment. The study is undertaken on the towns of Turns and Orleans where the observations of Lig'Air revealed a night persistence of ozone whereas the concentrations drop more quickly in periphery. This phenomenon is remarkable during the little broken down anticyclonic days. The region region Centre is a ground of study privileged for ozone because of its situation in the south-west of the Island of France rich in precursors of ozone. When flow is of continental origin, the Centre area is found then under the influence of the Paris area. The investigation of a study of the air pollution must take into account the notes of the regional climate and local climate. Several preliminary studies must intervene to answer our principal problems. First of all a descriptive study of the regional climate is carried out with the participation of Meteo-France. The current absence of climatic atlas as well as the many disparities of the climate related to extended from the territory partly justify the interest of our study. The regional approach of the climate is also essential for the continuation of work on a finer scale on the agglomerations of Turns and Orleans in order to detect the urban heat island of heat there. Collaboration with Meteo-France and Lig'Air made it possible to establish a satisfying network of measurement making it possible to obtain notable thermal differences between the downtown area and the surrounding rural environment. The correlation between meteorology and the proven air pollution leads us to establish the climatology of ozone. Many are the studies having

  7. Development of policy papers for phase 2 of the transportation master plan for the City of Hamilton air quality policy paper : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams Davies, R. [RWDI Air Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    The City of Hamilton is now preparing its City-wide Transportation Master Plan, which forms part of the Growth Related Integrated Development Strategy (GRIDS). GRIDS is intended to identify the broad land use structure, infrastructure, and economic development strategy that will serve Hamilton for the next 30 years. The Transportation Master Plan included the development of 23 policy papers related to urban development, infrastructure and transportation. The focus of this policy paper is on air emissions as they pertain to local and regional air quality in the City of Hamilton. An overview of links between transportation, air quality, human health and the environment was provided, as well as an overview of the existing policy framework from a federal, provincial and local perspective. In addition, a review of existing Hamilton policies was presented. Supporting background information to guide the development of policies was included. Trends in air quality in Hamilton were reviewed, and comparisons were drawn with other regions. Details of emissions contributions were presented by mode. The impact of traffic congestion on air quality was evaluated. A future outlook was provided as well as a review of the experiences and pollution abatement practices of Halton, Peel, Waterloo and Toronto. Further development and refinement of policy options and supporting actions include reduction of vehicle use; less polluting modes of travel; reducing the impacts of vehicle use; improving education and awareness; and various mitigation initiatives. 7 figs.

  8. Assessment of the Air Pollution Level in the City of Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Battista

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pollutants is usually higher in cities than in the countryside. Generally, in the urban areas pollution sources as traffic, power generator and domestic heating system are more intense and spatially distributed. The pollutants can be classified as a function of long-term toxicological effects due to an exposure and inhalation. In the present work, several kinds of pollutants concentration generated in Rome during 2015 have been analyzed applying different advanced post-processing technique. In particular, statistic and cross-statistic have been computed in time and phase space domain. As main result, it is observed, as expected, that all the pollutant concentrations increase during the winter season into a couple of time ranges despite of [O3] that has high values in summer. It can be clearly concluded that Rome has a strongly unsteady behaviour in terms of a family of pollutant concentration, which fluctuate significantly. It is worth noticing that there is a strong linear dependence between [C6H6] and [NO] and a more complex interdependence of [O3] and [C6H6]. Qualitatively is provided that, to a reduction of [C6H6] under a certain threshold level corresponds an increase of [O3].

  9. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  10. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  11. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  12. Tratamiento directamente observado de la tuberculosis en un hospital de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Directly observed treatment for tuberculosis in a Buenos Aires City hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio González

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la experiencia en la aplicación del tratamiento directamente observado de tuberculosis (TDO en el período 1/1/1979-31/12/2009 y la comparación de los resultados obtenidos en el periodo 1979-1999 versus los de 2000- 2009. En un hospital de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, 582 pacientes HIV negativos recibieron inicialmente rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida y etambutol o estreptomicina. En la segunda fase 424 de estos pacientes tratados entre 01/01/1979 y 31/12/1999 (G1, recibieron esquemas bisemanales con rifampicina/isoniazida o isoniazida/estreptomicina y otros 158 pacientes, tratados entre 01/01/2000 y 31/12/2009 (G2 recibieron un esquema bisemanal o trisemanal con rifampicina/isoniazida. Se siguieron las recomendaciones de los programas de control de la Nación y la Ciudad. Los pacientes bajo TDO tuvieron tasas de tratamiento completo más elevadas (82.8% versus 48.7%, (p The outcomes of directly observed therapy of tuberculosis (DOT between 1/1/1979 and 12/31/2009 were analyzed. Results obtained in the 1979-1999 period were compared with those achieved in the 2000-2009 period. In a Buenos Aires City hospital, 582 HIV negative TB patients received rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol or streptomycin in the initial stage, followed by a second stage where patients were included in two groups: G1 composed by 424 patients (period 1/1/1979-12/31/1999 who received either rifampin and isoniazid or rifampin and streptomicin twice a week, and G2, with 158 patients (period 1/1/2000-12/31/2009 who received either rifampin and isoniazid twice or three times a week. National and Buenos Aires City TB Control Programs recommendations were followed. Patients who underwent DOT had higher completeness rates than those included in self-administered therapy (82.8% vs. 48.7%, (p <0.0001. Mean age: 36.3±15.3 years, males: 63.1% and 69.4% were Argentine citizens. A 8.9% had been previously treated, 6.1% had co-morbidities. A 70.6% of

  13. Transport of Pollution and Air Quality experiment over the Mediterranean basin (TRAQA/ChArMEx campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attié, Jean-Luc; Ravetta, François; Durand, Pierre; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Di Biaggio, Claudia; Dulac, François; Sicard, Michael; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Fleury, Laurence; Bourdon, Aurélien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Surrounded by mountains and several continents and affected by different types of pollution, the Mediterranean Sea is a natural laboratory for studying the variability of the chemical composition in the lower atmospheric layers and the interaction between pollutants from distant regions. In the framework of the Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx), we carried out a field campaign using important instrumental means (instrumented aircraft including in situ and lidar measurements, pressurized constant level balloons with an O3 sonde and soundings with O3 and aerosol measurements, ground based aerosol remote sensing instruments) over the north-western Mediterranean basin during the summer 2012 (from 26 June to 11 July). We focused on four main objectives : 1. The characterization of the dynamic processes of export of polluted air masses from remote continental regions around the Mediterranean Sea 2. The quantification of exchanges between the boundary layer and the free troposphere above the Mediterranean basin 3. The study of ageing and mixing of pollution plumes in the lower troposphere (gases and aerosols) with Lagrangian tracking. 4. The analysis of representative case studies against long-term measurements to estimate the impact of plumes of pollution on air quality. The results are compared with simulations from several chemistry-transport models. The TRAQA field campaign was based on Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) triggered on alert when the conditions were favourable. A total of seven IOPs were conducted with nearly 60 hours of aircraft flights and 5 flights of constant level pressurized balloons in the boundary layer. We documented an episode of pollution in the Genoa gulf, an established moderate Mistral case, a strong African dust case, a case of export of pollution from Barcelona to the Mediterranean Sea, and an event of starting Mistral. The two remaining IOPs, conducted under standard summer anticyclonic conditions, were devoted

  14. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  15. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina Hospital Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Magdaleno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital wastewater (HWW constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina. The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8. The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA and micronucleus (MN showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%, showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system.

  16. Ecotoxicological and genotoxic evaluation of Buenos Aires city (Argentina) hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Anahí; Juárez, Angela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  17. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ∑26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-AδOCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect. PMID:25933089

  18. Quantifying Molecular Hydrogen Emissions and an Industrial Leakage Rate for the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, M. C.; Schroeder, J.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The poorly understood atmospheric budget and distribution of molecular hydrogen (H2) have invited further research since the discovery that emissions from a hydrogen-based economy could have negative impacts on the global climate system and stratospheric ozone. The burgeoning fuel cell electric vehicle industry in the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB) presents an opportunity to observe and constrain urban anthropogenic H2 emissions. This work presents the first H2 emissions estimate for the SoCAB and calculates an upper limit for the current rate of leakage from production and distribution infrastructure within the region. A top-down method utilized whole air samples collected during the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) onboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft from 23-25 June 2015 to estimate H2 emissions from combustion and non-combustion sources. H2:carbon monoxide (CO) and H2:carbon dioxide ratios from airborne observations were compared with experimentally established ratios from pure combustion source ratios and scaled with the well-constrained CO emissions inventory to yield H2 emissions of 24.9 ± 3.6 Gg a-1 (1σ) from combustion engines and 8.2 ± 4.7 Gg a-1 from non-combustion sources. Total daily production of H2 in the SoCAB was compared with the top-down results to estimate an upper limit leakage rate (5%) where all emissions not accounted for by incomplete combustion in engines were assumed to be emitted from H2 infrastructure. For bottom-up validation, the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory dispersion model was run iteratively with all known stationary sources in attempt to constrain emissions. While this investigation determined that H2 emissions from non-combustion sources in the SoCAB are likely significant, more in-depth analysis is required to better predict the atmospheric implications of a hydrogen economy.

  19. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  20. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si-Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. We estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  1. Referential calculation of particulate matter in the air as a factor of environmental pollution in the urban area of the city of Pujilí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vallejo Choez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary investigation on the environmental quality of the city of Pujilí, made from the collection of samples of particulate matter and vehicular traffic counts on six points of the city. The methodology is based on the provisions of the Unified Text of Secondary Environmental Legislation for measuring atmospheric particulate matter, and the use of count tables for vehicle registration. The results reflect the impact of vehicular traffic, the characteristics of the rolling road layer, soil erosion, and climate on air pollution and its impact on the health of the population.

  2. Effects of South Asian dust storm on air quality over the capital city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarragunta, Y.; Srivastava, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, an intense unseasonal dust storm has been analyzed during third week of March 2012 from multi satellite datasets and from surface measurements over National Capital Region (NCR), Delhi. The intrusion of dust over study region has increased the MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm more than 1.0 whereas significant decrease in Angstrom Exponent (α) has been observed . Very high UV aerosol Index (> 2) over study location indicates the presence of UV absorbing aerosols . Fire activities are found to be negligible over the source region confirming the effect of dust storm. Strong southwesterly winds prevailed over northern Arabian Sea which trans ported the dust plume across the oceanic region towards Indian capital region. In-situ measurements of PM 2.5 and PM10, obtained from CPCB observational site over the IGI airport, NCR Delhi, showed abrupt increase on 20, 21 March. Eight hourly average concentration of the particulate matters less than 10 μm (PM10) is found to be ~990 μg/m3 and particulate matters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is found to be ~900 μg/m3 over IGI Airport, NCR Delhi. These values are remarkably higher as compared to the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) i.e. 100 μg/m3 and 60 μg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. In addition, Vertical distribution of dust has been examined using CALIPSO observation. The layer of dust is found to be trapped within lower 3 km in altitude. The Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) modeling has been carried out to identify the specific source locations.

  3. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  4. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, N; Perrotta, D; Brudny, M; Abrantes, R; Hevia, A I; Davel, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the distribution of the members of the Cryptococcus species complex (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) in hollows of trees from seven parks in Buenos Aires City, to determine the serotypes and genotypes of these environmental isolates and to compare them with the ones reported in the 2001 survey. Four hundred and eighty nine samples were collected by swabbing all trees which had hollows or fissures in the seven parks studied. Each tree was sampled once during the study period and one or more isolates were recovered from each swab. Eight isolates of C. neoformans and 18 isolates of C. gattii were recovered from 15 out of 489 tree samples. C. neoformans was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Eucalyptus spp., and Phoenix sp. All isolates were serotype A and belonged to genotype VNI. C. gattii was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus spp., Acacia visca, Cupresus sempervirens and Ulmus campestrus. All isolates were serotype B and genotype VGI, like both C. gattii strains isolated in 2001. On two occasions, both species were isolated from the same tree sample. These results reinforce and extend our previous findings especially about the presence of C. gattii serotype B, genotype VGI, in Argentina.

  5. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  6. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ∑39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form. PMID:26613673

  7. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; Vautard, R.; Z. Klimont; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed bas...

  8. Short term effects of air pollution on emergency hospital admissions for respiratory disease: results of the APHEA project in two major cities in The Netherlands, 1977-89.

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, J. P.; Vonk, J. M.; de Graaf, A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the short term relationship between air pollution and the daily number of emergency hospital admissions for respiratory disease. DESIGN: Data were analysed using autoregressive Poisson regression allowing for overdispersion and controlling for possible confounding factors such as seasonal and other chronological variables, meteorological factors, and influenza epidemics. SETTING: The two major cities in The Netherlands-Amsterdam (694,700 inhabitants) and Rotterdam (...

  9. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  10. Diurnal and weekday variations in the source contributions of ozone precursors in California's South Coast Air Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John C; Bowen, John L; Goliff, Wendy S; Stockwell, William R; Lawson, Douglas R

    2003-07-01

    For at least 30 years, ozone (O3) levels on weekends in parts of California's South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin (SoCAB) have been as high as or higher than on weekdays, even though ambient levels of O3 precursors are lower on weekends than on weekdays. A field study was conducted in the Los Angeles area during fall 2000 to test whether proposed relationships between emission sources and ambient nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels can account for observed diurnal and day-of-week variations in the concentration and proportions of precursor pollutants that may affect the efficiency and rate of O3 formation. The contributions to ambient NMHC by motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions, estimated using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling, ranged from 65 to 85% with minimal day-of-week variation. Ratios of ambient NOx associated with black carbon (BC) to NOx associated with carbon monoxide (CO) were approximately 1.25 +/- 0.22 during weekdays and 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 0.52 +/- 0.07 on Saturday and Sunday, respectively. These results demonstrate that lower NOx emissions from diesel exhaust can be a major factor causing lower NOx mixing ratios and higher NMHC/NOx ratios on weekends. Nonmobile sources showed no significant day-of-week variations in their contributions to NMHC. Greater amounts of gasoline emissions are carried over on Friday and Saturday evenings but are, at most, a minor factor contributing to higher NMHC/NOx ratios on weekend mornings. PMID:12880072

  11. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzick, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  12. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  13. Air temperature field distribution estimations over a Chinese mega-city using MODIS land surface temperature data: the case of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weichun; Zhou, Liguo; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    The capability of obtaining spatially distributed air temperature data from remote sensing measurements is an improvement for many environmental applications focused on urban heat island, carbon emissions, climate change, etc. This paper is based on the MODIS/Terra and Aqua data utilized to study the effect of the urban atmospheric heat island in Shanghai, China. The correlation between retrieved MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature measured at local weather stations was initially studied at different temporal and spatial scales. Secondly, the air temperature data with spatial resolutions of 250 m and 1 km were estimated from MODIS LST data and in-situ measured air temperature. The results showed that there is a slightly higher correlation between air temperature and MODIS LST at a 250m resolution in spring and autumn on an annual scale than observed at a 1 km resolution. Although the distribution pattern of the air temperature thermal field varies in different seasons, the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai is characterized by a distribution pattern of multiple centers, with the central urban area as the primary center and the built-up regions in each district as the subcenters. This study demonstrates the potential not only for estimating the distribution of the air temperature thermal field from MODIS LST with 250 m resolution in spring and autumn in Shanghai, but also for providing scientific and effective methods for monitoring and studying UHI effect in a Chinese mega-city such as Shanghai.

  14. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China:A case study on an industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieyun Ma; Honghong Yi; Xiaolong Tang; Yan Zhang; Ying Xiang; Li Pu

    2013-01-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction,also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders.The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China,Xuanwei in Yunnan Province,was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system.First,our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10.Second,after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015,ambient concentration of SO2,NOx and PM 10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated,and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented.Last but not least,a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation.However,there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future.In spatial allocation,reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx.These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy

  15. On the usefulness of atmospheric measurements for air quality evaluation in the context of recent urban meteorology findings in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Nunez, X.; Jazcilevich Diamant, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: xochitl@atmosfera.unam.mx

    2007-10-15

    In many cities, the main tool used to assess pollution abatement policies is the air quality information obtained from local monitoring network. However, in the context of a complex meteorology and land use such as those prevailing in Mexico City, the point-wise character and lack of detailed chemistry of this information may confer conflictive or biased information. The approach to understand the problem could be not based on solid ground. It is not until the measurement effort is complemented with detailed meteorological and air quality modeling that proper use of the information can be assured. In order to provide an example of this assertion, the usefulness of measured air quality data is gauged in a simplified manner, constructing three dimensional graphs containing local emission concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations, that we call ozone isopleths, for three sites in Mexico City. Together with corresponding wind rose data, an interpretation of the air pollution transport in the Valley of Mexico using only measured data is attempted. This interpretation, based on measured information subject to local influences, is compared with recent air quality modeling results showing that when measured data is used in conjunction with air quality modeling a better interpretation of air pollution problem can be obtained. A correct strategy to study the air quality problem, especially in the case of Mexico City where complex meteorology and land use is present, should be that both endeavors, measuring and modeling, are pursued with equal vigor. [Spanish] En muchas ciudades la herramienta principal en la evaluacion de las politicas para el control de la contaminacion es la informacion de calidad del aire proveniente de las redes locales de mediciones. Sin embargo, en el contexto de una meteorologia compleja y el uso de suelo de la Ciudad de Mexico, el caracter puntual y la carencia de

  16. Suspended particulates and trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi City. Paper no. IGEC-1-063

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to assess the quantity of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) and concentration of trace metals in ambient air at the road sides of Varanasi city. The air quality monitoring was carried out using High Volume Sampler (HVS). The HVS were run for two days with eight hours sampling period. The SPM deposited on EPM 2000 filter paper were analysed for trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectro photometer (Perkin Elmer, Model 2378). The results indicate that the Varanasi city is in serious grip of air pollution due to poor road conditions and heavy traffic load. The suspended particulate matter are found to exceed the permissible limits at most of the locations. Besides SPM, some toxic metals namely Iron, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Zinc and Lead were also studied and sampled at four different road sides covering residential (Sigra), commercial (Kutcherry), Industrial (Industrial Estate) and Sensitive (B.H.U. Campus) areas. The concentration of all the six metals were found in the order of Fe > Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr. Area wise maximum trace metal pollution load was observed at Industrial site as compared to other sites, as this area is surrounded by many industries and situated near dense traffic highway. Some preventive measures have also been suggested to reduce air pollution load. (author)

  17. The Influence of African Dust on Air Quality in the Caribbean Basin: An Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrievals, Ground Observations, and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Prospero, J. M.; Chin, M.; Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term surface measurements in several locations extending from northeastern coast of South America to Miami in Florida have shown that African dust arrives in the Greater Caribbean Basin throughout a year. This long-range transported dust frequently elevates the level of particulate matter (PM) above the WHO guideline for PM10, which raises a concern of possible adverse impact of African dust on human health in the region. There is also concern about how future climate change might affect dust transport and its influence on regional air quality. In this presentation we provide a comprehensive characterization of the influence of African dust on air quality in the Caribbean Basin via integrating the ground observations with satellite retrievals and model simulations. The ground observations are used to validate and evaluate satellite retrievals and model simulations of dust, while satellite measurements and model simulations are used to extend spatial coverage of the ground observations. An analysis of CALIPSO lidar measurements of three-dimensional distribution of aerosols over 2007-2014 yields altitude-resolved dust mass flux into the region. On a basis of 8-year average and integration over the latitude zone of 0°-30°N, a total of 76 Tg dust is imported to the air above the Greater Caribbean Basin, of which 34 Tg (or 45%) is within the lowest 1 km layer and most relevant to air quality concern. The seasonal and interannual variations of the dust import are well correlated with ground observations of dust in Cayenne, Barbados, Puerto Rico, and Miami. We will also show comparisons of the size-resolved dust amount from both NASA GEOS-5 aerosol simulation and MERRA-2 aerosol reanalysis (i.e., column aerosol loading being constrained by satellite measurements of radiance at the top of atmosphere) with the ground observations and satellite measurement.

  18. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  19. Evaluating the developmental instability of Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766 from Lower Agusan River Basin, Butuan City, Philippines using fluctuating asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Jumawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA is the most frequently used tool for measuring developmental instability. It is used as a measure of ecological stress and a sign of developmental stability of organisms. The study evaluatedthe use of FA in assessing the condition of Scatophagus argus in lower Agusan river basin. High FA values would indicate exposure to polluted aquatic environment. The study selected S. argus because of its observed susceptibility to aquatic pollution in the area. There were a total of 60 samples collected (30 males and 30 females. Using Thin-Plate Spline (TPS series, landmark analyzes were obtained and subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE software. Procrustes ANOVA showed high significant differences (P<0.0001 to the three measured factors (individuals, sides and interaction of individuals and sides. Similar findings were observed to both male and females samples suggesting high FA values. The principal component analysis was implemented to determine the affected landmarks. More landmarks were affected in males (11 landmarks than in females (5 landmarks. Deformation grids and histograms were used to display the ordination of affected landmarks. The data would be important to environmental planners in the management of lower Agusan river basin. Scores display a high percentage FA of female (70.94% and male (78.67%. In the female samples, PC 1 (33.26% and PC2 (13.53% were found to have significant variations affecting the rostral tip of premaxilla, posterior extremities, and the lateral profile. In the male samples, PC 1 (35.63% and PC 2 (14.24% have the same affected landmarks as in females but have greater variations. Significant levels of FA in the fish morphology are the result of its adaptive mechanism to cope up with the stressed environment. The dorsal cephalic region and the pectoral fin were the most affected landmarks and may be used to determine the effect of stressors to the fish since these areas

  20. Assessment of impact of air pollution on human health and environment in the South Durban Industrial Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.; Hertel, O.; Bøgh, E.

    This study predicts the spatial variation of air quality and estimate the human health risk of air pollution in SDIB. The study is based on the operational air pollution (OML) model which is predicting the dispersion and quantifying the contribution of selected air pollutant as PM10, SO2 and NOX...

  1. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  2. Analysis and valuation of air quality in Liaoyang city%辽阳市空气质量分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 赵元凤; 吕景才; 王树生

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the current air quality status in Liaoyang city and provide a basis for the future management, Liaoyang city was divided into four areas in this study including clean area, industrial area, traffic area and residential area based on its function. A monitoring site was established in each function area. Based on seasonal weather, a year was divided into spring, summer, autumn, and winter season. Also, the winter season was divided into heating period and non-heating period. In 2009, the air qualities in Liaoyang city were monitored in 24 hours a day for whole year and the monitoring data were analyzed. The results show that the air qualities in all areas are light polluted; the air quality in winter is mild polluted, and the air quality in spring, summer, and autumn are light polluted; the air quality during heating period is mild polluted, and the air quality during non-heating period is light polluted.%为揭示辽阳市现行的空气质量及为以后的管理提供依据,将辽阳市分别按照功能划分为清洁区、工业区、交通区、居民区,每个功能区布置一个监测点位;按季节划分为春、夏、秋、冬四季;按采暖期划分为采暖期、非采暖期,在2009年全年进行24小时监测,并对监测结果进行评价.结果表明:按功能区划分,清洁区、工业区、交通区、居民区空气质量均为轻污染;按季节划分,冬季空气质量为中污染,春、夏、秋三季空气质量为轻污染;按采暖期划分,采暖期空气质量为中污染,非采暖期空气质量为轻污染.

  3. The air of our cities everybody's business; L'air de nos villes l'affaire de tous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This conference treats urban areas air pollution, what are the different pollutions sources, what measures can be used in order to reduce this air pollution and the results got after these measures. Some technical approaches are given, some models or statistical approaches in order to forecast pollution episodes are presented. It appears that the traffic is the most important air pollution source in urban areas but the solutions to reduce it, if they are encouraging are not still completely satisfying. (N.C.)

  4. Fine-scale simulation of ammonium and nitrate over the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of California during CalNex-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, James T.; Baker, Kirk R.; Nowak, John B.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Markovic, Milos Z.; VandenBoer, Trevor C.; Ellis, Raluca A.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Weber, Rodney J.; Roberts, James M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Gouw, Joost A.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Newman, Sally; Misenis, Chris

    2014-03-01

    National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) have been set for PM2.5 due to its association with adverse health effects. PM2.5 design values in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and San Joaquin Valley of California exceed NAAQS levels, and NH4+ and NO3- make up the largest fraction of total PM2.5 mass on polluted days. Here we evaluate fine-scale simulations of PM2.5 NH4+ and NO3- with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model using measurements from routine networks and the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change 2010 campaign. The model correctly simulates broad spatial patterns of NH4+ and NO3- including the elevated concentrations in eastern SoCAB. However, areas for model improvement have been identified. NH3 emissions from livestock and dairy facilities appear to be too low, while those related to waste disposal in western SoCAB may be too high. Analyses using measurements from flights over SoCAB suggest that problems with NH3 predictions can influence NO3- predictions there. Offline ISORROPIA II calculations suggest that overpredictions of NHx in Pasadena cause excessive partitioning of total nitrate to the particle phase overnight, while underpredictions of Na+ cause too much partitioning to the gas phase during the day. Also, the model seems to underestimate mixing during the evening boundary layer transition leading to excessive nitrate formation on some nights. Overall, the analyses demonstrate fine-scale variations in model performance within and across the air basins. Improvements in inventories and spatial allocations of NH3 emissions and in parameterizations of sea spray emissions, evening mixing processes, and heterogeneous ClNO2 chemistry could improve model performance.

  5. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  6. Associations of particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 16 Chinese cities: An improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the daily indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with air conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, air change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles. -- Highlights: •We accounted for the indoor exposure to ambient particles in time-series studies of 16 Chinese cities. •The proposed exposure assessment method generally doubled the effect estimates. •The proposed exposure assessment method increased the statistical assurance of a significant effect of PM10. •The proposed exposure assessment method improved the model fit with daily mortality. •The proposed exposure assessment method attenuated between-city heterogeneity of PM's effects. -- Accounting for the indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin in the exposure assessment could improve the effect estimates of ambient PM10

  7. Short-term effects of air temperature on mortality and effect modification by air pollution in three cities of Bavaria, Germany: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Air temperature has been shown to be associated with mortality; however, only very few studies have been conducted in Germany. This study examined the association between daily air temperature and cause-specific mortality in Bavaria, Southern Germany. Moreover, we inv...

  8. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  9. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  10. Are megacities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, E; Mazari-hiriart, M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the poor environmental and living conditions in Mexico City due to its huge size. Mexico City's size is a challenge to sustainability, and the outcome is unknown. Mexico City and the geographic basin surrounding it included about 18.5 million population in 1995. The basin and surrounding volcanic ranges include nine major environmental zones. Urban growth followed four stages. Different cultures applied different solutions to water supply problems. The basin shifted from self-sufficiency to reliance on 31% of supplies from external watersheds. The water table is declining and canals are polluted. Irrigated agriculture is disappearing. There is an average water deficit of over 800 million cubic meters per year. Mexico City is actually sinking due to groundwater exploitation. There is bacterial contamination of wells due to improper seals. About 75% of the population has access to wastewater treatment and sanitation, but sewage treatment plants operate at under 50% efficiency and treat only about 7% of the total wastewater. Atmospheric pollution from suspended particles has been a problem for decades. Ozone was the most significant air contaminant in 1994. Lead was the most harmful pollutant in 1986. Air pollutants may be the source of submucosal inflammations. Industrial areas are contaminated with suspended particles and sulfur dioxide. High traffic areas have high carbon monoxide levels. Atmospheric pollution has affected the quality of the rainwater. The city survives by importing food, energy, wood, water, building materials, and other products. The development model aims to improve quality of life. The city has been the center of political power since Aztec times, and its preeminent position forces government action. The author concludes that there are limits to urbanization, which the city is approaching rapidly.

  11. Pollution trends using bark of morus alba in the cities of buenos aires and mendoza (Argentina Tendências de poluição usando cascas de morus alba nas cidades de buenos aires e mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Perelman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of elements deposited on tree bark was carried out for urban and periurban areas of two of the most important cities in Argentina. The content of Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, Cd and Sb was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in Morus alba tree bark collected in the cities of Buenos Aires and Mendoza. The main air pollutants detected in the Buenos Aires urban area were Ba, Cr, Cu and Ni and indicate significative difference from the Mendoza urban and periurban areas. Significantly, higher concentrations of Zn, Ba, Cr and Cu were recorded in the periurban area of the city of Buenos Aires than in Mendoza. Bark samples were strongly influenced by dust and show Al, Fe, Mg and other element accumulations that indicate that soil particles were carried out by wind. Elements like Ba and Zn, commonly linked to traffic emissions, showed the highest concentrations in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, possibly due to more intensive vehicular traffic. Our results indicated that intensity of vehicular traffic and not city structure is responsible for air pollution.Um estudo comparativo dos elementos depositados nas cascas das árvores foi realizado nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de duas cidades das mais importantes da Argentina. Os índices do Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni e do Sb foram determinados pela espectrometria da emissão atômica com plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES nas cascas da árvore Morus alba, coletados nas cidades de Buenos Aires e Mendoza. Os principais elementos da contaminação do ar detectadas na área urbana de Buenos Aires foram Ba, Cr, Cu e Ni, que indicaram diferenças significativas nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de Mendoza. Uma concentração do Zn, Ba, Cr e do Cu foi achada na periferia da cidade de Buenos Aires, significativamente mais elevada do que em Mendoza. As amostras da casca foram influenciadas fortemente pela poeira e

  12. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  13. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Allan C.; Adibi, Jennifer J; Rundle, Andrew G.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Camann, David E.; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2010-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on use of 7 product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, lotion/mist) over 48 hours during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-hour personal air sample was collected and analyzed for D...

  14. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; Vautard, R.; Z. Klimont; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year...

  15. Predicting Air Quality Impacts Associated with Oil and Gas Development in the Uinta Basin Using EPA’s Photochemical Air Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  16. Air temperature field distribution estimations over a Chinese mega-city using MODIS land surface temperature data: the case of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weichun MA; Liguo ZHOU; Hao ZHANG; Yan ZHANG; Xiaoyan DAI

    2016-01-01

    The capability of obtaining spatially distributed air temperature data from remote sensing measurements is an improvement for many environmental applications focused on urban heat island,carbon emissions,climate change,etc.This paper is based on the MODIS/Terra and Aqua data utilized to study the effect of the urban atmospheric heat island in Shanghai,China.The correlation between retrieved MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature measured at local weather stations was initially studied at different temporal and spatial scales.Secondly,the air temperature data with spatial resolutions of 250 m and 1 km were estimated from MODIS LST data and in-situ measured air temperature.The results showed that there is a slightly higher correlation between air temperature and MODIS LST at a 250 m resolution in spring and autumn on an annual scale than observed at a 1 km resolution.Although the distribution pattern of the air temperature thermal field varies in different seasons,the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai is characterized by a distribution pattern of multiple centers,with the central urban area as the primary center and the built-up regions in each district as the subcenters.This study demonstrates the potential not only for estimating the distribution of the air temperature thermal field from MODIS LST with 250 m resolution in spring and autumn in Shanghai,but also for providing scientific and effective methods for monitoring and studying UHI effect in a Chinese mega-city such as Shanghai.

  17. Correlation between T. S. P. , F. S. P. and visibility in a high altitude city (Mexico City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Torres, R.; Saavedra, M.I.; Aguilar, S.

    1982-06-01

    The metropolitan area of Mexico City is located in a high altitude basin (2 240 m above sea level) at a latitude of 19 degrees 26'13'' North. It has a population of 15 million inhabitants, and the motor vehicles cruising in the city amount to 1.5 million and around 21% of the total industrial activity of the country is sited in the metropolitan area. All this activity has created an acute air pollution problem in the area which, as a direct result, has resulted in decreased visibility and possible health effects.

  18. 4. Air pollution and damages to cultural heritage in cities : The decay of the cultural heritage in Krakow

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Michalik, Wanda

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution is both detrimental for human health and cause corrosion and other deterioration of materials. A detailed study of the effects of air pollution on the stone cultural monuments in Krakow showed the damages to be far reaching and serious. Krakow is badly hit by air pollution both due to an extensive use of coal for combustion in individual homes and power plants, as well as its unfavourable geographical situation. The sculptures studied were made of Libaiz dolomite, Upper Jurassic...

  19. Aerosol properties and meteorological conditions in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the resuspension of volcanic ash from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciela Ulke, Ana; Torres Brizuela, Marcela M.; Raga, Graciela B.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-09-01

    The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex in Chile impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months after the initial ash emissions. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian Steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring experiencing resuspension over various regions of Argentina. In this study we analyze the meteorological conditions that led to the episode of volcanic ash resuspension which impacted the city of Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of the two main airports in Buenos Aires area (Ezeiza and Aeroparque) on 16 October 2011. A relevant result is that resuspended material (volcanic ash plus dust) imprints a distinguishable feature within the atmospheric thermodynamic vertical profiles. The thermodynamic soundings show the signature of "pulses of drying" in layers associated with the presence of hygroscopic ash in the atmosphere that has already been reported in similar episodes after volcanic eruptions in other parts of the world. This particular footprint can be used to detect the probable existence of volcanic ash layers. This study also illustrates the utility of ceilometers to detect not only cloud base at airports but also volcanic ash plumes at the boundary layer and up to 7 km altitude. Aerosol properties measured in the city during the resuspension episode indicate the presence of enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer along with spectral signatures in the measurements at the Buenos Aires AERONET site typical of ash plus dust advected towards the city. The mandatory aviation reports from the National Weather Service about airborne and deposited volcanic ash at the airport near the measurement site (Aeroparque) correlate in time with the enhanced concentrations. The presence of the resuspended material was detected by the CALIOP lidar overpassing the region. Since the dynamics of ash resuspension and

  20. Air pollution and emergency department visits for cardiac and respiratory conditions: a multi-city time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have been conducted of the association between air pollution and emergency department (ED visits, and most of these have been based on a small number of visits, for a limited number of health conditions and pollutants, and only daily measures of exposure and response. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted on nearly 400,000 ED visits to 14 hospitals in seven Canadian cities during the 1990s and early 2000s. Associations were examined between carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, and visits for angina/myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmia/conduction disturbance, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and respiratory infections. Daily and 3-hourly visit counts were modeled as quasi-Poisson and analyses controlled for effects of temporal cycles, weather, day of week and holidays. Results 24-hour average concentrations of CO and NO2 lag 0 days exhibited the most consistent associations with cardiac conditions (2.1% (95% CI, 0.0–4.2% and 2.6% (95% CI, 0.2–5.0% increase in visits for myocardial infarction/angina per 0.7 ppm CO and 18.4 ppb NO2 respectively; 3.8% (95% CI, 0.7–6.9% and 4.7% (95% CI, 1.2–8.4% increase in visits for heart failure. Ozone (lag 2 days was most consistently associated with respiratory visits (3.2% (95% CI, 0.3–6.2%, and 3.7% (95% CI, -0.5–7.9% increases in asthma and COPD visits respectively per 18.4 ppb. Associations tended to be of greater magnitude during the warm season (April – September. In particular, the associations of PM10 and PM2.5with asthma visits were respectively nearly three- and over fourfold larger vs. all year analyses (14.4% increase in visits, 95% CI, 0.2–30.7, per 20.6 μg/m3 PM10 and 7.6% increase in visits, 95% CI, 5.1–10.1, per 8.2 μg/m3 PM2.5. No consistent associations were observed between three hour average pollutant

  1. Urban economy circuits and finance spreading within the territory: An analysis in the city of Olavarria, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derlis Daniela Parserisas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The social, economic and productive processes whichtake place in the Argentine territory and cities, within today's globalization, can be understoodthrough the urban economy theory of circuits [Santos, 1975, 1979]. The coexistenceof labor territorial divisionsin the city could explain the presence of a higherand a lower circuit which, in various ways, are the result of a technological modernization and which play an important rolein the economic process as well as in the space organization process. The role of the credit financial system is analyzed as alink between both circuits. Different financial instruments enabling the financing of society and territory are examined togetherwith the variouseffects that credit and consumptionhave in the city of Olavarría

  2. Water quality of the Pannonian basin rivers the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa (Serbia and its correlation with air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Milana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube, the Sava and the Tisa rivers belong to the Black Sea river basin and they flow through many European countries, while in Serbia they flow through the Pannonian flatland. The water quality of these rivers, which is affected by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors, is one of important factors that are taken into account in the evaluation of development sustainability of this region. Using the correlation analysis in this paper we tested the impact of air temperature as a natural factor on certain parameters indicating the water quality. A significant correlation was found between air temperature and total nitrogen oxides in the Danube of up to -0.744, namely of -0.740 on the Tisa and -0.299 on the Sava. A significant correlation was found in electrical conductivity - up to -0.793 on the Danube, -0.226 on the Tisa, and 0.380 on the Sava. Correlation links were found between air temperature and O2, BOD, as well as suspended matters saturation percentage, but their correlation values are significantly lower. Based on the results of the research it was concluded that air temperature had low effect on changes in water quality during the year and that anthropogenic impact was far more dominant.

  3. Association between Local Traffic-Generated Air Pollution and Preeclampsia and Preterm Delivery in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jun; Ren, Cizao; Delfino, Ralph J.; Chung, Judith; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy that can lead to substantial maternal and perinatal morbidity, mortality, and preterm birth. Increasing evidence suggests that air pollution adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how local traffic-generated emissions affect preeclampsia in addition to preterm birth. Objectives We examined effects of residential exposure to local traffic-generated air pollution on preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD)....

  4. Effect of air pollution on the epiphytic bryophytae and lichens - distribution of epiphytic bryophytae and lichens in Omuta City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-03-01

    The species and coverage rate of epiphytic plants such as bryophytes and lichens on cherry trees, Cinnamomum camphora and Ile x rotunda in Omuta City were surveyed. The distribution of such plants showed somewhat similar trends to the distribution of falling dust. A direct correlation between the amount of falling dust and the distribution of epiphytic plants could not be studied.

  5. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  6. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in rural Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  7. Evaluation of SO2 Using Bioindicators: Fungus (Rhytisma acerinum and Lichen (Lichenes in Air of Vilnius City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicija Jankūnienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a negative impact of pollution on the environment considering the reaction of live organism bioindicators to the level of pollution., Due to the sensitiveness to gas waste, Lichen (Lichenes and fungus (Rhytisma acerinum are very important for estimating air pollution. Therefore, the paper analyzes air pollution on the basis of testing lichens and fungus and compares the situation of SO2 in the air in Vilnius districts Karoliniškės, Šeškinė and Justiniškės with the suburban area of Avižieniai.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Percepción de riesgo a la salud por contaminación del aire en adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Perception of health risks due to air pollution in adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Catalán-Vázquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar las relaciones que se establecen entre contaminación del aire y salud-enfermedad-muerte en una muestra de estudiantes de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta a 1 274 alumnos de secundaria de 14 escuelas en cinco zonas del Distrito Federal, entre marzo y abril de 2003. Muestreo polietápico de áreas geoestadísticas básicas (AGEB. RESULTADOS: El 84.4% considera alta o muy alta la contaminación del aire en la Ciudad de México, que disminuye al aproximarse al espacio más inmediato del alumno. Los riesgos a la salud van desde efectos en la salud respiratoria, 66.9%, a otras consecuencias en la vida diaria, 2.2%. Los predictores de percibir la contaminación como grave/muy grave son: a que la asocien con la posibilidad de causar la muerte (RM= 1.35, IC 95%= 1.02-1.77, y b asistencia a escuelas en la zona de La Merced (RM= 2.23, IC 95%= 1.56-3.21. CONCLUSIONES: Los determinantes de la percepción para esta población de adolescentes son: género, zona de ubicación de la escuela y las diferencias en la calidad del aire percibidas en la ciudad/colonia/plantel educativo. Lo anterior permite sugerir que en la política ambiental debe incorporarse el componente de la focalización, de tal manera que los programas ambientales sean más eficientes en el ámbito local.OBJECTIVE: Analyze the relations established between air pollution and health-disease-death in a sample of students in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 1274 students from 14 secondary schools in five areas in Mexico City was conducted between March and April of 2003. We used a multi-stage sampling, based in a basic geostatistical areas (AGEB. RESULTS: A total of 84.4% believed that Mexico City has a high, or very high air pollution; that valuation decreases as it approaches the most immediate place in which the students live. The health risks range from effects on respiratory health, 66.9%, to other effects on daily life, 2

  9. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-01-01

    The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from...

  10. Trace elements in aerosols from background air pollution monitoring stations in the Amazon Basin using nuclear-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the natural release of aerosol particles by the Amazon Basin tropical rain forest, the composition and size distribution of biogenic aerosol particles were analyzed. The role of the atmospheric emissions from the Amazon Basin rain forest in the global atmosphere will be investigated. The atmosphere was studied in long-term sampling stations in three different locations. The elemental composition of aerosol particles released during biomass burning was also measured in several different ecosystems, from primary forest to Savannah. One of the main focuses was to identify and quantify important physical and chemical processes in the generation, transformation and deposition of aerosol particles. Also important was to obtain a better understanding of natural aerosol sources concerning identification, their characteristics and strength, to be able to understand the natural chemistry in the atmosphere on a global scale. 36 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  12. Ozone reactivity and free radical scavenging behavior of phenolic secondary metabolites in lichens exposed to chronic oxidant air pollution from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Islas, N; Zambrano, A; Rojas, J L

    2007-08-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites putatively protect lichens from a variety of environmental stress factors, but it is unknown whether these substances respond to air pollution. To assess such a possibility, the three major phenolics of two epiphytic lichen species with contrasting tolerance to chronic air pollution from Mexico City were studied by combining experimental reactivity data and measured field contents. The antioxidant activity and antiradical power of boninic (BO), 2-O-methylsekikaic (MA), and usnic (US) acids, isolated from the tolerant Ramalina asahinae and salazinic acid (SA), atranorin (AT), and chloroatranorin (CA), from the sensitive Parmotrema stuppeum, were determined in vitro by kinetic experiments with ozone and the free radical diphenyl picryl hidrazyl (DPPH*), respectively. In addition, the field contents of these phenolics in the lichens, and the potential antioxidant capacity (PAC) they provide, were compared among three forested sites exposed to urban emissions and a similar, relatively clean site. The six phenolics had antioxidant activity and antiradical power according to these trends: CA > AT > US > SA > or = BO > or = MA for O(3); and CA > AT > US > MA > SA = BO for DPPH*. The three most reactive phenolics are cortical compounds, located in the lichen portion most exposed to the surrounding environment. In contrast, the less reactive SA, BO, and MA are medullary. Such reactivity patterns indicate that some phenolics may provide antioxidative protection at the air-lichen interface. The higher antioxidant power of CA and AT may be due to the reactive hydroxyl groups at positions 2 and 4 of ring A, instead of the less reactive methoxyl at the same positions in both BO and MA. In the field comparisons, total quantified phenolics were significantly higher near Mexico City for both lichens, except for the tolerant R. asahinae at one site. Nevertheless, only the latter species had significantly increased PAC values at all sites near the city

  13. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  14. Isolation of pathogenic yeasts in the air from hospital environments in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana A Cordeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of environmental surveillance of yeasts in specific areas of two tertiary local hospitals. From March 2007 to February 2008, samples from the air of two public hospitals were collected on a monthly basis. The samples were collected through passive sedimentation method (day and night exposure of Petri dishes. A total of 240 air samples from 10 hospital environments were analyzed. These environments presented similar contamination levels, from which 80 fungi isolates were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (n = 34, Rhodotorula spp. (19, Trichosporon asahii (11, C. tropicalis (8, C. albicans (4, C. glabrata (1, C. guilliermondii (1, C. krusei (1 and Saccharomyces spp. (1. Regarding the presence of yeasts and climatic conditions, there were 40 strains (50% in semi-critical areas (natural ventilation and critical areas (air conditioned. Considering the presence of microorganisms with pathogenic potential, environmental monitoring is necessary to prevent possible hospital infections.

  15. Health damage cost of automotive air pollution: Cost benefit analysis of fuel quality upgradation for Indian cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Ramprasad; Mandal, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    The paper has analysed the economic implication of judicial activism of the apex court of India in the regulation of automotive air pollution. It estimates the health damage cost of urban air pollution for 35 major urban agglomerations of India arising from automotive emissions and the savings that can be achieved by the regulation of fuel quality so as to conform to the Euro norms. It has used the results of some US based study and has applied the transfer of benefit method from the US to th...

  16. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    Like most of the cities around the world Chihuahua City suffers atmospheric and soil pollution. This is a problem that requires immediate attention from both public authorities and the scientific community. Although it is known that high levels of heavy metals are present in the airborne particulate matter, soil and dust in many urban regions, the information about personal exposure to these pollutants in Chihuahua City is nonexistent. This study focuses on the analysis and characterization of lead and arsenic in the airborne and soil particulate matter present in the interiors of households and their surrounding outdoor environments in the southern part of Chihuahua City. The sampling area chosen for this study was located in the southern part of Chihuahua City. An atmospheric sampling point selected by the Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) was selected as a geographical center, with a 2 km radius forming the sampling area. The households selected for analyses were located on Lombardo Toledano Street, a high-traffic street. The main objectives of this study were to establish the maximum exposure level in outdoor and indoor environments for particulate matter less than 10 mum (PM 10), Pb, and As, to determine the background level of Chihuahua City for these same elements, to determine the isotopic ratios of Pb206 and Pb207 in the indoor and outdoor atmospheric samples, and to verify if the source of the pollution is from anthropogenic and/or natural sources. Additionally, a comparison of the analytical data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) versus the analytical data from inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was conducted. The comparison of these techniques was based on sample preparation, speed of analysis, and accuracy of results. In the case of sample preparation, two extraction techniques were performed for a comparison of the extraction/leaching of Pb and As from the samples. These microwave

  17. Isotopic composition of carbon in atmospheric air; use of a diffusion model at the water/atmosphere interface in Velenje Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 concentrations (partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and isotope compositions of carbon dioxide in air (δ13CCO2, temperature (T and relative humidity (H have been measured in the atmosphere in the Velenje Basin. Samples were collected monthly in the calendar year 2011 from 9 locations in the area where the largest thermal power plant in Slovenia with the greatest emission of CO2 to the atmosphere (around 4M t/year is located. Values of pCO2 ranged from 239 to 460 ppm with an average value of 294 ppm, which is below the average atmospheric CO2 pressure (360 ppm. δ13CCO2 ranged from -18.0 to -6.4 ‰, with an average value of -11.7 ‰. These values are similar to those measured in Wroclaw, Poland. We performed the comparison of δ13CCO2 values in atmospheric air with Wroclaw since researchers used similar approach to trace δ13CCO2 around anthropogenic sources. The isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC in rivers and lakes from the Velenje basin changes seasonally from -13.5 to -7.1‰. The values of δ13CDIC indicate the occurrence of biogeochemical processes in the surface waters, with dissolution of carbonates and degradation of organic matter being the most important. A concentration and diffusion model was used to calculate the time of equilibration between dissolved inorganic carbon in natural sources (rivers and atmospheric CO2.

  18. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with advers

  19. The Data Integrity Research of Air Quality Monitoring System in the City%空气质量监测系统数据完整性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊楷; 谷小娅

    2013-01-01

      空气质量监测指对存在于空气中的污染物进行定点、连续或定时的采样和测量,并将监测发送到监控中心,加以分析并得到相关的数据[1]。该文主要介绍城市空气质量在线监测系统的数据完整性研究,系统的分析了影响数据完整性的因素,并提出了相应的解决方案。该研究方案解决了空气质量在线监测系统中经常出现的监测数据丢失、损害的问题,并且能够方便、有效地运用到其他环保监控系统中。%Air quality monitoring refers the polluted substances that presented in the air to carry on sampling and measurement continuously and timing, the data is sent to the monitoring center,and to be analyzed. This paper describes the Integrity for that data of Air Quality Online Monitoring System in the city of ZhengZhou, analyzed the Influencing factors for data Integrity Sys-tematicly, and Propose solutions. the research program make The usual problems of the Air Quality Online Monitoring System that Appeared contains that Detect data lost、damaged can be solved, and can be Applied in the other Environmental protection Monitoring system.

  20. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  1. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  2. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  3. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  4. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  5. Private cities of the 21st century. New strategies of the real estate in the metropolitan periphery of Buenos Aires / Ciudades privadas del siglo XXI. Nuevas estrategias del mercado inmobiliario en la periferia metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vidal-Koppmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of urbanism, the beginning of the twenty-first century in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires has been characterized for the emergence of large-scale projects developed by private actors. Among them stand out private cities and commercial and services areas, called new centralities. Both urban designs are in close connection and require effective mobility conditions for its concretion. The intervention of private agents has impacted in the territorial transformations, creating a "parallel urban system" in the region, oriented towards attracting residents with a high socio-economic status. However, the traditional network of cities has not disappeared and, with the juxtaposition of this new system of private urbanism, it deepened the conditions of spatial fragmentation and social segregation. Desde la perspectiva del urbanismo, el comienzo del siglo XXI se caracteriza por la aparición en la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires, de proyectos de gran envergadura desarrollados por agentes privados. Entre ellos sobresalen las ciudades privadas y las áreas comerciales y de servicios, denominadas nuevas centralidades. Ambos diseños urbanos se mantienen en estrecha relación y requieren de eficaces condiciones de movilidad para su concreción y para su exitoso funcionamiento. La intervención de los agentes privados ha impactado en las transformaciones territoriales, creando un “sistema urbano paralelo” en la región, orientado a la captación de residentes con un alto nivel socio-económico. No obstante, la red de ciudades pre-existente no ha desaparecido y con la yuxtaposición de este nuevo sistema de urbanismo privado, se profundizan las condiciones de fragmentación espacial y de segregación social.

  6. Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

    2007-05-01

    forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

  7. A study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabokas, P D; Papayannis, A D; Tsaknakis, G; Ziomas, I

    2012-01-01

    In this work an analysis of continuous Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of primary and secondary air pollutants (SO(2), NO(2) and O(3)) in the Athens basin is performed combined with Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) vertical ozone measurements obtained inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and the lower free troposphere. The measurements took place during the period May 2005-February 2007, at the National Technical University of Athens Campus (200 m above sea level (asl.), 37.96 °N, 23.78 °E). The SO(2) and NO(2) DOAS measurements showed maximum 1-hour mean values (around 20 μg/m(3) and 74 μg/m(3), respectively) in winter and did not exceed the current European Union (EU) air quality standards (European Council Directive 2008/50/EC), in contrast to ozone, which shows its maximum (around 128 μg/m(3)) in summer and frequently exceeds the EU standard for human health protection (120 μg/m(3)). If the measurements are classified according to the two most frequent flow-patterns of the air masses in the Athens basin (northern-southern circulation), it is observed that in general the atmospheric concentrations of all measured pollutants including ozone are higher when the southern circulation occurs, in comparison to the corresponding values under the northern circulation. The vertical ozone profiles obtained by DIAL were also higher under the southern circulation. During the summer months a mean difference (between the southern-northern circulations) of the order of 15-20 μg/m(3), maximized at the 0.9-1.1 km and 1.7-1.8 km height, was observed within the PBL. It was also observed that the summer surface ozone levels remained relatively high (around 80-110 μg/m(3)) even during strong northerly winds, verifying the high levels of rural surface ozone in the surrounding area reported by previous studies. PMID:22153607

  8. Air Conditioning Energy Saving Methods of Office Building in Nanning City%南宁市办公建筑空调节能途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瑞海

    2011-01-01

    Based on the public notification of building energy consumption in Guangxi, and the analysis of air conditioning energy consumption of four low - energy office buildings, proposes air conditioning energy saving methods of office building in Nanning City. It is suggested that the capable local government should formulate standards of annual office building energy consumption and incentive methods to encourage all units to explore methods of saving energy actively and reduce office building energy consumption.%根据广西建筑能耗公示的情况,通过分析4栋低能耗办公建筑的空调能耗状况,提出了南宁市办公建筑空调节能途径.建议有条件的地方政府通过制定办公建筑全年能耗标准及奖励办法,来鼓励各单位积极探索节能途径,降低办公建筑能耗.

  9. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  10. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  11. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  12. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  13. Segunda encuesta antropometrica de embarazadas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina 2010 The second anthropometric survey of pregnant women in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Bolzán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: mostrar los resultados de la segunda encuesta antropométrica en embarazadas en Buenos Aires, Argentina. MÉTODOS: fueron medidas todas las embarazadas que concurrieron a control de salud durante una semana en los consultorios externos y centros de salud de las 12 maternidades públicas valorándose su peso, talla e índice de masa corporal (IMC. Se empleo una encuesta estructurada. RESULTADOS: fueron evaluadas 2811 embarazadas, nacidas en Argentina (49% y en otros países (51%. Dentro de este segundo grupo, un 49% correspondió a mujeres nacidas en Bolivia (22%, Paraguay (19% y Perú (8%. El problema nutricional más importante lo constituyó el exceso de peso con diferencias estadísticamente significativas según país de nacimiento. Se observaron dos curvas claramente diferenciadas en el IMC de embarazadas adolescentes y adultas. CONCLUSIONES: la investigación permitió obtener el perfil de estado nutricional durante la gestación empleando curvas nacionales de incremento del IMC ajustado por edad gestacional y observar el efecto de algunos determinantes sociales.OBJECTIVES: to present the results of the second anthropometric survey ofpregnant women in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: measurements were taken of all pregnant women attending the outpatient services of 12 public maternity hospitals during one week. Measurements included weight, height and body mass index (BMI. The survey was a structured survey. RESULTS: the study covered 2811 pregnant women born in Argentina (49% and other countries (51%. Of the latter, 49% were women born in Bolivia (22%, Paraguay (19% and Peru (8%. The main nutritional problem was overweight and there were statistically significant differences according to country of birth. The BMI curves for pregnant adults and pregnant adolescents exhibited clear differences. CONCLUSIONS: the survey provided a profile of the nutritional status of pregnant women, using national BMI growth curves adjusted for

  14. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  15. Comparison of air pollution and the prevalence of allergy-related diseases in Incheon and Jeju City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ho Jeong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : A high level of air pollutants can increase the number of patients with allergy-related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR. To analyze the association between air pollution and allergic disease, we investigated 2 areas in Korea: Incheon, an industrial area, and Jeju, a non-industrialized area. Methods : Second grade students at elementary schools (11 schools in Incheon and 45 schools in Jeju were examined in a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was used and a skin prick test was performed. The levels of NO2, CO2, O3, particulate matter (PM PM10/2.5, formaldehyde, tVOCs, and dust mites in the classrooms and grounds were determined. Results : The levels of outdoor CO, PM10, and PM2.5 were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. The levels of indoor CO, CO2, PM10, PM2.5 were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. The prevalence rates of AR symptoms at any time, AR symptoms during the last 12 months, diagnosis of rhinitis at any time, and AR treatment during the last 12 months were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. The prevalence rate of wheezing or whistling at any time, and wheezing during the last 12 months were significantly higher in Incheon (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion : We found that the children living in Incheon, which was more polluted than Jeju, had a higher rate of AR and asthma symptoms compared to children in Jeju. To determine the effect of air pollution on the development of the AR and asthma, further studies are needed.

  16. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Vargas-Martínez, Javier; Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20-48nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ(2)<0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection. PMID:26829765

  17. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Vargas-Martínez, Javier; Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20-48nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ(2)<0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection.

  18. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabczenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  19. Hydatidosis cases in one of Mar del Plata City hospitals, Buenos Aires, Argentina Casos de hidatidose em um hospital da cidade de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cecilia Dopchiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution produced mainly by the metacestode Echinococcus granulosus. In Argentina, its distribution reaches endemic levels. The aims of this investigation were to contribute to the knowledge of hydatidosis in the southeast of Buenos Aires province, study its evolution at the Interzonal General Hospital for Acute Diseases between 1992 and 2002 and discuss its importance. Clinical records of operated and/or diagnosed patients were reviewed with regard to this disease. One hundred and twenty cases were analyzed. Among the patients, 56.7% were women. The average age was 42.2+16.8 years. 68.3% lived in urban areas. In 75% of the cases, ultrasonography was used. Hepatic location was most frequently seen. 89.2% received surgical treatment. Albendazole was used for 19 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 16 days. We conclude that this zoonosis is a disease that generates high costs in medical care and for this reason more epidemiological studies should be carried out and public health authorities should implement control and prevention strategies in the region.A hidatidose é uma zoonose de distribuição mundial produzida principalmente pela meta-cestódeo Echinococcus granulosus. Na Argentina, a distribuição alcança níveis endêmicos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi contribuir ao conhecimento da hidatidose no sudeste da província de Buenos Aires, estudar sua evolução no Hospital Geral Interzonal para Doenças Infecciosas Agudas, entre 1992 e 2002 e discutir sua importância. Os registros clínicos dos pacientes operados e/ou diagnosticados foram revisados quanto a esta doença. Cento e vinte casos foram analisados. Entre os pacientes, 56,7% eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 42,2+16,8 anos. Um grupo de 68,3% eram residentes urbanos. Em 75% dos casos, foi utilizada a ultrassonografia. Observou-se mais freqüentemente a localização hepática. Um grupo de 89,2% foi submetido a tratamento cir

  20. Disinfectant-resistant bacteria in Buenos Aires city hospital wastewater Resistência bacteriana a desinfetantes em efluentes de um hospital em Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nuñez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of disinfectants are used in hospitals, externally on human skin or to eliminate microorganisms from inanimate objects. After use, residual quantities of these products reach the wastewater, exposing the bacteria that survive in hospital wastewaters to a wide range of biocides that could act as a selective pressure for the development of resistance. Increasing attention has been directed recently to the resistance of bacteria to disinfectants. The aim of this paper was to determine the disinfectant bacterial resistance pattern of the microflora released to the urban sewer system by hospital effluents. The characterization of the waste water microflora was performed by determination of the CFU of heterotrophic bacteria, fecal indicator bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp., in a Buenos Aires hospital effluent. The bacterial resistance to the disinfectants more frequently used in the hospital practice, glutaraldehyde, chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine, was then evaluated. Disinfectant resistant bacterial strains were isolated and typified. Between 10³ and 10(6 chlorexidine resistant bacteria/100 mL were isolated from the samples. Bacteria resistant to other disinfectants ranged between 10³ and 10(4 /100 mL. The bacterial population resistant to desinfectants to was mainly composed by Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp, and Bacillus spp, which are highly associated to nosocomial infections. The results obtained show that the hospital effluents are of importance in the bacterial resistance selection process, particularly in the case of disinfectants.Os hospitais utilizam uma grande quantidade de desinfetantes para eliminar microorganismos tanto da pele humana como de superfícies inanimadas. Após sua utilização, esses produtos podem chegar ao esgoto em quantidades residuais. A pressão seletiva exercida pelos antimicrobianos nos efluentes hospitalares propicia a disseminação de linhagens resistentes. Além dos

  1. Influence of coastal upwelling on the air-sea gas exchange of CO2 in a Baltic Sea Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Maria; Raj Parampil, Sindu; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2013-01-01

    During coastal upwelling cold water from the ocean interior with high CO2 concentration is brought up to the surface, allowing this water to interact with the atmosphere. This sets the stage for events with potentially altered sea–air CO2 fluxes. Four upwelling events off the east coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea were analyzed to assess the impact of upwelling on the air–sea exchange of CO2. For each event, the observed pCO2 were found to be a function of sea-surface temperature (SST) in th...

  2. Déficit de Vitamina D en mujeres adultas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Vitamin D deficit in adult women living in Buenos Aires City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Arévalo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El déficit de vitamina D se asocia con importante morbilidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la frecuencia de este déficit en una población de mujeres adultas y su asociación con distintas variables. Se evaluaron 224 mujeres mayores de 30 años atendidas en tres consultorios de clínica médica de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires entre octubre de 2006 y marzo de 2008. El nivel de 25 OH vitamina D, por radioinmunoanálisis, se clasificó como suficiente (> 30 ng/ml, déficit leve (entre 20 y 30 ng/ml y déficit grave (Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of morbidity. We prospectively studied 224 consecutive female patients in order to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to assess the utility of various clinical and biochemical markers in predicting the deficiency. All of them were outpatients, 30 years old or older, and were evaluated from October 2006 through March 2008. Levels of 25 OH vitamin D > 30 ng/ml were considered sufficient. Mild deficiency was considered between 20 and 30 ng/ml and severe deficiency < 20 ng/ml. The mean age was 58 ± 12.9 years; 77% were menopausal. Twenty nine percent of the patients had mild deficit and 26.8% had severe deficit of the vitamin. Severe deficit was associated with increasing age (62 vs. 56 years, p = 0.003, absence of sun exposure (25.82 ng/ml vs. 31.7 ng/ml, p < 0.005, obesity (70 vs. 61 kg, p < 0.05, absence of physical activity (27.8 ng/ml vs. 31.04 ng/ml, p = 0.0007 and slightly low levels of serum calcium (9.26 mg/dl vs. 9.51 mg/dl, p 0.01. We did not find any association between smokers and non-smokers patients, levels of serum phosphorus, creatinine and TSH. Vitamin D deficiency is a common disorder. It correlates with older age, absence of physical activity, sun exposure, obesity and slightly low levels of serum calcium. Improving diagnosis of this condition may enable us to improve the management of this disease.

  3. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM₂.₅-₁₀) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅-₁₀ enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days. PMID:26501308

  4. [Characteristics of aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions in three types air-pollution incidents of Nanjing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Chen; Zhu, Bin; Su, Ji-Feng; Wang, Hong-Lei

    2012-06-01

    In order to compare aerosol water-soluble inorganic species in different air-pollution periods, samples of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 and the main water-soluble ions (NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NO2(-), F(-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) were measured, which were from 3 air-pollution incidents (continued pollution in October 16-30 of 2009, sandstorm pollution in April 27-30 of 2010, and crop burning pollution in June 14 of 2010. The results show that aerosol pollution of 3 periods is serious. The lowest PM2.1/PM10 is only 0.27, which is from sandstorm pollution period, while the largest is 0. 7 from crop burning pollution period. In continued pollution periods, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) are the dominant ions, and the total anions account for an average of 18.62%, 32.92% and 33.53% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1. Total water-soluble ions only account for 13.36%, 23.72% and 28.54% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1 due to the insoluble species is increased in sandstorm pollution period. The mass concentration of Ca2+ in sandstorm pollution period is higher than the other two pollution periods, and which is mainly in coarse particles with diameter larger than 1 microm. All the ten water-soluble ions are much higher in crop burning pollution especially K+ which is the tracer from crop burning. The peak mass concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4+ are in 0.43-0.65 microm. PMID:22946180

  5. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources.

  6. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources. PMID:25915412

  7. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV1, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM2.5 exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke

  8. Evidencia geofísica del umbral de Trenque Lauquen en la extensión norte de la cuenca de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires Geophysical evidence of the Trenque Lauquen High in the northern extension of the Claromecó Basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kostadinoff

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La exploración geofísica del borde norte de la cuenca de Claromecó sugieren la existencia de importantes espesores de sedimentos paleozoicos. Estas secuencias sedimentarias se extienden en el área NW de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las cuencas de Claromecó y Chaco Paranense están divididas por un área semipositiva. Sin embargo un bajo con dirección NNO de 165 km de longitud, cubierto por sedimentos paleozoicos conecta ambas cuencas.The geophysical survey of the northern border of Claromecó basin suggests the existence of Paleozoic sequences with important thickness. Such sequences extend along the NW area of Buenos Aires province. The Claromecó and Chaco Paranense Basins are divided by a semi positive area. A NNW-trending through, 165 km long, filled with Paleozoic sediments connects important thickness of both basins.

  9. LONG RANGE CORRELATION OF AIR POLLUTION BETWEEN CHENGDU CITY AND ITS SURROUNDING TOWNS%基于DCCA方法的成都市市区与周边城镇大气污染长程相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史凯; 刘春琼; 吴生虎

    2014-01-01

    利用2008年1月~2012年12月期间成都市市区与其周边14个城镇的逐日空气污染指数(API)数据,采用去趋势互相关分析法(DCCA分析)研究区域城市间大气污染的相关性及其随时间演变规律.结果表明:成都市区与其周边城镇大气污染的空气污染存在一定程度的相关性,并且在不同的月份,相关性会随之发生变化.这种相关性具有长期持续特征,具体表现为在一定的时间尺度上成都市区与其周边城镇大气污染的相关性随时间的变化并不遵循经典的马尔可夫过程,即不随时间呈现指数快速衰减,而是以幂律形式随时间缓慢衰减.进一步,结合不同月份间区域大气平均流场的分布特征,探讨了DCCA分析结果的科学性.研究结果说明,在特定地理环境和气象条件控制下,成都市及其周边城市之间已经存在明显的相互输送和耦合作用,成都地区大气污染已由局地性污染转变为区域性大气污染.城市间污染物输送的长期相关影响机制极有可能在特定月份加重成都市区的空气污染状况,这在成都市区及其周边城镇的规划建设中必须加以特别重视.%We aims to report the cross-correlation characteristics and the temporal evolution properties of air pollution between Chengdu City and 14 surrounding towns.In this study,we collected the daily air pollution index (API) data of Chengdu City and 14 surrounding towns provided by Sichuan Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center.The 5 years regular monitoring data,from Jan.1 2008 to Dec.31 2012,were analyzed by using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method.The DCCA exponent quantitatively measures the cross-correlation of two series in terms of long-term cross-correlation exists.The results show that the relationships of air pollution between Chengdu City and its surrounding towns display a long range cross-correlation at the time scale ranging from one day to 5 years.The long

  10. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  11. Trends in selected ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and a comparison to mobile source emission trends in California's South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Trends in ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are compared to trends in VOC emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV) tested on chassis dynamometers and to trends observed in tunnel studies during the same period to understand the impacts of gasoline vehicle emissions on ambient VOC concentrations from 1999 to 2009. Annual median concentrations for most ambient VOCs decreased 40% from 1999 to 2009 in the SoCAB, based on data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). Annual concentration decreases of most compounds, except 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, are highly correlated with the decrease of acetylene, a marker for tailpipe emissions from LDGV. This indicates that ambient VOC concentration decreases were likely due to tailpipe emission reductions from gasoline vehicles. Air Toxics Monitoring Network data also support this conclusion. Benzene concentration-normalized ratios for most compounds except ethane, propane, isoprene, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were stable even as these compound concentrations decreased significantly from 1999 to 2009. Such stability suggests that the main sources of ambient VOC were still the same from 1999 to 2009. The comparison of trends in dynamometer testing and tunnel studies also shows that tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of tunnel LDGV emissions. The pronounced changes in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ratios due to the introduction of Phase 3 gasoline also confirm the substantial impact of LDGV emissions on ambient VOCs. Diurnal ambient VOC data also suggest that LDGV tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of ambient VOCs in the SoCAB in 2009. Our conclusion, which is that current inventory models underestimate VOC emissions from mobile sources, is consistent with that of several recent studies of ambient trends in the SoCAB. Our study showed that tailpipe emissions remained a bigger contributor to ambient VOCs than evaporative

  12. 城市间大气污染相互影响的VAR模型分析%Vector Autoregression Model for Analysis of Air Pollution Interactions between Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍复胜; 管东生

    2013-01-01

    基于以往研究多采用大气数值模式分析污染物在不同城市之间的输送规律及内外源的贡献率,现从时间序列角度引入一个新方法,应用向量自回归模型的格兰杰因果关系检验、脉冲响应函数及方差分解技术,对广州、佛山、肇庆2003-2012年逐日空气污染指数进行模拟演算,得到城市间大气污染相互影响效应及其贡献.结果表明,广佛地区污染源对肇庆空气质量影响突出,肇庆并未成为广州和佛山的主要污染源.城市间大气污染相互影响存在明显的滞后效应,前7期累积作用较明显,污染物的累积效应容易导致区域性灰霾天气出现.佛山对广州的污染贡献达到了10.9%,广州对佛山的污染贡献相对偏小,佛山对肇庆的污染贡献接近30%,广佛肇经济圈应形成区域性大气污染联防联治机制.%Based on the use of atmospheric models for studying transportation of pollutants between cities as well as the contributions of inner and outer sources,from perspective of time series,Granger causality test,impulse response function and variance decomposition of vector autoregression model was introduced for studying daily air pollution index in Guangzhou,Foshan and Zhaoqing from 2003 to 2012.The air pollution interactions between cities were proved.It was found that air quality of Zhaoqing was heavily affected by pollutants from Foshan and Guangzhou while Zhaoqing was not a major pollution source of Guangzhou and Foshan.Regional haze was caused by the lagged and cumulative effects of pollutants,obvious impact was appeared before lagged 7.The contribution from Foshan to Guangzhou was 10.9% while it was lower from Guangzhou to Foshan.The contribution from Foshan to Zhaoqing was nearly up to 30%.It was necessary to establish regional air pollution prevention mechanism in the economic circle of Guangzhou,Foshan and Zhaoqing.

  13. Assessment Fargas and BLM Models for Identification of Erosion Degree and Critical Sediment Sources (Case Study: Aghbolagh Drainage Basin, Hashtrood City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Abdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the different areas in drainage basin (as a natural planning unit for occurring the sedimentation and its severity in different phases of basic studies has been always one of the most important purposes of the natural resources experts. For achieving to this purpose some experimental models has been presented that Some of them have high efficiency and others have weaknesses. Fargas and BLM models are used in this research and they are run in Aghbolagh drainage basin in Hashtrood town, East Azarbayjan province with 7.8 km2 area. Fargas model includes only two factors, the rock type erosivity and drainage density in the every rock unit, whereas BLM model includes seven factors; the surface erosion, the litter cover, the rock cover on the surface, the affection of destruction on the surface, the surface rill erosion, the affection of the sedimentation due to the water flow and the amplification of gully erosion. The objective of this research is the handling of these two models for different phases of basic studies in the study area. The results of two models showed, in Fargas model 3.67% area of the basin has high erosion, 14.26% area of the basin has severe erosion and 81.04% has very severe erosion and in BLM model 42.97% area of the basin has moderate erosion and 24.93% has high erosion, therefore 52.85% of the study area in Fargas and BLM models has concurrence in the erosion severity.

  14. Estudio del impacto en la calidad del aire de las fuentes puntuales en la ciudad de pinar del Río A study of the impact of stationary sources on the air quality of pinar del Rio city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Fonseca Hernandez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio del impacto de las fuentes fijas en la Ciudad de Pinar del Río utilizando el sistema de modelación MM5-CALMET-CALPUFF. Se simuló la dispersión de SO2, NOx, PM25, PM10 y CO emitidos por las 21 fuentes durante 15 días representativos del período lluvioso, además de la depositación húmeda de SO4(2- y NO3-. Se observó que las máximas concentraciones se producen en horarios de la mañana y noche. Se observó que producto de estas emisiones se ven afectados algunas zonas cercanas a la ciudad como Minas de Matahambre, San Juan y Martínez, Santa María, San Luis, El Corojo, Hermanos Saíz, Viñales, Pilotos, Consolación del Sur y las Ovas. Los valores de concentración medios diarios de NOx y SO2 sobrepasaron sus concentraciones máximas admisibles según la NC 39: 1999 y estuvieron por encima de los valores guías de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y los valores estándares EPA.A study of the impact of stationary sources on air quality on the city of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, using the modeling system MM5-CALMET-CALPUFF was made. The dispersion of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10 and PM25 emitted from 21 sources during 15 days is simulated by the model. This period is representative of the rainy season in Cuba (Summer. The of SO4(2- and NO3- wet deposition was also simulated. It was observed that the highest concentrations occur in the morning and evening. These emissions affected some neighboring cities as Santa Maria and Viñales. The daily average concentration values of NOx and SO2 exceeded their maximum permissible concentrations according to the Cuban standards, the guideline values of the World Health Organization and the EPA standards. The southwest area of the city is the most affected one with the highest concentration level.

  15. Un esquema de estimación de la precipitación estival en la ciudad de Buenos Aires An estimate scheme of the summer precipitation in the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Cariaga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es estimar la precipitación estival en la ciudad y Gran Buenos Aires. Para ello fue correlacionada con los campos de temperatura de la superficie del mar, las alturas geopotenciales en 1000 hPa, 500 hPa y 200 hPa, la presión a nivel del mar, viento en 850 hPa y humedad específica en niveles bajos en el mes previo. Predictores fueron seleccionados basándose en la significancia estadística, la independencia y la explicación física de su relación y utilizados como variables de entrada para generar una regresión lineal múltiple con el método "forward stepwise". Ellos son la altura geopotencial de 1000 hPa sobre la costa del océano Atlántico alrededor de 25ºS y el viento zonal en el centro de América del Sur. La lluvia estival depende principalmente del debilitamiento del anticiclón del Atlántico y de la advección de aire húmedo desde el norte del país. La verificación se realizó para los datos del período 1984-2007 obteniendo una correlación entre la serie observada y estimada de 0.61. La estabilidad del modelo se probó con la metodología de la crossvalidación. Los resultados indican la existencia de predictabilidad para la precipitación estival para el área de Buenos Aires.The aim of this study is to estimate December to February rainfall in Buenos Aires city and its surroundings, using atmospheric variables. Summer rainfall in Buenos Aires was correlated with sea surface temperature, 1000 hPa, 500 hPa and 200 hPa geopotential heights, sea surface pressure, 850 hPa zonal and meridional and specific humidity from the ground to 700 hPa, observed in the previous month. Some predictors were selected based on the statistical significance, the independence and the physical meaning and they were used as entrance variables to generate a multiple linear regression using the"forward stepwise" method. The selected predictors were: 1000 hPa geopotential height in the Atlantic Ocean coast, near 25ºS and

  16. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k0-method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM2.5, were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO2 and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  17. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing. PMID:25074829

  18. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5–10 levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants, increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (<25 °C, with a 10 µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5–10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 1%–5% rise in COPD admissions, 4% (95% CI = 1%–7% increase in asthma admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 2%–4% rise in pneumonia admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and the number of hospital admissions for RD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of RD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5–10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days.

  19. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.

  20. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks. PMID:26734816

  1. 陕西省渭河流域各城区水资源社会可再生性评价%Social Renewability of Water Resources of the Cities and District in the Weihe River Basin,Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蕾; 任志远; 王丽霞

    2009-01-01

    The Weihe River basin mainly lies in arid and semi-arid regions of Shaanxi province, and many cities in this area faced the problem of water scarcity. Social renewability of water resources is purely about the characteristics of water resources in its utilization.The improvement of it is significant for utilizing water resource in high-efficiency. In this article, the methods, which used several indexes to show social renewability of water resources in water scarcity cities of the Weihe River basin, were put forward. By establishing the evaluation index system of social renewability of city water resources, grade evaluation standard,and introducing gray correlation theory, this gray correlation theory has been used to evaluate the degree of social renewability in cities. The results show that Baoji' s social renewability of water resources in the cities of the Wei River Basin is at the highest level, xi' an and Xianyang are at the stronger level of, Yangling district is at the middle level of,Weinan and Tongchuan are at the weaker level of. And the measures to improve it were also put forward finally.%陕西省渭河流域位于干旱、半干旱区,流域内许多城市都面临着水资源短缺问题.水资源社会可再生性是水资源在利用过程中所表现出的特性,其值的增强对于实现水资源的高效利用具有重要意义.本文针对陕西省渭河流域提出了基于若干指标来综合表征缺水城市水资源社会可再生性的方法,并在此基础上对该漉域6个城区的水资源社会可再生性进行了评价.通过建立城市水资源社会可再生性评价指标体系、分级评价标准.引入灰色关联理论,构建了灰色关联分析等级评价模型,并运用该模型分析了研究区域内各城区的水资源可再生程度.研究结果表明,宝鸡的水资源社会可再生性最强,西安、咸阳较强,杨凌区中等.渭南、铜川较弱.本文最后提出了增强这些城市水资源社会可再生性的途径.

  2. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006 Dog fouling and helminth contamination in parks and sidewalks of Buenos Aires City, 1991-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.The aim of this study was to provide data on canine fecal and helminthic contamination from parks and sidewalks in Buenos Aires City, collected by the Laboratory of General Parasitology, School of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. A census of dog feces was performed in 1-11 parks per year between 1991 and 2006, a single day each year. In the period 2000-2006, the census included feces on sidewalks surrounding the park. Thirty fresh fecal

  3. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  4. The Ideas of God, Good and Evil in the Refigured Yoga Practices in Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Saizar

    2011-12-01

    New Age. The present paper is based on field work’s material from extensive and open interviews to users and specialists of yoga in Buenos Aires, as well as from observation and participant observation in different yoga’s centers in period 2003-2009.

  5. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Guerrero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around −0.002 and −1.2 μg m−3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m−3 and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m−3. The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes

  6. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  7. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  8. 成都某公司办公大楼空调通风设计%Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Design for A Company Office Building in ChengDu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朝烽

    2014-01-01

    The design of air conditioning , ventilation, smoke control and extraction system and air conditioning automatic control system for a company office building in ChengDu City were introduced .The form of air conditioning system was expounded .Fire prevention measure , energy conservation measure ,environmental protection and hygiene and disease control measure of air conditioning and ventilation systems were provided .%介绍了成都某公司办公大楼的空调、通风、防排烟系统和空调自动控制系统设计,详细阐述了空调系统形式,指出了通风空调系统防火措施、节能措施及环保与卫生防疫措施。

  9. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Y.; Houjin, H. [Zunyi Medical University, School of Public Health, Zunyi, Guizhou (China); Xun, M. [Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Department of Medicine Laboratory, Zunyi (China); Kebin, L.; Xuesong, Y.; Jie, X. [Zunyi Medical University, School of Public Health, Zunyi, Guizhou (China)

    2014-09-23

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}), the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM{sub 2.5} was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM{sub 2.5} in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV{sub 1}, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV{sub 1}, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM{sub 2.5} exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke.

  10. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  11. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅰ):non-vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Wanjuan LI; Shengli WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Rong MA; Jinwei LIU

    2008-01-01

    A nabkha is a vegetated sand mound,which is ypical of the aeolian landforms found in the Hotan River pasin in Xinjiang,China.This paper compares the results of a series of wind tunnel experiments with an on-site field survey of nabkhas in the Hotan River basin of Xinjiang.Wind tunnel experiments were conducted on semi-sphercal and conical sand mounds without vegetation or shadow dunes.Field mounds were 40 times as large as the size of the wind tunnel models.In the wind tunnel experiments,five different velocities from 6 to 14 m/s were selected and used to model the wind flow pattern over mdividual sand mound using clean air without additional sand.Changes in the flow pattern at different wind speeds resulted in changes to the characteristic structure of the babkha surface.The results of the experiments for the semi-spherical sand mound at all wind velocities show the formation of a vortex at the bottom of the upwind side of the mound that resulted in scouring and deposition of a crescentic dune upwind of the main mound.The top part of the sand mound is strongly eroded.In the field,these dunes exhibited the same scouring and crescentic dune formation and the eroded upper surface was often topped by a layer of peat within the mound suggesting destroyed vegetation due to river channel migration or by possible anthropogenic forces such as fuel gathering,etc.Experiments for the conical mounds exhibit only a small increase in velocity on the upwind side of the mound and no formation of a vortex at the bottom of the upwind side.Instead,a vortex formed on the leeward side of the mound and overall,no change occurred in the shape of the conical mound.In the field,conical mounds have no crescentic dunes on the upwind side and no erosion at the top exposed below peat beds.Therefore,the field and laboratory experiments show that semi-spherical and conical sand mounds respond differently to similar wind conditions with different surface configuration and development of crescent

  12. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. PMID:26025206

  13. Generación de nuevos ecosistemas litorales por albardones de relleno en la costa de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Generation of new littoral ecosystems by levee filling in the coast of the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Marcomini

    2004-06-01

    autoridades municipales para definir una línea de costa definitiva para la ciudad de Buenos Aires.Buenos Aires, the most largest and populated city of Argentina is emplaced on the southeast coast of the Rio de la Plata shared waters estuary. The present coastline is the result of several anthropogenic works that have induced the coastal progradation by artificial filling since 1836, developing new coastal ecosystems. The main objective of the Buenos Aires coastal planning has always been to gain land to the estuary waters as an expansive policy. It was estimated an artificial nourishment of about 12,67 hectares per year during the last 162 years with a coastal progradation between 400 to 1,000 m. This paper focuses on a new planing and management of the coast, considering the configuration of the filling levee and the generation of new ecosystems associated with different levee designs. The coastal evolution associated with four types of man-made levee was analysed during the last 40 years. The types of levees configuration described were bay, cape, spit and barrier design. The bay type induced the accumulation of coastal plains in the middle of the bay. The cape type induced lakes and ponds isolated from the estuary hydrodynamics that trend to be filled by vegetation. The barrier and spit types provoked the coastal plain progradation and the formation of an artificial lagoon dominated by tides with freshwater marshes and tidal flat ecosystems. The artificial coastal progradation of the estuary generated these new ecosystems associated as that should be predicted considering the definitive configuration of the artificial levee. This new ecosystem should be carefully assessed managed and considered by government agencies in the planification of the future coastline configuration of the city. This work should provide to decision makers of the city with appropriate conclusions, recommendations and proposals in order to give an outline for immediate, medium and long term action

  14. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Delaney, Joseph A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57–1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08–0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016–0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05–2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24–5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94–1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34–2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals. PMID:26999173

  15. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S; Kaufman, Joel D; Delaney, Joseph A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08-0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016-0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05-2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24-5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94-1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34-2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals.

  16. Dosimetric studies of the lens of the eye using a new dosimeter - polls in two departments of Interventional Radiology of the autonomous city of Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures, medical staff can receive high doses to their eye lenses. The Retrospective Evaluation of Lens Injuries and Dose (RELID) study organized in Argentina in 2010 found incipient opacity in 50% of IC physicians and 41% of IC technicians/nurses. These results, added to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which lowered their former occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens, led us to assess the eye lens dose, Hp(3), during interventional procedures. To this end, a new dosemeter was designed and calibrated at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina to evaluate Hp(3). Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)), and Hp(3) were assessed for 3 months in two IC and IR departments of Buenos Aires City using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and electronic personal dosimeter (EPD). An Rando Alderson phantom was used to simulate monthly exposures of five occupational staff members. Hp(3) and Hp(10) were obtained monthly for 14 occupational staff members exposed to 121 IR and IC procedures. We concluded that the annual effective dose and Hp(3) were lower than 0.3 and 10 mSv, respectively. An occupational annual dose constraint of 0.3 mSv was calculated. Average cumulative Hp(3) for working life of 40 years should be lower than 400 and 200 mSv for physicians and technicians/scrub nurse, respectively. Also we concluded that a calibrated EPD worn on a pocket in the lead apron and a TLD dosemeter worn on the collar thyroid (both at the maximal radiation side) could be used as guidance to the lens dose. Finally, To reduce doses of medical staff, actions should be promoted to maximize radiation protection in interventional procedures with appropriate training, using personal dosimetry and protection instruments as lead glasses, ceiling-suspended shields and others. (author)

  17. AIR POLLUTION IN SHOLAPUR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde Tukaram Vittal

    2015-01-01

    Pollution is the presentation of contaminants into the regular habitat that cause antagonistic change. Contamination can take the type of substance substances orenergy, for example, commotion, warmth or light. Pollution, the parts of contamination, can be either outside substances/ energies or normally happening contaminants. Contamination is regularly classed as point source or nonpoint source contamination.

  18. Does the Cities' Economic Growth Affect Air Quality---An Empirical Analysis Based on 31Cities in China%城市的经济发展水平影响空气质量吗--基于中国31个省会城市和直辖市的经验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池建宇; 张洋; 晏思雨

    2014-01-01

    基于库茨涅兹曲线,并考虑到各城市的内生因素的影响,研究我国的经济发展水平和空气质量的关系,实证结果显示,我国省会城市、直辖市的曲线只存在库茨涅兹曲线拐点后面的部分,且倾斜程度十分微小,即表明近十年内,我国省会城市、直辖市的空气质量随着经济的发展,得到一定程度的改善,但是改善程度十分有限,城市的经济发展水平对其空气质量水平并不具有决定性作用,影响城市空气质量的最主要因素来自城市自身及其周边地区的工业排放物。%Based on the Kuschnir Azee curve, and taking into account the influence of the city's endogenous factors, this paper studies the relationship between the level of China's economic development and air quality. The empirical results show that the curve of our provincial capital city and municipality directly under the central government exists only behind Kuschnir Azee curve inflection point, and the inclination degree is very small,namely for nearly 10 years, as the development of economy in the provincial capital city and municipality directly under the central government With the development of economy, the air quality has improved to some extent, but which remains limited. Moreover, the development of city's economy is not the decisive factor of its air quality level, the main factors to influence the city air quality is industrial emissions from the city and its surrounding areas.

  19. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta" intensive campaign (PRIDE-PRD2006, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ±standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance of, as well as strong sources of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more

  20. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  1. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present-day levels over Paris is modeled under the "business-as-usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic "mitigation" scenario leads to a moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional-scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current urban-scale study is driven by volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional-scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas, projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer timescale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios, respectively, compared to the present-day period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the

  2. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large urban increment

  3. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Markakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (−3.5 ppb in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large

  4. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in the cities of Rouen and Le Havre, France, 1990-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeghnoun, A; Czernichow, P; Beaudeau, P; Hautemanière, A; Froment, L; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on mortality across 2 French cities: Rouen and Le Havre. In Poisson regression models, which controlled for day-of-week effects, the authors used nonparametric smoothing to control for temporal trend, weather, and influenza epidemics. In Rouen, an interquartile range increase of 60.5-94.1 microg/m3 of ozone was associated with an increase of 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.6, 7.8) of total mortality. Daily variations in sulfur dioxide (interquartile range increase = 17.6-36.4 microg/m3) were also associated with an 8.2% increase (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 16.6) in respiratory mortality. An increase of 6.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.5, 10.9) of cardiovascular mortality was also observed with an interquartile range increase of nitrogen dioxide (i.e., 25.3-42.2 microg/m3). With respect to Le Havre, an interquartile range increase in daily levels of sulfur dioxide (11.3-35.6 microg/m3) was associated with an increase of approximately 3% (95% confidence interval = 0.8, 5) of cardiovascular mortality. For particulate matter less than or equal to 13 microm in diameter (interquartile increase = 21.5, 45.4 microg/m3), an increase of 6.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.1, 12.8) was observed. The estimates of pollutant effects and their standard deviations were slightly affected by the degree of smoothing temporal variations in this study. When low collinearity was present, the 2-pollutant models provided acceptable estimates of pollutant effects. They suggested that the ozone effect was independent of the Black Smoke effect, and that the effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were unlikely to be confounded by ozone concentrations. However, high collinearity leads to large estimates of the pollutant coefficient variances and, therefore, leads to inaccurate estimates of pollutant effects. The analysis of the contributory effects of different pollutant mixtures requires further

  5. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  6. 中国城市空气质量变化的时空特征及其经济社会因素解析%Spatio-temporal Differences and Driving Forces of Air Quality in Chinese Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岱; 刘毅

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of city air quality is the serious problem in the process of rapid urbanization and economic development in China. Taking 74 cities that have implemented the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095- 2012) since 2013 as examples, using statistical and ArcGIS spatial analysis method, the multi-scale temporal and spatial variations characteristics and the impact of social and economic factors on urban air quality variations, are analyzed in this paper. The main research conclusions are as folows:(1) Air quality in Chinese cities shows very significant seasonal variations, with higher air quality in summer and autumn, and lower air quality in spring and winter; (2) Seen from a daily polution perspective, air polution is very serious and wil tend to be more serious in the future; (3) Seen from an hourly variation perspective, urban air quality is time coupled with social production and urban living; (4) The overal spatial pattern of urban air quality is high in the east and north and low in the west and south, but with an obvious trend towards regional integration. (5) Cities in different regions have different factors that cause air quality variations. In general, urbanization level and energy consumption per GDP are the common factors.%城市空气质量恶化是我国在快速城市化和工业化进程中亟待解决的难题。本文以第一阶段实施新空气质量标准的74个城市为例,通过比较2013年各区域城市每日和每时的空气质量指数变化,总结空气质量变化的时空特征,并借助SPSS18.0软件,采用相关分析中的二次曲线拟合法探讨工业化和城市化对空气质量的影响趋势。结论认为中国城市空气质量季节性变化特征显著,空气质量春冬差,夏秋好;从污染天数看,城市空气污染形势严峻且有加重态势;从小时变化看,城市空气质量与社会生产生活活动表现出一定的时间耦合性;城市空气质量总体空间格

  7. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  8. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  9. 高海拔城市污水处理厂表曝机供气量计算%Calculation on Air Supply Quantity of Surface Aerator for Sewage Treatment Plant of High-altitude City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕

    2015-01-01

    高海拔地区气温和气压较低、水中饱和溶解氧浓度低、空气中氧含量低,在污水处理厂供气量计算上存在一定的特殊性。本文结合国外某高海拔城市污水处理厂氧化沟工艺的设计实践,对高海拔地区表曝机供气量的计算方法进行了总结,提出了计算要点和需要注意的问题。%Due to low air temperature and air pressure, low concentration of saturated dissolved oxygen in water and low oxygen content in air, calculation on air supply quantity of sewage treatment plant has a certain particularity in high-altitude area. In combination with design practice of oxidation ditch process in sewage treatment plant of a high-altitude city, the paper summarizes calculation method of air supply quantity of surface aerator in high-altitude area and puts forward calculation points and some problems needs to be paid.

  10. Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using passive air sampling in the atmosphere of one of the most wood-smoke-polluted cities in Chile: The case study of Temuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Diaz-Robles, Luis; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Etcharren, Pablo; Pozo, Katerine; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabián; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion. The results for all three seasons showed that the PAH plume was widespread across all sites including rural sites on the outskirts of Temuco. Some interesting variations were observed between seasons in the composition of PAHs, which were attributed to differences in seasonal point sources. A comparison of the PAH composition in the passive samples with active samples (gas+particle phase) from the same site revealed similar congener profiles. Overall, the study demonstrated that the PUF disk passive air sampler provides a simple approach for measuring PAHs in air and for tracking effectiveness of pollution control measures in urban areas in order to improve public health.

  11. Empowerment in practice - insights from CITI-SENSE project in Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Johanna; Kocman, David; Smolnikar, Miha; Mohorčič, Miha; Horvat, Milena

    2014-05-01

    We present specifics of the citizen empowerment and crowd sourced citizen science conducted in Ljubljana, Slovenia, as one of the case study cities within the ongoing EU-project CITI-SENSE. CITI-SENSE addresses urban air quality and rests on three pillars: technological platforms for distributed monitoring; novel information and communication technologies; and citizen participation. In the project, empowerment initiatives are conducted, enabling citizens to participate in various aspects of urban air quality, both outdoor and indoor at schools affecting everyday life of societal groups. Each participating country runs its own citizen empowerment campaign adapting to local circumstances. In addition to Ljubljana, local campaigns have been initiated in Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava, Vienna and in Vitoria. Poor air quality has been recognized as an important factor affecting the quality of life, especially in urban environments. In Ljubljana specifically, the main air pollution sources are traffic-related emissions, individual house heating devices including increased use of coal and biomass in recent years, and to a limit extent industrial point sources and waste disposal sites. Air quality can be occasionally very poor due to specific climatic conditions owing partially to its location in a basin and on the marshes, resulting in a very complex circulation of air masses, temperature inversions and formation of urban heat island. By recognizing this, we established the main stakeholders in the city who are responsible for monitoring the quality of air in Ljubljana. Based on full stakeholder analysis we consider co-operation with local governmental- and non-governmental institutions with already established means of communications with citizens, as a tool for empowerment. Since we spend over 90% of our time indoors, the indoor air quality is of great importance. It is why the CITI-SENSE project empowerment initiatives also cover this

  12. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

  13. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites

  14. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  15. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  16. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  17. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  18. An Exciting Time for Steel City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Panzhihua, in south Sichuan’s basin, is aptly called West China’s Industrial Pearl, and "treasure bowl." This city is well known as the home of Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Company and Ertan Hydropower Station. At the beginning of 2004, two major events thrust this city into the limelight.

  19. Design and Implementation of City Air Quality Inquiry System Based on Android%基于Android的城市空气质量查询系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩文; 殷旭东

    2013-01-01

    为了方便公众第一时间了解和掌握空气质量状况及变化情况,设计并实现了基于Android平台的城市空气质量查询系统。该系统通过HTML解析,获取了来自中国环境监测总站发布的114个监测城市的实时数据。系统使用Android最新ActionBar样式的导航界面以及直观的仪表界面,实现了各城市空气质量指数查询、空气质量排名查询、各监测点数据查询、一周数据查询等功能。经试用,该系统在Android手机上运行良好。%In order to make it convenient for the public to understand and master the status of air quality and its changes immedi-ately, a city air quality inquiry system based on Android platform is designed and implemented. The system obtains the real-time data of 114 monitoring cities released by China National Environmental Monitoring Center by parsing the HTML. The system uses the latest Android navigation interface of ActionBar style and intuitive instrument interface, also, the system implements func-tions such as air quality index inquiry, each monitoring point data inquiry, air quality ranking inquiry and last week ’s data inqui-ry. In the trial, the system runs well on Android phones.

  20. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  1. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  2. Xiangyang City’ s Cultural Force in the Construction of the Central City of the Han River Basin%襄阳建设汉江流域中心城市文化力问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润昊; 肖兆武

    2015-01-01

    一个城市是否有核心竞争力,最根本的是看它的文化力。襄阳文化力涵盖了“自强不息、昂扬向上”的精神原动力,“崇文重教、尊重人才”的核心智慧力,“崇尚科学、敢为人先”的强劲活力,“重商亲商、重利尚义”的城市竞争力,“注重生态、追求和谐”的可持续发展力。襄阳要建成汉江流域中心城市,要充分发挥文化力的龙头作用、纽带作用、中心作用。打造襄阳文化力,需要全面提升市民素质,打造襄阳“气质”;大力实施文化惠民工程,打造襄阳“气韵”;精心培育城市文化品牌,打造襄阳“气派”;积极推进文化传播交流,打造襄阳“气场”;勇于创新文化体制机制,打造襄阳“气魄”。%It is the cultural force that determines a city’ s core competitiveness.For Xiangyang City, the cultural force means:“unyielding and uplifting”;“respecting for knowledge, respecting for talent” ;“advocating science, daring to be the first”;“attaching importance to business, emphasizing righteousness”and “paying attention to e-cology, pursuing harmony”.To become the central city of the Han River basin, Xiangyang should give full play to the leading role of its culture.It is necessary to improve citizen’ s quality, to cultivate Xiangyang“temperament”, to implement vigorously the people-benefit engineering, to build urban cultural brand, to promote actively the cul-tural communication and to innovate culture systems.

  3. Air quality forecasting system based on model products of CMAQ in Fuzhou City%基于CMAQ模式产品的福州市空气质量预报系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彬彬; 林长城; 杨凯; 林文; 王宏; 余永江

    2012-01-01

    Based on the forecasting products of Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), observation of air pollutants and the conventional ground meteorological data from January 2007 to June 2010 in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China, the models were developed to forecast daily air pollutant concentration for various weather systems by statistical-dynamic forecast method and multivariate linear stepwise regression. The models featured both CMAQ forecast products and various other forecast parameters. The results showed that there were 7 weather systems influencing Fuzhou City: continental high, subtropical high, shear, warm sectors convergence, upper trough, typhoon and tropical convergence. The air quality was poor under the control of warm sectors convergence, upper trough or continental high weather systems. In contrast, when Fuzhou was under the control of subtropical high or typhoon, the air quality was better. The p-value associated with the forecast functions of air pollutant level was 0.000, so the models were statistically significant. The models were tested on the air pollutant data in Fuzhou from June to December 2010 by back substitution. The forecast accuracy of the models on contamination index level of PM10 reached 71.3%, while the forecast accuracy on SO2andNO2 were 100%. The comprehensive score of daily air quality forecast in the city of Fuzhou was 88.8 points on average.%利用CMAQ(Community Multiscale Air Quality Model)模式预报产品和福州市2007年1月至2010年6月大气污染物的观测资料以及常规地面气象观测资料,根据动力统计相结合的预报方法,通过多元线性逐步回归,建立不同天气系统下CMAQ模式产品和多类预报因子相结合的日污染物浓度预报模型.结果表明,影响福州市的天气系统共分为大陆高压、副热带高压、切变、暖区辐合、高空槽、台风和热带辐合带7类天气型.在暖区辐合、高空槽和大陆高压控制下,福州市的空气质

  4. Extensión noroccidental de la cuenca paleozoica de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires Northwestern extension of the Claromecó Paleozoic Basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Alvarez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El área de estudio se encuentra ubicada en el sector norte y oriental de las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron 700 observaciones geofísicas de gravedad y magnetismo calculándose las anomalías de esos campos potenciales con el fin de elaborar mapas gravimétricos a escala 1: 200.000 de las hojas Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí y Coronel Suárez. Se modelaron las anomalías de Bouguer por medio de prismas de densidad conocida. Para conocer el desarrollo de los sedimentos en profundidad se realizaron dos perfiles gravimétricos según las direcciones E-O y NE-SO. De esa forma, se pudo dimensionar la cuenca paleozoica que tiene 6.000 metros de espesor de sedimentos y una extensión de 5.200 kilómetros cuadrados. Su geometría en el sector oeste de la cuenca de Claromecó es de forma alargada en dirección NO con un ancho aproximado de 48 km y una longitud de 145 km. Se observan anomalías magnéticas con expresiones de poca magnitud, indicando la presencia de sedimentos en profundidad con moderado contenido de minerales magnéticos. La existencia de disparos de sísmica de refracción realizados por YPF y el DYMAS en los alrededores de Carhué indican con precisión los espesores de los sedimentos terciarios y por lo tanto el techo de las formaciones sedimentarias paleozoicas.The study area extends to the north and western of Sierras Australes. It has been surveyed 700 stations for gravimetry and magnetometry and the calculated anomalies were positioned in the Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí and Coronel Suárez map sheets. The survey was done at 1: 200,000 scale. Gravimetric sections were made in W-E and SW-NE directions in order to get an estimation of the sediment thickness. Based on these date the extension of the Paleozoic was determined. The thickness reaches up to 6,000 m and 5,200 square kilometers. The Claromecó basin extends to the NW in the western side by 145 km with a width of 48 km. The observed magnetic

  5. Maximum load study for Berlin City. Summary report: Air pollution and noise pollution. Kfz-Belastbarkeitsstudie der Berliner Innenstadt. Kurzfassung: Luft- und Laermbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garben, M.; Giehler, R.; Liwicki, M.; Wiegand, G.; Donner, U.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the investigation is to determine load limits of the traffic in central main roads. In this except of the brief version of the total reports, fundamentals and results of the global and detailed analysis of pollutants and annoyance cused by noise through vehicles in the city of Berlin are presented. (EF).

  6. 清水江流域福泉市段水体主要污染指标评价研究%An Assessment of Major Pollution Indicators of Fuquan City Section in Qingshui Jiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑶洁; 于霞; 陈梦瑜

    2015-01-01

    对2012年清水江流域福泉市段10个监控断面监测数据进行分析,结果表明:10个断面的 TP 污染最为严重,存在严重超标情况;通过相关性分析,氟化物、 TP 和 NH3-N 三者呈极显著相关关系,具有同一来源;根据综合污染负荷指数可知,高坪河、市化肥厂、川恒公司排口上游、黑塘桥、越都取水口5个断面能够达到 III 类水质的要求;根据 Tomlinson 污染负荷指数法,可判断福泉市水体整体处于中等污染水平。%Analyzed the data of 10 monitoring sections of Fuquan city in Qingshui Jiang river basin, the results showed that the concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded. By correlation analysis, the content of fluoride, TP and NH3-N showed significant correlation. According to Water Quality Identification Index, Gaoping river, municipal fertilizer plant, Chuanheng upstream discharge port, Heitang bridge, Yuedu water intake 5 sections were able to meet Class III water quality. According to Tomlinson pollution load index, Fuquan water was in the middle pollution levels.

  7. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  8. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  9. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  10. Transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público: el caso de los hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transparency in public sector acquisitions: The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rossi

    2002-02-01

    gestión de compra claros y precisos y con una normativa homogénea y uniforme, pueden lograr un buen nivel de actividad. Además, pueden contribuir a la baja de precios y la disminución de la dispersión de los mismos, a la vez que mejoran la eficiencia en la asignación y utilización de los recursos.This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation. Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality. Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budeget administration (activity and negotiation indicators. Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares, which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public

  11. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  12. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  13. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  14. Water quality of the Pannonian basin rivers the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa (Serbia) and its correlation with air temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelić Milana M.; Dolinaj Dragan M.; Leščešen Igor I.; Savić Stevan M.; Milošević Dragan D.

    2015-01-01

    The Danube, the Sava and the Tisa rivers belong to the Black Sea river basin and they flow through many European countries, while in Serbia they flow through the Pannonian flatland. The water quality of these rivers, which is affected by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors, is one of important factors that are taken into account in the evaluation of development sustainability of this region. Using the correlation analysis in this paper we t...

  15. El candombe (uruguayo en Buenos Aires: (Proponiendo Nuevos imaginarios urbanos en la ciudad "blanca" O candombe uruguaio em Buenos Aires: (Propondo Novos imaginários urbanos na cidade "branca " Uruguayan candombe in Buenos Aires: (Proposing New urban imaginaries in the "White" city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frigerio

    2009-12-01

    neighborhood of the city and appealing to the memory of Black presence in the area. The reference to this memory, and the ulterior expansion of candombe to other neighborhoods, imply a work of imagining the city that challenges the dominant image of Buenos Aires as White, modern and European. Defying this image and proposing alternative urban imaginaries, practitioners of candombe establish conflictive interactions with different social agents and actors.

  16. Some aspects of boundary layer evolution in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, G. B.; Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Rosas, I.

    Measurements of chemical species and meteorological parameters were made at a site located 440 m above the mean basin level of Mexico City, over a two-week period in November during Project Azteca. Data from three of the stations of Mexico City's air quality monitoring network (Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental, RAMA) were also used to estimate the dilution in concentration experienced by pollutants as they are transported upslope during the course of the day. Both carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a dilution of up to 50%, while ozone is usually more concentrated at the elevated site. These comparisons clearly highlight the intrinsic differences between primary and secondary gases, which are supported also by time-space, cross correlation analysis. The thermal mesoscale wind circulation dominates concentrations of pollutants at the research site: upslope during the day and downslope during the night. The data present clear evidence that downslope flows during the night contribute to ozone concentration at basin sites.

  17. Survey of 222Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City using the solid-state nuclear track detector method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of 222Rn concentration in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. For the practical application of this technique t the determination of 222Rn concentrations in air, some basic properties were experimentally examined on the cellulose nitrate film, Kodak LR 115 type II. The calibration coefficient of the cellulose nitrate film used is determined from a correlation between the 222Rn concentration in air and the observed number of perforated etched tracks for widespread radon concentrations. The slope of the linear relationship observed yields a calibration coefficient of (0.00209 ± 0.00018) tracks cm-2 (Bq m-3 h)-1. From the survey of 222Rn concentration in the air of tunnels, the concentration of several thousand Bq m-3 was observed at the inner most area of the tunnel, and the seasonal variation was clearly observed. The exponential distribution of radon concentration as a function of distance from the openings of the tunnel suggests that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air

  18. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly report. [Fallout radionuclides deposited and in surface air at various world sites; /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in milk and drinking water in New York City; and stable Pb in surface air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the deposition of fallout /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at various world land sites through 1976; the ..gamma.. spectra and content of /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, and stable Pb in samples of surface air collected during 1966 at various world sites; and the content of fallout /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in samples of drinking water and milk collected in New York City through 1976. (CH)

  19. Inner-city driving - with battery-powered or hybrid cars only? - A comparison from the viewpoint of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The California Air Resources Board (CARB) saw 'the need for introducing a major number of Zero-emission Vehicles (ZEV) in severe non-attainment areas, e.g. the South Coast region, to achieve sound air quality'. This involved the low-emission vehicle program to stipulate a 2% permit rate for ZEV's for the model year 1998 to rise to 10% by the model year 2003. The eight NESCAUM states in the North East of the USA discuss comparable measures. (orig./HW)

  20. Improved correction method for using passive air samplers to assess the distribution of PCNs in the Dongjiang River basin of the Pearl River Delta, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2012-07-01

    An improved correction method was established using passive air samplers to assess the distributions of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the eastern Pearl River Delta, South China. This method was based on a joint correction that used the active air sampling rate and the addition of depuration compounds. As a correction factor, the depuration compounds' properties do not need to be similar to the target compounds. The total PCN air concentrations ranged from 6.4 to 832, with an average of 148 ± 201 pg m-3 in the study area, while the TEQ of the PCNs ranged from 1.2 × 10-4 to 2.6 × 10-2 pg m-3. High concentrations of PCNs were mostly observed in the highly industrialized areas. The PCN air levels were remarkably increased in winter compared with summer. Tri-CNs was the most dominant homologue group, while CN 24 was the most dominant congener. The high proportion of combustion-related PCNs suggests that the contribution of combustion sources to the PCN air burden has been significant recently in comparison with historical emissions.

  1. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB, which includes much of Los Angeles (LA County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  2. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  3. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB, which includes much of Los Angeles (LA County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments (e.g., enhancements of 13 pptv and 11 pptv for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (0.98±0.05 Gg and HFC-134a (1.40±0.11 Gg in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:CO enhancement ratio. The emission rates were extrapolated to the SoCAB (1.48±0.07 Gg for HFC-152a and 2.12±0.17 Gg for HFC-134a and US (30.1±1.5 Gg for HFC-152a and 43.0±3.4 Gg for HFC-134a using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB also were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Estimates obtained using both methods agree well.

  4. REE distribution characteristics of sewage irrigation in Sidaoshahe basin of Baotou City%包头市四道沙河流域污灌区稀土元素的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆辉; 王贵; 赵捷; 朱晋; 程莉; 同丽嘎

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research was to study characteristics of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in stream sediment and farmland surface soil of sewage irrigation in Sidaoshahe basin of Baotou, providing a scientific basis to evaluate the soil environmental quality of sewage irrigation area and repair of heavy metal pollution in soil. [Method] Stream sediments and farmland soils samples were collected in Sidaoshahe basin in the southern suburbs of Baotou to determine the content of REE. Distribution characteris- tics and fractionation characteristics were analyzed systematically in stream sediments and farmland soils. [Result] The results indicated that the average total content of light rare earth elements (LRE) was 42.43 times of heavy rare earth elements(HRE). The value of ∑LRE/∑ HRE was 12. 36--128. 72, LRE and HRE separated obviously,showing LRE relatively rich. Eu was relatively slightly lost and Ce showed significantly abnormal in some places. [Conclusion] Full enrichment LRE was found in the study area because human activities lead to excess accumulation of exogenous LRE in the environment of sewage irrigation, external LRE to soil ecological environment in sewage irrigation in the southern suburbs of Baotou City has a significant impact.%【目的】研究包头四道沙河流域污灌区水系沉积物、表层土壤中的稀土元素分布特征,旨在为污灌区的土壤环境质量评价及土壤重金属污染修复提供依据。【方法】采集包头市南郊四道沙河流域污灌区的水系沉积物、农田土壤样品,测定样品中不同稀土元素含量,系统分析污灌区水系沉积物、农田土壤中的稀土元素分布特征和分馏特征。【结果】污灌区的轻稀土元素总量是重稀土元素的42.43倍,轻稀土元素与重稀土元素总量的比值为12.36~128.72。研究区轻、重稀土元素分馏非常明显,且以轻稀土元素的富集度较高,Eu元素有相对微弱亏损,Ce元素在

  5. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  6. 浅述气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性%Possibility and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙吉宝; 温述波

    2012-01-01

    Analyse the possiblity and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus,focus on discussing the development of 5.5t disc brake front axle,and calculate the brake moment of disc brake front axle and drum brake front axle.%分析了气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性,重点论述了5.5T盘式制动器前桥的开发,并对盘式制动器前桥与鼓式制动器前桥的制动力矩进行对比计算。

  7. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  8. Impact of regional meteorology on ozone levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sandra; Gertler, Alan; Zielinska, Barbara; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Burley, Joel; Kaplan, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone (O3) exceeding the California Air Resources Board ambient air quality standard (8-h average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation and long-range transport from out-of-basin sources are important in contributing to O3 exceedances, but little is known about the impact of regional meteorology on O3 source regions. To develop a better understanding of the factors affecting O3 levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, a comprehensive field study was performed in the summer of 2010. Included in this effort was a meteorological analysis addressing potential regional meteorological influences leading to periods of elevated levels of O3. Three approaches were used to conduct the analysis: (1) regional atmospheric pressure difference (i.e., the Washoe Zephyr) to access potential transport, (2) back trajectory modeling using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to determine where the air masses originated and, (3) composite soundings to evaluate in-Basin atmospheric influences. These analyses indicate the Washoe Zephyr did not strongly impact O3 levels; however, higher O3 levels were found to correspond with both a more southerly wind component and a dip in dew point temperature around 400 hPa. The results also indicate that if transport does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley and move to the southern part of the Basin, rather than originating in the large cities to the west (i.e., Sacramento and San Francisco).

  9. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  10. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  11. Keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi of mangrove's soil and air in the city of Qena and their response to garlic extract and onion oil treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssuf A. Gherbawy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight species and l variety belonging to 25 genera were collected from 50 soil samples (41 species and l variety and 21 genera and the atmosphere (27 species and l variety and 14 genera of mangrove in the city Qena using hair baiting technique at 28"C. Twenty of these species was dermatophytes and closely related fungi. The most common and frequent species of the latter fungi were Aphanoascus fulvescens (telemorph of Chrysosporium keratinophilum, A. terreus (C. indicum. Aphanoascus sp. (C. tropicum and Chrysosporium xerophilum. Sixty-eight isolates were tested for the abilites for growth on hair - sand medium. Most (73.5 % had moderate growth rate. All keratinophilie fungi recovered in the present investigation were sensitive to garlic extract and onion oil.

  12. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  13. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  14. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  15. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  16. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  17. Overflow of Radioactive Water from K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the dose calculations for the postulated K Basin overflow accident using current methods to model the environmental doses for radioactive releases into the Columbia River and the air

  18. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  19. Urban Biometeorology: analysis of the air pollution and climate change on cognition and physical abilities of geriatric population of São Paulo City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz; Jacob, Wilson; Alucci, Marcia; Busse, Alexandre; Duarte, Denise; Monteiro, Leonardo; Trezza, Beatriz; Tribess, Arlindo; Batista, Rafael; Ambrizzi, Tercip

    2013-04-01

    This is a multidisciplinary Project, which emphasizes geriatric population impacts, i. e., over 65 years old, of meteorological variables and air pollutants (such as particulate matter) associated to human health, and concerning to the real climatology and climate change in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. This is a biometeorological study, human subdivision, based on ISB (International Society of Biometeorology). According to the society, the environmental effects are considered meteorotropics where one or more environmental variables (meteorological or climatic even air pollution) affect one or more individuals of a population. Atmospheric pollution will be analyzed using a personal particulate matter multi-collector, concerning the impact of unfavorable meteorological conditions where the impacts will be evaluated comparing the test results during dry season (high air pollutant concentrations) and wet season (low pollutant concentrations). Therefore, the aim of this study will be to evaluate the cognitive and physical performance of a geriatric population in a pre-selected group of aged people which are considered as capable (healthy). This performance is affected by environmental conditions which thermal comfort (where meteorological variables act together) and air pollution are the meteorotropic ones. Consequently, one of the aims of the study is to establish a human thermal comfort index for geriatric populations. Architectural premises (thermal performance and ergonomics) will be also developed. An acclimatized chamber will be used to simulate the extremes of São Paulo climate and to propose a thermal comfort index. Indoors (chamber) and outdoors will be used in order to compare the impact on the selected aged people. Finally, the climate change will be based on GCM's global models which show the meteorological variations in order to calculate their impact on a comfort index. The physical and cognitive performances and architectural premises (thermal

  20. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is

  1. Assessment of on-road emissions of four Euro V diesel and CNG waste collection trucks for supporting air-quality improvement initiatives in the city of Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaras, Georgios, E-mail: georgios.fontaras@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Marotta, Alessandro; Krasenbrink, Alois [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Maffioletti, Francesco; Terenghi, Roberto; Colombo, Mauro [AMSA, Azienda Milanese Servizi Ambientali, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extensive experimental study aiming to evaluate the performance and pollutant emissions of diesel and CNG waste collection trucks under realistic and controlled operating conditions in order to support a fleet renewal initiative in the city of Milan. Four vehicles (1 diesel and 3 CNG) were tested in two phases using a portable emission measurement system. The first phase included real world operation in the city of Milan while the second involved controlled conditions in a closed track. Emissions recorded from the diesel truck were on average 2.4 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 0.21 g/km for HC, 7.4 g/km for CO, 32.3 g/km for NO{sub x} and 46.4 mg/km for PM. For the CNG the values were 3.6 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 2.19 g/km for HC, 15.8 g/km for CO, 4.38 g/km for NO{sub x} and 11.4 mg/km for PM. CNG vehicles presented an important advantage with regards to NO{sub x} and PM emissions but lack the efficiency of their diesel counterparts when it comes to CO, HC and particularly greenhouse gas emissions. This tradeoff needs to be carefully analyzed prior to deciding if a fleet should be shifted towards either technology. In addition it was shown that existing emission factors, used in Europe for environmental assessment studies, reflect well the operation for CNG but were not so accurate when it came to the diesel engine truck particularly for CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. With regard to NO{sub x}, it was also shown that the limits imposed by current emission standards are not necessarily reflected in real world operation, under which the diesel vehicle presented almost 4 times higher emissions. Regarding CO{sub 2}, appropriate use of PEMS data and vehicle information allows for accurate emission monitoring through computer simulation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated diesel and CNG Euro V waste collection vehicles for municipal use Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO{sub x}-GhG emission trade-off should be considered prior to

  2. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. - Highlights: ► A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions.

  3. Study of radon and thoron gas behaviour in the air at the commercial centers in Rio de Janeiro and Pocos de Caldas city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon is a radioactive gas. It occurs naturally in the atmosphere coming from the decay of radium, with emission of alpha particles. There are three radon isotopes more known, of which the most important under the environmental point of view is the Rn-222, whose half life is 3.82 days. The radon and their descendants are responsible by more than 40 % of the natural radioactive dose received for the human beings inside the building. In doses above 4 pCi/l, given as occupational dose, can cause among other diseases, the lung cancer. The main source of radon inside the building is the soil. The incidence of radon inside the building varies according to the soil composition, the materials employed in its construction, the inside air temperature and humidity, time during the day, season and the ventilation process designed. The work was realized at the commercial centers in Rio de Janeiro and Pocos de Caldas, for methodology confirmation. It was utilized the passive (track detectors) and active (two filters technique. Kusnetz technique, Tsivoglou technique and alpha spectrometry technique) methods. The objective of this work was to analyze the radon and thoron concentrations levels in order to supply parameters upon the quality of the air in those commercial centers. (author)

  4. Prehistory of the Carson Desert and Stillwater Mountains: Environment, Mobility, and Subsistence in a Great Basin Wetland, by Robert L. Kelly, University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 123, Salt Lake City, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Bostwick

    2001-01-01

    The Great Basin of Western North America is one of the. legendary deserts of the world. This rugged, wide open, and apparently harsh landscape has long served as a backdrop for human drama. Gold seekers and immigrants of the 19th century immortalized the rigors of travelling across the Great Basin on their way to greener grass in California and Oregon. But archaeological research has shown that human occupation of the ...

  5. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  6. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  7. Carbon and air pollutants constrained energy planning for clean power generation with a robust optimization model—A case study of Jining City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multistage inexact stochastic robust model for energy system management. • Electric power structure adjustment and emission reduction target are considered. • Power generation schemes, exported electricity, and captured CO2 were analyzed. • Uncertainties were reflected as discrete intervals and probability distributions. - Abstract: In this study, a multistage inexact stochastic robust model was developed for regional energy system management in Jining City, China. Three scenarios about the electric power structure adjustment, clean power generation, and the emission reduction target are designed. Methods of interval parameter programming (IPP), stochastic robust optimization (SRO), and multistage stochastic programming (MSP) were incorporated into the developed model to tackle uncertainties described by interval values and probability distributions. The results indicated that the model can provide an effective linkage between conflicting economic cost and the system stability, and different power demand levels correspond to different electricity generation schemes with varied system cost and system-failure risk. The net system cost, power generation schemes, exported electricity, and captured CO2 amount were analyzed. The results indicated that the power generation by traditional technology would be decreased with the improvement of regional energy structure adjustment and environmental protection request. The modeling results are valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing power generation schemes within a complicated energy system under uncertainty

  8. Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in a medium size city in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, M.A. [Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental (LICA), Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra. Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)], E-mail: mparravi@alumni.unav.es; Elustondo, D.; Bermejo, R.; Santamaria, J.M. [Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental (LICA), Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra. Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were measured by means of passive sampling at 40 sampling points in a medium-size city in Northern Spain, from June 2006 to June 2007. VOC and NO{sub 2} samplers were analysed by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass-selective detector and by visible spectrophotometry, respectively. Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO{sub 2} were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0.59, 1.32 and 23.17 {mu}g m{sup -3} respectively, and found to be highly correlated. Their spatial distribution showed high differences in small distances and pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. The lowest levels of VOC and NO{sub 2} occurred during summer, owing to the increase in solar radiation and to lower traffic densities. Mean concentrations of benzene and NO{sub 2} exceeded the European limits at some of the monitored points.

  9. Successful International Symposium on Oil & Gas Exploration in Lacustrine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Katz

    1996-01-01

    @@ A Joint American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)-Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau research symposium entitled "Lacustrine Basin Exploration in China and Southeast Asia" was held in Dongying City,People's Republic of China, October 16-20, 1995.

  10. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio López; Jorge Neira; María Alejandra Morales; Cintia Fabbri; María Laura D´Agostino; Teresa Zitto

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y p...

  11. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    María S. Fontanarrosa; Patricia L. M. Torres; Mariano C. Michat

    2004-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 ...

  12. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  13. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  14. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  15. Assessment of the contribution of the Koshkar-Ata tailing dumps in contamination by radionuclides and heavy metals of ambient air in the area of Aktau city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents data on concentrations of toxic metals and radionuclides in air particulate samples collected at settlements nearby Koshkar-Ata tailing dumps. The data are from a larger study designed to provide a scientific basis for the development of a rehabilitation measures policy on tailing facilities of uranium industry bearing a potential hazard to local inhabitants. Aerosol samples were collected on filters in mobile monitoring posts at nearest settlements around the tailing dumps (12 samples). Deposited atmospheric pollutants (DAPs) were collected on special pads set on stationary posts in the vicinity of Koshkar-Ata (66 samples). The analytical techniques used were for radionuclide and toxic constituent determination were, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as well as gamma spectrometry with high sensitivity and pure Ge detector, respectively. (author)

  16. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  17. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  18. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  19. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed