WorldWideScience

Sample records for city air basin

  1. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  2. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  3. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  4. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, E.T. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations.

  5. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  6. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...... and emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  7. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  8. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  9. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  10. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  11. HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL OZONE PRECURSORS IN MEXICO CITY AMBIENT AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban air pollution is an environmental problem in many cities around the world that has serious immediate and long-term implications to the health of the population and to the physical environment. Mexico City, in particular, faces a severe air pollution problem. The city is...

  12. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  13. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air ... to shop; availability and safety of bike paths; parking costs; and access to public transportation. Specifically, the ...

  14. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  15. A mesoscale modeling study of wind blown dust on the Mexico City Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, Rafael; López-Villegas, M. T.; Eidels-Dubovoi, S.; Quintanar, Arturo; Gallardo, J. C.

    The latest phase of the program to improve the air quality in the Valley of Mexico, also known, as Pro Aire is about to go into effect for the next 10 years. Pro Aire puts emphasis on agricultural wind erosion and associated dust emissions impacting downwind air quality. The main objective of this investigation was to use an empirical USEPA erosion model coupled to a meteorological/transport-dispersion prediction model, CALMET/CALPUFF, to estimate dust emissions and concentrations in the Mexico City Basin. The model simulations for particulate matter (PM 10) are validated against observations taken at the most recent research field study, the IMADA-AVER field campaign, conducted during the spring of 1997 to provide information about high ozone, particulate matter concentrations and visibility impairment. The spatial and temporal PM distribution in the region is presented for a specific wind blown dust event consisting of two IMADA days, in order to understand how soil dust emissions from agricultural fallow land affect downwind areas during the dry season. Results show good agreement with the main spatial features of the local wind circulation and wind blown dust concentrations. A correlation coefficient of nearly 0.8 between predictions and observations for a modeled day suggests that an important portion of the total measured concentration had geological origin. This work constitutes an essential advancement on the mesoscale air quality problem on the MCMA due to wind erosion.

  16. Observations of the Valley of Mexico Basin Ventilation Through the Tenango del Aire- Amecameca Geographical Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suarez, G.; Torres-Jarón, R.; Steinbrecher, R.; Junkermann, W.; Torres-Jaramillo, A.; Garcia, A. R.; Mar-Morales, B.

    2007-05-01

    Past air quality modeling exercises have suggested the existence of basin drainage flows which may transport Mexico City Metropolitan Area's air pollution plume outside the Valley of Mexico Basin. The MCMA-2006 field campaign offered the opportunity to study the basin ventilation through a geographical gap in the southeast mountains of the basin. A mobile monitoring lab was placed at the Tenango del Aire town, a unique site located in this gap for measuring the pass of air masses from (and towards) the MCMA to (and from) the Cuautla Valley. O3, CO, NOx, NOy, CH2O global and UV radiation and MLH were measured continuously during MILAGRO from March 2 until April 6, together with other chemical species. Complementary backward and forward trajectories were constructed for the site using MCCM in prognostic mode during MILAGRO. An exploratory analysis of the air pollution roses measured at Tenango showed a sharp dominance of two flow patterns: one from the north well associated with relatively higher levels of primary pollutants and ozone levels; and another one from the south typically associated with lower levels primary pollutants but not so low of secondary ones as ozone. On the other hand, measured CO data at Tenango were compared with CO data measured at one local monitoring station in the town of Ocuituco in the State of Morelos. Ocuituco is located to the south of Tenango towards the Cuautla Valley. The preliminary results suggest that the back and forth pass of air masses through the Tenango del Aire - Amecameca area can be an important process in the regional transport of air pollution between two valleys and their metropolitan areas within the Central Mexico region.

  17. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  18. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  19. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  20. 40 CFR 81.170 - Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.170 Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Miles City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miles City Intrastate Air...

  1. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  2. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  3. Air quality early-warning system for cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Yang, Wendong; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has become a serious issue in many developing countries, especially in China, and could generate adverse effects on human beings. Air quality early-warning systems play an increasingly significant role in regulatory plans that reduce and control emissions of air pollutants and inform the public in advance when harmful air pollution is foreseen. However, building a robust early-warning system that will improve the ability of early-warning is not only a challenge but also a critical issue for the entire society. Relevant research is still poor in China and cannot always satisfy the growing requirements of regulatory planning, despite the issue's significance. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid air quality early-warning system was successfully developed, composed of forecasting and evaluation. First, a hybrid forecasting model was proposed as an important part of this system based on the theory of "decomposition and ensemble" and combined with the advanced data processing technique, support vector machine, the latest bio-inspired optimization algorithm and the leave-one-out strategy for deciding weights. Afterwards, to intensify the research, fuzzy evaluation was performed, which also plays an indispensable role in the early-warning system. The forecasting model and fuzzy evaluation approaches are complementary. Case studies using daily air pollution concentrations of six air pollutants from three cities in China (i.e., Taiyuan, Harbin and Chongqing) are used as examples to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the developed air quality early-warning system. Experimental results demonstrate that both the accuracy and the effectiveness of the developed system are greatly superior for air quality early warning. Furthermore, the application of forecasting and evaluation enables the informative and effective quantification of future air quality, offering a significant advantage, and can be employed to develop rapid air quality early-warning systems.

  4. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  5. Urban air pollution & its assessment in Lucknow City--the second largest city of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Alfred; Fatima, Nishat

    2014-08-01

    Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76 μg/m(3)) and 226 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91 μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies.

  6. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial area... Quality Control Region. 81.242 Section 81.242 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  7. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  8. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Negative Air Ion Concentrations in Danqinghe Experimental Forest,Harbin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, air ions, especially of negative air ion has received a universal attention for its health function. The density of negative air ion has become one of the important indexes that measure the air quality grade. With the air ions counter made in Japan, the spatial distribution characteristics of negative air concentrations at specific time in Danqinghe Experimental Forest were measured and studied, Harbin City, and the air quality was assessed by using ion polarity ration (q) and air ion asses...

  9. Midtropospheric influences on boundary layer evolution in the Mexico City basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, J.E.; Stalker, J.R.; Langley, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    Mexico City lies in a horseshoe-shaped basin at 2250 m AGL. These authors have simulated the effects of thermally-forced local to regional-scale circulation patterns on the ozone distribution within the basin. On most of the case days studied a relationship could be found between the spatial and temporal evolution of wind patterns and ozone concentration, particularly in the southwestern part of the basin. In this paper, the authors focus upon defining the relationship between the vertical structure of the atmosphere, by examining stability and wind shear, and the near surface pollution. This work was prompted by the need to better understand the role of midtropospheric flow in contributing to, or alleviating, the pollution problem in the basin. The role of vertical exchange processes in this locale has so far been only peripherally explored. From this investigation the authors hope to assess the importance of upper level winds in contributing to ventilation of pollutants out of the basin above the mountaintop level, in flushing the polluted airmass out of the basin, and in the development of basin-wide recirculation patterns. The results of preliminary data analyses are described.

  10. A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BASIN CITY UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city’s UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls “sinking heat island”. From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  11. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...) * * * (D) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 201, ``Exemptions,'' adopted on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec....

  12. Analysis on the Characteristics of Environmental Kuznets Curve and Assessment of Air Quality in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the characteristics of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and assess air quality in Qingdao City. [Method] The EKC characteristics of Qingdao from 1996 to 2008 were studied based on air pollutant discharge indices, air pollution indices and economic data from the environmental quality reports and statistics yearbooks of Qingdao, and the air quality of Qingdao City was assessed. [Result] With the increase of GDP per capita, the total discharge of industrial waste gases impro...

  13. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  14. Nanoparticle air pollution in major cities and its origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang, Qian; Siegmann, Konstantin; Keller, Alejandro; Matter, Ulrich; Scherrer, Leo; Siegmann, H. C.

    Suspended particles with a diameter below 1 μm act as vehicles transporting toxic chemicals into the human respiratory system. It is therefore of interest to record the intensity of these particles and to determine the source from which they were emitted. It is shown that this can be done by simultaneously measuring the light scattering (LS), the photoelectric charging (PC), and the diffusion charging (DC). Particles carrying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) are detected by their large PC and are generated in combustion of organic materials whereas particles from other sources only exhibit LS and DC. The fraction of particle mass due to PPAH is independent of location and weather conditions. As an example of an application, we study the nanoscale particles found on motorways in or near various large cities. The sources of the majority of these particles are Diesel motors or cars with defect catalysts. Promising strategies for improving the air quality emerge from these observations.

  15. FUNGAL FLORA OF THE AIR OF BABOL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Omran

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal conidia and spores are among various organisms found in the air, causing different types of mycoses. In this study (from February 1994 until March 1995 fungal spores and conidia were collected by their settlement on to petri - dishes from 33 locations in Babol city during 4 seasons. Plates of sabouraud dextrose agar were laid 1.5 M. from the ground and then sent to mycology laboratory where they were incubated at room temperature. The fungi were examined by microscop and gross examination. 1520 colonies including 24 genera (Hyphomycetes 27.54% and yeast 25.46% grew on 132 plates (11.5 colonies I plate. The most prevalent fungi isolated in this study were Cladosporiurn, yeast and Penicilliwn, Most of the colonies detected observed in summer (704 colonies, and there had been the least number of colonies isolated in winter (187 colonies.

  16. A methodology for evaluating air pollution strategies to improve the air quality in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.S.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative has developed a methodology to assist decision makers in determining optimum pollution control strategies for atmospheric pollutants. The methodology introduces both objective and subjective factors in the comparison of various strategies for improving air quality. Strategies or group of options are first selected using linear programming. These strategies are then compared using Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. The decision tree for the Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis was generated by a panel of experts representing the organizations in Mexico that are responsible for formulating policy on air quality improvement. Three sample strategies were analyzed using the methodology: one to reduce ozone by 33% using the most cost effective group of options, the second to reduce ozone by 43% using the most cost effective group of options and the third to reduce ozone by 43% emphasizing the reduction of emissions from industrial sources. Of the three strategies, the analysis indicated that strategy 2 would be the preferred strategy for improving air quality in Mexico City.

  17. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  18. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  19. CitySpace Air Sensor Network Project Conducted to Test New Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CitySpace project is a new research effort by EPA to field test new, lower-cost air pollution sensors in a mid-sized city to understand how this emerging technology can add valuable information on air pollution patterns in neighboorhoods.

  20. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  1. Air pollution assessment of Salé's city (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounakhla, M.; Fatah, A.; Embarch, K.; Ibn Majah, M.; Azami, R.; Sabir, A.; Nejjar, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.

    2003-05-01

    Four sites were selected in Sale's city in Morocco in order to contribute in air pollution level assessment and determination of its effects on public health. The sites were selected so that they are close to the most important industrialized areas, they have a very high demographic density and they cover a heavy traffic. Two approaches of air sampling and subsequent analysis methods of elements in atmospheric aerosols have been performed. The first is a classical approach, which consists in sampling total airborne materials with a High Volume Sampler and analysing the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The second is having its interest for studies relating effects of particles on human health. It consists in employing a Dichotomous Sampler to collect inhalable particles and the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for elemental analysis. With such system, it was possible to collect separately respirable and inhalable aerosols. The ED-XRF analysis method used is appropriate for monitoring airborne polluants in living and working areas with advantage of simple preparation, nondestructive nature, rapidity and suitable limits of detection. Using this method, it was possible to identify and quantify S, Ca, CI, Fe, Cu, and Pb. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis Method, we quantified Cd. This study have been completed by measuring NOx SO2 and solid suspended particles or airborne particulate matter (APM).

  2. Geophysical Studies of Seismic Hazard in the Tahoe City Sub-basin, Lake Tahoe, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlberg, J. M.; Schweickert, R. A.; McHugh, J.; Rasmussen, T.; Louie, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    The Lake Tahoe basin has the potential for serious earthquakes and earthquake-related tsunamis. The history of lake level fluctuations should be recorded in sediments beneath the Lake's outlet at Tahoe City. Borehole data show the sediments consist primarily of a thick sequence of lacustrine silts and clays with interbedded sands. Beneath this unit is an older Q-T (?) sand and gravel sequence of unknown origin. The lacustrine deposits locally rest upon 2.0 Ma latites, which in turn rest upon the older sand and gravel sequence. Near the outlet, several fault scarps displace units less than 2.0 m.y. old. These scarps may influence the stability of the dam across the outlet and the sequence and extent of lake level high stands. Our project is integrating geophysical and stratigraphic data to further define and describe the Tahoe City sub-basin. We collected new gravity data to provide an estimate of basin depths across the outlet and help define subsurface faults. Preliminary data suggest the maximum basin depth is 180 m, near the outlet. Refraction microtremor surveys yielded information about stratigraphy and shear velocities of the Quaternary deposits. The average shear wave velocity to 30-m depth obtained for this area is 334 m/s. These values correspond to a NEHRP soil hazard class of D, similar to that found in other lacustrine basins of the region. Soils in this NEHRP class tend to show a significant amplification of shaking, posing increased hazard to structures. We are combining stratigraphic with gravity and seismic data to produce geologic cross sections having information on basin depths and Quaternary faults.

  3. The last will be first: Water transfers from agriculture to cities in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komakech, H.C.; Van der Zaag, P.; Koppen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Water transfers to growing cities in sub-Sahara Africa, as elsewhere, seem inevitable. But absolute water entitlements in basins with variable supply may seriously affect many water users in times of water scarcity. This paper is based on research conducted in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania. Usin

  4. Urban development and air pollution: Evidence from a global panel of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A. L. Hilber; Charles Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Study examines air pollution concentration in 75 urban areas between 2005 and 2011. Focuses specifically on the impacts of changes in the urban environment and transportation mode on pollution. A surprising finding of the research is that increasing car and population densities significantly reduce air pollution concentration in city centers where air pollution induced health risks are greatest. These effects are largely confined to cities in non-OECD countries. Two possible mechanisms for th...

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  6. Research on Relation between Air Anions and Environment in Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIJun; XUQiong; SHIDengrong; TAOKanghua

    2004-01-01

    By measuring the concentration of air anions, thermal-temperature, tree-coverage and bio-diversity in major city greenbelt in Shanghai, this paper analyzed the correlativity between air cleaning index and its influential factors of these city greenbelt, and found that less than 60% of parks' concentration of air inions anions arrived at the general level. There is negative correlation between CI(air clean index) and thermal-temperature, and there is negative correlation between CI and bio-diversity too. There is Positive correlation between CI and tree-coverage.

  7. A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  8. PM2.5 data reliability, consistency, and air quality assessment in five Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuan; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Huang, Hui; Chen, Song Xi

    2016-09-01

    We investigate particulate matter (PM2.5) data reliability in five major Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Shenyang by cross-validating data from the U.S. diplomatic posts and the nearby Ministry of Environmental Protection sites based on 3 years' data from January 2013. The investigation focuses on the consistency in air quality assessment derived from the two data sources. It consists of studying (i) the occurrence length and percentage of different PM2.5 concentration ranges; (ii) the air quality assessment for each city; and (iii) the winter-heating effects in Beijing and Shenyang. Our analysis indicates that the two data sources produced highly consistent air quality assessment in the five cities. This is encouraging as it would inject a much needed confidence on the air pollution measurements from China. We also provide air quality assessments on the severity and trends of the fine particulate matter pollution in the five cities. The assessments are produced by statistically constructing the standard monthly meteorological conditions for each city, which are designed to minimize the effects of confounding factors due to yearly variations of some important meteorological variables. Our studies show that Beijing and Chengdu had the worst air quality, while Guangzhou and Shanghai faired the best among the five cities. Most of the five cities had their PM2.5 concentration decreased significantly in the last 2 years. By linking the air quality with the amount of energy consumed, our study suggests that the geographical configuration is a significant factor in a city's air quality management and economic development.

  9. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  10. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  11. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  12. Air Pollution and Countermeasures in City Air Pollution and Countermeasures in City%城市空气污染及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永忠

    2001-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzed the problems of air pollution,the variety of pollutants and their harms to mankind and environme nt,pointed out that air pollution was one of main factors to inhibit city's sust ainable development,described the technical and non-technical countermeasures o f preventing air pollution in city.%本文系统分析了城市空气污染的成因、污染物种类和危 害,指出城市空气污染是制约城市可持续发展的关键因素之一,提出了城市空气污染防治的 技术和非技术措施。

  13. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskienė; Kristina Bereišienė

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  14. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  15. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  16. A Tale of Two Cities - HSI-DOAS Measurements of Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Leigh, Roland; Anand, Jasdeep; McNally, Michael; Lawrence, James; Monks, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy is now commonly used as an air quality measuring system; primarily through the measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) both as a ground-based and satellite technique. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95˚ field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5˚ below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1˚ per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. CityScan has been deployed in both London and Bologna, Italy during 2012. The London deployment took place as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project in January and July/August. CityScan was deployed in Bologna in June as part of the large EU project PEGASOS. Analysis of both of these campaigns of data will be used to give unprecedented levels of spatial information to air quality measurements whilst also showing the difference in air quality between a relatively isolated mega city and a smaller city situated in a very polluted region; in this case the Po Valley. Results from multiple City

  17. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  18. STEMS-Air: a simple GIS-based air pollution dispersion model for city-wide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David

    2011-05-15

    Current methods of air pollution modelling do not readily meet the needs of air pollution mapping for short-term (i.e. daily) exposure studies. The main limiting factor is that for those few models that couple with a GIS there are insufficient tools for directly mapping air pollution both at high spatial resolution and over large areas (e.g. city wide). A simple GIS-based air pollution model (STEMS-Air) has been developed for PM(10) to meet these needs with the option to choose different exposure averaging periods (e.g. daily and annual). STEMS-Air uses the grid-based FOCALSUM function in ArcGIS in conjunction with a fine grid of emission sources and basic information on meteorology to implement a simple Gaussian plume model of air pollution dispersion. STEMS-Air was developed and validated in London, UK, using data on concentrations of PM(10) from routinely available monitoring data. Results from the validation study show that STEMS-Air performs well in predicting both daily (at four sites) and annual (at 30 sites) concentrations of PM(10). For daily modelling, STEMS-Air achieved r(2) values in the range 0.19-0.43 (pmaps either as a screening process in urban air quality planning and management, or as the basis for health risk assessment and epidemiological studies.

  19. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3......) in the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background air...

  20. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  1. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  2. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  3. Age and archaeological implications of Xitle volcano, southwestern Basin of Mexico-City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, C.

    2000-12-01

    The Pedregal lavas are fresh, well-exposed basaltic flows erupted from the Xitle scoria-and-cinder cone in the southwestern part of the Basin of Mexico. These lavas cover an area of 70 km 2 and were emplaced over pyramids and other buildings (e.g. Cuicuilco and Copilco archaeological sites). Today, a part of Mexico-City (including the National University) is built on the flows. Initial strombolian activity produced an ash fallout layer, which was immediately followed by effusive emplacement of lava flows. The Xitle cone grew on the north-facing slope of Ajusco volcano, and lava flowed down to the N-NE until it reached the basin floor. More than 30 radiocarbon dates have been obtained by several workers on charcoal samples from beneath the lava, and several ages for the eruption have been proposed from these dates. Most dated samples were not directly produced by Xitle's eruption but instead are artifacts of human activity that predates the eruption. Thus, these ages (mostly about 2000 BP) are older than the eruption. A new age of 1670±35 years BP (AD 245-315) obtained on charcoal samples collected just beneath the lavas is favored for the Xitle eruption. These samples originated by ignition of vegetation during the emplacement of hot scoriaceous tephra. The new age is within the Classic period of Mesoamerican archaeology, whereas the earlier reported ages are at the end of the Preclassic. The new age carries important implications for the timing of population shifts within the Basin of Mexico.

  4. The Last Will Be First: Water Transfers from Agriculture to Cities in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C. Komakech

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Water transfers to growing cities in sub-Sahara Africa, as elsewhere, seem inevitable. But absolute water entitlements in basins with variable supply may seriously affect many water users in times of water scarcity. This paper is based on research conducted in the Pangani river basin, Tanzania. Using a framework drawing from a theory of water right administration and transfer, the paper describes and analyses the appropriation of water from smallholder irrigators by cities. Here, farmers have over time created flexible allocation rules that are negotiated on a seasonal basis. More recently the basin water authority has been issuing formal water use rights that are based on average water availability. But actual flows are more often than not less than average. The issuing of state-based water use rights has been motivated on grounds of achieving economic efficiency and social equity. The emerging water conflicts between farmers and cities described in this paper have been driven by the fact that domestic use by city residents has, by law, priority over other types of use. The two cities described in this paper take the lion’s share of the available water during the low-flow season, and at times over and above the permitted amounts, creating extreme water stress among the farmers. Rural communities try to defend their prior use claims through involving local leaders, prominent politicians and district and regional commissioners. Power inequality between the different actors (city authorities, basin water office, and smallholder farmers played a critical role in the reallocation and hence the dynamics of water conflict. The paper proposes proportional allocation, whereby permitted abstractions are reduced in proportion to the expected shortfall in river flow, as an alternative by which limited water resources can be fairly allocated. The exact amounts (quantity or duration of use by which individual user allocations are reduced would be

  5. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  6. Vehicle inspection and maintenance, and air pollution in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Hector G.; Cabrera, Enrique; Ovalle, Pilar [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Inst. de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Information from the Mandatory Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Program carried out in October 1996 and the first semester of 1998 provides a useful emission database for Mexico City. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) exhaust emission levels were measured for at least a million private and public transportation vehicle. Analysis of this database leads us to conclude that this information can be used to test anti-pollutant policies, and is useful as a performance quality index for vehicle manufacturers. Some of the results of this analysis include: the finding of a typical exhaust emission distribution curve for each vehicle manufacturer, with differences for each brand and model for the same manufacturer, the fact that not all new vehicles pass the I/M test; and public transportation vehicles in Mexico City have almost useless catalytic converters. (Author)

  7. [EVALUATION OF THE AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISK FOR THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF UFA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenkova, G A; Karelin, A O; Askarov, R A; Askarova, Z F

    2015-01-01

    There are presented results of the calculation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks due to the impact of chemical air pollutants for the human health of a large industrial city. Maximal levels of carcinogenic hazards under inhalation route of substances from the air were established to be noted on gasoline, manganese, sulfur dioxide, copper oxide, formaldehyde. In the formation of carcinogenic risk the greatest contribution is made by chromium, gasoline, formaldehyde, benzol. The risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects for the population of the city continues to remain to be high, that requires the development and implementation of planned recreational measures.

  8. Ozone predictabilities due to meteorological uncertainties in the Mexico City basin using ensemble forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity of ozone (O3 predictions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA to meteorological initial uncertainties and planetary boundary layer (PBL parameterization schemes using state-of-the-art meteorological and photochemical prediction models through ensemble forecasts. The simulated periods (3, 9, 15 and 29 March 2006 represent four typical meteorological episodes ("South-Venting", "O3-North", "O3-South" and "Convection-North", respectively in the Mexico City basin during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. Our results demonstrate that the uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on O3 predictions, including peak time O3 concentrations ([O3], horizontal and vertical O3 distributions, and temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak [O3] averaged over the city's ambient monitoring sites can reach up to 10 ppb. The increasing uncertainties in meteorological fields during peak O3 period contribute to the largest unpredictability in O3 simulations, while the impacts of wind speeds and PBL height on [O3] are more straightforward and important. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads varies with different PBL schemes and meteorological episodes. The uncertainties in O3 predictions caused by PBL schemes mainly come from their ability to represent the mixing layer height; but overall, these uncertainties are smaller than those from the uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions.

  9. Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, Claudine; Karatzas, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    The holistic approach to sustainable urban planning implies using different models in an integrated way that is capable of simulating the urban system. As the interconnection of such models is not a trivial task, one of the key elements that may be applied is the description of the urban geometric properties in an "interoperable" way. Focusing on air quality as one of the most pronounced urban problems, the geometric aspects of a city may be described by objects such as those defined in CityGML, so that an appropriate air quality model can be applied for estimating the quality of the urban air on the basis of atmospheric flow and chemistry equations. In this paper we first present theoretical background and motivations for the interconnection of 3D city models and other models related to sustainable development and urban planning. Then we present a practical experiment based on the interconnection of CityGML with an air quality model. Our approach is based on the creation of an ontology of air quality models ...

  10. URBAIR. Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia. DKI JAKARTA City Specific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenskei, K.E.; Gram, F.; Hagen, L.O.; Larssen, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsthoorn, Z.; Soedomo, M.; Achmadi, U.F.

    1996-03-01

    Started by the World Bank in 1992, the URBAIR programme develops a generalized Air Quality Management Strategy (AQMS) to be used for Asian cities and applies strategy to develop action plans to improve the air quality in DKI Jakarta, Greater Bombay, Kathmandu Valley and Metro Manila. This report describes the development of an action plan for Jakarta City, based on assessment of emissions and air quality in the metropolitan area, population exposure and health effects (damage), the assessment of costs related to the damage and to a number of proposed abatement measures, and a cost-benefit analysis. This is the main report; there is an accompanying report containing appendices on air quality measurements, emission factors and inventory, exposure calculation etc. 38 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  12. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  13. From homo sapiens to homo automobilis. revisiting air quality management in Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    César Nava Escudero

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes fifteen years (1990-2005) of air quality management in Mexico City. By looking at three interlinked issues (urban and population growth; the current air quality situation; and road vehicle emissions) it concludes that as long as Mexican authorities continue to rely on the introduction of new technologies and the implementation of diverse but insufficient traffic management schemes and to disregard the importance of seriously compromising on public transport rather than on...

  14. The covariance of air quality conditions in six cities in Southern Germany - The role of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzed air quality in six cities in Southern Germany (Ulm, Augsburg, Konstanz, Freiburg, Stuttgart and Munich), in conjunction with the prevailing synoptic conditions. Air quality was estimated through the calculation of a daily Air Stress Index (ASI) constituted by five independent components, each one expressing the contribution of one of the five main pollutants (PM10, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO) to the total air stress. As it was deduced from ASI components, PM10 from combustion sources and photochemically produced tropospheric O3 are the most hazardous pollutants at the studied sites, throughout cold and warm periods respectively, yet PM10 contribute substantially to the overall air stress during both seasons. The influence of anticyclonic high pressure systems, leading to atmospheric stagnation, was associated with increased ASI values, mainly due to the entrapment of PM10. Moderate air stress was generally estimated in all cities however a cleaner atmosphere was detected principally in Freiburg when North Europe was dominated by low pressure systems. Daily events of notably escalated ASI values were further analyzed with backward air mass trajectories. Throughout cold period, ASI episodes were commonly related to eastern airflows carrying exogenous PM10 originated from eastern continental Europe. During warm period, ASI episodes were connected to the arrival of regionally circulated air parcels reflecting lack of dispersion and accumulation of pollutants in accordance with the synoptic analysis.

  15. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  16. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  17. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  18. The Pre-historical Eruption of Volcanoes Near a Capital-city: Inferred From Tephra Deposits in the Taipei Basin, northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    The volcanic pyroclastic flows, lahars and/or ashes derived from volcanic eruptions are a serious threat of human lives and regional economies, especially in the densely populated area. In case, more than two million populations in the capital-city Taipei, northern Taiwan just live in the vicinity of the Tatun Volcanic Group (TVG), how to make effective and reliable volcanic hazard mitigation is absolutely mandatory. Volcano is a pretty complex system. Hazard mitigation can be achieved only by applying numerous techniques. Understanding the recent eruptive history will be the most important information for prediction the future activity of eruption. After 1995, the Center Geological Survey of Ministry of Economic Affair handled to drill more than 20 wells in the Taipei basin to investigate the subsurface geology of basin. These continuous core samples offered the best materials to investigate if any volcanic ashes had deposited in the basin. The young juvenile volcanic ashes V pumice tuff were firstly identified in the two cores of the Kuantu well (KT- 1) and the Shihlin well (SL-1 in the late Pleistocene Sunshan formation. According to the radiocarbon (C-14) ages of core samples (Lin et al, 1998, Shieh, 2001), the time of this tephra deposit was extrapolated around 18.6 kyrs C-14 B.P.. Respecting, this tephra would like to be temperately named as the 18 kyrs Taipei Tuff (18 KTT). These air-fall ash deposits found in the core directly demonstrated that there had been re-active in the TVG in the recent time. More notable thing is that there are three historical records of submarine eruptions in northern offshore Taiwan, then, a program of the volcanic hazard reduction should be seriously considered around the capital city-Taipei.

  19. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  20. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  1. Air Quality in Megacities: Lessons Learned from Mexico City Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunities for better jobs, access to city services, cultural and educational activities, and a desire for more stimulating human interaction. At the same time, many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, giving rise to the phenomenon of megacities. In recent decades air pollution has become not only one of the most important environmental problems of megacities, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. Although the progress to date in combating air pollution problems in developed and some developing world megacities has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. This talk will present the results and the lessons learned from field measurements conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities - over the past decade. While each city has its own unique circumstances, the need for an integrated assessment approach in addressing complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in solving air pollution problems in megacities; a mix of policy measures based on sound scientific findings will be necessary to improve air quality, protect public health, and mitigate climate change.

  2. MCCM-WEPS: Coupling of Meteorological, Air Quality and Erosion Models for Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, E. N.; Tatarko, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; García, A. R.; Caetano, E.

    2007-05-01

    Since natural dust emissions are an important factor in the air quality of Mexico City, a modeling effort to quantify their sources and evaluate their impact on the population is presented. The meteorological and air quality model Multiscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM) provides the meteorological inputs to the erosion model Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) that then provides the natural PM10 emissions to be transported. The system was developed to study the particles dispersion from natural sources (unprotected soils) as agricultural lands and Lake of Texcoco. These sources are located around the Valley of Mexico City. As a result of this research we developed a system with the capability of modeling the phenomenon of air pollution by natural particles emitted by wind erosion and to generate case study scenarios useful to propose control policies. Some of them are presented here. Also an effort to predict with anticipation this phenomenon is under way.

  3. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas...... as physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas....... The results presented show the simplicity of using 3D city models as a physical data input in air quality modelling and the 3D air quality will improve insight for visual impact analysis (i.e. analysing the immersion of are circulation zone). The results are advantageous for city planners, architects...

  4. Indentifying the major air pollutants base on factor and cluster analysis, a case study in 74 Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lan-yue; Du, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Ya-qi; Yang, Yue-yi; Zhang, Jian-min; Deng, Shi-huai; Shen, Fei; Li, Yuan-wei; Xiao, Hong

    2016-11-01

    This article investigated the major air pollutants and its spatial and seasonal distribution in 74 Chinese cities. Factor analysis and Cluster analysis are employed to indentify major factors of air pollutants. The following results are obtained (1) major factors are obtained in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The first factor in spring includes NO2, PM10, CO, and PM2.5; the first factor in summer and autumn includes PM10, PM2.5, CO and SO2; in winter, the first factor includes NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2. (2) In spring, cities of cluster 5 are the severest polluted by emission sources of SO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5; the emission sources of O3 would significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 2; the emission sources of NO2 could significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 3 and cluster 5. (3) In summer, cities of cluster 5 are the severest polluted by automotive emissions and coal flue gas. Cities of cluster 1 are the lightest polluted. Cities of cluster 3 and cluster 2 are polluted by emission sources of SO2 and O3. (4) In Autumn, cities of cluster 3 and 4 are the severest polluted by the emission sources of SO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5; the emission sources of NO2 would significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 5; the emission sources of O3 could significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 1 and cluster 4. (5) In winter, cities of cluster 5 are the severest polluted by the emission sources of SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, and CO; the emission sources of O3 could significantly influence the air quality in cities of cluster 1 and cluster 5.

  5. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  6. RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC IN «STREET CANYONS» OF CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Rusakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to state analyze of atmospheric air at its pollution with vehicle emissions in Dnipropetrovsk city, the development a numerical model and applied computing program for research of air pollution level with vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». Methodology. To achieve the research purpose it was studied the dynamic of change concentration of different pollutants that have been fixed on monitoring station of air quality in Dnipropetrovsk city. It was performed level assessment of air pollution from traffic (according to the Main Statistical Office in Dnipropetrovsk region. It was developed methodology for numerical calculation of concentration the atmospheric air pollution from vehicle emissions. To solve hydrodynamic task of determining velocity field of wind flow in streets the model of separated flows of an inviscid fluid was used; to solve the task of the calculation process of dispersion pollution the equation of convective-diffusion transfer of pollutant was used. To implement the proposed methodology we used implicit difference schemes. Findings.In the work a mathematical numerical model was developed and computing programs on its base were created. It allows conducting the computational experiments for evaluation the level of air pollution from vehicle emissions on the streets when several buildings are located on the scheme «street canyon». As a result of research regulations on change concentration of carbon monoxide near a considered group of buildings at different pollutant emissions were established. Originality.This numerical model was developed which allows accounting the hydrodynamic impact of group buildings on dispersion of pollutants when the wind speed and the vertical diffusion coefficient vary with height. Practical value. Conducting such class of computational experiments is necessary in the case of reconstruction of city

  7. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence on thermodynamics, gas and aerosol composition of city air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhegova, Nina; Belan, Boris; Antokhin, Pavel; Zhidovkhin, Evgenii; Ivlev, Georgii; Kozlov, Artem; Fofonov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    In the last 40-50 years there is a global tendency of urbanisation, which is a consequence of most countries' economical development. Concurrently, the issue of environment's ecological state has become critical. Urban air pollution is among the most important ecological problems nowadays. World Health Organization (WHO) points out certain "classical" polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), troposphere ozone (O3) (studied here), as well as lead, carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes, soot, benzpyrene and dredges (including dust, haze and smoke) [1]. An evaluation of antropogenic component's weight in the thermodynamical conditions and gas and aerosol composition of a city's atmosphere (by the example of Tomsk) is given in this paper. Tomsk is located at the South of West Siberia and is the administrative center of Tomsk region. The city's area is equal to 294,6 km2. Its population is 512.6 thousands of people. The overall number of registered motor vehicles in the city in 2008 was 131 700. That is, every fourth city inhabitant has a personal car. From 2002 to 2008 the number of motor vehicles in Tomsk has increased by 25 thousands units [2]. This increase consists mostly of passenger cars. There is also a positive trend in fuel consumtion by the city's industries and motor vehicles - from 2004 to 2007 it has increased by 10%. Such a quick rate of transport quantity's increase in the city provides reason to suggest an unfavorable ecological situation in Tomsk. For this study we have used the AKV-2 mobile station designed by the SB RAS Institute of Atmospheric Optics. The station's equipment provides the following measurements [3]: air temperature and humidity; aerosol disperse composition in 15 channels with a particle size range of 0.3-20 µm by use of the Grimm-1.108 aerosol spectrometer; NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2 concentration. This paper describes a single experiment conducted in Tomsk. Date of

  8. New considerations for PM, black carbon and particle number concentration for air quality monitoring across different European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Reche, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Pey, J.; T. Moreno; Rodríguez, S.; Y. González; R. Fernández-Camacho; J. de la Rosa; Dall'Osto, M; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Hueglin, C.; R. M. Harrison; Quincey, P.

    2011-01-01

    In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM) are exceeded. Emissions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been implemented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air ...

  9. Mexico City air pollution adversely affects olfactory function and intranasal trigeminal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Hummel, Thomas; Martínez-Gómez, Margaríta; Hudson, Robyn

    2009-11-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the effects of big-city air pollution on olfactory function and even less about its effects on the intranasal trigeminal system, which elicits sensations like burning, stinging, pungent, or fresh and contributes to the overall chemosensory experience. Using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test battery and an established test for intranasal trigeminal perception, we compared the olfactory performance and trigeminal sensitivity of residents of Mexico City, a region with high air pollution, with the performance of a control population from the Mexican state of Tlaxcala, a geographically comparable but less polluted region. We compared the ability of 30 young adults from each location to detect a rose-like odor (2-phenyl ethanol), to discriminate between different odorants, and to identify several other common odorants. The control subjects from Tlaxcala detected 2-phenyl ethanol at significantly lower concentrations than the Mexico City subjects, they could discriminate between odorants significantly better, and they performed significantly better in the test of trigeminal sensitivity. We conclude that Mexico City air pollution impairs olfactory function and intranasal trigeminal sensitivity, even in otherwise healthy young adults.

  10. Air pollution and forest decline near Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, D C

    1989-04-01

    The forests of Abies religiosa Schl. et Cham. in the north and the northeast slopes of the mountains of the southwestern region of the Valley of Mexico are in an acute process of decline, particularly the fir forest of the Cultural and Recreational Park Desierto de los Leones. The mortality of the trees began in 1981, and by 1987 30% of the trees of the Park had died; the mortality continues. The surviving trees are in a very poor crown condition, having thin crowns with many dead branches. in the light of current knowledge air pollution, in particular the oxidant gases (ozone), are the primary cause of decline, but other conditions or agents (age of the trees and diseases) could be contributing factors in the dying of the trees.

  11. Effect of air pollution on olfactory function in residents of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robyn; Arriola, Aline; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Distel, Hans

    2006-01-01

    To our knowledge there has been no study of the effect of everyday air pollution on olfactory function. It was therefore the aim of this study to compare the olfactory performance of long-term residents of Mexico City, an environment with high air pollution, with the olfactory performance of residents of the Mexican state of Tlaxcala, a region geographically similar to Mexico City but with low air pollution. Healthy volunteers [82 Mexico City subjects (MEX), 86 Tlaxcala subjects (TLX)] 20-63 years of age and balanced for age and gender between the two localities were tested for the perception of the odors of everyday beverages presented in squeeze bottles. When tested with ascending concentrations of stimuli in a three-way oddball paradigm, residents of Tlaxcala detected the odors of instant coffee and of an orange drink at significantly lower concentrations than residents of Mexico City. They also performed significantly better in discriminating between the two similar-smelling Mexican beverages horchata and atole in an oddball test. Significant differences between the two populations in overall olfactory performance were apparent in three of the four age classes (20- to 29-, 30- to 39-, and 40- to 49-year-old subjects) but not in the 50-63 years age class. About 10% of MEX subjects compared to about 2% of TLX subjects were judged to have poor olfactory function; all were from the older age classes (mean age: 48.6 years). Thus, air pollution in Mexico City appears to have a substantial impact on olfactory function even in young and middle-aged residents.

  12. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  13. Analysis of major air pollutants and submicron particles in New York City and Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, M.; Hopke, P. K.; Felton, H. D.; Frank, B. P.; Rattigan, O. V.; Wurth, M. J.; LaDuke, G. H.

    2017-01-01

    A year-long sampling campaign of major air pollutants and submicron particle number size distributions was conducted at two sites taken as representative of city-wide air quality in New York City and Long Island, respectively. A number of species were quantified with hourly time resolution, including particle number concentrations in 6 size ranges (20-30 nm, 30-50 nm, 50-70 nm, 70-100 nm, 100-200 nm, and >200 nm), nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, PM2.5 mass concentration and some PM major components (sulfate, organic and elemental carbon). Hourly concentrations of primary and secondary organic carbon were estimated using the EC tracer method. Data were matched with weather parameters and air parcel back-trajectories. A series of tools were thus applied to: (i) study the seasonal, weekly, diurnal cycles of pollutants; (ii) investigate the relationships amongst pollutants through correlation and lagged correlation analyses; (iii) depict the role of atmospheric photochemical processes; (iv) examine the location of the potential sources by mean of conditional bivariate probability function analysis and (v) investigate the role of regional transport of air masses to the concentrations of analyzed species. Results indicate that concentrations of NOx, SO2, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, primary OC and EC are predominantly determined by local sources, but are also affected by regional transports of polluted air masses. On the contrary, the transport of continental polluted air masses has a main effect in raising the concentrations of secondary PM2.5 (sulfate and secondary organic carbon). By providing direct information on the concentrations and trends of key pollutants and submicron particle number concentrations, this study finally enables some general considerations about air quality status and atmospheric processes over the New York City metropolitan area.

  14. Research on the Emission Inventory of Major Air Pollutants in 2012 for the Sichuan City Cluster in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; He, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This paper developed a high resolution emission inventory of major pollutants in city cluster of Sichuan Basin, one of the most polluted regions in China. The city cluster included five cities, which were Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, Meishan and Ziyang. Pollution source census and field measurements were conducted for the major emission sources such as the industry sources, on-road mobile sources, catering sources and the dust sources. The inventory results showed that in the year of 2012, the emission of SO2、NOX、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs and NH3 in the region were 143.5、251.9、1659.9、299.3、163.5、464.1 and 995kt respectively. Chengdu, the provincial capital city, had the largest emission load of every pollutant among the cities. The industry sources, including power plants, fuel combustion facilities and non-combustion processes were the largest emission sources for SO2、NOX and CO, contributing to 84%, 46.5%, 35% of total SO2, NOX and CO emissions. On-road mobile sources accounted for 46.5%, 33%, 16% of the total NOx, CO, PM2.5 emissions and 28% of the anthropogenic VOCs emission. Dust and industry sources contributed to 42% and 23% of the PM10 emission with the dust sources also as the largest source of PM2.5, contributing to 27%. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources took 75% and 25% of the total VOCs emission while 36% of anthropogenic VOCs emission was owing to solvent use. Livestock contributed to 62% of NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizer application whose contribution was 23%. Based on the developed emission inventory and local meteorological data, the regional air quality modeling system WRF-CMAQ was applied to simulate the status of PM2.5 pollution in a regional scale. The results showed that high PM2.5 concentration was distributed over the urban area of Chengdu and Deyang. On-road mobile sources and dust sources were two major contributors to the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu, both had an contribution ratio of 27%. In Deyang, Mianyang

  15. Geological investigation of shaft mine in Devonian limestone in Kansas City, Missouri and other potentially dry excavated subsurface space in part of the Forest City Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.

    1977-10-01

    A high quality limestone is currently being mined from a deep shaft mine (1072 feet) in Middle Devonian rocks (Callaway) within the city limits of Kansas City, Missouri. About 15 acres of essentially dry space (room and pillar) with up to 14-foot ceilings have been developed. There are few natural joints observable in the rock within the mine. Some of these are periodically damp. More than 80% of the mine is dry. Saltwater from aquifers (Pennsylvanian) cut by the shaft accumulates behind the shaft at the pump station at 850 feet and at the bottom of the shaft (Devonian-Ordovician rocks). As long as the pumps lift the water to the surface, the mine can be kept relatively dry. Grouting of the aquifer's rocks in the shaft may seal off that source of water. The Burlington limestone of the Mississippian System is potentially mineable on the property now developed. The Burlington limestone, the Middle Devonian limestone, and the Kimmswick (Middle Ordovician) limestone are all potentially mineable by shaft mining in the northern part of Greater Kansas City and northward into the Forest City Basin.

  16. Simulations of a cold-air pool associated with elevated wintertime ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Neemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are used to investigate the meteorological characteristics of the 1–6 February 2013 cold-air pool in the Uintah Basin, Utah, and the resulting high ozone concentrations. Flow features affecting cold-air pools and air quality in the Uintah Basin are studied, including: penetration of clean air into the basin from across the surrounding mountains, elevated easterlies within the inversion layer, and thermally-driven slope and valley flows. The sensitivity of the boundary layer structure to cloud microphysics and snow cover variations are also examined. Ice-dominant clouds enhance cold-air pool strength compared to liquid-dominant clouds by increasing nocturnal cooling and decreasing longwave cloud forcing. Snow cover increases boundary layer stability by enhancing the surface albedo, reducing the absorbed solar insolation at the surface, and lowering near-surface air temperatures. Snow cover also increases ozone levels by enhancing solar radiation available for photochemical reactions.

  17. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  18. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina

    2012-09-01

    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF AIR HUMIDITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA OF SLATINA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-MARIA OPREA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a thorough analysis of air humidity in the area of Slatina city, in terms of relative humidity, fume tension and saturation deficit for the period 1977 – 2006. The aim of this analysis is to highlight the evolution in time and space of this meteorological element, but especially to observe its contribution to pollution of the urban area. The article sums up the author’s personal conclusions, emphasizing the role of air humidity on pollution, through stimulating chemical reactions (from the atmosphere and favoring wet smog.

  20. Spatial integration of oasis city group around the western margins of the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the oasis cities in Kashgar Prefecture and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture are taken as an example,through the factor analysis,spatial attraction interaction model and location quotient methods,urban hierarchy system,the intensity of urban economic ties,economic subordination degree,and structure of city functions were analyzed. The results indicated:(1) The urban hierarchy system takes Kashgar city as the main center,Artux city,Yarkant county and Maralbexi county as the sub-centers; (2) The intensity of economic ties among Kashgar city and each county is much higher than others. The interaction of Kashgar city,Shufu county and Shule county are the strongest,and the economic ties of Yarkant,Kagilik,Poskam counties are relatively close; All cities in the study area are economically subordinate to Kashgar city. (3) Three cities of Kashgar city,Shufu county and Shule county should connect strongly,with Kashgar city as the core. The cities and towns along the Southern Xinjiang Railway and along National Road 315 should be regarded as two strips,and the two city strips along the border,and the city strip along Provincial Road 215 should be treated as three axes. The ring structure strategy of "core ring,closer ring and radiated ring" was proposed. (4) It was proposed to build Kashgar city group in the north,and Yarkant city group in the south,Maralbexi city group in the southeast,and Taxkorgan border city group with four inner groups’ development strategy.

  1. Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

    2004-07-01

    This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

  2. Development and testing of an air quality model for Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; Streit, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cruz, X.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G. [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Russell, A.G.; McNair, L.A. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-03-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo have embarked on a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The intent is to develop a modeling system which can address the behavior of pollutants in the region so that option for improving Mexico City air quality can be properly evaluated. In February of 1991, the project conducted a field program which yielded a variety of data which is being used to evaluate and improve the models. Normally the worst air quality for both primary and photochemical pollutants occurs in the winter Mexico City. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of earth surface skin temperatures, and (4) tethersonde measurements of wind, temperature and ozone vertical profiles. A three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence meteorological model (HOTMAC) was modified to include an urban canopy and urban heat sources. HOTMAC is used to drive an Monte-Carlo kernel dispersion code (RAPTAD). HOTMAC also provides winds and mixing heights for the CIT photochemical model which was developed by investigators at the California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.

  3. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  4. Air pollution: a new respiratory risk for cities in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejjari, C; Filleul, L; Zidouni, N; Laid, Y; Atek, M; El Meziane, A; Tessier, J F

    2003-03-01

    Since the major accidents that occurred in the 1960s, air pollution has commonly been considered as a respiratory risk factor whose effects are most often studied in industrialised countries. Our aim is to show that it is now the turn of low- and middle-income countries to take this risk factor into account. After a discussion of the characteristics of air pollution, how it is diffused and the main known health effects (short- and long-term effects), we describe the specific differences between the cities in the North and the South. As a result of late industrialisation, cities in the South are now faced with pollution from industrial sources and urban traffic with polluting vehicles. The case of Algeria and Morocco illustrates this situation and its potential health risks. In order to prevent the health risks of air pollution in the cities of the South, systems for measuring pollution levels and epidemiological surveillance need to be put in place rapidly. This strategy can only work if it is supported by a strong partnership from industrialised countries.

  5. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment.

  6. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health.

  7. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities : A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  8. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment—II. Three-dimensional simulations over Los Angeles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    The: air quality problems in the Los Angeles basin are related to the local climate. A strong temperature inversion and stagnant synoptic conditions associated with the Pacific high-pressure system favor the generation of severe air pollution episodes. Sea-breezes and mountain-induced flows play an important role: in controlling pollutant transport over the basin. The distributions of pollutants over the basin display complicated three-dimensional patterns, including distinct elevated layers. A three-dimensional meteorological model is used to simulate air flow patterns and pollutant transport in the Los Angeles basin under such conditions. The complex simulated flows are analyzed to explain the origin of the observed pollution layers. Pollutants found in the afternoon mixed layer may be dispersed to three different regions: the high desert to the east and north of the Los Angeles basin; the free troposphere above the temperature inversion; and within the temperature inversion layer itself. Several mechanisms transfer pollution into the inversion layer. Convergence zones in the San Fernando Valley and near Lake Elsinore lift polluted air into the inversion. A coupled sea-bree~eymountain-flow circulation along the southwest flank of the Santa Ana Mts creates pollution layers that extend westward over the coastal plain and offshore. The afternoon pollution layers frequently observed in the western Los Angeles basin are caused by the sea-breeze circulation or the coupled sea-breeze/mountain-flow circulation over the south slope of the San Gabriel Nlts. As the boundary layer stabilizes during the early evening, layers of polluted air are left suspended over the eastern basin. Pollutants trapped in the inversion layer act as a reservoir of poor-quality air for the basin, and may contribute to extreme pollutant concentrations seen after several days of stagnant air.

  9. Seasonality and Dynamic Spatial Contagion of Air Pollution in 42 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiong He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much.

  10. Seasonality and dynamic spatial contagion of air pollution in 42 Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhanqiong; Sriboonchita, Songsak; He, Min

    2013-01-01

    To monitor and improve the urban air quality, the Chinese government has begun to make many efforts, and the interregional cooperation to cut and improve air quality has been required. In this paper, we focus on the seasonality of the first and second moments of the daily air pollution indexes (APIs) of 42 Chinese sample cities over 10 years, from June 5, 2000 to March 4, 2010, and investigate the dynamic correlation of air pollution indexes (APIs) between 42 Chinese cities and their corresponding regional and national levels; comparison with the model without seasonal consideration is made. By adopting a DCC-GARCH model that accounts for the seasonality, we found that (i) the transformed DCC-GARCH model including seasonality dummies improves the estimation result in this study; (ii) the seasonality feature of the second moment follows that of the first moment, with the condition mean and variance of the second and autumn significantly lower than spring, whereas that of winter is higher than spring; (iii) the correlation between local APIs and their corresponding regional and national levels is dynamic; (iv) comparing with the DCC-GARCH model estimation, the transformed model does not change the feature of the dynamic correlations very much.

  11. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  12. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  13. Urban air temperature anomalies and their relation to soil moisture observed in the city of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wiesner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of the urban air temperature for the city of Hamburg is analyzed based upon a one-year dataset of meteorological and pedological measurements. As local air temperature anomalies are subject to land-use and surface cover, they are monitored by a network of measurement stations within three different urban structures. Mean annual temperature deviations are found to be +1.0K$+1.0\\,\\text{K}$ for inner city sites and +0.25K$+0.25\\,\\text{K}$ to -0.2K$-0.2\\,\\text{K}$ for suburban sites compared to a rural reference. The nocturnal urban heat island (UHI is identified and averages +1.7K$+1.7\\,\\text{K}$ at the inner city stations, +0.7K$+0.7\\,\\text{K}$ at a suburban district housing area and +0.3K$+0.3\\,\\text{K}$ at a nearby green space. The observed UHI effect is most prominent when the wind speed is low (≤2ms-1$\\leq2\\,\\text{ms}^{-1}$ and the sky is only partly cloudy (≤6∕8th$\\leq6/8^{\\text{th}}$. In spring 2011 an average inner city UHI of up to +5.2K$+5.2\\,\\text{K}$ is observed during situations matching these conditions, while the extraordinary dry fall of 2011 lead to remarkably high air temperature differences at all observed stations. As expected, no evidence for a significant impact of topsoil moisture on nighttime UHI effect is found. The analysis of air temperature anomalies during daytime results in an annual mean deviation of -0.5K$-0.5\\,\\text{K}$ above unsealed, vegetated surfaces from a sealed site during days with a turbulent mixing induced by wind speed >2ms-1$>2\\,\\text{ms}^{-1}$. Here, there is an indication for a relation between the water content of upper soil layers and the warming of air: 11 to 17 % of the variance of the diurnal air temperature span is found to be explained by the soil water content for selected relevant days.

  14. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  15. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  16. Mass balance for lead in the California South Coast Air Basin: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankey, R L; Davidson, C I; McMichael, F C

    1998-08-01

    A mass balance for lead for the year 1989 in the South Coast Air Basin has inputs to the atmosphere of 600 +/- 190 kg/day and outputs of 580 +/- 160 kg/day, showing rough agreement. Stationary sources are responsible for only about 5% of the total lead emissions. The bulk of the lead is emitted from vehicles using leaded gasoline (37%) and unleaded gasoline (15%), as well as from resuspension of previously deposited lead on roads (43%). Over half of the total emitted lead deposits on roads and nearby soil, while about one-third is carried out the basin by wind. A small amount, less than 10%, is deposited on surfaces throughout the basin. These percentages are approximately the same as those in a mass balance for the same region calculated for 1972, when lead emissions from leaded gasoline were about a factor of 70 greater than leaded gas emissions in 1989. When the lead emissions are used as inputs to a simple continuously stirred flow reactor model for the basin, reasonable agreement is obtained between calculated and measured concentrations.

  17. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations experiments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4, a global chemical transport model, have been used to provide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well, but some differences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been "tagged" to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmospheric composition in the region around Mexico City, when averaged over the month. However, considerable variation in the fire contribution (2–15% of total CO is seen during the month. The transport and photochemical aging of Mexico City emissions were studied using tags of CO emissions for each day, showing that typically the air near Mexico City was a combination of many ages. Ozone production in MOZART-4 is shown to agree well with the net production rates from box model calculations constrained by the MILAGRO aircraft measurements. Ozone production efficiency derived from the ratio of Ox to NOz is higher in MOZART-4 than in the observations for moderately polluted air. OH reactivity determined from the MOZART-4 results shows the same increase in relative importance of oxygenated VOCs downwind of Mexico City as the reactivity inferred from the observations. The amount of ozone produced by emissions from Mexico City and surrounding areas has been quantified in the model by

  18. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations experiments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4, a global chemical transport model, have been used to provide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well, but some differences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been "tagged" to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmospheric composition in the region around Mexico City when averaged over the month. However, considerable variation in the fire contribution (2–15% of total CO is seen during the month. The transport and photochemical aging of Mexico City emissions were studied using tags of CO emissions for each day, showing that typically the air downwind of Mexico City was a combination of many ages. Ozone production in MOZART-4 is shown to agree well with the net production rates from box model calculations constrained by the MILAGRO aircraft measurements. Ozone production efficiency derived from the ratio of Ox to NOz is higher in MOZART-4 than in the observations for moderately polluted air. OH reactivity determined from the MOZART-4 results shows the same increase in relative importance of oxygenated VOCs downwind of Mexico City as the reactivity inferred from the observations. The amount of ozone produced by emissions from Mexico City and surrounding areas has been quantified in the

  19. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  20. Distributed modeling of monthly air temperatures over the rugged terrain of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Our analyses of the monthly mean air temperature of meteorological stations show that altitude,global solar radiation and surface effective radiation have a significant impact on air temperature.We set up a physically-based empirical model for monthly air temperature simulation.Combined the proposed model with the distributed modeling results of global solar radiation and routine meteorological observation data,we also developed a method for the distributed simulation of monthly air temperatures over rugged terrain.Spatial distribution maps are generated at a resolution of 1 km×1 km for the monthly mean,the monthly mean maximum and the monthly mean minimum air temperatures for the Yellow River Basin.Analysis shows that the simulation results reflect to a considerable extent the macro and local distribution characteristics of air temperature.Cross-validation shows that the proposed model displays good stability with mean absolute bias errors of 0.19℃-0.35℃.Tests carried out on local meteorological station data and case year data show that the model has good spatial and temporal simulation capacity.The proposed model solely uses routine meteorological data and can be applied easily to other regions.

  1. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past 3 decades. However, the economic boom came at the cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p100 (defined as ‘slightly polluted’, however, it increased to 21 cities (18% that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13% in 2012 and 35 (29% in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as ‘severely polluted’. API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4% to 7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution vary by seasons and regions, and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country.

  2. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  3. Characterization of reactants, mechanisms, and species in South Coast Air Basin cloudwater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, L.W.; Anderson, J.A.; Alexander, N.L.; Blumenthal, D.L.; Knuth, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Sonoma Technology, Inc. (STI) conducted a study in 1985 for the California Air Resources Board in which an aircraft was used to collect cloud water, aerosol, and gas samples and to make other air-quality and meteorological measurements in stratus clouds in the Los Angeles Basin. The study continued the research on Los Angeles Basin stratus begun in 1981. The ambient concentrations of most non-volatile dissolved species in the cloud water usually decreased with time, showing that removal processes were important. Increases with time in lead and ammonia concentrations in the cloud water showed that vertical mixing was important. There was a slight tendency for nitrate concentrations to increase with time, but sulfate concentrations were relatively constant because of the very small sulfur concentrations in the clouds. The settling of droplets out of stratus clouds through air below the clouds containing ammonia and the evaporation of these relatively large droplets is suggested as a significant mechanism for the formation of large, nitrate-containing aerosol particles below the clouds.

  4. Urban Migration Cartographies. The spatial distribution of foreign population in the City of Buenos Aires (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to study the spatial distribution of international migrants in the City of Buenos Aires through a statistical and cartographic analysis based on the information collected by the 2010 National Population, Homes and Living Conditions Census. A socio-spatial analysis is carried out of the Census data, which are georeferenced using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. This work is done through thematic mapping and spatial distribution statistical index calculations. Thus, from a quantitative methodological perspective combining a macro-social (as it involves the whole city and a micro-spatial (as it allows for the visualization of differences caused on an intra-urban level scale, what is analyzed is how these groups’ urban presence, which results from various social and spatial trajectories, is evidenced in specific localization patterns within the urban territory

  5. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  6. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.

  7. Assessment of Air Pollution Impacts on Population Health in Bejaia City, Northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENAISSA, Fatima; ALKAMA, Rezak; ANNESI-MAESANO, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background To assess the health impact of air pollution on Bejaia population in the north of Algeria, we carried out a descriptive epidemiologic inquiry near the medical establishments of three areas. Methods From hospital admissions registers, we collected data on the hospital mortality and admissions relating to the various cardiorespiratory pathologies generated by this type of pollution. In parallel, data on the automobile fleet of Bejaia and other measurements were exploited to show that the pollutants concentrations are strongly correlated with the urban traffic concentration. Results This study revealed that the whole of the population is touched, but the sensitivity to pollution can show variations according to the age, the sex and the residence place. Population of Bejaia town marked the most raised death and morbidity rates, followed by that of Kherrata. Weak rates are recorded for the rural population of Feraoun. Stronger correlation (>0.9) is evident amongst CO and deaths due to asthma and COPD in Béjaia city. Conclusion This approach enables us to conclude that the population of Béjaia could not escape the urban pollution generated by her old automobile fleet. Installation of a monitoring and measuring site of air pollution in this city could provide a beneficial tool to protect its inhabitants by informing on air quality they breathe and the measures to following order to minimize the impacts on their health and by alerting the authorities during the critical situations. PMID:26175976

  8. Saturday Driving Restrictions Fail to Improve Air Quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas W.

    2017-02-01

    Policymakers around the world are turning to license-plate based driving restrictions in an effort to address urban air pollution. The format differs across cities, but most programs restrict driving once or twice a week during weekdays. This paper focuses on Mexico City, home to one of the oldest and best-known driving restriction policies. For almost two decades Mexico City’s driving restrictions applied during weekdays only. This changed recently, however, when the program was expanded to include Saturdays. This paper uses hourly data from pollution monitoring stations to measure the effect of the Saturday expansion on air quality. Overall, there is little evidence that the program expansion improved air quality. Across eight major pollutants, the program expansion had virtually no discernible effect on pollution levels. These disappointing results stand in sharp contrast to estimates made before the expansion which predicted a 15%+ decrease in vehicle emissions on Saturdays. To understand why the program has been less effective than expected, the paper then turns to evidence from subway, bus, and light rail ridership, finding no evidence that the expansion was successful in getting drivers to switch to lower-emitting forms of transportation.

  9. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities : Results from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, HR; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, JP; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, P

  10. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  11. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  12. Distributed modeling of monthly air temperatures over the rugged terrain of the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yan; QIU XinFa; HE YongJian; SHI GuoPing; LIU ChangMing

    2009-01-01

    Our analyses of the monthly mean air temperature of meteorological stations show that altitude, global solar radiation and surface effective radiation have a significant impact on air temperature. We set up a physically-based empirical model for monthly air temperature simulation. Combined the proposed model with the distributed modeling results of global solar radiation and routine meteorological ob-servation data, we also developed a method for the distributed simulation of monthly sir temperatures over rugged terrain. Spatial distribution maps are generated at a resolution of 1 km×1 km for the monthly mean, the monthly mean maximum and the monthly mean minimum air temperatures for the Yellow River Basin. Analysis shows that the simulation results reflect to a considerable extent the macro and local distribution characteristics of air temperature. Cross-validation shows that the pro-posed model displays good stability with mean absolute bias errors of 0.19℃-0.35℃. Tests carried out on local meteorological station data and case year data show that the model has good spatial and temporal simulation capacity. The proposed model solely uses routine meteorological data and can be applied easily to other regions.

  13. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  14. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  15. Race in Buenos Aires. Blackness, Whiteness, African Descent and Mestizaje in the White Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Geler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how racial categories are produced and reproduced in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital city. To that end, this article focuses on the cases of three Afro-Descendant porteña women who, by local standards, are fully white.  Their stories allow us to explore, in the first place, how categories like “black,” “white,” and others are used and understood in contemporary Buenos Aires and how this use configures two types of blackness (racial blackness and popular blackness and makes it impossible for mestizaje categories to emerge. In the second place, through these cases this article explores how people’s very “ways of being” are at play, creating a discriminatory and oppressive environment for people at risk of not matching the ideal of the nation.

  16. Air quality estimates in Mediterranean cities using high resolution satellite technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Satellite imaging is an essential tool for monitoring air pollution because, unlike ground observations, it supplies continuous data with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. Satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals reflect particle abundance in the atmospheric column. This data provide some indication on the extent of particle concentrations. However, it is difficult to retrieve AOD at high spatial resolution above areas with high surface reflectance and heterogeneous land cover, such as urban areas. Therefore, many crowded regions worldwide including Israel, AOD climatology are still uncertain because of the high ground reflectance and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. This study aims to investigate the spatial variability of AOD within Israeli and several other Mediterranean cities. In addition, we aim to characterize the impact of climatic condition on pollution patterns in-and-between cities and to identify days when cities exhibit the highest variability in AOD. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in pollution levels between adjacent locations. We will report on spatial variability in AOD levels derived from high 1km resolution MAIAC AOD algorithm on a temporal basis, in relation to season and synoptic-meteorological conditions.

  17. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  18. Assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, R.

    1999-07-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, acquatics and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forest, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid land, and class 1 areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  19. Benzene air pollution measuring in the city of Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugrinov Dragan M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pančevo is located at the confluence of the Tamiš and Danube rivers, 8 km from the country’s capital Belgrade. The basic pollution sources are HIP Petrohemija (Oil industry and NIS Rafinerija nafte (Oil refinery which are located south from the city. The measurements of air pollution were done according to the standard methods defined by the regulations of monitoring conditions and air quality requirements, as well as by the procedures for measuring benzene concentration (taking samples with the pump, thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Pančevo has the elaborate system of the measuring points as part of the local system of urban stations for measuring basic and specific polluters. Using this system the measurements were carried out during the course of 24 hours every day in the year 2009 at two measuring points named “Vatrogasni dom” and “Zavod”. By analyzing the obtained results, average yearly concentration is lower at “Vatrogasni dom“ measuring point (2,8g/m3 then at “Zavod” (4,1g/m3. The results that obtained at both measuring points did not exceed the allowed limited value of 5 g/m3.

  20. Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily mortality in 12 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S; Kalkstein, L S; Yagouti, Abderrahmane

    It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutant interactions to determine dependent and independent pollutant effects using the relatively new time series technique of distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM). Results display dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical plus (MT+) weathers to result in a fourfold and twofold increased likelihood, respectively, of an extreme pollution event (top 5 % of pollution concentrations throughout the 28 years) occurring. We also demonstrate statistically significant effects of single-pollutant exposure on mortality (p effect RR increases due to pollutant exposure within DT and MT+ weather types are 14.9 and 11.9 %, respectively. Adjusted exposures (two-way pollutant effect estimates) generally results in decreased RR estimates, indicating that the pollutants are not independent. Adjusting for ozone significantly lowers 67 % of the single-pollutant RR estimates and reduces model variability, which demonstrates that ozone significantly controls a portion of the mortality signal from the model. Our findings demonstrate the mortality risks of air pollution exposure to differ by weather type, with increased accuracy obtained when accounting for interactive effects through adjustment for dependent pollutants using a DLNM.

  1. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Luo

    Full Text Available With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita, the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2 and the air pollution index (API from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC, that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  2. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

  3. Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some trees in Moradabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anamika; Tiwari, P B; Mahima; Singh, Dharmveer

    2009-07-01

    To see the relative tolerance of the plant species, ten different plant species i.e. Ficus rumphii, Pongamia pinnata, Alstonia scholaris, Holoptelea integrifolia, Saraca indica, Pithecolobium dulcis, Cassia simea, Bauhinia variegata, Azadirachta indica and Grewelia robusta was taken from residential (SI), industrial (SII) and commercial (SIII) area of the city as this florais very much common to the Brass city and is planted on the roadside. The quality of air with respect to SPM, SO2 and NO2 has been also assessed on respective sites to see its effect on biochemical parameters of the leaves i.e. pH, total water content, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid and evaluate the (air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of various plants. It was concluded that Pongamia pinnata 15.8, Pithecolobium dulcis 34.8, Holoptelea integrifolia 55.8 and Saraca indica 52.0 have very high APTI value over control so these are considered as high tolerant tree species, Ficus rumphii 35.7, Azadirachta indica 30.5 and Grewelia robusta 34.3 have slightlymoreAPTI value over control so these are considered as moderately tolerant tree species and Alstonia scholaris 21.5, Cassia simea 6.09 and Bauhinia variegata 18.22 have lessAPTI value than control, so these are sensitive species respectively. One way ANOVA finds the obtained values to be highly significant (p < 0.001) at the industrial site. Thus present findings show that Brass and allied industries are the prominent sources responsible for the elevated level of air pollutants at the industrial site.

  4. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in the city of Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Ana M; Cortese, Silvina G; Martínez, Karina; Ortolani, Andrea M; Sebelli, Patricia M F; Ienco, Melisa; Paván, Verónica H; Mendel, Nancy; Bertolino, Mariana; Hecht, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) still remains unknown in Argentina. The objectives of this work were to: estimate prevalence of MIH in a group of children seeking dental care in the city of Buenos Aires, analyze distribution according to year of birth and compare prevalence and severity of MIH in children with different access to health care services. A prospective, observational, transversal, descriptive study was designed, to be conducted on children seeking attention at Department of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry at the School of Dentistry of Buenos Aires University and at 3 pediatric dentistry offices attended by members of the team, located in Buenos Aires city (Kappa 0.933 0.911-0.952), from April to August 2010. The study included all children born between 1993 and 2003, whose 4 first molars and 8 permanent incisors had erupted. After prophylaxis and drying, the teeth were clinically evaluated and specially designed charts were used to record sex, year of birth, type of access to dental care, presence of MIH, number of affected incisors and molars, and maximum degree of severity for each tooth. The data obtained were analyzed using percentages, Fisher's Exact Test and Linear regression. 1098 children, mean age 11.3 years (11.08-11.39) were evaluated. Prevalence of MIH in this study was 15.9% (13.8-18.2). A highly significant positive correlation was obtained between MIH and year of birth (pmolars, 37% (32.2-42) in A and 13.7% (6.7-23.8) in B had grade 3 lesions, with loss of enamel (p<0.0001). In this study, MIH was a frequent pathology (15.9%) and a significant increase was found according to year of birth during the study period. Patients with better access to health care had greater prevalence and degree of severity of MIH.

  5. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r air pollutants suggest the possibility for confounding and/or synergism in intraurban epidemiological studies of traffic-related health effects. The different spatial pattern of intermittent noise compared to average noise level may suggest

  6. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p China in 2012 and with the highest in east China in 2013. In 2012, 5 (4%) of the 120 cities had ≥60 days with API >100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality

  7. Spatial difference features and organization optimization of cities and towns in Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban spatial structure of Tarim River Basin from the perspectives of urbanization, urban density, grading scales and spatial evolution patterns, using geographical theories and methods, such as fractal theory, principle component analysis, urbanization imbalance index, urban scale imbalance indicator, and urban spatial interaction. The results show that the urban spatial structure displays balanced distribution in the overall pattern, while an imbalanced distribution in each region. The development of town pattern tends to be gathering to the central towns in the oasis of Tarim River Basin and a development axis has begun to form along the southern Xinjiang railway. Based on the division of urban hinterland, and the development characteristics of oasis economy, this paper puts forward an urban spatial organization model. This model uses "breakpoint model" and divides Tarim River Basin into five urban clusters: Korla urban cluster, Kuqa urban cluster, Aksu urban cluster, Kashgar urban cluster and Hotan urban cluster. As a conclusion, this article puts forward an overall framework of urban spatial organization in Tarim River Basin: "one axis, double core, and five groups".

  8. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  9. Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the Daily Air Temperature in the Casablanca City, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Air temperature is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a daily monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface temperatures from MODIS data and the daily measurements of air temperature acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air temperature from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.

  10. Effects of Soil and Air Drying Methods on Soil Plasticity of Different Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashan Ijaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atterberg Limits were initially defined in 1911, by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish scientist. Their purposes are to classifying cohesive soils and determine engineering properties of soils. According to ASTM, all the soils tested by Atterberg limits should be oven dried, it is because drying the soils in different degree will alter their properties significantly. Some of the physical properties of soils will undergo changes that appear to be permanent. Therefore, the soil samples should be in natural or air-dried form. However, in reality, due to time constraint and other factors, many will run the tests by using soil samples that are prepared by oven drying method. They assumed that there is no difference between the results of two types of drying method. However, in reality, the properties of soil will be affected and thus give a misleading result. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two drying methods, air-drying method and oven drying method, on the soil plasticity. Six soil samples from different cities were tested. These tests include sieve analysis, specific gravity test, hydrometer analysis, Plastic limit and liquid limit test. Conclusively, the oven drying method could not replace the air-drying method in soil preparation for both Atterberg limits tests.

  11. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  12. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The e...

  13. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  14. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  15. Weakening of the weekend ozone effect over California's South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidar, S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Kim, S.-W.; Langford, A. O.; Oetjen, H.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) during a hot weekend (summer 2010) from aircraft over the entire South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Surface concentrations of NO2, O3, and temperature from 1996 to 2014 corroborate that this lower O3 on weekends is increasingly likely in recent years. While higher surface O3 on the weekends (weekend ozone effect, WO3E) remains widespread, the spatial extent and the trend in the probability of WO3E occurrences (PWO3E) have decreased significantly compared to a decade ago. This decrease is mostly the result of lower O3 on hot weekends in recent years. PWO3E is lowest in the eastern SoCAB. The major decrease happened during the 2008 economic recession, after which PWO3E has stabilized at a 15-25% lower level throughout most of the basin. Future NOx reductions are likely to be increasingly effective at reducing O3 pollution initially under hot conditions in the coming decade.

  16. Inner city air pollution and respiratory health and atopy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, T.; Safeca, A.F.; Leupold, W. [Univ. Children' s Hospital Dresden (Germany); Weiland, S.K.; Duhme, H.; Keil, U. [Univ. of Muenster, Inst. of Epidemiology and Social Medicine (Germany); Mutius, E. von [Univ. Children' s Hospital, Klinikum Innenstadt, Munich (Germany); Graefe, H. [Saxony State Agency for Environment and Geology, Radebeul (Germany); Csaplovics, E. [Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Dresden (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    The impact of inner city air pollution on the development of respiratory and atopic diseases in childhood is still unclear. In a cross sectional study in Dresden, Germany, 5,421 children in two age groups (5-7 yrs and 9-11 yrs) were studied according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase II protocol, The prevalences of wheezing and cough as well as doctor diagnosed asthma and bronchitis were assessed by parental questionnaires. Children also underwent skin-prick testing, venepuncture for the measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E, lung function testing and a bronchial challenge test (4.5% saline) to assess airway hyperresponsiveness. Exposure was assessed on an individual basis by relating mean annual air pollution levels (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO, benzene, and O{sub 3}) which had been measured on a 1 km{sup 2} grid, to the home and school address of each study subject. After adjusting for potential confounding factors an increase in the exposure to benzene of 1 {mu}g{center{underscore}dot}m{sup 3} air was associated with an increased prevalence of morning cough (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.15; 1.04-1.27) and bronchitis (aOR: 1.11; 1.03-1.19). Similar associations were observed for NO{sub 2} and CO. In turn, the prevalences of atopic sensitization, symptoms of atopic diseases and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were not positively associated with exposure to any of these pollutants. It is concluded that in this study a moderate increase in exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with an increased prevalence of cough and bronchitis, but not with atopic conditions in children. (au)

  17. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Meneses, F; Ruiz, S; Sienra, J J; Huerta, J; White, M C; Etzel, R A

    1996-08-01

    The relation between air pollution and the exacerbation of childhood asthma was studied in a panel of 71 children (aged 5 to 7 yr) with mild asthma who resided in the northern part of mexico City. During the follow-up, ambient measures of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10, 24-h average) and ozone (1-h maximum) frequently exceeded the Mexican standards for these contaminants. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was strongly associated with PM10 levels and marginally with ozone levels. Respiratory symptoms (coughing, phlegm production, wheezing, and difficulty breathing) were associated with both PM10 and ozone levels. An increase of 20 micrograms/m3 of PM10 was related to an 8% increase in lower respiratory illness (LRI) among children on the same day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.15), and an increase of 10 micrograms/m3 in the weekly mean of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was related to a 21% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.08-1.35). A 50 parts per billion (ppb) increase in ozone was associated with a 9% increase in LRI (95% CI = 1.03-1.15) on the same day. We concluded that children with mild asthma are affected by the high ambient levels of particulate matter and ozone observed in the northern part of Mexico City.

  18. Optical Remote Sensing Measurements of Air Pollution in Mexico City During MCMA- 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, B.; Mellqvist, J.; Johansson, M.; Rivera, C.; Samuelsson, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    During March 2006 the Optical Remote sensing group at Chalmers University of Technology participated in the MCMA-2006 field campaign in Mexico City, performing measurements of air pollution using a set of different optical remote sensing instruments. This poster gives an overview of the techniques applied and results obtained. The techniques applied were: Solar Occultation FTIR and UV spectroscopy from fixed locations throughout the MCMA area, yielding total columns of CO, CH2O, SO2 and NO2. Long Path FTIR measurements from site T0 located in the north part of central Mexico City. With this instrument line-averaged concentration measurements of CO and CO2 was obtained in parallel with DOAS measurements performed by other partners. MAX-DOAS measurements from site T0, yielding total column and spatial distributions of SO2 and NO2. Mobile DOAS scattered Sunlight measurements of total columns of SO2 and NO2 in and around the MCMA area. Mobile and stationary DOAS measurements in the vicinity of Tula and Popocatépetl in order to quantify emissions from industry and volcano.

  19. Assessing the regional impacts of Mexico City emissions on air quality and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mena-Carrasco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Mexico City (MCMA emissions is examined by studying its effects on air quality, photochemistry, and on ozone production regimes by combining model products and aircraft observations from the MILAGRO experiment. The influence of MCMA emissions to enhancements in surface level NOx, CO, and O3 concentrations are confined to distances <200 km. However, the extent of the influence is significantly larger at higher altitudes. Broader MCMA impacts (some 900 km Northeast of the city are shown for specific outflow conditions in which enhanced ozone, NOy, and MTBE mixing ratios over the Gulf of Mexico are linked to MCMA by source tagged tracers and sensitivity runs. This study shows that the "footprint" of MCMA on average is fairly local, with exception to reactive nitrogen, which can be transported long range in the form of PAN, acting as a reservoir and source of NOx with important regional ozone formation implications. The simulated effect of MCMA emissions of anthropogenic aerosol on photochemistry showed a maximum regional decrease of 40% in J[NO2→NO+O], and resulting in the reduction of ozone production by 5–10%. Observed ozone production efficiencies and photolysis rates are evaluated as a function of distance from MCMA, and by modeled influence from MCMA. These tend to be much lower closer to MCMA, and with higher MCMA influence. This research shows that MCMA emissions have a discernible effect on regional air quality and photochemistry, both contributing large amounts of ozone and its precursors, but with caveat that aerosol concentrations hinder formation of ozone to its potential due to its reduction in photolysis rates.

  20. Climate changing characteristics of Zhangye City in Heihe River basin during 1968-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At present,researches on climate change of the Heihe River basin mainly focus on the relationship between basin climate change and regional water resources,regional desertification and dynamic climatic seasons of sandstorm,but less on climate change of oasis region,where there are more intense and frequent human activities.Based on data of precipitation,temperature,strong wind and dust events frequencies obtained from the six meteorological stations of Zhangye region in Heihe River basin,the features of climate change during 1968-2005 were carefully studied.Results show that the regional temperature rise rate exceeded the average level of China.The annual precipitation changed a little,but the precipitation had a slowly increasing trend in spring and winter.Frequencies of strong wind and sandstorm days show obviously descending trends,which had a close correlation with the regional temperature rise and the precipitation increase in spring and winter.Meanwhile,further human economic activities and exploitations to the oasis in the inland valley of arid regions also affected the climate change of this region,which has a sensitive and fragile eco-environment.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  2. Crescent City, California Inner Harbor Basin and Entrance Channel. Draft. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    for more efficient barge shipment of petroleum products into Crescent City Inner Harbor from the present to the year 2032. b. Improve the saftey ...Benthos. This element is considered a significant resource because of its position and importance in the food web. These organisms are filter...feeders, deposit feeders, scavengers and algae scrapers. They are used as food by a number of fish species. Benthos also contribute substantially to the

  3. Impact air quality by wildfire and agricultural fire in Mexico city 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Campos, Alejandra; Agustín García Reynoso, José; Castro Romero, Telma Gloria; Carbajal Pérez, José Noel; Mar Morales, Bertha Eugenia; Gerardo Ruiz Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale process natural combustion where different types of flora and fauna of different sizes and ages are consumed. Consequently, forest fires are a potential source of large amounts of air pollutants that must be considered when trying to relate emissions to the air quality in neighboring cities of forest areas as in the Valley of Mexico. The size, intensity and occurrence of a forest fire directly dependent variables such as weather conditions, topography, vegetation type and its moisture content and the mass of fuel per hectare. An agricultural fire is a controlled combustion, which occurred a negligence can get out of control and increase the burned area or the possibly become a wildfire. Once a fire starts, the dry combustible material is consumed first. If the energy release is large and of sufficient duration, drying green material occurs live, with subsequent burning it. Under proper fuel and environmental conditions, this process can start a chain reaction. These events occur mainly in the dry season. Forest fires and agriculture fires contribute directly in the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere; The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by a wildfire are the PM10, PM2.5, NOx and VOC's, the consequences have by fire are deforestation, soil erosion or change of structure and composition of forests (Villers, 2006), also it affects ecosystems and the health of the population. In this study the impact of air quality for the emissions of particulate matter less than ten microns PM10, by wildfire and agricultural fire occurred on the same day and same place, the study was evaluated in Mexico City the Delegation Milpa Alta in the community of San Lorenzo Tlacoyucan, the fire occurred on 3rd March, 2015, the wildfire duration 12 hours consuming 32 hectares of oak forest and the agricultural fire duration 6 hours consumed 16 hectares of corn. To evaluate the impact of air quality the WRF-Chem, WRF-Fire and METv3

  4. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  5. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  6. An air pollution modeling study using three surface coverings near the New International Airport of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Arón D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis-Gerardo

    2003-10-01

    The dry lakebed of what once was the lake of Texcoco is the location selected for the New International Airport of Mexico City. This project will generate an important urban development near the airport with regional implications on air quality. Using a prognostic air quality model, the consequences of photochemical air pollution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City resulting from three possible coverings for the areas of the lakebed that are not occupied by the runway and terminal building are investigated. These coverings are desert, grassland, and water and occupy an area of 63 km2. This study is based on a representative high pollution episode. In addition to reducing the emission of primary natural particles, the water covering generates a land-water breeze capable of maintaining enough ventilation to reduce pollutant concentrations over a localized region of the metropolitan area and may enhance the wind speed on the coasts of the proposed lake.

  7. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  8. Morphology of single inhalable particle in the air polluted city of Shijiazhuang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zanhong; ZHANG Lingzhi; ZHANG Yuliang; ZHAO Zhou; ZHANG Sumin

    2008-01-01

    In the typical air polluted city of Shijiazhuang,single inhalable particle samples in non-heating period,heating pened,dust storm days,and snowy days were collected and detected by SEM/EDS(scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry).The particle morphology was characterized by the 6 shape clusters,which are:irregular square,agglomerate,sphere,floccule,column or stick,and unknown,by quantitative order.The irregular square particles are common in all kinds of samples;sphere particles are more,and column or stick are less in winter samples;in the wet deposit samples,agglomerate and floccule particles are not found.The surface of most particles is coarse with fractal edge,which can provide suitable chemical reaction bed in the polluted atmospheric environment.New formed calcium crystal is found to demonstrate the existence of neutralized reaction,explaining the reason for the high SO2 emission and low acid rain frequency in Shijiazhuang.The three sorts of surface patterns of spheres are smooth,semi-smooth,and coarse,corresponding to the element of Si-dominant,Si-Al-dominant,and Fe-dominant.The soot particle is present as floccule with average size around 10 μm,considerably larger than the former reported results,but wrapped or captured with other fine particles to make its appearance unique and enhance its toxicity potentially.The new formed calcium crystal,the 3 sorts of sphere surface patterns,and the unique soot appearance represent the single inhalable particle's morphology characteristics in Shijiazhuang City.

  9. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  10. Application of the NARCM model to high-resolution aerosol simulations: Case study of Mexico City basin during the Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosférico-Aerosol and Visibility Research measurements campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Alpizar, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre; Quintanar, Arturo I.

    2003-08-01

    The Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM) is used to study the visibility and three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of aerosol distributions within the Mexico City basin. NARCM simulates transport, diffusion, deposition, and size distributions of sulphur aerosol particles in the region. The model assumes only simple sulphur oxidation, not taking explicitly into account the urban air chemistry. Rather, it focuses on detailed aerosol microphysics and 3-D optical properties. The simulation performance is compared with upper air and ground-based observations for the following specific days of intensive measurement: 2, 4, and 14 March 1997. Time series at Mexico City airport shows lower values of visibility in the morning due to a shallow mixed layer and higher values in the afternoon following the evolution of the mixed layer depth. Modeled visibility shows large dependence on cardinal direction and size distribution of particles. It is found that better resolution of particle size leads to better representation of coagulation processes and to realistic size distributions which show a characteristic accumulation mode around 0.3 μm. As a result, visibility simulations are closer to those observed at the airport location. Comparing visibility is a stringent test for the model because it requires an accurate representation of 3-D meteorological fields together with a realistic aerosol simulation.

  11. Effect of air pollution on FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% of the traffic policemen in Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to large number of vehicles, air pollution is increasing day by day in Dhaka city. Automobile exhaust cause acute and chronic respiratory disease in traffic policemen as they are exposed to air pollution for prolong period of time. Objective: To observe the effect of long term exposure to air pollution on FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% of traffic policemen. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College (DMC, Dhaka from July 2014 to June 2015. Fifty apparently healthy traffic policemen with the age 25 to 45 years were selected as study group. Fifty age and BMI matched healthy male subjects were selected as control. The study subjects were selected from different traffic junctions and the control from different offices of Dhaka city. FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% of all the subjects were measured by a digital spirometer. Statistical analysis was done by Independent sample ‘t’ test. Results: In this study FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were significantly (p< 0.001 lower in the traffic policemen than the control group. Conclusion: From the result of this study it can be concluded that prolonged exposure to air pollution may decrease pulmonary function of the traffic policemen in Dhaka city.

  12. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J. L.; González, U.

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption in a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber.

  13. The impact of liquefied petroleum gas usage on air quality in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasca, J.; Ortiz, E.; Castillo, H.; Jaimes, J.L.; Gonzalez, U. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the main fuel used in the residential sector of the Metropolitan Zone in the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). LPG represents 16% of the total fuel consumption in the MZVM and its demand increased 14% from 1986 to 1999. Propane and butanes, the main compounds of LPG, constituted 29% of all non-methane hydrocarbons found in the air of Mexico City. Some researchers have reported that LPG losses are a significant cause of high ozone concentration in MZVM. Three analyses are carried out in this work to estimate LPG's share of responsibility for MZVM pollution problems. First, the correlation between LPG consumption and three ozone pollution indicators was calculated for the period of 1986-1999. The non-significant correlation of these indicators with LPG consumption on a monthly basis suggests that LPG associated emissions are not the foremost cause of ozone formation. Second, a simulation model is applied to three LPG related emission control strategies to estimate the reduction in the maximum ozone concentration. The most noticeable effect was obtained when both hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions associated with LPG use were totally reduced. The other two strategies, that only reduce HC emissions, had a minimum effect on the ozone concentration. Third, organic compounds consumption in air samples captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers is used to determine the chemical loss rate of LPG associated species and aromatics in the MZVM. The smog chamber results showed that 70% of propane and n-butane remain at the end of a 1-day irradiation, therefore they remain in the MZVM atmosphere for several days being the reason for the high concentration of these compounds. LPG associated compounds only account for 18% of ozone formed but aromatics contribute 35% to ozone in smog chamber. (Author)

  14. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  15. Aquatic insect assemblages of man-made permanent ponds, Buenos Aires city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, M S; Collantes, M B; Bachmann, A O

    2013-02-01

    Freshwater habitats are important elements within urban green space and they are endangered by various types of human activity. With the aim to increase the knowledge about species biodiversity in urban ecosystems, we characterised the assemblages of aquatic insects in four permanent man-made ponds in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) during a 1-year period. We recorded 32 species with Sigara spp. (Hemiptera) as the most abundant. The removal of aquatic vegetation from the studied ponds may have affected both the establishment and permanence of the insect community. Swimmers were the dominant group in the studied sites, followed by burrowers and sprawlers, and only a few strictly climbers were collected. Therefore, all sampled ponds were dominated by collectors (principally gatherers), secondarily by predators and only few shredders were detected, which was much affected by the removal of macrophytes. Non-parametric abundance indexes estimated a number of species very close to the observed number in each site. Conversely, the incidence indexes estimated more species because there were many more taxa present only in one sample than those represented by few individual in a sample. Our data provides some insights on the community of man-made ponds that can improve the management of these aquatic urban habitats. Considering that macrophytes affect animal assemblages due to their role as physical structures that increase the complexity or heterogeneity of habitats, they should not be removed by authorities in order to promote biodiversity.

  16. Sources of bacteria in outdoor air across cities in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Robert M; Sullivan, Amy P; Costello, Elizabeth K; Collett, Jeff L; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria are abundant in the atmosphere, where they often represent a major portion of the organic aerosols. Potential pathogens of plants and livestock are commonly dispersed through the atmosphere, and airborne bacteria can have important effects on human health as pathogens or triggers of allergic asthma and seasonal allergies. Despite their importance, the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms remain poorly understood. We used high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze bacterial communities present in the aerosol fraction containing fine particulate matter of ≤2.5 μm from 96 near-surface atmospheric samples collected from cities throughout the midwestern United States and found that the communities are surprisingly diverse and strongly affected by the season. We also directly compared the airborne communities to those found in hundreds of samples representing potential source environments. We show that, in addition to the more predictable sources (soils and leaf surfaces), fecal material, most likely dog feces, often represents an unexpected source of bacteria in the atmosphere at more urbanized locations during the winter. Airborne bacteria are clearly an important, but understudied, component of air quality that needs to be better integrated into efforts to measure and model pollutants in the atmosphere.

  17. Monitoring trace metals in urban aerosols from Buenos Aires city. Determination by plasma-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smichowski, Patricia; Gómez, Dario R; Dawidowski, Laura E; Giné, María Fernanda; Bellato, Ana Claudia Sánchez; Reich, Silvia L

    2004-04-01

    A study was undertaken, within the framework of a 3 years national project, to assess the content of 13 elements in airborne particulate matter collected in representative zones of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The sampling strategy followed consisted in collecting simultaneously 67 samples of PM10 particulate matter in 9 sampling sites covering an area of about 30 km2 during one week. The collection was performed on ash-free fibre-glass filters using high volume samplers. A combination of aqua regia and perchloric acid was used for leaching metals from filters. Key elements, namely Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Zn and Zr, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at micro g g(-1) and ng g(-1) levels. Analyte concentration varied from 130 ng g(-1)(Mo) to over 30%(Ca). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the data set including the measured elemental compositions for the monitored period. The atmospheric concentration found for Pb confirms the decreasing levels of this element since the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1995: 88 ng m(-3)(2001) gas imply low emissions of this element from combustion activities. To the best of our knowledge, S concentrations are reported for the first time for this city.

  18. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  19. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  20. Morphometric analysis of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The State of São Paulo Water Resources Policy established, in 1991, the Integrated Water Resources Management System (SIGRHI and defined the basic principles for water management, adopting the watershed as the basic unit for studies, integrated planning for sustainable development. This study characterized the morphology of sub-basins Fojo and Perdizes in the city of Campos do Jordão, SP. Morphometric analysis involved the characterization of geometric parameters, topography and drainage network, and the analysis of land use and land cover of the sub-basins. The morphometric characterization revealed that Perdizes sub-basin has an area of 12.70 km², a perimeter of 19.85 km, and a main channel length of 6.86 km, while Fojo sub-basin has a drainage area of 13.97 km ², a perimeter of 19.74 km, and a main channel length of 6.94 km. These results indicate similarities between the two sub-basins. The compactness coefficient (Kc for Perdizes was 1.56 and for Fojo 1.41. These values associated with the respective form factors, F = 0.27 and F = 0.29, indicate that these sub-basins, under a normal precipitation regime are not susceptible to flooding. The results of these indices are consisted with the circularity index (CI found: CI = 0.41 for Perdizes and CI = 0.45 for Fojo, respectively. As CI values found are far from one, they indicate that these sub-basins tend to have a more elongated shape and, therefore, lower flow concentration tendency. The results obtained for the maintenance coefficient indicate that in order to maintain the flow of each channel meter, Perdizes sub-basin needs 286.5 m² and Fojo sub-basin needs 243.9 m². Land cover and land use analysis revealed that among the four existing vegetation cover types, Forest is dominant in both sub-basins with 649 ha (51.1% in Perdizes, and 608.8 ha (43.6% in Fojo; Reforestation cover ranks second with similar areas in both sub-basins, Perdizes with 218 ha (17.2% and Fojo with approximately

  1. The Lagrange Street story: the prevention of aromatics air pollution during the last nine years in a European city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, R.; Bugliosi, E.H.; Schiliro, T.; Gilli, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Public Health and Microbiology

    2001-01-01

    Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) air pollution is a very important topic for environmental health, due to the toxicity and/or mutagenic or carcinogenic properties of these aromatics and the commercialisation of the unleaded gasoline containing amount of BTX. We measured BTX in the air of Turin city, the capital of Piedmont region (north-western Italy), during 10 years, from 1989 to 1998. The sampling site selected was Lagrange Street (LS), an 'urban canyon' placed in the centre of the city. The behaviour of BTX in LS was conditioned by some local and national legislative measures enforced during 1990s for the reduction of automotive traffic and BTX air pollution, respectively. Taking into account the existence of similar measures undertaken also in several cities in the developed countries, largely described but never discussed, the aim of this study was to verify in LS the preventive effects of these regulatory actions by means of a longitudinal survey extended over 10 years. Results obtained in Lagrange Street highlight seasonal trends, typical of this kind of pollutants, and an important reduction (from 42.6 to 15.9ppbv) of aromatic hydrocarbons (sum of benzene, toluene and xylenes) in atmospheric air from 1990 to 1997. In particular, the annual level of benzene in air showed a mean from 9.2ppbv in 1990 to 2.0ppbv in 1997, almost half of the 3.1ppbv imposed by law since 31 December 1998. In conclusion, the present findings induce a consistent optimism about the usefulness and the effectiveness of these types of regulatory actions enforced to reduce the human exposure to BTX, which could be extended also to other trafficated sites where the aromatics air pollution has to be reduced. (Author)

  2. [Effect of auto-road complex in the city of Surgut on air pollution and population health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurova, M V; Vinokurov, M V; Voronin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, due to the increase in motorization, the problem of environmental pollution by emissions of objects of auto-road complex is becoming more and more important not only for cities, butfor dynamically developing regional cities. The negative impact is characterized by the increase of the morbidity rate of environmentally-dependent diseases, primarily respiratory diseases, neoplasms. This exposure is most pronounced near the motorways, at the gas station, and also spreads to residential areas, which requires the optimization of protective and preventive measures. Presented article is devoted to the characterization of air pollution of various areas in the city of Surgut due to emission of sources of auto-road complex with the assessment of public health risks.

  3. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  4. Brucelosis canina en perros de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Canine brucellosis in dogs in the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Boeri

    2008-08-01

    8 areas of the city of Buenos Aires. We studied 219 dogs: 184 females and 35 males, that tested negative to the buffered plate antigen test (BPAT, which ruled out infection with smooth species of Brucella. We detected anti-B. canis antibodies in 16 dogs (7.3%: 9 females and 7 males, relevant data since the urine of males is considered one of the vectors for the spread of the infection. Although we could run blood cultures on only 175 animals, we isolated B. canis in 3 (2 females and 1 male. Only 3 of the owners of dogs that tested positive consented to a serological diagnosis and two of them were positive. We highlight that the agar gel immunodiffusion test (IGID proved to have low sensitivity, having detected only one of the 16 positive cases and none of the three confirmed by isolation. We conclude that in the areas studied, the detection of serologically positive dogs and the isolation of B. canis in 3 cases are indicators of the health hazard for the population exposed to it.

  5. Assessment of the status of urban air pollution and its impact on human health in the city of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Paul, R; Banerjee, R K

    2005-09-01

    Air pollution has significant effects on exacerbation of asthma, allergy and other respiratory diseases. Like many other magacities in the world the ambient air quality of Kolkata is also being deteriorated day by day. Automobile exhausts and certain industrial pollutants produce O(3) by photochemical reactions. The particulate matter, particularly less than 10 microm in size, can pass through the natural protective mechanism of human respiratory system and plays an important role in genesis and augmentation of allergic disorders. Sources of air pollution in the area and the unique problem arising out of the emission from the vehicles, industries, etc. have been described. Ambient air quality was monitored along with micrometeorological data and the results are discussed. The status of air pollution in the area has been evaluated and a questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the allergic symptoms and exposure to assess the respiratory disorders. The data are analysed to evaluate the critical situation arising out of the emission of air pollutants and the impact on human health due to respirable diseases (RDs) to middle class sub-population (activity-wise) in the area are assessed. A strategic air quality management plan has been proposed. For the mitigation of air pollution problems in the city, the different measures to be adopted to maintain the balance between sustainable development and environmental management have been discussed.

  6. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities. Results from the APHEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.R. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Spix, C. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. for Epidemiology, Neuherberg (Germany); Medina, S. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city`s regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 {mu}g x m{sup -3} increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. (au) 42 refs.

  7. Air quality in North America's most populous city – overview of the MCMA-2003 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory field measurements in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in February 2002 set the stage for a major air quality field measurement campaign in the spring of 2003 (MCMA-2003. Involving over 100 scientists from more than 30 institutions in Mexico, the United States and Europe, MCMA-2003 revealed important new insights into the meteorology, primary pollutant emissions, ambient secondary pollutant precursor concentrations, photochemical oxidant production and secondary aerosol particle formation in North America's most populated and polluted megacity. A description of meteorological and atmospheric chemistry and aerosol microphysics measurements performed during MCMA-2003 is presented. More than 40 published or submitted MCMA-2003 research papers are reviewed and key discoveries pertinent to understanding and improving air quality in Mexico City and similar megacities in the developing world are summarized.

  8. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. N. M. Pappoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congestion and its attendant air pollution are investigated and analyzed using causal loop diagrams. The paper further suggests mechanisms by which the negative externalities associated with road transport in the city of Accra can be addressed.

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Air Pollutants and Inversion in the ABL over the City of Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; LI Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the pollutant concentrations over the urban area and over the rural area of the city of Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, the relationships between the daytime inversion intensity and the pollutant concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are studied with the consideration of wind speed and direction, potential temperature, specific humidity profiles, pollutant concentration in the ABL, the surface temperature, and global radiation on the ground. It was shown that the daytime inversion is a key factor in controlling air pollution concentration. A clear and positive feedback process between the daytime inversion intensity and the air pollutants over the city was found through the analysis of influences of climatic and environmental factors. The mechanisms by which the terrain and air pollutants affect the formation of the daytime inversion are discussed. The solar radiation as the essential energy source to maintain the inversion is analyzed, as are various out-forcing factors affecting the inversion and air pollutants. At last, aphysical frame of relationships of air pollution with daytime inversion and the local and out-forcing factors over Lanzhou is built.

  10. Ecologic air-conditioning. A pilot plant for the geothermal and sorption supported air-conditioning in the HafenCity Hamburg; Oekologische Klimatisierung. Pilotanlage zur geothermisch- und sorptionsgestuetzten Klimatisierung in der HafenCity Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaolong; Grabe, Juergen [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Baubetrieb

    2011-10-24

    The relatively constant temperatures of the underground at a depth of 100 meters provide the opportunity to air-condition buildings with geothermal energy and economically. Currently, building air conditioning systems in Central Europe exhibit high growth rates. In summer, the task of an air conditioner is to cool and dehumidify air. Especially the dehumidification usually causes a high cooling demand, as the air is cooled below the dew point temperature of 12 C in order to condense out the water. The dew point is well below the demand for a comfortable room temperature of about 19 C. With this in mind, the authors of this contribution report on a principle of alternative dehumidification by means of a so-called sorption wheel. Sorption wheels use the hygroscopic properties of certain substances such as lithium chloride or silica gel in order to dehumidify the air. Thereby, the cooling demand significantly is reduced by the previous dehumidification. The regeneration of the sorption wheel requires heat. This heat can be provided by solar thermal plants and district heating. Since the air can no longer be dehumidified, rich supply temperatures between 16 and 19 C from. These temperatures can be achieved by means of near-surface temperature. Ground registers, geothermal energy probes or geothermal structures such as power poles are used as ground heat exchanger. The authors present the concept and the measurement results of the pilot plant in Hamburg's HafenCity.

  11. Analysis of Ozone Transportation in Tlaxcala-Puebla Mexico Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Huertas, H.; Torres, R.; Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Gutierrez, W.; Torres, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation conducted between March and April 2012 on the influence of air pollutants transport in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley airshed are presented. The campaign included ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and meteorological variables monitoring at surface in Huaquechula, Chipilo and Amozoc rural sites, and measurements of O3 vertical profile O3 and meteorology in Chipilo. The synoptic conditions during the campaign showed dominance of "Norte" conditions favoring air masses circulation from Pacific Ocean crossing southern Mexican Plateau to the Gulf of Mexico that influences the establishment of evening southeasterly winds in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley. Wind roses and contaminants analysis in surface for O3 during entire campaign indicates that before noon the movement of air masses was dominated by runoff of Malinche toward the southeast and south of the valley; and in the afternoon a regional pattern of winds from southwest Valley prevails coming from Cuautla Valley and south of Morelos State. The analysis of three representative days of atmospheric circulation in the valley as well as anthropogenic diurnal activity, a rate of morning increase in O3 concentrations similar at all three sites was observed, even in the absence of precursors such as NO2 during some weekends. By analyzing and engage data from O3 vertical profile and surface meteorology data, we could infer that there are minimal ozone contributions from local sources, but important from regional origin, and even O3 entrainment in height brought to the surface when mixing layer is growing. The back trajectory analysis from Chipilo at noon indicates that could be additional contributions of O3 from both Cuautla Valley and other areas of pollutants emission such as Tula, (in the north of Mexico City), and that weekend effect with the occurrence of high O3 levels observed there extends to this region. Although interbasin exchange of pollutants between the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

  12. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  13. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  14. Impact of the Popocatepetl's volcanic activity on the air quality of Puebla City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Gay, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Flores, Y. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report measurements of atmospheric pollutants in Puebla City, including those registered during the period characterized by intense volcanic activity from Popocatepetl volcano between December 2000 and January 2001. We used a gaussian air dispersion model to calculate the impact of sulfur compounds from volcanic emissions on the measurements of these compounds in the stations belonging to Puebla City Atmospheric Monitoring Network. The data show that during the analyzed period, this volcanic emissions affected the air quality, increasing the indexes of PM{sub 1}0, CO and sulfur compounds. Also, the results of applying a Gaussian air dispersion model to these sulfur compounds explains the measurements from Tecnologico station for days with intense volcanic activity and wind coming from the volcano to Puebla City. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reportan mediciones de contaminantes atmosfericos en la ciudad de Puebla, incluyendo las registradas durante el periodo caracterizado por una intensa actividad del volcan Popocatepetl, entre diciembre de 200 y enero de 2001. Aplicamos un modelo de dispersion gaussiano para calcular el impacto de las emisiones volcanicas de compuestos de azufre en las mediciones de estos compuestos en las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo Atmosferico de la ciudad de Puebla. Los datos muestran que durante el periodo analizado, las emisiones volcanicas afectaron la calidad del aire incrementando los indices de PM{sub 1}0, CO y compuestos de azufre. Ademas, los resultados del modelo gaussiano de dispersion del aire para los compuestos de azufre, explican las mediciones de la estacion Tecnologico para los dias con intensa actividad volcanica y viento viniendo del volcan hacia la ciudad de Puebla.

  15. Flood risk analysis and adaptive strategy in context of uncertainties: a case study of Nhieu Loc Thi Nghe Basin, Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Long-Phi; Chau, Nguyen-Xuan-Quang; Nguyen, Hong-Quan

    2013-04-01

    The Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe basin is the most important administrative and business area of Ho Chi Minh City. Due to system complexity of the basin such as the increasing trend of rainfall intensity, (tidal) water level and land subsidence, the simulation of hydrological, hydraulic variables for flooding prediction seems rather not adequate in practical projects. The basin is still highly vulnerable despite of multi-million USD investment for urban drainage improvement projects since the last decade. In this paper, an integrated system analysis in both spatial and temporal aspects based on statistical, GIS and modelling approaches has been conducted in order to: (1) Analyse risks before and after projects, (2) Foresee water-related risk under uncertainties of unfavourable driving factors and (3) Develop a sustainable flood risk management strategy for the basin. The results show that given the framework of risk analysis and adaptive strategy, certain urban developing plans in the basin must be carefully revised and/or checked in order to reduce the highly unexpected loss in the future

  16. Study on an air quality evaluation model for Beijing City under haze-fog pollution based on new ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Dong-Jun

    2014-08-28

    Since 2012, China has been facing haze-fog weather conditions, and haze-fog pollution and PM2.5 have become hot topics. It is very necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the air environment of China, which is of great significance for environmental protection measures. In this study the current situation of haze-fog pollution in China was analyzed first, and the new Ambient Air Quality Standards were introduced. For the issue of air quality evaluation, a comprehensive evaluation model based on an entropy weighting method and nearest neighbor method was developed. The entropy weighting method was used to determine the weights of indicators, and the nearest neighbor method was utilized to evaluate the air quality levels. Then the comprehensive evaluation model was applied into the practical evaluation problems of air quality in Beijing to analyze the haze-fog pollution. Two simulation experiments were implemented in this study. One experiment included the indicator of PM2.5 and was carried out based on the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012); the other experiment excluded PM2.5 and was carried out based on the old Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-1996). Their results were compared, and the simulation results showed that PM2.5 was an important indicator for air quality and the evaluation results of the new Air Quality Standards were more scientific than the old ones. The haze-fog pollution situation in Beijing City was also analyzed based on these results, and the corresponding management measures were suggested.

  17. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  18. [Transparency in public sector acquisitions. The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of

  19. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA, secondary OA (SOA, total OA (TOA, and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  20. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  1. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 2: Appendices A-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Tomasko, D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices A-E, containing field data and data validation.

  2. The web system for operative description of air quality in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. A.; Starchenko, A. V.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Development and implementation of information-computational system (ICS) is described. The system is oriented on the collective usage of the calculation's facilities in order to determine the air quality on the basis of photochemical model. The ICS has been implemented on the basis of the middleware of ATMOS web-portal [1, 2]. The data and calculation layer of this ICS includes: Mathematical model of pollution transport based on transport differential equations. The model describes propagation, scattering and chemical transformation of the pollutants in the atmosphere [3]. The model may use averaged data value for city or forecast results obtained with help of the Chaser model.[4] Atmospheric boundary layer model (ABLM) [3] is used for operative numerical prediction of the meteorological parameters. These are such parameters as speed and direction of the wind, humidity and temperature of the air, which are necessary for the transport impurity model to operate. The model may use data assimilation of meteorological measurements data (including land based observations and the results of remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere) or the weather forecast results obtained with help of the Semi-Lagrange model [5]. Applications for manipulation of data: An application for downloading parameters of atmospheric surface layer and remote sensing of vertical structure of the atmosphere from the web sites (http://meteo.infospace.ru and http://weather.uwyo.edu); An application for uploading these data into the ICS database; An application for transformation of the uploaded data into the internal data format of the system. At present this ICS is a part of "Climate" web site located in ATMOS portal [5]. The database is based on the data schemes providing the calculation in ICS workflow. The applications manipulated with the data are working in automatic regime. The workflow oriented on computation of physical parameters contains: The application for the calculation of

  3. Monitoring of air pollution spread on the car-free day in the city of Veszprém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Nagy, Anna Merényi, Endre Domokos, Ákos Rédey, Tatiana Yuzhakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors which adversely affect environmental quality in many cities all over the world is air pollution, with profound negative effects on human health [1]. Apart from the health risks through the inhalation of gases and particles, urban air pollution is the source of other problems such as accelerated corrosion and deterioration of materials, damage to historical monuments and buildings and damage to vegetation in and around the city [2]. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the vehicle related emissions which are a significant source of air pollutants. The research was conducted during the European Mobolity Week (EMW on the Car-Free Day (CFD. For the characterization of the air quality the generally accepted indicators – O3, CO, SO2, NO/NO2/NOx, PM10, Benzene (B, Toluol (T, Etil-benzene (E, m-, p-Xilol (MP, o-Xilol (O concentrations – were used, which well characterizes the changes in air pollution. The average concentrations measured on the car free day for O3 was 64,5 µg/m3, for NO2 was 6,76 µg/m3, for CO was 127,12 µg/m3, for SO2 was 5,19 µg/m3, for PM10 was 10,88 μg/m3, for Benzene was 0,38 µg/m3, for Toluol was 0,58 µg/m3, for Etil-benzene was 0,22 µg/m3, for MP-Xilol was 1,64 µg/m3 and for O-Xilol was 2,93 µg/m3. The results clearly shows that the daily fluctuation of the air pollutants depending on the traffic.

  4. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  5. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  6. Simulated Future Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology and Variability in the Mediterranean Basin by Using Downscaled Global Climate Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Pelin Ceber, Zeynep; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is one of the regions that shall be affected most by the impacts of the future climate changes on temperature regime including changes in heat waves intensity and frequency, seasonal and interannual precipitation variability including changes in summer dryness and drought events, and hydrology and water resources. In this study, projected future changes in mean air temperature and precipitation climatology and inter-annual variability over the Mediterranean region were simulated. For performing this aim, the future changes in annual and seasonal averages for the future period of 2070-2100 with respect to the period from 1970 to 2000 were investigated. Global climate model outputs of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used. SRES A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios' outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used in future climate model projections. Future surface mean air temperatures of the larger Mediterranean basin increase mostly in summer and least in winter, and precipitation amounts decreases in all seasons at almost all parts of the basin. Future climate signals for surface air temperatures and precipitation totals will be much larger than the inter-model standard deviation. Inter-annual temperature variability increases evidently in summer season and decreases in the northern part of the domain in the winter season, while precipitation variability increases in almost all parts of domain. Probability distribution functions are found to be shifted and flattened for future period compared to reference period. This indicates that occurrence frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions will increase in the future period. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  7. Sources and transport of Δ14C on CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1 relatively few samples (23% were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57‰ despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2 frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. These sources included the release of bomb or "hot" radiocarbon sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2. Plausible large local perturbations include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottoms-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  8. Sources and transport of Δ14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Singh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon samples taken over Mexico City and the surrounding region during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 exhibited an unexpected distribution: (1 relatively few samples (23% were below the North American free tropospheric background value (57±2‰ despite the fossil fuel emissions from one of the world's most highly polluted environments; and (2 frequent enrichment well above the background value was observed. Correlate source tracer species and air transport characteristics were examined to elucidate influences on the radiocarbon distribution. Our analysis suggests that a combination of radiocarbon sources biased the "regional radiocarbon background" above the North American value thereby decreasing the apparent fossil fuel signature. Likely sources include the release of 14C-enhanced carbon from bomb 14C sequestered in plant carbon pools via the ubiquitous biomass burning in the region as well as the direct release of radiocarbon as CO2 from other "hot" sources. Plausible perturbations from local point "hot" sources include the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns; medical waste incineration; and emissions from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. These observations provide insight into the use of Δ14CO2 to constrain fossil fuel emissions in the megacity environment, indicating that underestimation of the fossil fuel contribution to the CO2 flux is likely wherever biomass burning coexists with urban emissions and is unaccounted for as a source of the elevated CO2 observed above local background. Our findings increase the complexity required to quantify fossil fuel-derived CO2 in source-rich environments characteristic of megacities, and have implications for the use of Δ14CO2 observations in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories and their reliability as a tool for validating national emission claims of CO2 within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

  9. [Assessment of children's health risk posed by traffic-related air pollution as exemplified by the city of Salekhard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnin, V L; Konshina, L G; Sergeyeva, M V

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of determination of the levels of children's health risk from chemical air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, on the territory of the municipal district of the city of Salekhard there was carried out the work on the study of the intensity and the chemical structure of traffic-related air pollution in the locations of 16 children's preschool institutions. There was used the technique of the counting campaign for the structure and intensity of road traffic flows, children's health detriment was calculated according to the method of risk assessment. The main danger in the emissions of vehicles is belonged to nitrogen dioxide (43.6%), benzo(a)pyrene (37.4%), carbon monoxide (6.57%), formaldehyde (4.43%). Being detected at the level of I0(-4)-10(-5) and corresponding to the maximum permissible risk estimated cancer risk is a subject for continuous monitoring.

  10. Environmental characteristics of the cemeteries of Buenos Aires City (Argentina and infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzani Darío

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries with many water-filled containers, flowers, sources of human blood, and shade are favorable urban habitats for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever and dengue. A total of 22,956 containers was examined in the five cemeteries of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The vector was found in four cemeteries that showed an average infestation level of 5.5% (617 positive out of 11,196 water-filled containers. The four cemeteries positive for Ae. aegypti showed significantly different (p<0.01 infestation levels. Vegetation cover and percentage of infestation were significantly correlated (p<0.01, but neither cemetery area nor number of available containers were significantly related to the proportion of positive vases. Our results suggest that the cemeteries of Buenos Aires represent a gradient of habitat favorableness for this vector species, some of which may act as foci for its proliferation and dispersal.

  11. Mezcla génica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Gene mixture in a population sample from Buenos Aires City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Avena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la mezcla génica en la población de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, a partir de muestras de dadores de sangre provenientes de un centro público de salud (Hospital de Clínicas. Los estudios se realizaron sobre 218 personas no emparentadas que donaron su sangre durante el año 2002. Se analizaron 8 sistemas genéticos eritrocitarios y los alotipos GM/KM. Se realizó una encuesta con la finalidad de obtener información sobre lugar de nacimiento, residencia actual y datos genealógicos de los dadores. Las frecuencias génicas se determinaron empleando métodos de máxima verosimilitud. Para calcular la mezcla génica se aplicó el programa ADMIX (trihíbrido. Se registró un 15.8% de aporte indígena (AI y 4.3% de africano (AA. Estos datos se compararon con un estudio previo realizado en un centro privado (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, no observándose diferencias significativas salvo en el sistema Km. Los resultados obtenidos se corresponden con la información histórica y demográfica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.The aim of this study is to estimate the gene admixture in the population of Buenos Aires City from samples of blood donors, which come from a public health centre (Hospital de Clínicas. These studies were performed on 218 unrelated people, who donated blood during the year 2002. Eight erythrocyte genetic systems and GM/KM allotypes were analysed. A survey to obtain information about place of birth, present residence and genealogical data of the donors was performed. The gene frequencies were determined using a method of maximum likelihood. The genetic admixture was calculated through the ADMIX program (trihibride. The Amerindian and African contributions were 15.8% and 4.3% respectively. These data were compared with those obtained in a previous study performed in a private centre (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires and significant differences were observed, except in the KM system. The

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    CERN Document Server

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  14. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

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    Bruce J. Kirenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja. PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3 and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3 but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3. In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  15. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 μg m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 μg m(-3) and 2.7 μg m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively.

  16. Evaluation of air pollution control policies in Mexico City using finite Markov chain observation model

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Hoyos; Pedro Lara; Elba Ortiz; Rafael López; Jesús González

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov observation based model, where the transition matrix is formulated using air quality monitoring data for specific pollutant emissions, with the primary objective to analyze the corresponding stationary distributions and evaluate sceneries for the air quality impact of pollution control policies. The model is non predictive and could be applied to every source of pollutant emissions included in air monitoring data. Two cases of study are presented, ozone and sulfur...

  17. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China.

  18. Revitalización de subcentros metropolitanos. Buenos Aires entre la ciudad dispersa y la ciudad compacta / Revitalization of metropolitan subcentres. Buenos Aires between the dispersed city and the compact city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccolella, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas se debaten actualmente entre dos procesos de transformación socio-territorial convergentes: la densificación y verticalización de las áreas centrales, y la expansión cada vez más difusa y fragmentada de los suburbios. Esta dicotomía entre ciudad compacta y ciudad dispersa parece mostrar procesos singulares en el caso de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires. A partir de los años dos mil, se han ralentizado los nuevos lanzamientos de urbanizaciones cerradas y, paralelamente, han comenzado a manifestarse algunos casos de revitalización de antiguas subcentralidades del sur de la metrópolis, que habían entrado en una fase de estancamiento y deterioro desde mediados de los años setenta, y actualmente experimentan una aceleración de la producción de vivienda multifamiliar de calidad. Este trabajo explora y muestra algunas experiencias concretas de esta tendencia, con la hipótesis que, al menos en Buenos Aires, los procesos de transformación y reestructuración metrolitana muestran complejidades y diversidades según los contextos temporales y territoriales que se analicen. The large Latin American cities are currently experiencing two convergent socio-territoria transformation processes: the densification and verticalization of central areas, and the increasingly diffuse and fragmented suburban expansion. This dichotomy between the compact city and the dispersed city seems to show unique features in the case of the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. After the 2000s, the expansion of gated communities has slowed down and at the same time some old subcentralities in the South of the metropolis have begun to revitalize. Since the mid-1970s, they had entered a phase of stagnation and deterioration, and at present the production of quality multifamily housing is rapidly growing. This paper reflects on this trend and show some concrete experiences. Our hypothesis is that in Buenos Aires the process

  19. "City Air Makes Free": A Multi-Level, Cross-National Analysis of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debies-Carl, Jeffrey S.; Huggins, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of cities on the subjective states of individuals have been the subject of continuous inquiry. Recent research has demonstrated potential links between immediate environments and individual outcomes such as perceived powerlessness. However, the results of such studies are inconsistent and fail to account for the greater societal…

  20. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

  1. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  2. Air quality simulation of NOX over the tropical coastal city Chennai in southern India with FLEXPART-WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.

  3. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases.

  4. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  5. Dynamic downscaling of near-surface air temperature at the basin scale using WRF-a case study in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoduo PAN; Xin Li; Xiaokang SHI; Xujun HAN; Lihui LUO; Liangxu WANG

    2012-01-01

    The spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs) is too coarse to represent regional climate variations at the regional,basin,and local scales required for many environmental modeling and impact assessments.Weather research and forecasting model (WRF) is a nextgeneration,fully compressible,Euler non-hydrostatic mesoscale forecast model with a run-time hydrostatic option.This model is useful for downscaling weather and climate at the scales from one kilometer to thousands of kilometers,and is useful for deriving meteorological parameters required for hydrological simulation too.The objective of this paper is to validate WRF simulating 5 km/ 1 h air temperatures by daily observed data of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) stations,and by hourly in-situ data of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research Project.The daily validation shows that the WRF simulation has good agreement with the observed data; the R2 between the WRF simulation and each station is more than 0.93; the absolute of meanbias error (MBE) for each station is less than 2℃; and the MBEs of Ejina,Mazongshan and Alxa stations are near zero,with R2 is more than 0.98,which can be taken as an unbiased estimation.The hourly validation shows that the WRF simulation can capture the basic trend of observed data,the MBE of each site is approximately 2℃,the R2 of each site is more than 0.80,with the highest at 0.95,and the computed and observed surface air temperature series show a significantly similar trend.

  6. Transmission electron microscopy findings in the respiratory epithelium of guinea pigs exposed to the polluted air of southwest Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Castrejon, H; Villalba-Caloca, J; Meneses-Flores, M; Haselbarth-Lopez, M M; Flores-Rivera, E; Perez-Neria, J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the nature and the extent of the damage to the respiratory epithelium of guinea pigs after a 4-month exposure to the mixture of air pollutants in southwest Mexico City. Guinea pigs were placed outdoors on the roof of our facility, 8 hours daily, from February to May 1995. At the same time, control guinea pigs were kept indoors breathing filtered air. Air pollutants, temperature, and humidity data were obtained from the nearest station of the Environmental Monitoring Net. The airways and lung parenchyma were analyzed after 120 days using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During the 4-month exposure period, ozone (O3) exceeded the norm during 511 hours, and suspended particles less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) during 52 hours. Both pollutants reached peak levels of more than twice the norm. TEM revealed no important abnormalities in the control group. In the exposed group, there was loss of cilia, detachment of epithelial cells, and eosinophil and macrophage migration toward alveolar spaces through type I pneumocytes with destruction of their basal membranes. In six guinea pigs in the exposed group, we noted bacteria along the airways, with associated inflammatory response. We explain the colonization of the respiratory epithelium by bacteria as the result of the impairment on the defense mechanism caused by the exposure to environmental O3 and PM10.

  7. Comparative analysis of air quality in cities and forests; Vergleichende Analyse der Luftqualitaet in Stadt und Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzarakis, A.; Mayer, H.; Sczepanski, P. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1999-07-01

    The present study was dedicated to a comparative analysis of air quality in cities and nearby forests. The study was based on half-hour mean values of the ''classical'' air pollutants nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) measured in the time from 1992 to 1996 at the official air quality measuring stations of Stuttgart Centre, Stuttgart Bad Cannstadt and Welzheimer Forest on the one hand and Freiburg Centre, Northern Freiburg and South Black Forest on the other. The results obtained show substance-specific differences that are associated with distances to certain anthropogenic emitters and modulated by the pollutants' average baseline concentrations at the individual monitoring stations. [German] Auf der Grundlage von Halbstundenmittelwerten der 'klassischen' Luftschadstoffe Stickstoffmonoxid (NO), Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) und Ozon (O{sub 3}) aus dem Zeitraum 1992 bis 1996, die an den amtlichen Luftqualitaetsmessstellen Stuttgart-Mitte, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt und Welzheimer Wald einerseits sowie Freiburg-Mitte, Freiburg-Nord und Schwarzwald-Sued andererseits erhoben wurden, erfolgt eine vergleichende Analyse der Luftqualitaet in der Stadt und einem nahen Wald. Die Ergebnisse spiegeln substanzspezifische Unterschiede wider, die durch die raeumliche Entfernung zu anthropogenen Emittenten gepraegt sind und durch das mittlere Niveau der untersuchten Luftschadstoffe an den einzelnen Messstellen modifiziert werden. (orig.)

  8. Temperature modifies the association between particulate air pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho

    2015-08-15

    Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of air pollution and temperature on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the temperature modification effect on acute mortality due to air pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of temperature on the relationship between air pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of temperatures at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on extremely hot days (daily mean temperature: >99th percentile) in individuals aged effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest temperature range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high temperature range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that temperature can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.

  9. Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between the xylenes and ethylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monod, Anne; Sive, Barkley C.; Avino, Pasquale; Chen, Tai; Blake, Donald R.; Sherwood Rowland, F.

    Speciation of o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene was performed by gas chromatography from ambient air and liquid fuel samples collected at various locations in 19 cities in Europe, Asia and South America. The xylene's mixing ratios were compared to each other from the various locations, which included urban air, traffic air and liquid fuel. For all samples, the xylenes exhibited robust correlations, and the slopes remained constant. The m-xylene/ p-xylene ratio was found to be 2.33±0.30, and the m-xylene/ o-xylene ratio was found to be 1.84±0.25. These ratios remain persistent even in biomass combustion experiments (in South America and South Africa). Comparing the xylenes to toluene and benzene indicate that combustion, but not fuel evaporation, is the major common source of the xylenes in areas dominated by automotive emissions. Although a wide range of combustion types and combustion efficiencies were encountered throughout all the locations investigated, xylenes and ethylbenzene ratios remained persistent. We discuss the implications of the constancies in the xylenes and ethylbenzene ratios on atmospheric chemistry.

  10. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  11. Seasonal distribution of air-borne pathogenic and free-living amoebae in Mexico City and its suburbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, F.; Bonilla, P.; Ramirez, E.; Calderon, A.; Gallegos, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Ortiz, R.; Hernandez, D.; Rivera, V. (ENEP-Iztacala, Tlalnepantla (Mexico). Lab. of Environmental Microbiology)

    1994-03-01

    A survey was carried out over a one-year period to isolate amoebae suspended in the air of Mexico City and its suburbs. Sampling stations were placed at the four cardinal points of the metropolitan area. Selective media were used to culture the amoebae isolated. Specialized taxonomic keys and physical and physiological tests were used for identification, and a statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlations between physico-chemical and biological parameters. 108 strains were isolated, of which 19 were pathogenic via intracerebral inoculation and 9 via intranasal inoculation. Species of the genera Acanthamoeba, Vahlkampfia and Hartmannella were most abundant. Acanthamoeba polyphaga showed the highest abundance. Several times during the period of the study SO[sub 2], O[sub 3], CO NO and NO[sub 2] exceeded the permissible levels established by the Mexican government. The ability of amoebae to form cysts and cyst size were important factors for their presence, survival, abundance and diversity in the atmosphere. The main source of air-borne amoebae was the soil. Factors that favored the incidence and diversity of the isolates were wind speed and direction, low relative humidity, generation of frequent dust-storms, resuspension of amoebae by vehicular traffic, proximity to garbage dumps and large extensions of bare soil. Soil cover was a factor associated with a reduction in the incidence and diversity of the aerial amoebae. This study demonstrates that there are viable cysts of amoebae in the atmosphere of Mexico City, that may have potential importance in the case of certain kinds of human allergies and diseases. Further research is needed to find out the aerial presence of viable cysts of obligatory, amphizoic or opportunistic amoebic parasites, and to clarify the qualitative and quantitative effects of the local meteorological and physico-chemical environment on the free-living amoebae present in the atmosphere. 48 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Intra-urban air pollution in a rapidly growing Sahelian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J; Boman, J; Holmer, B; Thorsson, S; Eliasson, I

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we analyze spatial and temporal variations of air pollution (PM(1), PM(2.5), PM(10), CO, NO(x), O(3), Toluene and Benzene) and climate in areas of different development typology in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Analyses are based on measurements from fixed sites and car traverse measurements during field studies in 2007 and 2010. Large spatial and temporal variations were found, showing a generally poor air quality situation, with extreme levels of PM(10), commonly exceeding air quality guidelines of WHO. Pollution levels increase considerably with increased atmospheric stability. Important sources were transported dust and re-suspension of dust from unpaved roads, but also traffic emissions and biomass burning. The spatial variations are examined with focus on effects for variations in potential exposure depending on for example area of residence and daily activity pattern, showing that great differences are likely to exist. Ouagadougou, like most developing countries worldwide, currently experiences an extremely rapid population growth in combination with limited financial means. This is likely to create increasingly harmful air pollution situations for the rapidly growing populations of these areas, and shows an urgent need for increased understanding of the pollution situation as well as development of mitigation strategies.

  13. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    NOx (due to suppressed titration often leads to increased O3. The influence over rural areas is however always in favor of improved air quality, i.e. both NOx and/or NMVOC reduction ends up in decreased ozone pollution, mainly in terms of exceedances.

  14. Evaluation Clean Air Effects on Tehran City Residential Houses Price in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour Sabbagi M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundsandObjectives: Environmental activitiesunknownprice and value caused establishing of some unique characteristics for mentioned commodities. One of these characteristics was existing gap between private and social cost and benefit. For assessing these activities different approaches include travel cost, willingness to pay and hedonic price had been suggested. According to Tehran's air pollution problem, in this study Hedonic approach had was used for the assessment of healthy air on Tehran's residential house price.Materials and Method : Hedonic approach is one of the methods that are used for evolution environmental goods. In this method, each good's price is estimated as a functions of that good`s properties. To gather this study information 300 questionnaires has been collected by random sampling from different area of Tehran.Result: Results revealed that activities in order to reduce air pollutions, in addition to environmental value have economical value form the point of view of consumers. Also, results show that willingness to pay of every Tehran's citizens for every square meter of house located in region with less pollution is between 1120 to 1350 thousands Rials.Conclusion: According to the obtained results can be said that, clean air as an environmental good from the viewpoint of consumers has economic value that can be calculated this value using methods such as Hedonic.

  15. 76 FR 53400 - Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... constructed on wood or steel H-frame structures for most of its length with possibly some steel monopole structures in the Rapid City area. The structures would be 65 to75 feet tall and the line would require a...-way. Construction of wood or steel H-frame structures 65-75 feet in height. This proposal...

  16. The Frequency of Occurrence of Air Masses Over Twelve European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    measurements were made on the ground and made aloft by an " instrumented tethered balloon. Results reported by Lindberg 2 s of vertical profiles of liquid...Atmosphere and a Proposed Model for Frontal Analysis," Tellus, Vol 5 ’’N. S. McDonald, 1975, "Etgenvectur Analisis as an Aid to Air Mass Recognition...Vol 305, (Bellingham, A". Moc ety of Photo-uptical Instrumentation Lnglneers). 26. Nilsson, Bertil, 1979, "Meteorological Influence on Aerosol

  17. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory (with a horizontal resolution of 3 × 3 km) of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed, incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough on-site survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small interannual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at nine state-operated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground

  18. METODOLOGÍA PARA EVALUAR EL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN LOS PROYECTOS DE REDISEÑO DE RUTAS DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO COLECTIVO EN LAS CIUDADES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: MEDELLÍN METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN PROJECTS REDESIGNING COLLECTIVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES IN THE CITIES. CASE STUDY: MEDELLÍN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Echeverri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento establece la metodología y los procedimientos necesarios para evaluar el impacto ambiental sobre la calidad del aire en los proyectos de rediseño de rutas de transporte público colectivo en las principales ciudades del mundo. Para este propósito, se formuló un caso hipotético en la ciudad de Medellín teniendo en cuenta las rutas de transporte público colectivo complementarias al sistema integrado de transporte en el Valle de Aburrá, convirtiendo algunas rutas radiales en rutas transversales o de migración a otras cuencas. Con la reconfiguración propuesta para las rutas de transporte público colectivo la emisión de contaminantes proveniente de los buses no presentó cambios sustanciales. Sin embargo, la concentración de partículas aumentó en ciertos puntos de la zona de estudio y alcanzó valores que superan la norma anual de calidad del aire (50 µg/m³.This document provides the methodology and necessary procedures to assess the environmental impact on air quality in the projects of redesign of collective public transport routes in main cities around the world. For this purpose, it has been formulated a hypothetical case in the city of Medellin keeping in mind the public transport routes that are complementary to the integrated transport system in the Aburrá Valley, transforming some radial routes in transversal routes or migration to other basins. With the reconfiguration proposed for collective public transport routes, pollutant emissions from buses did not show substantial changes. However, the concentration of particles increased at certain points in the study area, reaching values that exceed the annual standard for air quality (50 µg/m³.

  19. Monitoring of tobacco smoke particulate matter air pollution in the universities of Kazan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyev, V.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM measurements were conducted in the premises of eight universities in Kazan city. Where smoking is allowed, PM concentrations reach dangerous levels. Smoking mostly takes place in rest-rooms, hallways, corridors, and kitchens of student dormitories. In premises where nobody smokes of the buildings where smoking is not fully forbidden, PM concentrations may be dangerous even for healthy people. Smoke-free policies in university buildings do not cause compensatory smoking at the entrances. PM concentrations at the upper floors of the buildings are generally higher, which needs to be taken in to account while interpreting the results of PM measurements. Smoke-free policies must cover both university buildings and student dormitories. (Full text is in Russian

  20. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  1. Characterization of Carbonyl Compounds in the Ambient Air of an Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of carbonyl compounds in Gumi city, where a number of large electronic-industrial complexes are located. Carbonyl samples were collected at five sites in the Gumi area: three industrial, one commercial, and one residential area. Sampling was carried out throughout a year from December 2003 to November 2004. At one industrial site, samples were taken every six days, while those of the other sites were for seven consecutive days in every season. Each sample was collected for 150 minutes and at intervals of three times a day (morning, afternoon, and evening. A total of 476 samples were analyzed to determine 15 carbonyl compounds by the USEPA TO-11A (DNPH-cartridge/HPLC method. In general, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by formaldehyde, and acetone+acrolein. Mean concentrations of acetaldehyde were two to three times higher in the industrial sites than in the other sites, with its maximum of 77.7 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels of formaldehyde did not show any significant difference between the industrial and non-industrial groups. Its concentrations peaked in summer probably due to the enhanced volatilization and photochemical reactivity. These results indicate significant emission sources of acetaldehyde in the Gumi industrial complexes. Mean concentrations of organic solvents (such as acetone+acrolein and methyl ethyl ketone were also significantly high in industrial areas. In conclusion, major sources of carbonyl compounds, including acetaldehyde, are strongly associated with industrial activities in the Gumi city area.

  2. The Effect of Dust Storm on the Microbial Quality of Ambient Air in Sanandaj: A City Located in the West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the dust storm can cause diseases such as Asthma, Pneumonia, and respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air-borne particles with airborne microorganisms in normal and dusty days in Sanandaj, a city located in the west of Iran. Materials and Methods: Air sampling was conducted during the normal and dusty days through Andersen single-stage impactor (28.3 L/min) for 2.5 min. Air par...

  3. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  4. Observation of Dust and Smoke Plume Transport and Impact on Remote Sensing of Air Quality in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshary, F.; Wu, Y.; Han, Z. T.; Nazmi, C.; Gross, B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-range transport of aloft aerosol plumes affects both air quality and climate on regional and continental scales. Asian dust impacts on the western US and Canada have been extensively analyzed, yet such quantitative demonstrations are not well documented in the northeastern US. Similarly, episodes of continental transport of smoke plumes from forest fires in western US and Canada impact visibility and air quality in the US east coast. In this study, we present the synergistic observation of transported dust and smoke aerosol plumes in New York City (NYC, 40.821ºN, 73.949ºW), using a combination of a ground-based multiple-wavelength lidar, a CIMEL sunphotometer/radiometer, satellite sensors such as CALIOP and MODIS/VIIRS, and NAAPS aerosol forecast model. We show case studies of trans-Pacific Asian dust transport to the northeast US driven by the strong western or polar jets. The potential impact of the plumes on the local air quality is indicated by the plumes mixing down into boundary layer and the coincident increase of the ground PM measurement. Using multi-year lidar and sunphotometer observations, range-resolved monthly occurrence frequency of aloft aerosol plumes and modification of local aerosol optical properties are presented. The transport paths and the optical properties of aerosol for each clustered path are characterized. We further demonstrate the impact of these aloft plumes on the surface PM2.5 estimates from MODIS and VIIRS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD), and observe that when the aloft plumes-layer AODs are filtered out using lidar, the correlation between AOD-PM2.5 is much improved.

  5. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  6. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  7. Air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma in a tropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang-Shyue Tsai; Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Department of Health Care Administration

    2006-07-15

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there is an association between air pollutants levels and hospital admissions for asthma in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 1996 through 2003. The relative risk of hospital admission was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days ({>=}25{sup o}C) statistically significant positive associations were found in all pollutants except sulfur dioxide. On cool days ({<=} 25{sup o}C) all pollutants were significantly associated with asthma admissions. For the two pollutant models, CO and O{sub 3} were significant in combination with each of the other four pollutants on warm days. On cool days NO{sub 2} remained statistically significant in all the two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient pollutants increase the risk of hospital admissions for asthma.

  8. Assessment of the Air Pollution Level in the City of Rome (Italy

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    Gabriele Battista

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pollutants is usually higher in cities than in the countryside. Generally, in the urban areas pollution sources as traffic, power generator and domestic heating system are more intense and spatially distributed. The pollutants can be classified as a function of long-term toxicological effects due to an exposure and inhalation. In the present work, several kinds of pollutants concentration generated in Rome during 2015 have been analyzed applying different advanced post-processing technique. In particular, statistic and cross-statistic have been computed in time and phase space domain. As main result, it is observed, as expected, that all the pollutant concentrations increase during the winter season into a couple of time ranges despite of [O3] that has high values in summer. It can be clearly concluded that Rome has a strongly unsteady behaviour in terms of a family of pollutant concentration, which fluctuate significantly. It is worth noticing that there is a strong linear dependence between [C6H6] and [NO] and a more complex interdependence of [O3] and [C6H6]. Qualitatively is provided that, to a reduction of [C6H6] under a certain threshold level corresponds an increase of [O3].

  9. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  10. Final report of the Mexico City 1991 lidar measurements campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Archuleta, F.L.; Hof, D.E.; Karl, R.R. Jr.; Tiee, J.J.; Eichinger, W.E.; Holtkamp, D.B.; Tellier, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deterioration in air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies is Mexico`s center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34% of the cross domestic product and 42% of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 minion mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which inhibit rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and are mostly uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now being introduced into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is an international collaborative project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality.

  11. Air Pollution, Airway Inflammation, and Lung Function in a Cohort Study of Mexico City Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sunyer, Jordi; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Escamilla-Nuñez, Maria Consuelo; Sienra-Monge, Juan Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Holguin, Fernando; Diaz-Sánchez, David; Olin, Anna Carin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Background The biological mechanisms involved in inflammatory response to air pollution are not clearly understood. Objective In this study we assessed the association of short-term air pollutant exposure with inflammatory markers and lung function. Methods We studied a cohort of 158 asthmatic and 50 nonasthmatic school-age children, followed an average of 22 weeks. We conducted spirometric tests, measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), interleukin-8 (IL-8) in nasal lavage, and pH of exhaled breath condensate every 15 days during follow-up. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Results An increase of 17.5 μg/m3 in the 8-hr moving average of PM2.5 levels (interquartile range) was associated with a 1.08-ppb increase in FeNO [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.16] and a 1.07-pg/mL increase in IL-8 (95% CI 0.98–1.19) in asthmatic children and a 1.16 pg/ml increase in IL-8 (95% CI, 1.00–1.36) in nonasthmatic children. The 5-day accumulated average of exposure to particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diamter (PM2.5) was significantly inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (p = 0.048) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.012) in asthmatic children and with FVC (p = 0.021) in nonasthmatic children. FeNO and FEV1 were inversely associated (p = 0.005) in asthmatic children. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in acute airway inflammation and decrease in lung function in both asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. PMID:18560490

  12. Effects of low level air pollution on asthma and chronic bronchitis in Nordic cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froesig, A.; Johnsen, C.R.; Vestergaard Pedersen, B.; Taudorf, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the occurrence of the respiratory diseases asthma and chronic bronchitis in the Nordic countries and discusses differences in prevalence within and between these countries. The report also presents information on the active research groups working in the field, and reviews the current literature on relationships between low-level outdoor air pollution and asthma and bronchitis. The prevalence of asthma and of chronic bronchitis is 5 to 10% of the total population. Asthma alone accounts for 2 to 4% with no apparent national differences. Chronic bronchitis accounts for 3 to 5% in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, but is more frequent in Finland (around 10 to 15%). It has not been possible to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in Iceland from presently available studies. Based on differences in mortality rates it is believed that the prevalences in urban centres are up to about 50% higher than the national figures. The death rates for deaths attributed to asthma and chronic bronchitis show more distinct national differences, and increasing trends. These differences between countries and trends may be attributable to varying diagnostic practice. The occurrence of asthma in the Nordic countries is low compared to other Western industrialized countries. Independent studies have found that low to moderate air pollution levels influence the illness of subjects with respiratory diseases. However, there are still methodological problems to be solved in order to clarify the relationships in detail and to obtain reliable quantitative estimates of these relationships. Research in this area should be strengthened and scientific cooperation across boarders should be promoted. This necessitates an increased and co-ordinated allocation of research funds and a clarification of which authorities should have the responsibility for this area. (EG) (124 refs.)

  13. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  14. Referential calculation of particulate matter in the air as a factor of environmental pollution in the urban area of the city of Pujilí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vallejo Choez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary investigation on the environmental quality of the city of Pujilí, made from the collection of samples of particulate matter and vehicular traffic counts on six points of the city. The methodology is based on the provisions of the Unified Text of Secondary Environmental Legislation for measuring atmospheric particulate matter, and the use of count tables for vehicle registration. The results reflect the impact of vehicular traffic, the characteristics of the rolling road layer, soil erosion, and climate on air pollution and its impact on the health of the population.

  15. Tratamiento directamente observado de la tuberculosis en un hospital de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Directly observed treatment for tuberculosis in a Buenos Aires City hospital

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    Claudio González

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la experiencia en la aplicación del tratamiento directamente observado de tuberculosis (TDO en el período 1/1/1979-31/12/2009 y la comparación de los resultados obtenidos en el periodo 1979-1999 versus los de 2000- 2009. En un hospital de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, 582 pacientes HIV negativos recibieron inicialmente rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida y etambutol o estreptomicina. En la segunda fase 424 de estos pacientes tratados entre 01/01/1979 y 31/12/1999 (G1, recibieron esquemas bisemanales con rifampicina/isoniazida o isoniazida/estreptomicina y otros 158 pacientes, tratados entre 01/01/2000 y 31/12/2009 (G2 recibieron un esquema bisemanal o trisemanal con rifampicina/isoniazida. Se siguieron las recomendaciones de los programas de control de la Nación y la Ciudad. Los pacientes bajo TDO tuvieron tasas de tratamiento completo más elevadas (82.8% versus 48.7%, (p The outcomes of directly observed therapy of tuberculosis (DOT between 1/1/1979 and 12/31/2009 were analyzed. Results obtained in the 1979-1999 period were compared with those achieved in the 2000-2009 period. In a Buenos Aires City hospital, 582 HIV negative TB patients received rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol or streptomycin in the initial stage, followed by a second stage where patients were included in two groups: G1 composed by 424 patients (period 1/1/1979-12/31/1999 who received either rifampin and isoniazid or rifampin and streptomicin twice a week, and G2, with 158 patients (period 1/1/2000-12/31/2009 who received either rifampin and isoniazid twice or three times a week. National and Buenos Aires City TB Control Programs recommendations were followed. Patients who underwent DOT had higher completeness rates than those included in self-administered therapy (82.8% vs. 48.7%, (p <0.0001. Mean age: 36.3±15.3 years, males: 63.1% and 69.4% were Argentine citizens. A 8.9% had been previously treated, 6.1% had co-morbidities. A 70.6% of

  16. Temporal variations of atmospheric carbonyls in urban ambient air and street canyons of a Mountainous city in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Lee, Xinqing

    2010-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds in urban ambient air and street canyons were measured from December 2008 to August 2009 in a mountainous city in southwest China (Guiyang). The formaldehyde yield from the photo-oxidation of isoprene emitted by vegetation was estimated to be in the range of 0.63-3.62 μg m -3 from May to August, which accounted for 28.8-33.4% of ambient formaldehyde. Based on the calculation of photolysis rates and rates of reaction with the OH radical, it was found that photolysis was the predominant sink for formaldehyde and acetone in both summer and winter. For acetaldehyde, photo-oxidation by OH radicals and photolysis were the major sinks in summer while photo-oxidation by OH radicals was the dominant sink in winter. Wet precipitation was found to be an important removal process for the atmospheric carbonyls. In the urban ambient air, the average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and all carbonyls were 4.8 ± 2.1, 5.7 ± 3.3, 5.1 ± 2.5, and 25.1 ± 9.2 μg m -3 ( n = 139), respectively. The average concentrations of these species in street canyons were 18.8 ± 6.5, 9.4 ± 3.2, 10.9 ± 2.1, and 64.1 ± 16.3 μg m -3 ( n = 62), respectively. The significantly higher carbonyl levels on weekdays (compared to weekends) highlight the contribution of vehicle emissions to carbonyls in the street canyons.

  17. The Characteristics of Air Pollutants during Two Distinct Episodes of Fireworks Burning in a Valley City of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Wan, Xiaoming; Bai, Shuoxin; Guo, Dong; Ren, Ci; Zeng, Yu; Li, Yirui; Li, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Background The elevation and dissipation of pollutants after the ignition of fireworks in different functional areas of a valley city were investigated. Methods The Air Quality Index (AQI) as well as inter-day and intra-day concentrations of various air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) were measured during two episodes that took place during Chinese New Year festivities. Results For the special terrain of Jinan, the mean concentrations of pollutants increased sharply within 2–4 h of the firework displays, and concentrations were 4–6 times higher than the usual levels. It took 2–3 d for the pollutants to dissipate to background levels. Compared to Preliminary Eve (more fireworks are ignited on New Year’s Eve, but the amounts of other human activities are also lesser), the primary pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and CO reached higher concentrations on New Year’s Eve, and the highest concentrations of these pollutants were detected in living quarters. All areas suffered from serious pollution problems on New Year’s Eve (rural = urban for PM10, but rural > urban for PM2.5). However, SO2 and NO2 levels were 20%–60% lower in living quarters and industrial areas compared to the levels in these same areas on Preliminary Eve. In contrast to the other pollutants, O3 concentrations fell instead of rising with the firework displays. Conclusion Interactions between firework displays and other human activities caused different change trends of pollutants. PM2.5 and PM10 were the main pollutants, and the rural living quarter had some of the highest pollution levels. PMID:28045925

  18. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  19. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina Hospital Wastewater

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    Anahí Magdaleno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital wastewater (HWW constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina. The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8. The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA and micronucleus (MN showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%, showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system.

  20. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

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    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  1. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si-Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. We estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  2. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  3. Elemental composition and sources of air pollution in the city of Chandigarh, India, using EDXRF and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandhu, H.K.; Puri, Sanjiv; Garg, M.L.; Singh, B.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Swietlicki, E.; Dhawan, D.K.; Mangal, P.C.; Singh, Nirmal E-mail: nsingh.phys@puniv.chd.nic.in

    2000-01-01

    The aerosol samples collected from industrial, commercial and relatively cleaner zones from the city of Chandigarh, India, have been characterized using EDXRF and PIXE techniques. Sample collection was done over different time periods during 1994-1996 using the Millipore sampling kit. Sixteen elements, namely, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb, were quantified in these samples. The loading distribution of aerosol on the filter media was assessed by scanning the sample along its diameter using proton beam. The elemental concentrations in all the samples analyzed by both the techniques have been corrected for this distribution. The elemental concentrations measured at different sites were used in absolute principle component analysis in order to identify the major sources affecting these sites and to apportion the measured air pollutants to these sources. Plausible sources identified from this analysis are soil dust, industrial activity, vehicular traffic and refuse burning. The soil dust accounts for the major fraction of the measured mass.

  4. Estimation of health effects for PM10 exposure using of Air Q model in Ahvaz City during 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Goudarzi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Using data processing in Excel, AirQ software calculates relative risks, attributable proportion, and baseline incidence and the final output would be displayed in the form of death toll. It is noteworthy that there is no model that can estimate the effect of all pollutants together and simultaneously. In addition, it was found that the annual PM10 emission mean, the summer mean, winter mean, and 98 percentile were 261, 376, 170, and 1268 μg/m3 in Ahvaz City. Cumulative number of persons for total number of deaths attributed to PM10 exposure was 1165 in 2009; Out of which, 44% has occurred in the days with concentrations lower than 250 μg/m3. It should be noted that 62% of this value is corresponded to the days with concentrations below 350 μg/m3. The total cumulative number of cardiovascular death attributed to the exposure with PM10 during one year of monitoring was 612 persons. On the other hand, 52% of these cases have occurred in days with PM10 levels not exceeding 300 μg/m3. Cumulative number of Hospital Admissions Respiratory Disease attributed to exposure with PM10 during one year of monitoring was 1551 persons; Out of which, 36 % occurred in days with PM10 levels not exceeding 200 μg/m3.

  5. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  6. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, N; Perrotta, D; Brudny, M; Abrantes, R; Hevia, A I; Davel, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the distribution of the members of the Cryptococcus species complex (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) in hollows of trees from seven parks in Buenos Aires City, to determine the serotypes and genotypes of these environmental isolates and to compare them with the ones reported in the 2001 survey. Four hundred and eighty nine samples were collected by swabbing all trees which had hollows or fissures in the seven parks studied. Each tree was sampled once during the study period and one or more isolates were recovered from each swab. Eight isolates of C. neoformans and 18 isolates of C. gattii were recovered from 15 out of 489 tree samples. C. neoformans was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Eucalyptus spp., and Phoenix sp. All isolates were serotype A and belonged to genotype VNI. C. gattii was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus spp., Acacia visca, Cupresus sempervirens and Ulmus campestrus. All isolates were serotype B and genotype VGI, like both C. gattii strains isolated in 2001. On two occasions, both species were isolated from the same tree sample. These results reinforce and extend our previous findings especially about the presence of C. gattii serotype B, genotype VGI, in Argentina.

  7. A comparison study of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three Indian cities using PUF disk passive air samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zongming; Chakraborty, Paromita; Liu, Di; Zhang, Ruijie; Xu, Yue; Luo, Chunlin; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    A passive air sampling campaign was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, the three major cities of India. The measured total PAH concentrations ranged from 6480 to 54,800 ng sample-1, comparable to the highest levels across the globe. Three- to four-ring PAHs were the dominant components in the atmosphere. According to the spatial distribution, the PAH concentrations were the highest in Kolkata and the lowest in Chennai. Kolkata and Mumbai were characterized by a relatively high proportion of HMW (high molecular weight) PAHs, which can be ascribed to the difference in the economic and energy structures in the urban areas. Surprisingly, there was not significant decrease in PAH concentrations from urban to rural sites. Rural sources, generally associated with traditional biomass combustion, could be as important as urban sources in India. In this study, the total BaPeq (BaP toxic equivalent) concentrations generally exceeded the human exposure limit, posing potential risk to the health of the local residents.

  8. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  9. Bioindication and air quality in European cities: research, application, communication. 3. Hohenheim workshop on Bioindication at the Power Plant Altbach/Deizisau 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A.; Fomin, A.; Klumpp, G.; Ansel, W. (eds.) [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    2002-07-01

    In many European cities the air quality is still unsatisfactory, despite a successful reduction of the emission of air pollutants during the last decades. Measurements of ambient air pollutant concentrations are being made by physical and chemical methods in order to control whether the air quality standards are complied with. The harmful effects of air pollutants on living organisms, however, can only be demonstrated and determined by the use of bioindicator plants. Furthermore, bioindication makes air pollution problems visible and understandable to people directly and within their everyday life. Thus, the exposure of bioindicator plants also aims at raising the environmental awareness of the urban population and at inducing an environmentally friendly behaviour in the sense of a sustainable urban development. The utilisation of bioindicator plants in science and research, their application in routine air quality control and their use for environmental communication and education were the topics of the Third Hohenheim Workshop on Bioindication in March 2001. The 'European Network for the Assessment of Air Quality by the Use of Bioindicator Plants (EuroBionet)' as well as other bioindication projects on local, national and international level were in the centre of interest of this meeting. (orig.)

  10. Evaluating the developmental instability of Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766 from Lower Agusan River Basin, Butuan City, Philippines using fluctuating asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Jumawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA is the most frequently used tool for measuring developmental instability. It is used as a measure of ecological stress and a sign of developmental stability of organisms. The study evaluatedthe use of FA in assessing the condition of Scatophagus argus in lower Agusan river basin. High FA values would indicate exposure to polluted aquatic environment. The study selected S. argus because of its observed susceptibility to aquatic pollution in the area. There were a total of 60 samples collected (30 males and 30 females. Using Thin-Plate Spline (TPS series, landmark analyzes were obtained and subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE software. Procrustes ANOVA showed high significant differences (P<0.0001 to the three measured factors (individuals, sides and interaction of individuals and sides. Similar findings were observed to both male and females samples suggesting high FA values. The principal component analysis was implemented to determine the affected landmarks. More landmarks were affected in males (11 landmarks than in females (5 landmarks. Deformation grids and histograms were used to display the ordination of affected landmarks. The data would be important to environmental planners in the management of lower Agusan river basin. Scores display a high percentage FA of female (70.94% and male (78.67%. In the female samples, PC 1 (33.26% and PC2 (13.53% were found to have significant variations affecting the rostral tip of premaxilla, posterior extremities, and the lateral profile. In the male samples, PC 1 (35.63% and PC 2 (14.24% have the same affected landmarks as in females but have greater variations. Significant levels of FA in the fish morphology are the result of its adaptive mechanism to cope up with the stressed environment. The dorsal cephalic region and the pectoral fin were the most affected landmarks and may be used to determine the effect of stressors to the fish since these areas

  11. River channel network design for drought and flood control: A case study of Xiaoqinghe River basin, Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baoshan; Wang, Chongfang; Tao, Wendong; You, Zheyuan

    2009-08-01

    Vulnerability of river channels to urbanization has been lessened by the extensive construction of artificial water control improvements. The challenge, however, is that traditional engineering practices on isolated parts of a river may disturb the hydrologic continuity and interrupt the natural state of ecosystems. Taking the Xiaoqinghe River basin as a whole, we developed a river channel network design to mitigate river risks while sustaining the river in a state as natural as possible. The river channel risk from drought during low-flow periods and flood during high-flow periods as well as the potential for water diversion were articulated in detail. On the basis of the above investigation, a network with "nodes" and "edges" could be designed to relieve drought hazard and flood risk respectively. Subsequently, the shortest path algorithm in the graph theory was applied to optimize the low-flow network by searching for the shortest path. The effectiveness assessment was then performed for the low-flow and high-flow networks, respectively. For the former, the network connectedness was evaluated by calculating the "gamma index of connectivity" and "alpha index of circuitry"; for the latter, the ratio of flood-control capacity to projected flood level was devised and calculated. Results show that the design boosted network connectivity and circuitry during the low-flow periods, indicating a more fluent flow pathway, and reduced the flood risk during the high-flow periods.

  12. Air temperature field distribution estimations over a Chinese mega-city using MODIS land surface temperature data: the case of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weichun; Zhou, Liguo; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    The capability of obtaining spatially distributed air temperature data from remote sensing measurements is an improvement for many environmental applications focused on urban heat island, carbon emissions, climate change, etc. This paper is based on the MODIS/Terra and Aqua data utilized to study the effect of the urban atmospheric heat island in Shanghai, China. The correlation between retrieved MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature measured at local weather stations was initially studied at different temporal and spatial scales. Secondly, the air temperature data with spatial resolutions of 250 m and 1 km were estimated from MODIS LST data and in-situ measured air temperature. The results showed that there is a slightly higher correlation between air temperature and MODIS LST at a 250m resolution in spring and autumn on an annual scale than observed at a 1 km resolution. Although the distribution pattern of the air temperature thermal field varies in different seasons, the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai is characterized by a distribution pattern of multiple centers, with the central urban area as the primary center and the built-up regions in each district as the subcenters. This study demonstrates the potential not only for estimating the distribution of the air temperature thermal field from MODIS LST with 250 m resolution in spring and autumn in Shanghai, but also for providing scientific and effective methods for monitoring and studying UHI effect in a Chinese mega-city such as Shanghai.

  13. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China:A case study on an industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieyun Ma; Honghong Yi; Xiaolong Tang; Yan Zhang; Ying Xiang; Li Pu

    2013-01-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction,also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders.The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China,Xuanwei in Yunnan Province,was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system.First,our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10.Second,after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015,ambient concentration of SO2,NOx and PM 10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated,and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented.Last but not least,a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation.However,there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future.In spatial allocation,reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx.These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy

  14. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy.

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact: Replacement of Chemical Cleaning Line Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Alternative Site Locations Page 2-4 February 2012 0 Gl• Locer.on -....--....... c:::::J Tlnh• N’B -ry N A LANCER GATE UBERATOR GATE Environmental... Economy standards. 3.1.2.4 Proposed Project Location Building 3001 is located on the eastern portion of Tinker AFB and is identified as the largest...to the economy of Oklahoma City. According to the Greater Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce (2010), the top five employers in the Oklahoma City

  16. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzick, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  17. On the usefulness of atmospheric measurements for air quality evaluation in the context of recent urban meteorology findings in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Nunez, X.; Jazcilevich Diamant, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: xochitl@atmosfera.unam.mx

    2007-10-15

    In many cities, the main tool used to assess pollution abatement policies is the air quality information obtained from local monitoring network. However, in the context of a complex meteorology and land use such as those prevailing in Mexico City, the point-wise character and lack of detailed chemistry of this information may confer conflictive or biased information. The approach to understand the problem could be not based on solid ground. It is not until the measurement effort is complemented with detailed meteorological and air quality modeling that proper use of the information can be assured. In order to provide an example of this assertion, the usefulness of measured air quality data is gauged in a simplified manner, constructing three dimensional graphs containing local emission concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations, that we call ozone isopleths, for three sites in Mexico City. Together with corresponding wind rose data, an interpretation of the air pollution transport in the Valley of Mexico using only measured data is attempted. This interpretation, based on measured information subject to local influences, is compared with recent air quality modeling results showing that when measured data is used in conjunction with air quality modeling a better interpretation of air pollution problem can be obtained. A correct strategy to study the air quality problem, especially in the case of Mexico City where complex meteorology and land use is present, should be that both endeavors, measuring and modeling, are pursued with equal vigor. [Spanish] En muchas ciudades la herramienta principal en la evaluacion de las politicas para el control de la contaminacion es la informacion de calidad del aire proveniente de las redes locales de mediciones. Sin embargo, en el contexto de una meteorologia compleja y el uso de suelo de la Ciudad de Mexico, el caracter puntual y la carencia de

  18. Are megacities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, E; Mazari-hiriart, M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the poor environmental and living conditions in Mexico City due to its huge size. Mexico City's size is a challenge to sustainability, and the outcome is unknown. Mexico City and the geographic basin surrounding it included about 18.5 million population in 1995. The basin and surrounding volcanic ranges include nine major environmental zones. Urban growth followed four stages. Different cultures applied different solutions to water supply problems. The basin shifted from self-sufficiency to reliance on 31% of supplies from external watersheds. The water table is declining and canals are polluted. Irrigated agriculture is disappearing. There is an average water deficit of over 800 million cubic meters per year. Mexico City is actually sinking due to groundwater exploitation. There is bacterial contamination of wells due to improper seals. About 75% of the population has access to wastewater treatment and sanitation, but sewage treatment plants operate at under 50% efficiency and treat only about 7% of the total wastewater. Atmospheric pollution from suspended particles has been a problem for decades. Ozone was the most significant air contaminant in 1994. Lead was the most harmful pollutant in 1986. Air pollutants may be the source of submucosal inflammations. Industrial areas are contaminated with suspended particles and sulfur dioxide. High traffic areas have high carbon monoxide levels. Atmospheric pollution has affected the quality of the rainwater. The city survives by importing food, energy, wood, water, building materials, and other products. The development model aims to improve quality of life. The city has been the center of political power since Aztec times, and its preeminent position forces government action. The author concludes that there are limits to urbanization, which the city is approaching rapidly.

  19. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  20. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  2. Association between unemployment, income, education level, population size and air pollution in Czech cities: evidence for environmental inequality? A pilot national scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations.

  3. Assessment of impact of air pollution on human health and environment in the South Durban Industrial Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.; Hertel, O.; Bøgh, E.

    This study predicts the spatial variation of air quality and estimate the human health risk of air pollution in SDIB. The study is based on the operational air pollution (OML) model which is predicting the dispersion and quantifying the contribution of selected air pollutant as PM10, SO2 and NOX...

  4. Correlation between T. S. P. , F. S. P. and visibility in a high altitude city (Mexico City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Torres, R.; Saavedra, M.I.; Aguilar, S.

    1982-06-01

    The metropolitan area of Mexico City is located in a high altitude basin (2 240 m above sea level) at a latitude of 19 degrees 26'13'' North. It has a population of 15 million inhabitants, and the motor vehicles cruising in the city amount to 1.5 million and around 21% of the total industrial activity of the country is sited in the metropolitan area. All this activity has created an acute air pollution problem in the area which, as a direct result, has resulted in decreased visibility and possible health effects.

  5. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  6. The air of our cities everybody's business; L'air de nos villes l'affaire de tous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This conference treats urban areas air pollution, what are the different pollutions sources, what measures can be used in order to reduce this air pollution and the results got after these measures. Some technical approaches are given, some models or statistical approaches in order to forecast pollution episodes are presented. It appears that the traffic is the most important air pollution source in urban areas but the solutions to reduce it, if they are encouraging are not still completely satisfying. (N.C.)

  7. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  8. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  9. Pollution trends using bark of morus alba in the cities of buenos aires and mendoza (Argentina Tendências de poluição usando cascas de morus alba nas cidades de buenos aires e mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Perelman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of elements deposited on tree bark was carried out for urban and periurban areas of two of the most important cities in Argentina. The content of Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, Cd and Sb was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in Morus alba tree bark collected in the cities of Buenos Aires and Mendoza. The main air pollutants detected in the Buenos Aires urban area were Ba, Cr, Cu and Ni and indicate significative difference from the Mendoza urban and periurban areas. Significantly, higher concentrations of Zn, Ba, Cr and Cu were recorded in the periurban area of the city of Buenos Aires than in Mendoza. Bark samples were strongly influenced by dust and show Al, Fe, Mg and other element accumulations that indicate that soil particles were carried out by wind. Elements like Ba and Zn, commonly linked to traffic emissions, showed the highest concentrations in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, possibly due to more intensive vehicular traffic. Our results indicated that intensity of vehicular traffic and not city structure is responsible for air pollution.Um estudo comparativo dos elementos depositados nas cascas das árvores foi realizado nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de duas cidades das mais importantes da Argentina. Os índices do Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni e do Sb foram determinados pela espectrometria da emissão atômica com plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES nas cascas da árvore Morus alba, coletados nas cidades de Buenos Aires e Mendoza. Os principais elementos da contaminação do ar detectadas na área urbana de Buenos Aires foram Ba, Cr, Cu e Ni, que indicaram diferenças significativas nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de Mendoza. Uma concentração do Zn, Ba, Cr e do Cu foi achada na periferia da cidade de Buenos Aires, significativamente mais elevada do que em Mendoza. As amostras da casca foram influenciadas fortemente pela poeira e

  10. Air temperature field distribution estimations over a Chinese mega-city using MODIS land surface temperature data: the case of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weichun MA; Liguo ZHOU; Hao ZHANG; Yan ZHANG; Xiaoyan DAI

    2016-01-01

    The capability of obtaining spatially distributed air temperature data from remote sensing measurements is an improvement for many environmental applications focused on urban heat island,carbon emissions,climate change,etc.This paper is based on the MODIS/Terra and Aqua data utilized to study the effect of the urban atmospheric heat island in Shanghai,China.The correlation between retrieved MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature measured at local weather stations was initially studied at different temporal and spatial scales.Secondly,the air temperature data with spatial resolutions of 250 m and 1 km were estimated from MODIS LST data and in-situ measured air temperature.The results showed that there is a slightly higher correlation between air temperature and MODIS LST at a 250 m resolution in spring and autumn on an annual scale than observed at a 1 km resolution.Although the distribution pattern of the air temperature thermal field varies in different seasons,the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai is characterized by a distribution pattern of multiple centers,with the central urban area as the primary center and the built-up regions in each district as the subcenters.This study demonstrates the potential not only for estimating the distribution of the air temperature thermal field from MODIS LST with 250 m resolution in spring and autumn in Shanghai,but also for providing scientific and effective methods for monitoring and studying UHI effect in a Chinese mega-city such as Shanghai.

  11. In depth analysis of the role of the mountain gap south of the Valley of Mexico on the air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo Ruiz Suarez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    38 days of air quality observations in Tenango del Aire (TENAI), south of Mexico City during MILAGRO were analyzed. That site was managed by FQA-CCA-UNAM's team with a mobile laboratory equipped with standard air quality monitors: O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2 and surface meteorological parameters. Hosted additional instruments were: CH2O, column NO2 (DOAS), backscatter (Lidar) and pilot balloons. Also, an ultra light plane from IMK-IFU, equipped with O3, PM10, CN, Dew Point monitors flew around the Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl volcanoes and above of TENAI some days during MILAGRO. Atop of TENAI, the ultra light descended in spiral until near ground and ascended to resume its path. In addition to these measurements, UNAM team ran air quality numerical simulations using the Mesoscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM) and an online coupled Wind Erosion Processor to MCCM we call WEPS-MCCM. The combined observations on the ground, the ultra light plane and the models results enabled us to carry out an in depth analysis of air quality in such important region south of Mexico City. Comparison were made with the episodes classification proposed by De Foy; Ozone North and South, Convection North and South, Cold Surge and South Venting to characterize dynamics in the Valley of Mexico. The aim was to define how well connected is TENAI with the air quality network in the MCMA. The influence of the mountain gap on ozone and PM10 levels in Mexico City is analyzed by episode type. Also, the impact of the mega city of Mexico on the nearby region to the south can be understood by observations in TENAI. More polluted episode types in TENAI are those called: Cold Surge, Ozone South and South Venting due to a wind shift occurring in early afternoon that brings back polluted air that was drained south during the morning and returns back to TENAI rich in aged air parcels. March 17 was chosen to show the integrated analysis of all variables observed and modeled (MCCM) in TENAI. In that day

  12. The Relationship between Climate Change and Air Pollution in Lanzhou City%兰州市气候变化与大气污染关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉霞; 李建刚; 赵烜

    2015-01-01

    选择最具代表性的重污染城市兰州市作为研究对象,利用兰州市近十多年的气候数据与大气中主要污染物含量的数据进行时间序列分析,揭示了兰州市气候变化与大气污染时间序列的变化特征,并利用统计工具对大气主要污染物进行季节变动预测,揭示其未来变化趋势,然后分析兰州市气候变化与大气污染之间的相关关系,揭示了兰州市气候变冷的趋势,最后分析兰州市气候变化与大气污染之间的相关关系,研究的结果可以成为空气污染预测预报的重要基础,为城市制定综合污染防治措施提供决策参考和技术支持。%Heavily polluted cities to choose the most representative of Lanzhou city as the research object, time series analysis of main pollutants content of climate data and atmosphere with the Lanzhou city over the past decade of data in Lanzhou City, reveals the variation characteristics of climate change and atmospheric pollution time series, and seasonal variation of the main atmospheric pollutants prediction using statistical tools and reveal the change trend in future, and then analyze the relationship between climate change and atmospheric pollution in Lanzhou City, revealed Lanzhou city climate cooling trend, finally analyze the relationship between the Lanzhou climate change and atmospheric pollution, the results of the study can be an important basis for prediction and forecast of air pollution, the formulation of the integrated pollution prevention and control measures to provide a decision-making reference and technical support for the city.

  13. Aerosol properties and meteorological conditions in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the resuspension of volcanic ash from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciela Ulke, Ana; Torres Brizuela, Marcela M.; Raga, Graciela B.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-09-01

    The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex in Chile impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months after the initial ash emissions. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian Steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring experiencing resuspension over various regions of Argentina. In this study we analyze the meteorological conditions that led to the episode of volcanic ash resuspension which impacted the city of Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of the two main airports in Buenos Aires area (Ezeiza and Aeroparque) on 16 October 2011. A relevant result is that resuspended material (volcanic ash plus dust) imprints a distinguishable feature within the atmospheric thermodynamic vertical profiles. The thermodynamic soundings show the signature of "pulses of drying" in layers associated with the presence of hygroscopic ash in the atmosphere that has already been reported in similar episodes after volcanic eruptions in other parts of the world. This particular footprint can be used to detect the probable existence of volcanic ash layers. This study also illustrates the utility of ceilometers to detect not only cloud base at airports but also volcanic ash plumes at the boundary layer and up to 7 km altitude. Aerosol properties measured in the city during the resuspension episode indicate the presence of enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer along with spectral signatures in the measurements at the Buenos Aires AERONET site typical of ash plus dust advected towards the city. The mandatory aviation reports from the National Weather Service about airborne and deposited volcanic ash at the airport near the measurement site (Aeroparque) correlate in time with the enhanced concentrations. The presence of the resuspended material was detected by the CALIOP lidar overpassing the region. Since the dynamics of ash resuspension and

  14. Biomonitoring of air pollution by organic compounds in the city of Graz and the industrial area of Leoben-Donawitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Stuttgart (Germany). Bau und Betrieb Umwelt Service; Pirker, D.; Pongratz, T.; Schopper, A. [Amt der Steiermaerkischen Landesregierung, Graz (Austria). Fachabteilung 1a; Waikinat, I. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Bau und Betrieb

    2002-07-01

    The air pollution of some persistent organic compounds (PAH, PCB, PCDD/F) was measured in two regions of Styria/Austria, Graz and Leoben, by biomonitoring methods. These measurements were carried out in addition to the air quality monitoring network, the monitoring of airborne dust, contaminated with dioxines and furanes and the contamination of soil. Urban emissions (traffic, domestic heating) of air pollutants dominate the pollution level in Graz. Emissions of iron and steel industry are responsible for problems in air quality in Leoben-Donawitz. (orig.)

  15. Air pollution and emergency department visits for cardiac and respiratory conditions: a multi-city time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have been conducted of the association between air pollution and emergency department (ED visits, and most of these have been based on a small number of visits, for a limited number of health conditions and pollutants, and only daily measures of exposure and response. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted on nearly 400,000 ED visits to 14 hospitals in seven Canadian cities during the 1990s and early 2000s. Associations were examined between carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, and visits for angina/myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmia/conduction disturbance, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and respiratory infections. Daily and 3-hourly visit counts were modeled as quasi-Poisson and analyses controlled for effects of temporal cycles, weather, day of week and holidays. Results 24-hour average concentrations of CO and NO2 lag 0 days exhibited the most consistent associations with cardiac conditions (2.1% (95% CI, 0.0–4.2% and 2.6% (95% CI, 0.2–5.0% increase in visits for myocardial infarction/angina per 0.7 ppm CO and 18.4 ppb NO2 respectively; 3.8% (95% CI, 0.7–6.9% and 4.7% (95% CI, 1.2–8.4% increase in visits for heart failure. Ozone (lag 2 days was most consistently associated with respiratory visits (3.2% (95% CI, 0.3–6.2%, and 3.7% (95% CI, -0.5–7.9% increases in asthma and COPD visits respectively per 18.4 ppb. Associations tended to be of greater magnitude during the warm season (April – September. In particular, the associations of PM10 and PM2.5with asthma visits were respectively nearly three- and over fourfold larger vs. all year analyses (14.4% increase in visits, 95% CI, 0.2–30.7, per 20.6 μg/m3 PM10 and 7.6% increase in visits, 95% CI, 5.1–10.1, per 8.2 μg/m3 PM2.5. No consistent associations were observed between three hour average pollutant

  16. Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China-Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Perret, Jennifer; Chen, Duo-Hong; Ma, Huimin; Lin, Shao; de Foy, Benjamin; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Wang, Jia; Xiao, Xiang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-05-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) on the days (1-5 days) preceding BP examination were collected from local air monitoring stations. Generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and BP after adjusting for other covariates. Results showed that with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (50.0 μg/m(3)) and O3 (53.0 μg/m(3)) level during the 5-day mean exposure, positive associations with elevated BP were observed, with an odds ratio of 2.17 (95% CI, 1.61-2.93) for PM10 and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.94-3.95) for O3. Both systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were positively associated with an IQR increase of four air pollutants at different lag times. Specifically, an IQR increase in the 5-day mean of PM10 and O3 was associated with elevation of 2.07 mmHg (95% CI, 1.71-2.44) and 3.29 mmHg (95% CI, 2.86-3.72) in systolic BP, respectively. When stratified by sex, positive relationships were observed for elevated BP with NO2 exposure only in males. This is the first report on the relationship between ambient short-term air pollution exposure and children BP in China. Findings indicate a need to control air pollutants and protect children from heavy air pollution exposure in China.

  17. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  18. Percepción de riesgo a la salud por contaminación del aire en adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Perception of health risks due to air pollution in adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Catalán-Vázquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar las relaciones que se establecen entre contaminación del aire y salud-enfermedad-muerte en una muestra de estudiantes de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta a 1 274 alumnos de secundaria de 14 escuelas en cinco zonas del Distrito Federal, entre marzo y abril de 2003. Muestreo polietápico de áreas geoestadísticas básicas (AGEB. RESULTADOS: El 84.4% considera alta o muy alta la contaminación del aire en la Ciudad de México, que disminuye al aproximarse al espacio más inmediato del alumno. Los riesgos a la salud van desde efectos en la salud respiratoria, 66.9%, a otras consecuencias en la vida diaria, 2.2%. Los predictores de percibir la contaminación como grave/muy grave son: a que la asocien con la posibilidad de causar la muerte (RM= 1.35, IC 95%= 1.02-1.77, y b asistencia a escuelas en la zona de La Merced (RM= 2.23, IC 95%= 1.56-3.21. CONCLUSIONES: Los determinantes de la percepción para esta población de adolescentes son: género, zona de ubicación de la escuela y las diferencias en la calidad del aire percibidas en la ciudad/colonia/plantel educativo. Lo anterior permite sugerir que en la política ambiental debe incorporarse el componente de la focalización, de tal manera que los programas ambientales sean más eficientes en el ámbito local.OBJECTIVE: Analyze the relations established between air pollution and health-disease-death in a sample of students in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 1274 students from 14 secondary schools in five areas in Mexico City was conducted between March and April of 2003. We used a multi-stage sampling, based in a basic geostatistical areas (AGEB. RESULTS: A total of 84.4% believed that Mexico City has a high, or very high air pollution; that valuation decreases as it approaches the most immediate place in which the students live. The health risks range from effects on respiratory health, 66.9%, to other effects on daily life, 2

  19. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areas with close proximity to oil and natural gas operations in rural Utah have experienced winter ozone levels that exceed EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Through a collaborative effort, EPA Region 8 – Air Program, ORD, and OAQPS used the Commun...

  20. Plant biomonitoring of air pollution in urban areas: examples of some French cities and Beijing (P.R. China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Rose, C.; Radnai, F. [INRA - Centre de Recherche Forestiere de Nancy, Champenoux (France). Lab. Pollution Atmospherique; He Shang [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, BJ (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology and Environmental Science

    2002-07-01

    In urban areas, gaseous and particulate vehicle emissions during periods of high traffic activity consist of primary air pollutants (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, particles, etc.). But under the influence of sunlight these pollutants can also react and create a variety of secondary products including ozone. Sensitive higher plants can be used as indicators of air pollution effects for studying the occurrence and distribution of air pollutants and their consequences in space and time. We report results of an urban survey (Communaute Urbaine du Grand Nancy) of ozone concentrations, using the appearance of visible injury of the leaves of a sensitive plant species (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3) as an indicator of the presence of the pollutant. Far from France, in P.R. China, Beijing is known for its high level of air pollution, but the town is only equipped with a small air monitoring network, and for this reason nothing is known about the location of the different polluted areas, their surface and their level of pollutants. In a first step, Beijing has been divided by a 211-grid plots system. During summer 1998, leaves were sampled from one poplar (Populus tomentosa) in each plot. Among the different elements analysed in the particles collected by the leaves of this bio-accumulator, the two elements Fe and S are particularly interesting: - Fe is a tracer of the air pollution linked to road or railway traffic, - S is a tracer of the air pollution linked to domestic or industrial use of energy from coal or fuel. From the identification of three classes of iron and sulphur levels, the first air pollution maps of Beijing have been drawn up. (orig.)

  1. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  2. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  3. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  4. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  5. Quantifying the impact of land cover composition on intra-urban air temperature variations at a mid-latitude city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai; Fan, Shuxin; Guo, Chenxiao; Hu, Jie; Dong, Li

    2014-01-01

    The effects of land cover on urban-rural and intra-urban temperature differences have been extensively documented. However, few studies have quantitatively related air temperature to land cover composition at a local scale which may be useful to guide landscape planning and design. In this study, the quantitative relationships between air temperature and land cover composition at a neighborhood scale in Beijing were investigated through a field measurement campaign and statistical analysis. The results showed that the air temperature had a significant positive correlation with the coverage of man-made surfaces, but the degree of correlation varied among different times and seasons. The different land cover types had different effects on air temperature, and also had very different spatial extent dependence: with increasing buffer zone size (from 20 to 300 m in radius), the correlation coefficient of different land cover types varied differently, and their relative impacts also varied among different times and seasons. At noon in summer, ∼ 37% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage tree cover, while ∼ 87% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage of building area and the percentage tree cover on summer night. The results emphasize the key role of tree cover in attenuating urban air temperature during daytime and nighttime in summer, further highlighting that increasing vegetation cover could be one effective way to ameliorate the urban thermal environment.

  6. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  7. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  8. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  9. Isolation of pathogenic yeasts in the air from hospital environments in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana A Cordeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of environmental surveillance of yeasts in specific areas of two tertiary local hospitals. From March 2007 to February 2008, samples from the air of two public hospitals were collected on a monthly basis. The samples were collected through passive sedimentation method (day and night exposure of Petri dishes. A total of 240 air samples from 10 hospital environments were analyzed. These environments presented similar contamination levels, from which 80 fungi isolates were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (n = 34, Rhodotorula spp. (19, Trichosporon asahii (11, C. tropicalis (8, C. albicans (4, C. glabrata (1, C. guilliermondii (1, C. krusei (1 and Saccharomyces spp. (1. Regarding the presence of yeasts and climatic conditions, there were 40 strains (50% in semi-critical areas (natural ventilation and critical areas (air conditioned. Considering the presence of microorganisms with pathogenic potential, environmental monitoring is necessary to prevent possible hospital infections.

  10. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    Like most of the cities around the world Chihuahua City suffers atmospheric and soil pollution. This is a problem that requires immediate attention from both public authorities and the scientific community. Although it is known that high levels of heavy metals are present in the airborne particulate matter, soil and dust in many urban regions, the information about personal exposure to these pollutants in Chihuahua City is nonexistent. This study focuses on the analysis and characterization of lead and arsenic in the airborne and soil particulate matter present in the interiors of households and their surrounding outdoor environments in the southern part of Chihuahua City. The sampling area chosen for this study was located in the southern part of Chihuahua City. An atmospheric sampling point selected by the Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) was selected as a geographical center, with a 2 km radius forming the sampling area. The households selected for analyses were located on Lombardo Toledano Street, a high-traffic street. The main objectives of this study were to establish the maximum exposure level in outdoor and indoor environments for particulate matter less than 10 mum (PM 10), Pb, and As, to determine the background level of Chihuahua City for these same elements, to determine the isotopic ratios of Pb206 and Pb207 in the indoor and outdoor atmospheric samples, and to verify if the source of the pollution is from anthropogenic and/or natural sources. Additionally, a comparison of the analytical data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) versus the analytical data from inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was conducted. The comparison of these techniques was based on sample preparation, speed of analysis, and accuracy of results. In the case of sample preparation, two extraction techniques were performed for a comparison of the extraction/leaching of Pb and As from the samples. These microwave

  11. Practice and Discourse of Judicial Operators in their Decisions of Migration Control: The Case of the Federal Administrative Justice in the City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to investigate the practice and discourse of the judicial operators of the federal administrative justice in the Federal City of Buenos Aires, which is the judiciary base established by the Argentine Migration Law (No. 25,871 to authorize or take part in the migration control decisions made by the Immigration Board (Dirección Nacional de Migraciones, DNM. This investigation goes from the doctorate research, focused primarily on federal administrative files and resolutions where DNM has intervened for the period 2004-2010. Upon these primary sources, which operated as means to review the Argentine migration policy, and its materiality, some exponents were chosen to think what they show about this judicial doing and saying in migration matters: the practice of “no-serve notice”, the references to delinquency, an upper-valuation in family issues and a negative to become part of the process.

  12. Environmental life quality perception in the city of general Daniel Cerri, Buenos Aires, Argentina: Proposal for a qualitative research methodology in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Spagnolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and perceptual approach adopted by the geographical science may turn out to be very significant for territory environmental management. Such an approach does not intend to replace the qualitative approach, though it does propose their complementarity. The general aim of this paper is getting to know what the inhabitants of the city of General Daniel Cerri [Bahía Blanca, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina] believe the quality of their environmental life is. As for the methodology used, a population survey was conducted, which was representative of the population being studied. The survey was divided in three parts: a structural part, which will enable us to learn how the information possessed about the place is perceived; an evaluative section, which will show the way space is valued in connection with the decisions that should be made; and a preferential one, focused on the analysis of the preferences towards certain places

  13. Proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of Mexico City air pollution particulate matter in vitro are dependent on particle size and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Bonner, James C; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Martínez, Leticia; García-Cuellar, Claudia; Ponce-de-León Rosales, Sergio; Miranda, Javier; Rosas, Irma

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to urban airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. We previously reported that the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of Mexico City PM10 (less than or equal to 10 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) are determined by transition metals and endotoxins associated with these particles. However, PM2.5 (less than or equal to 2.5 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) could be more important as a human health risk because this smaller PM has the potential to reach the distal lung after inhalation. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of Mexico City PM10 with those of PM2.5 using the murine monocytic J774A.1 cell line in vitro. PMs were collected from the northern zone or the southeastern zone of Mexico City. Elemental composition and bacterial endotoxin on PMs were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by J774A.1 cells was measured in the presence or absence of recombinant endotoxin-neutralizing protein (rENP). Both northern and southeastern PMs contained endotoxin and a variety of transition metals. Southeastern PM10 contained the highest endotoxin levels, 2-fold higher than that in northern PM10. Northern and southeastern PM2.5 contained the lowest endotoxin levels. Accordingly, southeastern PM10 was the most potent in causing secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. All PM2.5 and PM10 samples caused cytotoxicity, but northern PMs were the most toxic. Cytokine secretion induced by southeastern PM10 was reduced 50-75% by rENP. These results indicate major differences in PM10 and PM2.5. PM2.5 induces cytotoxicity in vitro through an endotoxin-independent mechanism that is likely mediated by transition metals. In contrast, PM10 with relatively high levels of endotoxin induces proinflammatory cytokine release via an endotoxin-dependent mechanism.

  14. Study of Concentrations of Available Cations and Anions in PM2.5 in the Air of Twelfth Region of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossean Arfaeinia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last few decades, the city's air quality has become a major concern; especially there is strong evidence about health effects of particulate matter in urban communities.In addition to suspended particles concentration, the ionic part of suspended particles is also very important, So that some studies  ions like Sulfate is the reson of increasing the respiratory diseases.So the aim of this study was to study of concentration of PM2.5 particles and their ionic componentsincluding major anions and cations in twelfth region of Tehran city in 2013. Materials & Methods: This cross - sectional study was conducted in the air of twelfth region of Tehran. PM2.5 concentration was calculated with sampling by frmOMNITMAmbient Air Sampler with PTFE filter with a diameter of 47 mm and through the weight measurement.Concentration of anions and cations which had associated with PM2.5 particles was read after collected sample preparation and injection to device Ion Chromatography (IC Metrohm 850 model. Correlation matrix was calculated between anions and cations. Data analysis was carried out by Excel and SPSS version 18 and One-Way ANOVA test. Results: The mean daily concentration of PM2.5 particles was 19.41 µg/m3 during the study. One-Way ANOVA test showed a significant difference at the 0.05 level between PM2.5 concentrations on different days of the week. Concentrations for sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride were obtained 0.28, 0.06, 0.49, 0.87, 0.63, 56.3, 1.43 and 0.71 µg/m3, respectively, and no value was detected for fluoride and nitrite. Balance between anions and cations were calculated and the correlation coefficient (R2 were obtained 0.972 between the anions and cations. Conclusion The mean concentrations of PM2.5 was higher than the air standards in Iran and WHO guidelines (25 µg/m3 and EPA standards (35 µg/m3. In a study reported that the One-Way ANOVA test between particle

  15. Proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of Mexico City air pollution particulate matter in vitro are dependent on particle size and composition.

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to urban airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. We previously reported that the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of Mexico City PM10 (less than or equal to 10 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) are determined by transition metals and endotoxins associated with these particles. However, PM2.5 (less than or equal to 2.5 micro m mean aerodynamic diameter) could be more important as a human health risk because this smaller PM has the potential to...

  16. Urban air quality in a mid-size city - PM2.5 composition, sources and identification of impact areas: From local to long range contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Cazzaro, Marta; Innocente, Elena; Visin, Flavia; Hopke, Philip K.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to European citizens. Combustion processes and traffic-related emissions represent the main primary particulate matter (PM) sources in urban areas. Other sources can also affect air quality (e.g., secondary aerosol, industrial) depending on the characteristics of the study area. Thus, the identification and the apportionment of all sources is of crucial importance to make effective corrective decisions within environmental policies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of different emissions sources on PM2.5 concentrations and compositions in a mid-size city in the Po Valley (Treviso, Italy). Data have been analyzed to highlight compositional differences (elements and major inorganic ions), to determine PM2.5 sources and their contributions, and to evaluate the influence of air mass movements. Non-parametric tests, positive matrix factorization (PMF), conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) have been used in a multi-chemometrics approach to understand the areal-scale (proximate, local, long-range) where different sources act on PM2.5 levels and composition. Results identified three levels of scale from which the pollution arose: (i) a proximate local scale (close to the sampling site) for traffic non-exhaust and resuspended dust sources; (ii) a local urban scale (including both sampling site and areas close to them) for combustion and industrial; and (iii) a regional scale characterized by ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. This approach and results can help to develop and adopt better air quality policy action.

  17. The Data Integrity Research of Air Quality Monitoring System in the City%空气质量监测系统数据完整性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊楷; 谷小娅

    2013-01-01

      空气质量监测指对存在于空气中的污染物进行定点、连续或定时的采样和测量,并将监测发送到监控中心,加以分析并得到相关的数据[1]。该文主要介绍城市空气质量在线监测系统的数据完整性研究,系统的分析了影响数据完整性的因素,并提出了相应的解决方案。该研究方案解决了空气质量在线监测系统中经常出现的监测数据丢失、损害的问题,并且能够方便、有效地运用到其他环保监控系统中。%Air quality monitoring refers the polluted substances that presented in the air to carry on sampling and measurement continuously and timing, the data is sent to the monitoring center,and to be analyzed. This paper describes the Integrity for that data of Air Quality Online Monitoring System in the city of ZhengZhou, analyzed the Influencing factors for data Integrity Sys-tematicly, and Propose solutions. the research program make The usual problems of the Air Quality Online Monitoring System that Appeared contains that Detect data lost、damaged can be solved, and can be Applied in the other Environmental protection Monitoring system.

  18. PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB in the ambient air of a tropical Andean city: passive and active sampling measurements near industrial and vehicular pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J; González, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Aristizábal, B H

    2014-09-01

    Concentration gradients were observed in gas and particulate phases of PCDD/F originating from industrial and vehicular sources in the densely populated tropical Andean city of Manizales, using passive and active air samplers. Preliminary results suggest greater concentrations of dl-PCB in the mostly gaseous fraction (using quarterly passive samplers) and greater concentrations of PCDD/F in the mostly particle fraction (using daily active samplers). Dioxin-like PCB predominance was associated with the semi-volatility property, which depends on ambient temperature. Slight variations of ambient temperature in Manizales during the sampling period (15°C-27°C) may have triggered higher concentrations in all passive samples. This was the first passive air sampling monitoring of PCDD/F conducted in an urban area of Colombia. Passive sampling revealed that PCDD/F in combination with dioxin-like PCB ranged from 16 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near industrial sources to 7 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in an intermediate zone-a reduction of 56% over 2.8 km. Active sampling of particulate phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB were analyzed in PM10 samples. PCDD/F combined with dl-PCB ranged from 46 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near vehicular sources to 8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in the same intermediate zone, a reduction of 83% over 2.6 km. Toxic equivalent quantities in both PCDD/F and dl-PCB decreased toward an intermediate zone of the city. Variations in congener profiles were consistent with variations expected from nearby sources, such as a secondary metallurgy plant, areas of concentrated vehicular emissions and a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). These variations in congener profile measurements of dioxins and dl-PCBs in passive and active samples can be partly explained by congener variations expected from the various sources.

  19. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with advers

  20. Effect of air pollution on annual ring width of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don, in Kitakyushu city. Kitakyushu shi deno Sugi, Akamatsu no nenrinhaba ni oyobosu taiki osen no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Kido, K. (The Kitakyushu Municipal Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1993-05-10

    There is a little of examples to have numerically evaluated an influence of the air pollution in the field for the long period. By using the conifer species growing in the Kitakyushu city and its periphery, in this report, a relation between the annual ring width and the air pollution has been investigated. Two tree species of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Cryptomeria japonica D.Don were selected as the tree species. The individuals, with a breast height diameter of about 50cm, more than 10 pieces for each were selected, and then the annual ring specimens for about 50 years upto 1990 were obtained by using the increment borer. The annual ring width was normalized by converting to the annual ring indices. It was found that there is a significant relation between the annual ring indices obtained from the trees in the city and the air pollution, and that the annual ring growth in the 1990's has recovered to a same degree of the growth in the 1940's. As a result of comparing the multiple regression in 3 cases using the air pollution statistics, meteorological statistics and both of them, in addition, it was found that, while both of the air pollution and climatic factors influence on the growth of annual ring, the influence of air pollution is greater than the climate at the stand in the city. 23 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. DNA damage in leukocytes, buccal cells and nasal epithelial cells of individuals exposed to air pollution in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde, M.; Lopez, M.C.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P. [and others

    1997-10-01

    There is an increased interest in using biological markers to monitor populations for the identification of exposure to environmental toxicants. Test systems which permit the sensitive detection of DNA damage and DNA repair are critically important. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay is a rapid and a sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damage at the single cell level ant it provides information on the occurrence of DNA single-strand breaks and alkali labile sites using alkaline conditions. In this work, the differences in the basal level of DNA single strand breaks using alkaline single strand breaks using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis, between young adults from the south (exposed principally to high levels of ozone) and north (exposed principally to hydrocarbons and particles) of Mexico City was investigated using three different cell types (leukocytes, nasal and buccal epithelial cells). We found an increased DNA tail length in blood and nasal cells from individuals who live in the south part of the city compared to the northern part. However, no differences were observed in buccal epithelial cells. These results show the feasibility of using SCGE in different tissues and its great potential for the monitoring of humans exposed to xenobiotics.

  2. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  3. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  4. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Ying; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Total air suspended particles (PM 100) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in Wuhan, China, were examined for estrogen using a recombinant yeast bioassay. Wuhan, located at the central part of China, is the fourth biggest city in China with 7 million populations. Today, Wuhan has developed into the biggest city and the largest traveling center of central China, becoming one of the important bases of industry, education and research. Wuhan is right at the confluent point of Yangzi River, the third longest river in the world, and its largest distributary Hanjiang, with mountains and more than 100 lakes in downtown area. Therefore, by its unique landscape, Wuhan has formed clear four seasons with relatively long winter and summer and short spring and autumn. Foggy weather usually happen in early spring. The yeast line used in this assay stably expresses human estrogen receptor-alpha. Weak but clear estrogenic activities were detected in the organic phase of crude extracts of air particle materials (APM) in both sunny and foggy weather by 0.19-0.79 μg E2/g PM 100 which were statistically significantly elevated relative to the blank control responding from 20% to 50% of the maximum E2 response, and the estrogenic activity was much higher in foggy weather than in sunny weather. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of APM sampled in foggy days were also determined. The results indicated that the responses of the fractions were obviously higher than the crude extracts. Since there is no other large pollution source nearby, the estrogenic material was most likely from vehicle emissions, house heating sources and oil fumes of house cooking. The GC/MS analysis of the PM 100 collected under foggy weather showed that there were many phenol derivatives, oxy-PAHs and resin acids which have been reported as environmental estrogens. These results of the analysis of estrogenic potency in sunny and foggy weather in a

  5. Logging Methods Under Air Drilling Conditions in Junggar Basin%准噶尔盆地空气钻井条件下的录井方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 沈文星; 周远福; 周显松

    2011-01-01

    空气钻井是以气体为介质代替钻井液携带岩屑上返到地面的钻井工艺。空气钻井的使用,给井下信息的采集、处理与资料应用带来了挑战。由于钻进工艺使用的钻头是空气锤破碎地层、岩屑磨成粉末,气体携带岩屑上返,影响了岩屑的真实性,造成岩性辨别困难,给岩性定名及地层划分、工程预报、油气水层的识别与发现都带来了难度。针对准噶尔盆地所开展过的空气钻井条件下的录井方法提出了改进措施,为今后加大在空气钻井条件下的录井工艺改进提供一定的借鉴。%Air drilling is the drilling process by taking air as medium to replace drilling mud for carrying cuttings back to the surface.Its use brings challenges to the collection,processing and application of downhole information or data.Because the bit of this process is air hammer which makes the rocks underground breaken into cuttings or powders,then the air can carry the cuttings back to the wellhead.Such a process may affect the authenticity of cuttings and cause the difficulties for lithologic discrimination or identification,including the lithologic naming,the stratigraphic classification,the engineering forecast and oil-gas-water layer discovery,etc.This paper proposes the improved measures for logging methods under the air drilling conditions performed in Junggar basin,which could be used for reference for further logging technological improvement under air drilling conditions in the future.

  6. Final Finding of No Significant Impact: Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul Technology Center Acquisition Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Upon purchase of the MROTC, Tinker AFB would assume grounds maintenance and the wooded area in the western portion of the property would fall...windblown dust ), and mobile sources (e.g., motor vehicles). Air quality at a given location is a function of several factors, including the...reactive gas that damages lung tissue, reduces lung function and sensitizes the lung to other irritants. Although stratospheric ozone shields the earth

  7. Mapping of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas: Basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Sayaka; Murata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Eiji; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Kosugi, Naohiro; Lauvset, Siv K.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Nishino, Shigeto; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Olsen, Are; Sasano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Taro; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2016-09-01

    We produced 204 monthly maps of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic north of 60°N, including the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas, from January 1997 to December 2013 by using a self-organizing map technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water data were obtained by shipboard underway measurements or calculated from alkalinity and total inorganic carbon of surface water samples. Subsequently, we investigated the basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability of the CO2 fluxes. The 17-year annual mean CO2 flux shows that all areas of the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas were net CO2 sinks. The estimated annual CO2 uptake by the Arctic Ocean was 180 TgC yr-1. The CO2 influx was strongest in winter in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas (>15 mmol m-2 day-1) and the Barents Sea (>12 mmol m-2 day-1) because of strong winds, and strongest in summer in the Chukchi Sea (∼10 mmol m-2 day-1) because of the sea-ice retreat. In recent years, the CO2 uptake has increased in the Greenland/Norwegian Sea and decreased in the southern Barents Sea, owing to increased and decreased air-sea pCO2 differences, respectively.

  8. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  9. Increasing external effects negate local efforts to control ozone air pollution: a case study of Hong Kong and implications for other Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Blake, Donald R; Xu, Zheng

    2014-09-16

    It is challenging to reduce ground-level ozone (O3) pollution at a given locale, due in part to the contributions of both local and distant sources. We present direct evidence that the increasing regional effects have negated local control efforts for O3 pollution in Hong Kong over the past decade, by analyzing the daily maximum 8 h average O3 and Ox (=O3+NO2) concentrations observed during the high O3 season (September-November) at Air Quality Monitoring Stations. The locally produced Ox showed a statistically significant decreasing trend over 2002-2013 in Hong Kong. Analysis by an observation-based model confirms this decline in in situ Ox production, which is attributable to a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the regional background Ox transported into Hong Kong has increased more significantly during the same period, reflecting contributions from southern/eastern China. The combined result is a rise in O3 and a nondecrease in Ox. This study highlights the urgent need for close cross-boundary cooperation to mitigate the O3 problem in Hong Kong. China's air pollution control policy applies primarily to its large cities, with little attention to developing areas elsewhere. The experience of Hong Kong suggests that this control policy does not effectively address secondary pollution, and that a coordinated multiregional program is required.

  10. Air Conditioning Energy Saving Methods of Office Building in Nanning City%南宁市办公建筑空调节能途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瑞海

    2011-01-01

    Based on the public notification of building energy consumption in Guangxi, and the analysis of air conditioning energy consumption of four low - energy office buildings, proposes air conditioning energy saving methods of office building in Nanning City. It is suggested that the capable local government should formulate standards of annual office building energy consumption and incentive methods to encourage all units to explore methods of saving energy actively and reduce office building energy consumption.%根据广西建筑能耗公示的情况,通过分析4栋低能耗办公建筑的空调能耗状况,提出了南宁市办公建筑空调节能途径.建议有条件的地方政府通过制定办公建筑全年能耗标准及奖励办法,来鼓励各单位积极探索节能途径,降低办公建筑能耗.

  11. The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pninit; Potchter, Oded; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the influence of urban parks on air quality and noise in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel, by investigation of an urban park, an urban square and a street canyon. Simultaneous monitoring of several air pollutants and noise levels were conducted. The results showed that urban parks can reduce NOx, CO and PM10 and increase O3 concentrations and that park's mitigation effect is greater at higher NOx and PM10 levels. During extreme events, mean values of 413 ppb NOx and 80 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the street while mean values of 89 ppb NOx and 24 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the park. Whereas summer highest O3 values of 84 ppb were measured in the street, 94 ppb were measured in the park. The benefit of the urban park in reducing NOx and PM10 concentrations is more significant than the disadvantage of increased O3 levels. Furthermore, urban parks can reduce noise by ∼5 dB(A).

  12. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  13. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  14. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: findings from the New York City "Summer Streets" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Thomas H; Hall, Andrew; Zhang, K Max; Anguita, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 μm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles.

  15. Private cities of the 21st century. New strategies of the real estate in the metropolitan periphery of Buenos Aires / Ciudades privadas del siglo XXI. Nuevas estrategias del mercado inmobiliario en la periferia metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vidal-Koppmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of urbanism, the beginning of the twenty-first century in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires has been characterized for the emergence of large-scale projects developed by private actors. Among them stand out private cities and commercial and services areas, called new centralities. Both urban designs are in close connection and require effective mobility conditions for its concretion. The intervention of private agents has impacted in the territorial transformations, creating a "parallel urban system" in the region, oriented towards attracting residents with a high socio-economic status. However, the traditional network of cities has not disappeared and, with the juxtaposition of this new system of private urbanism, it deepened the conditions of spatial fragmentation and social segregation. Desde la perspectiva del urbanismo, el comienzo del siglo XXI se caracteriza por la aparición en la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires, de proyectos de gran envergadura desarrollados por agentes privados. Entre ellos sobresalen las ciudades privadas y las áreas comerciales y de servicios, denominadas nuevas centralidades. Ambos diseños urbanos se mantienen en estrecha relación y requieren de eficaces condiciones de movilidad para su concreción y para su exitoso funcionamiento. La intervención de los agentes privados ha impactado en las transformaciones territoriales, creando un “sistema urbano paralelo” en la región, orientado a la captación de residentes con un alto nivel socio-económico. No obstante, la red de ciudades pre-existente no ha desaparecido y con la yuxtaposición de este nuevo sistema de urbanismo privado, se profundizan las condiciones de fragmentación espacial y de segregación social.

  16. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Vargas-Martínez, Javier; Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20-48nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ(2)<0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection.

  17. Characteristics of air pollution by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the typical industrial areas of Tangshan City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyuan Ren; Bing Zhang; Pu Lu; Cheng Li; Lirong Gao; Minghui Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The ambient air in vicinity of different industrial sources for PCDD/PCDFs was sampled by TSP/PM10 active samplers and passive PUF disk samplers in Tangshan City, a metropolis containing clusters of various industrial plants. The TEQ concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ranged from 44.2 to 394.1 fg I-TEQ/m3 with an average of 169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant contributor to ∑TEQ, contributing 41% (12% to 55%), while 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD and OCDF were the major congeners for the total concentrations. The ratios of ∑PCDF/∑PCDD reached 2.54 on average, suggesting that de novo synthesis in thermal processes played an important role to the airborne pollution of PCDD/PCDFs. The similarities congener profiles indicated that TSP and PM10 active sampling methods are comparable for the determination of the PCDD/PCDFs in ambient air, and the ratios of concentrations determined by the two methods suggested that the PCDD/PCDFs tended to stay in fine particles. It was found that 2,3,7,8-TCDF and OCDD were the dominating congeners in the passive PUF disks samples. Through principal components analysis, the coke industry was suggested to be a relatively high potential emission source for PCDD/PCDFs in the ambient air of Tangshan, which was possibly formed by de novo synthesis mechanism. In this study, the atmospheric impacts to the environment from different industrial sources could be ranked as follows (from high to low): coking, iron sintering, steel making, power generation and chlorinate alkali chemical production industries.

  18. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in fig leaves in response to ambient air pollution in a subtropical city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M H

    2003-08-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in both developing and developed countries, and antioxidant enzyme activities in plants have been suggested as a useful bioindicator of air pollution. In this study, the seasonal and spatial variability of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured in leaves of Ficus microcarpa at eight sampling sites in the Taipei metropolitan area and one background site in rural area at each month for a year. The spatial pattern of peroxidase activity in figs collected from the Taipei metropolitan area was similar to the spatial pattern of O3 concentration in the Taipei metropolitan area. The peroxidase activities of Ficus microcarpa were significantly higher at sampling sites from the outer zone of the metropolitan area than those from the inner zone of the metropolitan area in spring and summer. On the other hand, the spatial pattern of superoxide dismutase activity in fig leaves did not show significant differences between the inner and outer zones of the Taipei metropolitan area. In addition, peroxidase activities, but not superoxide dismutase activities, of Ficus microcarpa were significantly higher in sites with high traffic density than those in low traffic density sites. Even though peroxidase activities in Ficus microcarpa tended to be higher in high traffic density sites or some sites with high ozone concentration, site-specific changes of peroxidase activity in Ficus microcarpa due to O3 pollution were not clearly observed in this study. Based on these results, neither peroxidase nor superoxide dismutase in Ficus microcarpa is a sensitive bioindicator for O3 pollution, although peroxidase shows some potential to be used as a general bioindicator of air quality.

  19. Air Quality Status and Trend Analysis from 2006 to 2010 in Nanping City%南平市2006~2010年空气质量状况及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方惠兰

    2012-01-01

    以南平市近5年空气质量监测数据为基础,分析了近年来南平市各污染物年际变化和季节性变化规律,探讨了南平市空气质量变化趋势及影响因素,为改善南平市空气质量状况提供科学依据。%Based on the air quality monitoring data during the nearly five years in nanping City, this paper ana- lyses the interannual variability and seasonal variation of each pollutant in recent years in Nanping City,in- vestigates the air quality trends and influencing factors, so as to provide a scientific basis for improving the air quality situation.

  20. 陕西省渭河流域各城区水资源社会可再生性评价%Social Renewability of Water Resources of the Cities and District in the Weihe River Basin,Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蕾; 任志远; 王丽霞

    2009-01-01

    The Weihe River basin mainly lies in arid and semi-arid regions of Shaanxi province, and many cities in this area faced the problem of water scarcity. Social renewability of water resources is purely about the characteristics of water resources in its utilization.The improvement of it is significant for utilizing water resource in high-efficiency. In this article, the methods, which used several indexes to show social renewability of water resources in water scarcity cities of the Weihe River basin, were put forward. By establishing the evaluation index system of social renewability of city water resources, grade evaluation standard,and introducing gray correlation theory, this gray correlation theory has been used to evaluate the degree of social renewability in cities. The results show that Baoji' s social renewability of water resources in the cities of the Wei River Basin is at the highest level, xi' an and Xianyang are at the stronger level of, Yangling district is at the middle level of,Weinan and Tongchuan are at the weaker level of. And the measures to improve it were also put forward finally.%陕西省渭河流域位于干旱、半干旱区,流域内许多城市都面临着水资源短缺问题.水资源社会可再生性是水资源在利用过程中所表现出的特性,其值的增强对于实现水资源的高效利用具有重要意义.本文针对陕西省渭河流域提出了基于若干指标来综合表征缺水城市水资源社会可再生性的方法,并在此基础上对该漉域6个城区的水资源社会可再生性进行了评价.通过建立城市水资源社会可再生性评价指标体系、分级评价标准.引入灰色关联理论,构建了灰色关联分析等级评价模型,并运用该模型分析了研究区域内各城区的水资源可再生程度.研究结果表明,宝鸡的水资源社会可再生性最强,西安、咸阳较强,杨凌区中等.渭南、铜川较弱.本文最后提出了增强这些城市水资源社会可再生性的途径.

  1. Segunda encuesta antropometrica de embarazadas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina 2010 The second anthropometric survey of pregnant women in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Bolzán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: mostrar los resultados de la segunda encuesta antropométrica en embarazadas en Buenos Aires, Argentina. MÉTODOS: fueron medidas todas las embarazadas que concurrieron a control de salud durante una semana en los consultorios externos y centros de salud de las 12 maternidades públicas valorándose su peso, talla e índice de masa corporal (IMC. Se empleo una encuesta estructurada. RESULTADOS: fueron evaluadas 2811 embarazadas, nacidas en Argentina (49% y en otros países (51%. Dentro de este segundo grupo, un 49% correspondió a mujeres nacidas en Bolivia (22%, Paraguay (19% y Perú (8%. El problema nutricional más importante lo constituyó el exceso de peso con diferencias estadísticamente significativas según país de nacimiento. Se observaron dos curvas claramente diferenciadas en el IMC de embarazadas adolescentes y adultas. CONCLUSIONES: la investigación permitió obtener el perfil de estado nutricional durante la gestación empleando curvas nacionales de incremento del IMC ajustado por edad gestacional y observar el efecto de algunos determinantes sociales.OBJECTIVES: to present the results of the second anthropometric survey ofpregnant women in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: measurements were taken of all pregnant women attending the outpatient services of 12 public maternity hospitals during one week. Measurements included weight, height and body mass index (BMI. The survey was a structured survey. RESULTS: the study covered 2811 pregnant women born in Argentina (49% and other countries (51%. Of the latter, 49% were women born in Bolivia (22%, Paraguay (19% and Peru (8%. The main nutritional problem was overweight and there were statistically significant differences according to country of birth. The BMI curves for pregnant adults and pregnant adolescents exhibited clear differences. CONCLUSIONS: the survey provided a profile of the nutritional status of pregnant women, using national BMI growth curves adjusted for

  2. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabczenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  3. Effects of chronic exposure to air pollution from Sao Paulo city on coronary of Swiss mice, from birth to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinaga, Lícia Mioko Yoshizaki; Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Bueno, Heloisa Maria De Siqueira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Garcia, Maria Lúcia Bueno

    2009-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that air pollution promotes cardiovascular changes, Swiss mice were continuously exposed, since birth, in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered for airborne particles air since birth induces mild but significant vascular structural alterations in normal individuals, presented as coronary arteriolar fibrosis and elastosis. These results might contribute to altered vascular response and ischemic events in the adulthood.

  4. Quantifying the loss of processed natural gas within California's South Coast Air Basin using long-term measurements of ethane and methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunch, Debra; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Hedelius, Jacob K.; Vizenor, Nicholas; Roehl, Coleen M.; Saad, Katherine M.; Blavier, Jean-François L.; Blake, Donald R.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2016-11-01

    Methane emissions inventories for Southern California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) have underestimated emissions from atmospheric measurements. To provide insight into the sources of the discrepancy, we analyze records of atmospheric trace gas total column abundances in the SoCAB starting in the late 1980s to produce annual estimates of the ethane emissions from 1989 to 2015 and methane emissions from 2007 to 2015. The first decade of measurements shows a rapid decline in ethane emissions coincident with decreasing natural gas and crude oil production in the basin. Between 2010 and 2015, however, ethane emissions have grown gradually from about 13 ± 5 to about 23 ± 3 Gg yr-1, despite the steady production of natural gas and oil over that time period. The methane emissions record begins with 1 year of measurements in 2007 and continuous measurements from 2011 to 2016 and shows little trend over time, with an average emission rate of 413 ± 86 Gg yr-1. Since 2012, ethane to methane ratios in the natural gas withdrawn from a storage facility within the SoCAB have been increasing by 0.62 ± 0.05 % yr-1, consistent with the ratios measured in the delivered gas. Our atmospheric measurements also show an increase in these ratios but with a slope of 0.36 ± 0.08 % yr-1, or 58 ± 13 % of the slope calculated from the withdrawn gas. From this, we infer that more than half of the excess methane in the SoCAB between 2012 and 2015 is attributable to losses from the natural gas infrastructure.

  5. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  6. National Dam Safety Program. Perry Philips Dam (MO10019) Missouri - Kansas City River Basin. Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    the report and identify the appropriate corporate division, school, laboratory, etc., of the author. List city, state, and ZIP Code. Block 10 Program...rusting. The entire outlet opening of the conduit was underwater on the day of the inspecion (see Photo 8). (2) Emergency Spillway The crest of the

  7. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Y; Houjin, H; Xun, M; Kebin, L; Xuesong, Y; Jie, X

    2014-11-01

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM₂.₅) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), the FEV₁/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM₂.₅ was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM₂.₅ in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV₁, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV₁/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV₁, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM₂.₅ exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke.

  8. Disinfectant-resistant bacteria in Buenos Aires city hospital wastewater Resistência bacteriana a desinfetantes em efluentes de um hospital em Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nuñez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of disinfectants are used in hospitals, externally on human skin or to eliminate microorganisms from inanimate objects. After use, residual quantities of these products reach the wastewater, exposing the bacteria that survive in hospital wastewaters to a wide range of biocides that could act as a selective pressure for the development of resistance. Increasing attention has been directed recently to the resistance of bacteria to disinfectants. The aim of this paper was to determine the disinfectant bacterial resistance pattern of the microflora released to the urban sewer system by hospital effluents. The characterization of the waste water microflora was performed by determination of the CFU of heterotrophic bacteria, fecal indicator bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp., in a Buenos Aires hospital effluent. The bacterial resistance to the disinfectants more frequently used in the hospital practice, glutaraldehyde, chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine, was then evaluated. Disinfectant resistant bacterial strains were isolated and typified. Between 10³ and 10(6 chlorexidine resistant bacteria/100 mL were isolated from the samples. Bacteria resistant to other disinfectants ranged between 10³ and 10(4 /100 mL. The bacterial population resistant to desinfectants to was mainly composed by Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp, and Bacillus spp, which are highly associated to nosocomial infections. The results obtained show that the hospital effluents are of importance in the bacterial resistance selection process, particularly in the case of disinfectants.Os hospitais utilizam uma grande quantidade de desinfetantes para eliminar microorganismos tanto da pele humana como de superfícies inanimadas. Após sua utilização, esses produtos podem chegar ao esgoto em quantidades residuais. A pressão seletiva exercida pelos antimicrobianos nos efluentes hospitalares propicia a disseminação de linhagens resistentes. Além dos

  9. Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children, resident in Mexico City: the EVA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortez-Lugo Marlene

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taffic-related air pollution has been related to adverse respiratory outcomes; however, there is still uncertainty concerning the type of vehicle emission causing most deleterious effects. Methods A panel study was conducted among 147 asthmatic and 50 healthy children, who were followed up for an average of 22 weeks. Incidence density of coughing, wheezing and breathing difficulty was assessed by referring to daily records of symptoms and child's medication. The association between exposure to pollutants and occurrence of symptoms was evaluated using mixed-effect models with binary response and poisson regression. Results Wheezing was found to relate significantly to air pollutants: an increase of 17.4 μg/m3 (IQR of PM2.5 (24-h average was associated with an 8.8% increase (95% CI: 2.4% to 15.5%; an increase of 34 ppb (IQR of NO2 (1-h maximum was associated with an 9.1% increase (95% CI: 2.3% to16.4% and an increase of 48 ppb (IQR in O3 levels (1 hr maximum to an increase of 10% (95% CI: 3.2% to 17.3%. Diesel-fueled motor vehicles were significantly associated with wheezing and bronchodilator use (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.62, and IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.77, respectively, for an increase of 130 vehicles hourly, above the 24-hour average. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children were significantly associated with exposure to traffic exhaust, especially from natural gas and diesel-fueled vehicles.

  10. Evidencia geofísica del umbral de Trenque Lauquen en la extensión norte de la cuenca de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires Geophysical evidence of the Trenque Lauquen High in the northern extension of the Claromecó Basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kostadinoff

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La exploración geofísica del borde norte de la cuenca de Claromecó sugieren la existencia de importantes espesores de sedimentos paleozoicos. Estas secuencias sedimentarias se extienden en el área NW de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las cuencas de Claromecó y Chaco Paranense están divididas por un área semipositiva. Sin embargo un bajo con dirección NNO de 165 km de longitud, cubierto por sedimentos paleozoicos conecta ambas cuencas.The geophysical survey of the northern border of Claromecó basin suggests the existence of Paleozoic sequences with important thickness. Such sequences extend along the NW area of Buenos Aires province. The Claromecó and Chaco Paranense Basins are divided by a semi positive area. A NNW-trending through, 165 km long, filled with Paleozoic sediments connects important thickness of both basins.

  11. Déficit de Vitamina D en mujeres adultas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Vitamin D deficit in adult women living in Buenos Aires City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Arévalo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El déficit de vitamina D se asocia con importante morbilidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la frecuencia de este déficit en una población de mujeres adultas y su asociación con distintas variables. Se evaluaron 224 mujeres mayores de 30 años atendidas en tres consultorios de clínica médica de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires entre octubre de 2006 y marzo de 2008. El nivel de 25 OH vitamina D, por radioinmunoanálisis, se clasificó como suficiente (> 30 ng/ml, déficit leve (entre 20 y 30 ng/ml y déficit grave (Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of morbidity. We prospectively studied 224 consecutive female patients in order to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to assess the utility of various clinical and biochemical markers in predicting the deficiency. All of them were outpatients, 30 years old or older, and were evaluated from October 2006 through March 2008. Levels of 25 OH vitamin D > 30 ng/ml were considered sufficient. Mild deficiency was considered between 20 and 30 ng/ml and severe deficiency < 20 ng/ml. The mean age was 58 ± 12.9 years; 77% were menopausal. Twenty nine percent of the patients had mild deficit and 26.8% had severe deficit of the vitamin. Severe deficit was associated with increasing age (62 vs. 56 years, p = 0.003, absence of sun exposure (25.82 ng/ml vs. 31.7 ng/ml, p < 0.005, obesity (70 vs. 61 kg, p < 0.05, absence of physical activity (27.8 ng/ml vs. 31.04 ng/ml, p = 0.0007 and slightly low levels of serum calcium (9.26 mg/dl vs. 9.51 mg/dl, p 0.01. We did not find any association between smokers and non-smokers patients, levels of serum phosphorus, creatinine and TSH. Vitamin D deficiency is a common disorder. It correlates with older age, absence of physical activity, sun exposure, obesity and slightly low levels of serum calcium. Improving diagnosis of this condition may enable us to improve the management of this disease.

  12. 城市间大气污染相互影响的VAR模型分析%Vector Autoregression Model for Analysis of Air Pollution Interactions between Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍复胜; 管东生

    2013-01-01

    基于以往研究多采用大气数值模式分析污染物在不同城市之间的输送规律及内外源的贡献率,现从时间序列角度引入一个新方法,应用向量自回归模型的格兰杰因果关系检验、脉冲响应函数及方差分解技术,对广州、佛山、肇庆2003-2012年逐日空气污染指数进行模拟演算,得到城市间大气污染相互影响效应及其贡献.结果表明,广佛地区污染源对肇庆空气质量影响突出,肇庆并未成为广州和佛山的主要污染源.城市间大气污染相互影响存在明显的滞后效应,前7期累积作用较明显,污染物的累积效应容易导致区域性灰霾天气出现.佛山对广州的污染贡献达到了10.9%,广州对佛山的污染贡献相对偏小,佛山对肇庆的污染贡献接近30%,广佛肇经济圈应形成区域性大气污染联防联治机制.%Based on the use of atmospheric models for studying transportation of pollutants between cities as well as the contributions of inner and outer sources,from perspective of time series,Granger causality test,impulse response function and variance decomposition of vector autoregression model was introduced for studying daily air pollution index in Guangzhou,Foshan and Zhaoqing from 2003 to 2012.The air pollution interactions between cities were proved.It was found that air quality of Zhaoqing was heavily affected by pollutants from Foshan and Guangzhou while Zhaoqing was not a major pollution source of Guangzhou and Foshan.Regional haze was caused by the lagged and cumulative effects of pollutants,obvious impact was appeared before lagged 7.The contribution from Foshan to Guangzhou was 10.9% while it was lower from Guangzhou to Foshan.The contribution from Foshan to Zhaoqing was nearly up to 30%.It was necessary to establish regional air pollution prevention mechanism in the economic circle of Guangzhou,Foshan and Zhaoqing.

  13. Estudio del impacto en la calidad del aire de las fuentes puntuales en la ciudad de pinar del Río A study of the impact of stationary sources on the air quality of pinar del Rio city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Fonseca Hernandez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio del impacto de las fuentes fijas en la Ciudad de Pinar del Río utilizando el sistema de modelación MM5-CALMET-CALPUFF. Se simuló la dispersión de SO2, NOx, PM25, PM10 y CO emitidos por las 21 fuentes durante 15 días representativos del período lluvioso, además de la depositación húmeda de SO4(2- y NO3-. Se observó que las máximas concentraciones se producen en horarios de la mañana y noche. Se observó que producto de estas emisiones se ven afectados algunas zonas cercanas a la ciudad como Minas de Matahambre, San Juan y Martínez, Santa María, San Luis, El Corojo, Hermanos Saíz, Viñales, Pilotos, Consolación del Sur y las Ovas. Los valores de concentración medios diarios de NOx y SO2 sobrepasaron sus concentraciones máximas admisibles según la NC 39: 1999 y estuvieron por encima de los valores guías de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y los valores estándares EPA.A study of the impact of stationary sources on air quality on the city of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, using the modeling system MM5-CALMET-CALPUFF was made. The dispersion of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10 and PM25 emitted from 21 sources during 15 days is simulated by the model. This period is representative of the rainy season in Cuba (Summer. The of SO4(2- and NO3- wet deposition was also simulated. It was observed that the highest concentrations occur in the morning and evening. These emissions affected some neighboring cities as Santa Maria and Viñales. The daily average concentration values of NOx and SO2 exceeded their maximum permissible concentrations according to the Cuban standards, the guideline values of the World Health Organization and the EPA standards. The southwest area of the city is the most affected one with the highest concentration level.

  14. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.

  15. Un esquema de estimación de la precipitación estival en la ciudad de Buenos Aires An estimate scheme of the summer precipitation in the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Cariaga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es estimar la precipitación estival en la ciudad y Gran Buenos Aires. Para ello fue correlacionada con los campos de temperatura de la superficie del mar, las alturas geopotenciales en 1000 hPa, 500 hPa y 200 hPa, la presión a nivel del mar, viento en 850 hPa y humedad específica en niveles bajos en el mes previo. Predictores fueron seleccionados basándose en la significancia estadística, la independencia y la explicación física de su relación y utilizados como variables de entrada para generar una regresión lineal múltiple con el método "forward stepwise". Ellos son la altura geopotencial de 1000 hPa sobre la costa del océano Atlántico alrededor de 25ºS y el viento zonal en el centro de América del Sur. La lluvia estival depende principalmente del debilitamiento del anticiclón del Atlántico y de la advección de aire húmedo desde el norte del país. La verificación se realizó para los datos del período 1984-2007 obteniendo una correlación entre la serie observada y estimada de 0.61. La estabilidad del modelo se probó con la metodología de la crossvalidación. Los resultados indican la existencia de predictabilidad para la precipitación estival para el área de Buenos Aires.The aim of this study is to estimate December to February rainfall in Buenos Aires city and its surroundings, using atmospheric variables. Summer rainfall in Buenos Aires was correlated with sea surface temperature, 1000 hPa, 500 hPa and 200 hPa geopotential heights, sea surface pressure, 850 hPa zonal and meridional and specific humidity from the ground to 700 hPa, observed in the previous month. Some predictors were selected based on the statistical significance, the independence and the physical meaning and they were used as entrance variables to generate a multiple linear regression using the"forward stepwise" method. The selected predictors were: 1000 hPa geopotential height in the Atlantic Ocean coast, near 25ºS and

  16. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  17. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  18. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Construction of a Wastewater Transmission Pipeline by the City of North Las Vegas on Nellis Air Force Base Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    FACILITY UST NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - MANCH MANO FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - BOOSTER PU FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - BOOSTER PU FINDS NELLIS AIR...FORCE BASE - BOOSTER PU FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - AREA 3 199 FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - AREA 3 199 FINDS NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE - AREA 2 CHL...ReportedOwner no: Not ReportedOwner addr: BUCK , A F & G AOwner current: GLat long acc: NV003Lat long s:-115.063003540039Longitude

  19. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006 Dog fouling and helminth contamination in parks and sidewalks of Buenos Aires City, 1991-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.The aim of this study was to provide data on canine fecal and helminthic contamination from parks and sidewalks in Buenos Aires City, collected by the Laboratory of General Parasitology, School of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. A census of dog feces was performed in 1-11 parks per year between 1991 and 2006, a single day each year. In the period 2000-2006, the census included feces on sidewalks surrounding the park. Thirty fresh fecal

  20. The Ideas of God, Good and Evil in the Refigured Yoga Practices in Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Saizar

    2011-12-01

    New Age. The present paper is based on field work’s material from extensive and open interviews to users and specialists of yoga in Buenos Aires, as well as from observation and participant observation in different yoga’s centers in period 2003-2009.

  1. 成都某公司办公大楼空调通风设计%Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Design for A Company Office Building in ChengDu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朝烽

    2014-01-01

    The design of air conditioning , ventilation, smoke control and extraction system and air conditioning automatic control system for a company office building in ChengDu City were introduced .The form of air conditioning system was expounded .Fire prevention measure , energy conservation measure ,environmental protection and hygiene and disease control measure of air conditioning and ventilation systems were provided .%介绍了成都某公司办公大楼的空调、通风、防排烟系统和空调自动控制系统设计,详细阐述了空调系统形式,指出了通风空调系统防火措施、节能措施及环保与卫生防疫措施。

  2. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  3. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Guerrero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around −0.002 and −1.2 μg m−3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m−3 and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m−3. The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes

  4. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  5. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  6. How to improve the air quality over mega-cities in China? – Pollution characterization and source analysis in Shanghai before, during, and after the 2010 World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2013-02-01

    ion components increased in 2010, owing to the lifting of emission control measures after the Expo. SO42− was found least increased while NO3− and Ca2+ had tremendous increases of 150% and 320%, respectively. No successive control measures with the loose regulations after the Expo were responsible for this jump of the bad quality. The ratio of NO3−/SO42− in PM2.5 over Shanghai had a significant increasing trend from ~0.3 in the early 2000s to more than 1.0 in 2010, indicating the increasing role of mobile sources. Reducing NOx emission will be China's priority in the future to improve the air quality over the mega-cities. In addition, lowering mineral aerosol components (e.g. Ca2+ was also demonstrated to be beneficial for alleviating air pollution in China.

  7. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S; Kaufman, Joel D; Delaney, Joseph A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08-0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016-0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05-2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24-5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94-1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34-2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals.

  8. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies.

  9. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅰ):non-vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Wanjuan LI; Shengli WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Rong MA; Jinwei LIU

    2008-01-01

    A nabkha is a vegetated sand mound,which is ypical of the aeolian landforms found in the Hotan River pasin in Xinjiang,China.This paper compares the results of a series of wind tunnel experiments with an on-site field survey of nabkhas in the Hotan River basin of Xinjiang.Wind tunnel experiments were conducted on semi-sphercal and conical sand mounds without vegetation or shadow dunes.Field mounds were 40 times as large as the size of the wind tunnel models.In the wind tunnel experiments,five different velocities from 6 to 14 m/s were selected and used to model the wind flow pattern over mdividual sand mound using clean air without additional sand.Changes in the flow pattern at different wind speeds resulted in changes to the characteristic structure of the babkha surface.The results of the experiments for the semi-spherical sand mound at all wind velocities show the formation of a vortex at the bottom of the upwind side of the mound that resulted in scouring and deposition of a crescentic dune upwind of the main mound.The top part of the sand mound is strongly eroded.In the field,these dunes exhibited the same scouring and crescentic dune formation and the eroded upper surface was often topped by a layer of peat within the mound suggesting destroyed vegetation due to river channel migration or by possible anthropogenic forces such as fuel gathering,etc.Experiments for the conical mounds exhibit only a small increase in velocity on the upwind side of the mound and no formation of a vortex at the bottom of the upwind side.Instead,a vortex formed on the leeward side of the mound and overall,no change occurred in the shape of the conical mound.In the field,conical mounds have no crescentic dunes on the upwind side and no erosion at the top exposed below peat beds.Therefore,the field and laboratory experiments show that semi-spherical and conical sand mounds respond differently to similar wind conditions with different surface configuration and development of crescent

  10. Generación de nuevos ecosistemas litorales por albardones de relleno en la costa de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Generation of new littoral ecosystems by levee filling in the coast of the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Marcomini

    2004-06-01

    autoridades municipales para definir una línea de costa definitiva para la ciudad de Buenos Aires.Buenos Aires, the most largest and populated city of Argentina is emplaced on the southeast coast of the Rio de la Plata shared waters estuary. The present coastline is the result of several anthropogenic works that have induced the coastal progradation by artificial filling since 1836, developing new coastal ecosystems. The main objective of the Buenos Aires coastal planning has always been to gain land to the estuary waters as an expansive policy. It was estimated an artificial nourishment of about 12,67 hectares per year during the last 162 years with a coastal progradation between 400 to 1,000 m. This paper focuses on a new planing and management of the coast, considering the configuration of the filling levee and the generation of new ecosystems associated with different levee designs. The coastal evolution associated with four types of man-made levee was analysed during the last 40 years. The types of levees configuration described were bay, cape, spit and barrier design. The bay type induced the accumulation of coastal plains in the middle of the bay. The cape type induced lakes and ponds isolated from the estuary hydrodynamics that trend to be filled by vegetation. The barrier and spit types provoked the coastal plain progradation and the formation of an artificial lagoon dominated by tides with freshwater marshes and tidal flat ecosystems. The artificial coastal progradation of the estuary generated these new ecosystems associated as that should be predicted considering the definitive configuration of the artificial levee. This new ecosystem should be carefully assessed managed and considered by government agencies in the planification of the future coastline configuration of the city. This work should provide to decision makers of the city with appropriate conclusions, recommendations and proposals in order to give an outline for immediate, medium and long term action

  11. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  12. Cause and Countermeasure Analysis on the Decreasing of Air Quality in Bole City%博乐市空气质量下降原因及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚坚艰; 辛红云

    2016-01-01

    指出了“十二五”博乐市空气质量下降明显,通过分析空气中主要污染物的时空变化趋势,在调查博乐市工业污染源现状、地形气象条件以及环境要素时空分布的基础上,定性地揭示了社会、经济等人为活动以及自然因素对博乐市空气环境质量造成的影响。并在博乐市资源环境承载能力的基础上,提出了污染防治重点、产业结构调控建议及对策。%This paper pointed out that the air quality in Bole City decreased significantly during “12th Five -Year Plan” .By analyzing the spatial and temporal trends of the main air pollutants ,on the basis of investigating industrial pollution status ,weather and terrain conditions ,and temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors in Bole City ,we qualitatively revealed the influences on air environmental quality in Bole City caused by social activities , economic activities and natural factors .Based on the resources and environment carrying capacity of Bole City ,we put forward the key point of pollution prevention ,and suggestions and countermeasures for industrial structure regula‐tion ., .

  13. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  14. 青岛市环境库兹涅茨曲线特征分析及空气质量评价%Analysis on Environmental Kuznets Curve Characteristics and Air Quality Assessment in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国华; 王志宪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析青岛市环境库兹涅茨曲线(EKC)特征,并对其环境空气质量进行评价.[方法]以青岛市历年环境质量报告书和青岛市统计年鉴为依据,选取1996~2008年青岛市空气污染物排放指数、空气污染指数和经济数据,探究青岛市环境库兹涅茨曲线特征,并对其环境空气质量进行评价.[结果]随着人均GDP的增长,1996~2008年青岛市工业废气排放总量呈明显上升趋势,其EKC曲线呈倒U型;二氧化硫、工业烟尘和工业粉尘排放量整体呈下降趋势,二氧化硫和工业烟尘的EKC曲线呈近似倒N型;空气污染综合指数也呈下降趋势,其EKC曲线也呈倒N型.近13年来,青岛市区空气中SO2、颗粒物和NO2污染程度总体呈下降趋势,特别是颗粒物污染程度下降明显.自2001年来,可吸入颗粒物取代SO2成为环境空气主要污染物,空气污染类型开始由煤烟型向煤烟与机动车复合型转变.青岛市政府部门对工业废气治理项目的大力推进是青岛市环境大气污染逐渐降低的重要原因.[结论]该研究为青岛市环境政策的制定提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to analyze environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) characteristics and assess air quality in Qingdao City. [ Method] The EKC characteristics of Qingdao from 1996 to 2008 were studied based on air pollutant discharge indices, air pollution indices and economic data from the environmental quality reports and statistics yearbooks of Qingdao, and the air quality of Qingdao City was assessed. [ Result ] With the increase of GDP per capita, the total discharge of industrial waste gases improved remarkably, and its EKC showed inverted U type. Meanwhile, the discharge of sulfur dioxide, industrial fumes and industrial dusts decreased on the whole, and EKC of sulfur dioxide and industrial fumes was close to inverted N type. In addition, air pollution composite index also showed decrease trend, and its EKC showed inverted

  15. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  16. Mortes e crimes cometidos com armas de fogo na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires, 2002 Firearm-related deaths and crime in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A violência se constitui em um dos problemas mais graves da América Latina. O uso de pequenas e leves armas de fogo é considerado o principal responsável por esse fato. O objetivo do presente trabalhoé descobrir, a partir de dados do setor de saúde, justiça e polícia, o número de mortes e crimes envolvendo armas de fogo ocorridos na cidade de Buenos Aires, em 2002. Os dados sobre mortalidade e crimes foram obtidos dos Sistemas Nacionais de Estatísticas Vitais e Informação Criminal, e os dados sobre apreensão de armas de fogo foram disponibilizados pela Polícia Federal Argentina.Utilizaram-se também dados de uma investigação anterior, realizada por meio de entrevistas domiciliares a respeito de vitimização por armas de fogo. Durante o período, ocorreram 1.304 mortes violentas, das quais 23,7% foram provocadas por armas de fogo. Dos 171 indiciamentos policiais por homicídio doloso, 60% haviam sido cometidos com armas de fogo. Das 2.108 pessoas entrevistadas, 6,7% haviam sido vítimas de crimes cometidos com arma de fogo. Foram apreendidas 1.887 armas de fogo. A taxa de eventos violentos registrados foi maior nas delegacias da zona sudoeste da cidade, que se caracteriza por condições de vida mais precárias. O impacto da violência e sua relação com armas de fogo constituemse em um tema relevante da agenda pública.Abstract Violence is one of the most serious challenges in Latin American societies. Possession and use of small arms and light weapons are considered to be among the main factors behind it. The aim of this paper is to describe deaths and crimes involving the use of a firearm in the City of Buenos Aires in 2002, focusing the health, justice and police sectors. Data on mortality and crimes were obtained from the National Systems for vital statistics and criminal information; data on firearm seizures were supplied by the Argentine Federal Police. Household interviews conducted for a previous research on

  17. Mortes e crimes cometidos com armas de fogo na cidade autônoma de Buenos Aires, 2002 Firearm-related deaths and crime in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Spinelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência se constitui em um dos problemas mais graves da América Latina. O uso de pequenas e leves armas de fogo é considerada a principal responsável por este fato. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descobrir, a partir de dados do setor saúde, da justiça e da polícia, o número de mortes e crimes envolvendo armas de fogo ocorridos na cidade de Buenos Aires em 2002. Os dados sobre mortalidade e crimes foram obtidos dos Sistemas Nacionais de Estatísticas Vitais e Informação Criminal e os dados sobre apreensão de armas de fogo foram disponibilizados pela Polícia Federal. Utilizaram-se também dados de uma investigação anterior realizada por meio de entrevistas domiciliares a respeito de vitimização por armas de fogo. Durante o período ocorreram 1.304 mortes violentas, dos quais 23.7% corresponderam a mortes provocadas por armas de fogo. Dos 171 indiciamentos policiais por homicídio doloso, 60% haviam sido cometidos com armas de fogo. Das 2.108 pessoas entrevistadas, 6,7% haviam sido vítimas de um crime cometido com arma de fogo. Foram apreendidas 1.887 armas de fogo. A taxa de eventos violentos registrados foi maior nas delegacias da zona sudoeste da cidade, que se caracteriza por condições de vida mais precárias. O impacto da violência e sua relação com armas de fogo constitui-se em um tema relevante da agenda pública.Violence is one of the most serious challenges in Latin American societies. Possession and use of small arms and light weapons are considered to be among the main factors behind it. The aim of this paper is to describe deaths and crimes involving the use of a firearm in the City of Buenos Aires in 2002, focusing the health, justice and police sectors. Data on mortality and crimes were obtained from the National Systems for vital statistics and criminal information; data on firearm seizures were supplied by the Argentine Federal Police. Household interviews conducted for a previous research on firearm

  18. Empowerment in practice - insights from CITI-SENSE project in Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Johanna; Kocman, David; Smolnikar, Miha; Mohorčič, Miha; Horvat, Milena

    2014-05-01

    We present specifics of the citizen empowerment and crowd sourced citizen science conducted in Ljubljana, Slovenia, as one of the case study cities within the ongoing EU-project CITI-SENSE. CITI-SENSE addresses urban air quality and rests on three pillars: technological platforms for distributed monitoring; novel information and communication technologies; and citizen participation. In the project, empowerment initiatives are conducted, enabling citizens to participate in various aspects of urban air quality, both outdoor and indoor at schools affecting everyday life of societal groups. Each participating country runs its own citizen empowerment campaign adapting to local circumstances. In addition to Ljubljana, local campaigns have been initiated in Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava, Vienna and in Vitoria. Poor air quality has been recognized as an important factor affecting the quality of life, especially in urban environments. In Ljubljana specifically, the main air pollution sources are traffic-related emissions, individual house heating devices including increased use of coal and biomass in recent years, and to a limit extent industrial point sources and waste disposal sites. Air quality can be occasionally very poor due to specific climatic conditions owing partially to its location in a basin and on the marshes, resulting in a very complex circulation of air masses, temperature inversions and formation of urban heat island. By recognizing this, we established the main stakeholders in the city who are responsible for monitoring the quality of air in Ljubljana. Based on full stakeholder analysis we consider co-operation with local governmental- and non-governmental institutions with already established means of communications with citizens, as a tool for empowerment. Since we spend over 90% of our time indoors, the indoor air quality is of great importance. It is why the CITI-SENSE project empowerment initiatives also cover this

  19. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta" intensive campaign (PRIDE-PRD2006, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ±standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance of, as well as strong sources of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more

  20. Some Thoughts on the City Traffic and Air Quality Improvement of Hangzhou%关于杭州城市交通与空气质量改善的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴士南; 郎国伟; 赵建国

    2013-01-01

    To improve the city traffic jam is a system engine-ering, scientific planning, green travel is the fundament, and human behavior in traffic is the guarantee. In this paper, by dr-awing on the advanced city of the practice at home and abroad, it puts forward the optimization of the configuration of primary and secondary roads, and the adjustment of regional facilities layout, greatly improving the city traffic congestion problems, so as to improve the air quality in the city.%  改善城市交通拥堵是个系统工程,科学规划、绿色出行是根本,交通参与人的行为是保障。本文通过借鉴国内外先进城市的做法,提出优化主次干道的配置,及调整区域设施的布局,大大改善城市交通拥堵问题,从而改善城市空气质量。

  1. An Exciting Time for Steel City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Panzhihua, in south Sichuan’s basin, is aptly called West China’s Industrial Pearl, and "treasure bowl." This city is well known as the home of Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Company and Ertan Hydropower Station. At the beginning of 2004, two major events thrust this city into the limelight.

  2. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Markakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (−3.5 ppb in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large

  3. Effect of Revised "Ambient Air Quality Standards" on Assessing Results of the Ambient Air Quality in the Cities of Sichuan Province%修订《环境空气质量标准》对四川省城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全利; 余恒; 王晓波

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, according to the monitoring data of ambient air quality in provincially administered municipalities during the "llth Five Year Plan", and based on the comparison of difference between the new Ambient Air Quality Standards and the old, the effects of revised "Ambient Air Quality Standards" on assessing results of the ambient air quality in the cities of Sichuan province were analyzed.%根据“十一五”期间和2011年四川省省控城市环境空气质量监测数据,在比较新、旧环境空气质量标准不同的基础上,本文分析了修订后的《环境空气质量标准》对四川省城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响。

  4. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  5. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  6. New constraints on the subsurface geology of the Mexico City Basin: The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J. A.; Rangel, E.; Escolero, O.

    2013-10-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, drilled in 2012 by "Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México" (Water Supply System of Mexico City) in the Mexico Basin to a depth of 2008 m, offers an excellent opportunity to explore the subsurface stratigraphy and general geology of the region. Unfortunately, only chipped samples from this well were recovered, which were examined and analyzed for whole-rock chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb zircon geochronology, in order to reconstruct the lithology of the well. Contrary to previous deep wells of the Mexico Basin, no basement sedimentary rocks were found in this one. While the upper 70 m are composed of lacustrine sediments associated with Lake Texcoco, volcanic rocks make up the majority of the well and range in age from more than 18 Ma to 0.25 Ma. Andesitic lavas are the most abundant products of the stratigraphic column, followed by acidic products represented by dacitic and rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrite deposits. Less abundant are basaltic andesite lavas appearing in the upper and lower parts of the column. The thickest sequence of the well is represented not only by Miocene volcanic rocks ranging from 5 to 17 Ma, suggesting a period of intense volcanic activity in this area producing mainly andesitic lavas, but also by thick rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits dated at 5 Ma. These deposits suggest the presence of a caldera structure, probably buried by subsequent volcanic products and lacustrine sediments. Trace element concentrations suggest that volcanism is likely produced in a subduction environment with typical negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, and P and positive anomalies in Pb and Cs. We correlated the well units with units outcropping in mountain ranges in the surrounding area, with the recognition of the following units or formations: Eocene Andesite, San Nicolás Basaltic Andesite, Tepoztlán Formation, Miocene Volcanism, Sierra de las Cruces, and Chichinautzin Volcanic Field products. By correlating the two closest deep

  7. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  8. Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using passive air sampling in the atmosphere of one of the most wood-smoke-polluted cities in Chile: The case study of Temuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Diaz-Robles, Luis; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Etcharren, Pablo; Pozo, Katerine; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabián; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion. The results for all three seasons showed that the PAH plume was widespread across all sites including rural sites on the outskirts of Temuco. Some interesting variations were observed between seasons in the composition of PAHs, which were attributed to differences in seasonal point sources. A comparison of the PAH composition in the passive samples with active samples (gas+particle phase) from the same site revealed similar congener profiles. Overall, the study demonstrated that the PUF disk passive air sampler provides a simple approach for measuring PAHs in air and for tracking effectiveness of pollution control measures in urban areas in order to improve public health.

  9. 高海拔城市污水处理厂表曝机供气量计算%Calculation on Air Supply Quantity of Surface Aerator for Sewage Treatment Plant of High-altitude City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕

    2015-01-01

    高海拔地区气温和气压较低、水中饱和溶解氧浓度低、空气中氧含量低,在污水处理厂供气量计算上存在一定的特殊性。本文结合国外某高海拔城市污水处理厂氧化沟工艺的设计实践,对高海拔地区表曝机供气量的计算方法进行了总结,提出了计算要点和需要注意的问题。%Due to low air temperature and air pressure, low concentration of saturated dissolved oxygen in water and low oxygen content in air, calculation on air supply quantity of sewage treatment plant has a certain particularity in high-altitude area. In combination with design practice of oxidation ditch process in sewage treatment plant of a high-altitude city, the paper summarizes calculation method of air supply quantity of surface aerator in high-altitude area and puts forward calculation points and some problems needs to be paid.

  10. Xiangyang City’ s Cultural Force in the Construction of the Central City of the Han River Basin%襄阳建设汉江流域中心城市文化力问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润昊; 肖兆武

    2015-01-01

    一个城市是否有核心竞争力,最根本的是看它的文化力。襄阳文化力涵盖了“自强不息、昂扬向上”的精神原动力,“崇文重教、尊重人才”的核心智慧力,“崇尚科学、敢为人先”的强劲活力,“重商亲商、重利尚义”的城市竞争力,“注重生态、追求和谐”的可持续发展力。襄阳要建成汉江流域中心城市,要充分发挥文化力的龙头作用、纽带作用、中心作用。打造襄阳文化力,需要全面提升市民素质,打造襄阳“气质”;大力实施文化惠民工程,打造襄阳“气韵”;精心培育城市文化品牌,打造襄阳“气派”;积极推进文化传播交流,打造襄阳“气场”;勇于创新文化体制机制,打造襄阳“气魄”。%It is the cultural force that determines a city’ s core competitiveness.For Xiangyang City, the cultural force means:“unyielding and uplifting”;“respecting for knowledge, respecting for talent” ;“advocating science, daring to be the first”;“attaching importance to business, emphasizing righteousness”and “paying attention to e-cology, pursuing harmony”.To become the central city of the Han River basin, Xiangyang should give full play to the leading role of its culture.It is necessary to improve citizen’ s quality, to cultivate Xiangyang“temperament”, to implement vigorously the people-benefit engineering, to build urban cultural brand, to promote actively the cul-tural communication and to innovate culture systems.

  11. [Body, disability, and stigma in the origins of the field of adapted sport in the city of Buenos Aires, 1950-1961: a mere interiorization of a devalued identity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Although adapted sport is considered the main integrator of people with disabilities, Disability Studies argues that it reinforces the oppression suffered by this group. However, these positions do not historically reconstruct the ethos constructed in sport. In order to contribute to this discussion, I analyze here the ways of thinking about and experiencing disability that were constructed in the origins of the field of adapted sport, in the city of Buenos Aires, from 1950 to 1961. Thus, I begin by analyzing the content of publications of the first clubs for people with disabilities and in-depth interviews with protagonists of the origins of adapted sport and local physiatry.

  12. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  13. 清水江流域福泉市段水体主要污染指标评价研究%An Assessment of Major Pollution Indicators of Fuquan City Section in Qingshui Jiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑶洁; 于霞; 陈梦瑜

    2015-01-01

    对2012年清水江流域福泉市段10个监控断面监测数据进行分析,结果表明:10个断面的 TP 污染最为严重,存在严重超标情况;通过相关性分析,氟化物、 TP 和 NH3-N 三者呈极显著相关关系,具有同一来源;根据综合污染负荷指数可知,高坪河、市化肥厂、川恒公司排口上游、黑塘桥、越都取水口5个断面能够达到 III 类水质的要求;根据 Tomlinson 污染负荷指数法,可判断福泉市水体整体处于中等污染水平。%Analyzed the data of 10 monitoring sections of Fuquan city in Qingshui Jiang river basin, the results showed that the concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded. By correlation analysis, the content of fluoride, TP and NH3-N showed significant correlation. According to Water Quality Identification Index, Gaoping river, municipal fertilizer plant, Chuanheng upstream discharge port, Heitang bridge, Yuedu water intake 5 sections were able to meet Class III water quality. According to Tomlinson pollution load index, Fuquan water was in the middle pollution levels.

  14. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

  15. Formación de dirigente gremiales médicos de la ciudad de Buenos Aires en condiciones y medio ambiente de trabajo Training on work and environmental conditions for doctors union leaders of Buenos Aires city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alberto Nieto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: presentar la experiencia que la Asociación de Médicos Municipales (A.M.M de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires desarrolló en materia de formación de delegados gremiales en prevención. Materiales y métodos: La AMM convocó a un grupo técnico especializado que diseñó, desarrolló y evaluó el primer curso de formación de delegados en prevención de riesgos laborales en CyMAT para médicos. Se presenta la programación general de dicho curso, sus contenidos y actividades, y los resultados de su evaluación. Resultados: Se presentan los resultados de las actividades de observación de los coordinadores del curso, los de una encuesta de evaluación a cargo de los alumnos y los emergentes cualitativos generales. Se han identificado: la toma de conciencia por parte de los delegados médicos sobre los riesgos a los que se encuentran expuestos en su ámbito laboral, haber establecido vínculos y adquirido conocimiento de otras realidades, y el reconocimiento de la responsabilidad del empleador. Asimismo, surgieron propuestas de acción colectiva que se comenzaron a desarrollar como parte de las acciones gremiales. Conclusión: Esta experiencia verifica la posibilidad de generar conocimiento traducido en acciones gremiales en el Sector Salud mediante el compromiso de los principales sujetos: los trabajadores médicos.Objectives: to present the experience of the Asociación de Médicos Municipales (AMM from the city of Buenos Aires developed for teaching and training of union delegates in prevention. Materials and methods: The AMM convened a group of specialists for this goal, who have developed and evaluated this first training course for delegates at preventing occupational hazards in work-related environment and conditions of job for physicians. We present a general planning of the course and its schedule, its contents and activities, and the results of its assessment. Results: The results of the monitoring activities by the coordinators of

  16. Energy efficiency program through exchange of air conditioners in residential sector of Manaus city: a concrete experience; Programa de eficiencia energetica atraves da troca de condicionadores de ar no setor residencial de Manaus: uma experiencia concreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabricio Rodrigues; Goncalves, Ana Catarina Lima Chaves; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira; Gomes, Hugo Miguel Oliveira; Nascimento, Nilton Correa; Inui, Raul Eiji; Guedes, Ricardo Augusto de Morais; Benchaya, Roberto Tavares [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of efficient equipment diffusion in reducing energy consumption, based upon the Study-case of an air conditioned exchange program in Manaus city of Amazonas. In spite of the existence, in the actual market, of efficient technology, it has been, yet, badly diffused, mostly due to economical and informative laps. Therefore, once tried to demonstrate the potential benefits, in technical gains, of energy efficiency offered by efficient Air conditioned equipment, through a plan that favors the consumer's participation as an active contributor in the dissemination process of efficient technology, and a following program for efficiency evaluation, beside a tributary evaluation proposal, so that technology becomes accessible to the general population, attempting its benefices. In addition, the environmental benefits of that specific proposal are analyzed, trough the developed recycling program. (author)

  17. NO2 DOAS measurements from ground and space: comparison of ground based measurements and OMI data in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The combination of satellite data and ground based measurements can provide valuable information about atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In this work we present a comparison between measured ground based NO2 differential columns at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City, using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique and NO2 total columns measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite using the same measurement technique. From these data, distribution maps of average NO2 above the Mexico basin were constructed and hot spots inside the city could be identified. In addition, a clear footprint was detected from the Tula industrial area, ~50 km northwest of Mexico City, where a refinery, a power plant and other industries are located. A less defined footprint was identified in the Cuernavaca basin, South of Mexico City, and the nearby cities of Toluca and Puebla do not present strong enhancements in the NO2 total columns. With this study we expect to cross-validate space and ground measurements and provide useful information for future studies.

  18. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  19. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  20. How Does Mediterranean Basin's Atmosphere Become Weak Moisture Source During Negative Phase of NAO: Use of AIRS, AMSR, TOVS, & TRMM Satellite Datasets Over Last Two NAO Cycles to Examine Governing Controls on E-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a noted 'concentration" basin in that it almost continuously exhibits positive evaporation minus precipitation (E - P ) properties -- throughout the four seasons and from one year to the next. Nonetheless, according to the ECMWF Era-40 48-year (1958-2005) climate reanalysis dataset, for various phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) when the pressure gradient between Portugal and Iceland becomes either very relaxed (large negative NAO-Index) or in transition (small positive or negative NAO-Index), the atmospheric moisture source properties of the basin become weak, at times even reversed for several months (i.e., negative E - P). This behavior poses numerous questions concerning how and why these events occur. Moreover, it begs the question of what it would take for the basin to reach its tipping point in which P would exceed E throughout the rainy season (some six months) on an annually persistent basis -- and the sea would possibly transform to a recurring "dilution" basin. This talk investigates these questions by: (1) establishing over a period from 1979 to present, based on detailed analyses of satellite retrieval products from a combination of NASA-AQUA, NOAA-LEO, NASA/JAXA Scatterometer, and NASA-TRMM platforms, plus additional specialized satellite data products and ancillary meteorological datasets, the actual observation-based behavior of E - P, (2) diagnosing the salient physical and meteorological mechanisms that lead to the weaker E - P events during the analysis period, partly based on analyzing surface and upper air data at discrete stations in the western and eastern Mediterranean -- while at the same time evaluating the quality of the ERA-40 data over this same time period, (3) conducting GCM and high-resolution regional modeling experiments to determine if perturbed but realistic meteorological background conditions could maintain Mediterranean as a "dilution" basin through the October to March rainy season on

  1. 修订《环境空气质量标准》对南充市城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响%Effect of Revised"Ambient Air Quality Standards"on Assessing Results of the Ambient Air Quality in the City of Nanchong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷熊; 钟利健

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air pollution monitoring data, the variation was compared with revised API and current API, the effects of re-vised"Ambient Air Quality Standards"on assessing results of the ambi-ent air quality in the city of Nanchong were analyzed.%利用2009年至2012年空气污染监测数据,比较现行 API 指数和修正后 API 指数的差异,分析了修订后的《环境空气质量标准》对南充城市环境空气质量评价结果的影响。

  2. Some aspects of boundary layer evolution in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, G. B.; Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Rosas, I.

    Measurements of chemical species and meteorological parameters were made at a site located 440 m above the mean basin level of Mexico City, over a two-week period in November during Project Azteca. Data from three of the stations of Mexico City's air quality monitoring network (Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental, RAMA) were also used to estimate the dilution in concentration experienced by pollutants as they are transported upslope during the course of the day. Both carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a dilution of up to 50%, while ozone is usually more concentrated at the elevated site. These comparisons clearly highlight the intrinsic differences between primary and secondary gases, which are supported also by time-space, cross correlation analysis. The thermal mesoscale wind circulation dominates concentrations of pollutants at the research site: upslope during the day and downslope during the night. The data present clear evidence that downslope flows during the night contribute to ozone concentration at basin sites.

  3. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing...

  4. Urbanization and its effect on air pollution in Atux City%阿图什市城市化过程的大气环境污染效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安瓦尔·买买提明; 张小雷; 杨德刚

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization is a necessary precondition to industrialization and eradication of poverty. Being a vital criterion of assessing a nation's or a particular region's modernization level, it has been accelerated all over the world in the 21st century. Urbanization not only can increase the speed of regional modernization, but also has some effects on eco-environment. Therefore, many scholars have paid more and more attention to urbanization phenomenon since the end of last century and the close relationship between urbanization and eco-environment has been emphasized by a number of studies. With the assist of theories and research findings put forward by both home and foreign scholars, this paper analyses the urbanization process and its effect on air pollution in Atux City, Xinjiang, which is a typical oasis City in arid land, by selecting 7 urbanization indices and 4 air pollution indices and constructing their relationship model. The results show as follows: (1) Atux City has been experienced rapid urbanization since the economic reforms in 1978, especially during 1990 -2008. Urbanization level of Atux City was increased almost 10 points in this 18 years. During this period, the integrated index of urbanization in Atux City shows an increasing trend; (2) During 1990 -2008, concentration of pollutants such as SO2,nitrogen oxides,TSP and dust in Atux City shows a fluctuating trend, however TSP is the main pollution component. The integrated index of air pollution shows an inverted U-shaped changing tendency. (3 ) We construct cubic polynomial model of the relationship between urbanization and air pollution in Atux City by using time serial data during 1990 -2008, and find that the imitation curve of urbanization and air pollution in Atux City shows a not inverted U-shaped relationship , with being an N-shaped relationship. We believe that air pollution phenomenon caused by rapid urbanization in Atux City can be resolved through improving the public transport system

  5. Characteristics of air quality and the correlation between API and meteorological elements in major cities of Shandong province%山东重点城市空气质量及其与气象要素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 邱粲; 刘焕彬; 曹洁; 王栋成; 董旭光

    2013-01-01

      利用山东省济南、青岛2001—2010年以及其他7个重点城市2005—2010年逐日空气污染指数(API)和同期的常规气象资料,运用统计方法,分析了各市空气质量年、季变化特征,并利用SPSS软件进一步分析探讨了API指数与风速、气温、降水、湿度、日照时数等气象因子的相关关系。结果表明:济南由于受能源结构、地形、气象条件等因素的影响,API指数累年平均值最大达到91.2,沿海城市空气质量明显好于内陆城市,日照 API 指数最小仅为56.5;从年际变化来看,济南由于加强对空气污染的治理,空气质量明显改善,API指数呈逐年下降趋势,其他城市有不同程度的增加或减小。空气质量具有明显的季节变化,各城市均是夏季空气质量最好,优良率天数频率最多,冬季最差,济南冬季发生轻微污染以上天数的频率最大占39.8%;各城市均以 PM10为首要污染物出现的频率为最多,出现以 NO2、SO2为首要污染物频率最多的城市分别是枣庄、潍坊,出现空气质量为优频率最多的城市是日照;各城市4季 API 指数与同期常规气象要素密切相关,4季API指数与降水均呈负相关,除济南春季外,与风速基本呈负相关,春、夏、秋3个季节API指数与相对湿度基本均成负相关,冬季API指数与日照时数成负相关、与气温、相对湿度成正相关。%Based on the daily Air Pollution Index (API) and regular meteorological observed data of Jinan and Qingdao in 2001—2010 and of seven other cities in Shandong province in 2005—2010, the annual and seasonal variation characteristics of air quality in each city and the correlation between API and wind speed, temperature, precipitation, humidity and sunshine hours are analyzed making use of statistical method and SPSS software. The results indicate that due to the influence of energy structure, topography, and

  6. Extensión noroccidental de la cuenca paleozoica de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires Northwestern extension of the Claromecó Paleozoic Basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Alvarez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El área de estudio se encuentra ubicada en el sector norte y oriental de las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron 700 observaciones geofísicas de gravedad y magnetismo calculándose las anomalías de esos campos potenciales con el fin de elaborar mapas gravimétricos a escala 1: 200.000 de las hojas Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí y Coronel Suárez. Se modelaron las anomalías de Bouguer por medio de prismas de densidad conocida. Para conocer el desarrollo de los sedimentos en profundidad se realizaron dos perfiles gravimétricos según las direcciones E-O y NE-SO. De esa forma, se pudo dimensionar la cuenca paleozoica que tiene 6.000 metros de espesor de sedimentos y una extensión de 5.200 kilómetros cuadrados. Su geometría en el sector oeste de la cuenca de Claromecó es de forma alargada en dirección NO con un ancho aproximado de 48 km y una longitud de 145 km. Se observan anomalías magnéticas con expresiones de poca magnitud, indicando la presencia de sedimentos en profundidad con moderado contenido de minerales magnéticos. La existencia de disparos de sísmica de refracción realizados por YPF y el DYMAS en los alrededores de Carhué indican con precisión los espesores de los sedimentos terciarios y por lo tanto el techo de las formaciones sedimentarias paleozoicas.The study area extends to the north and western of Sierras Australes. It has been surveyed 700 stations for gravimetry and magnetometry and the calculated anomalies were positioned in the Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí and Coronel Suárez map sheets. The survey was done at 1: 200,000 scale. Gravimetric sections were made in W-E and SW-NE directions in order to get an estimation of the sediment thickness. Based on these date the extension of the Paleozoic was determined. The thickness reaches up to 6,000 m and 5,200 square kilometers. The Claromecó basin extends to the NW in the western side by 145 km with a width of 48 km. The observed magnetic

  7. REE distribution characteristics of sewage irrigation in Sidaoshahe basin of Baotou City%包头市四道沙河流域污灌区稀土元素的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆辉; 王贵; 赵捷; 朱晋; 程莉; 同丽嘎

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research was to study characteristics of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in stream sediment and farmland surface soil of sewage irrigation in Sidaoshahe basin of Baotou, providing a scientific basis to evaluate the soil environmental quality of sewage irrigation area and repair of heavy metal pollution in soil. [Method] Stream sediments and farmland soils samples were collected in Sidaoshahe basin in the southern suburbs of Baotou to determine the content of REE. Distribution characteris- tics and fractionation characteristics were analyzed systematically in stream sediments and farmland soils. [Result] The results indicated that the average total content of light rare earth elements (LRE) was 42.43 times of heavy rare earth elements(HRE). The value of ∑LRE/∑ HRE was 12. 36--128. 72, LRE and HRE separated obviously,showing LRE relatively rich. Eu was relatively slightly lost and Ce showed significantly abnormal in some places. [Conclusion] Full enrichment LRE was found in the study area because human activities lead to excess accumulation of exogenous LRE in the environment of sewage irrigation, external LRE to soil ecological environment in sewage irrigation in the southern suburbs of Baotou City has a significant impact.%【目的】研究包头四道沙河流域污灌区水系沉积物、表层土壤中的稀土元素分布特征,旨在为污灌区的土壤环境质量评价及土壤重金属污染修复提供依据。【方法】采集包头市南郊四道沙河流域污灌区的水系沉积物、农田土壤样品,测定样品中不同稀土元素含量,系统分析污灌区水系沉积物、农田土壤中的稀土元素分布特征和分馏特征。【结果】污灌区的轻稀土元素总量是重稀土元素的42.43倍,轻稀土元素与重稀土元素总量的比值为12.36~128.72。研究区轻、重稀土元素分馏非常明显,且以轻稀土元素的富集度较高,Eu元素有相对微弱亏损,Ce元素在

  8. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  9. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  10. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  11. Transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público: el caso de los hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transparency in public sector acquisitions: The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rossi

    2002-02-01

    gestión de compra claros y precisos y con una normativa homogénea y uniforme, pueden lograr un buen nivel de actividad. Además, pueden contribuir a la baja de precios y la disminución de la dispersión de los mismos, a la vez que mejoran la eficiencia en la asignación y utilización de los recursos.This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation. Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality. Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budeget administration (activity and negotiation indicators. Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares, which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public

  12. Diseño de una Canasta Básica de Alimentos para la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires Design of a Basic Food Basket for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Graciano

    2011-06-01

    and poverty of households in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA the methodology used (National Institute of Statistics and Censuses, INDEC- has not evolved in the past twenty years in relation to the patterns and profiles of household consumption; therefore it is necessary to develop consumption indicators more adjusted to the living standards of a district like the CABA, so as to assess over time the dynamics of these consumption patterns and to evaluate, among other uses, the purchasing power of wages. The aim of this paper is the development of a basic food basket (BFB adjusted to the current consumption patterns of the inhabitants of the CABA. Methods: For the development of the BFB the following steps were followed: energy requirements for different age groups were taken into account, nutrients recommendations for the reference adult and caloric structure observed in the reference population were determined; caloric goals to be covered by foods groups were established taking as reference the consumption pattern observed by adjusting the calories of each group, following the recommended amounts for adult males suggested by the Dietary Guidelines for the Argentine Population. The foods to be included in the BFB were selected and quantities were established, respecting the weighting of each food in the consumption structure. Adjustments were made with a normative economic approach and a nutrients analysis of the BFB was carried out. Conclusion: We obtained a BFB consisting of 62 products, all food groups, respecting the consumption structure observed, with a normative approach, and covering the recommended amounts of energy, macro and micronutrients (except calcium.

  13. Research on Air Quality and Pollution Control Measures in Jinzhou City%锦州市环境空气质量现状及控制对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2012-01-01

    利用大气污染源和环境质量监测等资料,计算分析了锦州市区环境空气质量现状。结果表明,锦州市环境空气质量呈现逐年改善的趋势,空气污染以煤烟和汽车尾气混合型污染为主。PM10和SO2超过二级标准的天数将近95%出现在采暖期。提出了可行的具体措施,指出采用以集中供热、推广使用天然气、小型锅炉改造工程和控制汽车尾气为主要措施,廉顾绿化,制定市区大气污染治理方案比较合理。%Current air condition in Jinzhou City is analyzed according to variation trend of pollution sources of air quality. It is shown that mixed pollution containing coal smoke and vehicle exhaust is one of the main pollution patterns. 95% days with PM10 and SO2 polluted over the 2nd standard are in heating season. We report reasonable and available methods for air quality modifications, such as central heating, natural gas fuel, mini - boiler alteration, vehicle exhaust control, and green project.

  14. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  15. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly report. [Fallout radionuclides deposited and in surface air at various world sites; /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in milk and drinking water in New York City; and stable Pb in surface air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the deposition of fallout /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at various world land sites through 1976; the ..gamma.. spectra and content of /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, and stable Pb in samples of surface air collected during 1966 at various world sites; and the content of fallout /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in samples of drinking water and milk collected in New York City through 1976. (CH)

  16. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  17. El candombe (uruguayo en Buenos Aires: (Proponiendo Nuevos imaginarios urbanos en la ciudad "blanca" O candombe uruguaio em Buenos Aires: (Propondo Novos imaginários urbanos na cidade "branca " Uruguayan candombe in Buenos Aires: (Proposing New urban imaginaries in the "White" city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frigerio

    2009-12-01

    neighborhood of the city and appealing to the memory of Black presence in the area. The reference to this memory, and the ulterior expansion of candombe to other neighborhoods, imply a work of imagining the city that challenges the dominant image of Buenos Aires as White, modern and European. Defying this image and proposing alternative urban imaginaries, practitioners of candombe establish conflictive interactions with different social agents and actors.

  18. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  19. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  20. 浅述气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性%Possibility and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙吉宝; 温述波

    2012-01-01

    Analyse the possiblity and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus,focus on discussing the development of 5.5t disc brake front axle,and calculate the brake moment of disc brake front axle and drum brake front axle.%分析了气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性,重点论述了5.5T盘式制动器前桥的开发,并对盘式制动器前桥与鼓式制动器前桥的制动力矩进行对比计算。

  1. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB, which includes much of Los Angeles (LA County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  2. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  3. Improved correction method for using passive air samplers to assess the distribution of PCNs in the Dongjiang River basin of the Pearl River Delta, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2012-07-01

    An improved correction method was established using passive air samplers to assess the distributions of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the eastern Pearl River Delta, South China. This method was based on a joint correction that used the active air sampling rate and the addition of depuration compounds. As a correction factor, the depuration compounds' properties do not need to be similar to the target compounds. The total PCN air concentrations ranged from 6.4 to 832, with an average of 148 ± 201 pg m-3 in the study area, while the TEQ of the PCNs ranged from 1.2 × 10-4 to 2.6 × 10-2 pg m-3. High concentrations of PCNs were mostly observed in the highly industrialized areas. The PCN air levels were remarkably increased in winter compared with summer. Tri-CNs was the most dominant homologue group, while CN 24 was the most dominant congener. The high proportion of combustion-related PCNs suggests that the contribution of combustion sources to the PCN air burden has been significant recently in comparison with historical emissions.

  4. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  5. Prehistory of the Carson Desert and Stillwater Mountains: Environment, Mobility, and Subsistence in a Great Basin Wetland, by Robert L. Kelly, University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 123, Salt Lake City, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Bostwick

    2001-01-01

    The Great Basin of Western North America is one of the. legendary deserts of the world. This rugged, wide open, and apparently harsh landscape has long served as a backdrop for human drama. Gold seekers and immigrants of the 19th century immortalized the rigors of travelling across the Great Basin on their way to greener grass in California and Oregon. But archaeological research has shown that human occupation of the ...

  6. Successful International Symposium on Oil & Gas Exploration in Lacustrine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry Katz

    1996-01-01

    @@ A Joint American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)-Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau research symposium entitled "Lacustrine Basin Exploration in China and Southeast Asia" was held in Dongying City,People's Republic of China, October 16-20, 1995.

  7. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  8. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  9. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  10. Air Quality and Health Risk Assessment of Linfen City%临汾市区空气质量与健康风险评价∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫殿清; 贾陈忠; 张仲伍

    2016-01-01

    空气污染对人体健康会产生多方面的影响,根据临汾市年2001-2005和2014-2015空气质量监测资料,利用美国环保局的健康风险评价模型,评价了空气中主要污染物SO2和NO2对人体的健康风险。结果表明:临汾市空气质量处于中度污染水平,但有逐年好转的趋势; SO2和NO2等污染物对人体健康风险的影响处在0.0139×10-6~0.0029×10-6之间,表示健康风险不明显。%Air pollution on human health will produce the effect of many sided, according to the years 2001-2005 and 2014-2015 of Linfen air quality monitoring data, using the environmental protection bureau of health risk assessment model, the main pollutants in the air SO2 and NO2 risk to human health were evaluated. The results showed that the air quality was in a moderate level of pollution of Linfen, but had a tendency to improve year by year. The effects of pollutants such as SO2 and NO2 on human health risk were between 0. 0139 ×10-6 and 0. 0029 ×10-6 , it showed health risks was not obvious.

  11. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care.

  12. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  13. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  14. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  15. Playing it safe: Assessing cumulative impact and social vulnerability through an environmental justice screening method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Scoggins; Rachel Morello-Frosch; Sadd, James L.; Manuel Pastor; Bill Jesdale

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB), have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ) advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (E...

  16. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  17. Urban Biometeorology: analysis of the air pollution and climate change on cognition and physical abilities of geriatric population of São Paulo City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz; Jacob, Wilson; Alucci, Marcia; Busse, Alexandre; Duarte, Denise; Monteiro, Leonardo; Trezza, Beatriz; Tribess, Arlindo; Batista, Rafael; Ambrizzi, Tercip

    2013-04-01

    This is a multidisciplinary Project, which emphasizes geriatric population impacts, i. e., over 65 years old, of meteorological variables and air pollutants (such as particulate matter) associated to human health, and concerning to the real climatology and climate change in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. This is a biometeorological study, human subdivision, based on ISB (International Society of Biometeorology). According to the society, the environmental effects are considered meteorotropics where one or more environmental variables (meteorological or climatic even air pollution) affect one or more individuals of a population. Atmospheric pollution will be analyzed using a personal particulate matter multi-collector, concerning the impact of unfavorable meteorological conditions where the impacts will be evaluated comparing the test results during dry season (high air pollutant concentrations) and wet season (low pollutant concentrations). Therefore, the aim of this study will be to evaluate the cognitive and physical performance of a geriatric population in a pre-selected group of aged people which are considered as capable (healthy). This performance is affected by environmental conditions which thermal comfort (where meteorological variables act together) and air pollution are the meteorotropic ones. Consequently, one of the aims of the study is to establish a human thermal comfort index for geriatric populations. Architectural premises (thermal performance and ergonomics) will be also developed. An acclimatized chamber will be used to simulate the extremes of São Paulo climate and to propose a thermal comfort index. Indoors (chamber) and outdoors will be used in order to compare the impact on the selected aged people. Finally, the climate change will be based on GCM's global models which show the meteorological variations in order to calculate their impact on a comfort index. The physical and cognitive performances and architectural premises (thermal

  18. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is

  19. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  20. Indoor air pollution and it influencing factors in newly decorated place of Beiing City%北京市新装修场所室内空气的污染状况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 丛继信

    2012-01-01

    目的 目的调查北京新装修住宅室内空气中甲醛和总挥发性有机物污染的情况,找出具有共性的影响因素,为控制室内空气污染提供依据.方法 采用传感器法对北京地区新装修场所的207套房间进行了室内空气中甲醛和总挥发性有机物的检测,找出室内环境空气质量具有共性的影响因素.结果 有害物质的释放随着温度的升高而增多,春秋两季,甲醛和总挥发性有机物超标率达到39.0%和74.9%,夏季均为100%,冬季为14.3和42.9%%;不同居室类型中,空气中甲醛和总挥发性有机物浓度最高的是会议厅内,均达到100.0%,其次是商务场所为42.9%和28.6%,最低的普通居民住宅为38.3%和79.2%;在相同外界因素下,通透户型的甲醛和总挥发性有机物浓度明显低于单面通风结构的住宅;阳面房间的有害物质浓度高于阴面的房间.结论 温度、居室类型、户型、房间朝向是影响室内环境空气质量的主要影响因素.应针对污染情况,采取有效措施,以降低污染程度.%[Objective]To investigate the pollution situation of formaldehyde and TVOC of indoor air in newly decorated house of Beijing City, to find out the similarity influencing factor, and provide evidence for control of indoor air pollution. [Methods]The determination on formaldehyde and TVOC concentration of indoor air in 207 sets of newly decorated house in Beijing City by sensor method was to find the similarity factor affecting the indoor air quality. [ Results] The release of harmful substance increased with the raise of temperature. The excessive rates of formaldehyde and TVOC in spring and autumn were 39. 0% and 74. 9% , both 100% in summer and 14.5 and 42.9% % in winter. The concentration of formaldehyde and TVOC in meeting room was highest a-mong all the types of house, excessive rates were both 100% , followed by 42.9% and 28.6% in business place, and 38.3% and 79. 2% in ordinary

  1. Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in a medium size city in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, M.A. [Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental (LICA), Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra. Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)], E-mail: mparravi@alumni.unav.es; Elustondo, D.; Bermejo, R.; Santamaria, J.M. [Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental (LICA), Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra. Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were measured by means of passive sampling at 40 sampling points in a medium-size city in Northern Spain, from June 2006 to June 2007. VOC and NO{sub 2} samplers were analysed by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass-selective detector and by visible spectrophotometry, respectively. Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO{sub 2} were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0.59, 1.32 and 23.17 {mu}g m{sup -3} respectively, and found to be highly correlated. Their spatial distribution showed high differences in small distances and pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. The lowest levels of VOC and NO{sub 2} occurred during summer, owing to the increase in solar radiation and to lower traffic densities. Mean concentrations of benzene and NO{sub 2} exceeded the European limits at some of the monitored points.

  2. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  3. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  4. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  5. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  6. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  7. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration.

  8. Prehistory of the Carson Desert and Stillwater Mountains: Environment, Mobility, and Subsistence in a Great Basin Wetland, by Robert L. Kelly, University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 123, Salt Lake City, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bostwick

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The Great Basin of Western North America is one of the. legendary deserts of the world. This rugged, wide open, and apparently harsh landscape has long served as a backdrop for human drama. Gold seekers and immigrants of the 19th century immortalized the rigors of travelling across the Great Basin on their way to greener grass in California and Oregon. But archaeological research has shown that human occupation of the Great Basin dates back for thousands of years, and ethnographic accounts of Native Americans who lived in this desert have played an important role in the development of concepts of hunter-gatherer subsistence and settlement patterns. It is the Indians of the Great Basin that Julian Steward (1938 studied for his well-known model of sodo-political organiza­tion and evolution (Steward 1955; also see Service 1975, Jesse Jennings (1957 later used Steward's model in his development of the Desert Culture concept, which was widely adapted to other North America deserts.

  9. 清远市空调冷却塔水军团菌污染状况调查%The investigation of Legionella pollution with cooling tower water of air conditioning in Qingyuan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠兴; 李桂霞; 王平原; 禤汝流; 徐国洪; 陈丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the detection of Legionella in public place in Qingyuan city and the relation between the result with the consecutively using time and environment including the water temperature of cooling tower, relative humidity inside cooling tower, pH value, chlorine residual, identification and typing of Leginoella.Methods: Water samples were collected from 32 public places in Qingyuan following the health specification of central air conditioning ventilating system in public places.Then the samples for Legionella detection.Results: The isolating rate of Legionella is 51.42% in public places in Qingyuan.There was relation between isolating rate and environment including the water temperature of cooling tower, relative humidity, pH value.There were six serotypes of Legionella isolated in Qingyuan, including serotypes 1,2, 3, 6, 7 and 10, of which the most frequent is serotype 1.Conclution: The Legionella pollution with cooling tower water of air conditioning in Qingyuan city is in a serious situtation.Measures should be taken to strengthen the monitoring of the water of cooling tower.%目的:了解清远市区空调冷却塔水军团菌的检出情况、军团菌检出与环境(冷却塔水温度、冷却塔内相对湿度、pH值、余氯含量)和连续使用时间的关系以及军团菌的分型、鉴定.方法:根据随机抽取清远市区公共场所32家,对其冷却塔水进行军团菌检测.结果:清远市空调冷却塔水军团菌检出率为51.42%,军团菌的检出与环境(冷却塔水温度、冷却塔内相对湿度、pH值)有关,军团菌菌型为嗜肺军团菌1型、2型、3型、6型、7型和10型,其中1型为优势菌株.结论:清远市区空调冷却塔水军团菌污染严重,应加强冷却塔水监测.

  10. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  11. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  12. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  13. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  14. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  15. Natural Hazards In Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vera, M.

    2001-12-01

    Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by

  16. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  17. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  18. Estimation of Number of Cardiovascular Death, Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD from NO2 Exposure using Air Q Model in Ahvaz City During 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Air Q software calculated relative risks, attributable proportion, and baseline incidence using data processed by Excel and presents the output as the cause specific deaths. It is noteworthy that there is no model that can estimate all of the pollutants health effects simultaneously. Cumulative number of persons for acute MI attributed to NO2 exposure was 9 in 2009. Moreover, 51% of this number occurred in the days with concentrations lower than 60 µg/m3. It should be noted that 72% of this value are corresponded to the days with concentrations below 90 µg/m3. The total cumulative number of cardiovascular death attributed to exposure with NO2 during one year of monitoring was 19 persons. 60% of these cases have occurred in days with NO2 levels not exceeding 90 µg/m3. Cumulative number of hospital admission of COPD attributed to exposure with NO2 during one year of monitoring was 7 persons.87 % of these cases have occurred in days with NO2 levels not exceeding 110 µg/m3.

  19. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green