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Sample records for citrus sinensis variety

  1. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

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    Vanessa Cardeñosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C. The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  2. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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    Le Thi Khoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck, seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. and Duong mandarin  (C. reticulata, budded on Kaffir lime and Carrizo citrange, in the 3rd and 4th  year after planting under the trial fields at Mekong Delta Vietnam, the trees of Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. budded on Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix were supperior with precocity, producing high number of fruits (16.67 fruits per tree , and very good fruit quality of larger fruit size (334.6 g and 11.16 cm, fruit weight and diameter, respectively, higher total soluble solids (12.5 brix, better orange-yellow juice color development, and excellent flavor and aroma of juice, as compared to the typical characteristics; meanwhile these were followed by trees of seedless Mat orange budded on Kaffir lime, which produced the highest number of fruits (47.33 fruits per tree, with little inferior quality of seedy fruit (1-3 seeds per fruit, lower total soluble solids (7.33%, and no good flavor and aroma, as somewhat differed from the typical fruit traits.

  3. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  4. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mallick; Rafeeq Alam Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypo...

  5. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  6. Populational fluctuation of vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, wells in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] varieties of northwest Paraná State, Brazil

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    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the population flutuation of the sharpshooters species subfamily Cicadellinae belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis( L. Osbeck] commercial orchards of the northwest region of Paraná State , Brazil. Samplings were carried out the employing every time 24 yellow sticky cards. Identification of the species showed that the most representative were Dilobopterus costalimai of the Cicadellini tribe and Acrogonia citrina of the Proconiini tribe.A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma importante doença que ocorre nos citros, cujo agente causal é a bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, Wells. A bactéria depende, obrigatoriamente, de insetos vetores para sua disseminação, que são as cigarrinhas sugadoras do xilema (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae. No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a flutuação populacional de espécies de cigarrinhas nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], Natal, Pêra, Valência e Folha Murcha, em um pomar comercial localizado na região Noroeste do Paraná, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Amostragens quinzenais foram realizadas com o uso de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, num total de 24 armadilhas em cada avaliação. Após a identificação das espécies observou-se, que as mais representativas foram Dilobopterus costalimai da tribo Cicadellini e Acrogonia citrina da tribo Proconiini, sendo que a variedade de laranja Pêra apresentou o maior número de espécies vetoras durante os anos avaliados.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

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    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  8. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  9. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value. PMID:27447755

  10. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

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    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

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    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  12. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, DiJun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

  13. Estudio de la floración, fructificación y producción de dos variedades de naranja, citrus sinensis L. Oesbeck, y dos de mandarina, Citrus reticulata blanco, en condiciones climáticas de Palmira, Valle del Cauca Analysis of flowering, fruitfulness, and production in two varieties of orange Citrus sinensis L. Oesbeck, and two varieties of tangerine Citrus reticulata blanco, in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

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    Escobar T. William

    1992-12-01

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    En el trabajo realizado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se emplearon 12 árboles cítricos de nueve años, injertados sobre mandarina Cleopatra y pertenecientes a dos variedades de naranja: (Nativa del Chocó y Pera del Río y dos de mandarina (Dancy y Wamurco. Se evaluó el desarrollo floral, tomando dos árboles por variedad, la época e intensidad de la floración y fructificación, el porcentaje de cuajamiento, el desarrollo del fruto y el porcentaje de frutos caídos. Se realizó además un estudio de maduración y calidad del fruto. Los períodos de máxima floración ocurrieron a intervalos de 15 - 30 días después de lluvias intensas. El porcentaje de cuajamiento presenta diferencias entre variedades y entre árboles de una misma variedad, lo mismo que el desarrollo y caída de frutos. El punto de madurez fisiológica medido por la relación de sólidos solubles/acidez, muestra la precocidad de la naranja sobre la mandarina. El potencial productivo, dado por la relación entre la fructificación y la cosecha, presenta diferencias acentuadas entre variedades y fluctua entre 9.2 y 44.6%.

    This work was made at the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira in the Cauca Valley. Twelve citric trees nine years old were used grafted with Cleopatra tangerine belonging to two oranges varieties: Nativa del  Chocó and Pera del Río and two tangerine varieties: Dancy and Wamurco. Flowering development was evaluated taking two trees per variety, epoch and intensity of flowering and fruitation, thicken percentage, fruit's development, fruits falled percentage. In addition, maduration and quality studies was made. Definite periods of highest flowering occurs in intervals of 15 to 30 days after intensity rainy day epoch. The thicken percentage of flowers and fruits, fruit's falled and fruit's development show differences among varieties and among trees of a single variety. The physiological maturity point

  14. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

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    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  15. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

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    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  17. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  18. Phlorin screening in various citrus species and varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louche, L M; Luro, F; Gaydou, E M; Lesage, J C

    2000-10-01

    Phlorin (3,5-dihydroxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside), an orange peel marker, has been searched in 45 species and varieties of Citrus. The phlorin content was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography in juices and aqueous peel extracts of these different fruits. The phlorin content in C. reticulata peel extract varies from 0 to 1012 mg L(-)(1) with a mean of 162 mg L(-)(1). On the contrary, phlorin was not found in mandarin and clementine juices except for mandarin "Commune" and "Beauty" (33 and 30 mg L(-)(1), respectively). In the 14 species of oranges and varieties, phlorin was detected in juices and peel extracts with a mean of 22 and 492 mg L(-)(1), respectively, while for grapefruits, means were 108 mg L(-)(1) in juices and 982 mg L(-)(1) for peel extracts. Tangors and tangelos which are hybrids (C. reticulata x C. sinensis and C. reticulata x C. paradisi, respectively) are characterized by the systematic presence of phlorin in peels (mean: 406 and 659 mg L(-)(1), respectively) while in juices its presence could be variable (0-73 mg L(-)(1)). These heterogeneity and values may be explained by the genetic variability of these hybrids and the phlorin content of their parentage group. PMID:11052725

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

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    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with Agrobacterium suspension for 5, 10, 20 or 40 minutes; co-cultivation medium was supplemented with acetosyringone at 0, 100 or 200 mmol L-1; Explants ends had a longitudinal terminal incision (2-3 mm; co-cultivation temperatures of 19, 23 or 27degreesC were imposed. The experimental design was completely randomized in all experiments with five replications, each consisted of a Petri dish (100 x 15 mm with 30 explants and resulted in a total of 150 explants per treatment. Longitudinal terminal incision in the explant ends did not improve shoot regeneration. However, transgenic plants of all three cultivars were confirmed from explants that had been subjected to inoculation time of 20 minutes, co-culture of three days at 23-27degreesC, in the absence of acetosyringone.

  20. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals possible common ancestors of nucleotide-binding sites domain containing genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementina genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified and re-annotated candidate disease resistance (R) genes with nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) domain from a Citrus clementina genome and two complete Citrus sinensis genome sequences (one from the USA and one from China). We found similar numbers of NBS genes from three citrus genomes, r...

  1. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 270C. (M.A.C.)

  2. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

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    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  3. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  4. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano R. Lucheta; Ana Carla O. Silva-Pinhati; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Irving J. Berger; Juliana Freitas-Astúa; Mariângela Cristofani

    2007-01-01

    Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST) in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck co...

  5. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium mesophilicum Strain SR1.6/6, Isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho Almeida, Diogo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Oliveira de Souza Lima, André; Caracciolo Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique; Ribeiro Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome.

  7. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manosh Kumar Biswas

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02% are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21% polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  8. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  9. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  10. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

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    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  12. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

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    Adriano R. Lucheta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck corresponding to genes involved in general phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the key genes involved in the main flavonoids pathways (flavanones, flavones, flavonols, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. A thorough analysis of all related putative genes from the Citrus EST (CitEST database revealed several interesting aspects associated to these pathways and brought novel information with promising usefulness for both basic and biotechnological applications.

  13. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approxima...

  14. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  15. Fertile fruit trees obtained by somatic hybridization: navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgawara, T; Kobayashi, S; Ishii, S; Yoshinaga, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-02-01

    Nucellar cell suspension protoplasts of navel orange (Citrus sinsensis Osb.) were chemically fused with mesophyll protoplasts of Troyer citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata) and cultured in hormone-free Murashige and Tucker medium containing 0.6 M sucrose. Two types of plant were regenerated through embryogenesis. One type showed intermediate mono-and difoliate leaves and the other types was identical to Troyer citrange. The regenerated plants with intermediate morphology were demonstrated by chromosome counts and rDNA analysis to be amphidiploid somatic hybrids. Five clones of these somatic hybrids were grafted in the field. After 4 years, they set flowers having a morphology intermediate between those of the two parents. The pollen grains showed high stainability and sufficient germinability, and were larger than those of Troyer citrange. The fruits of the somatic hybrids were large and spherical with thick rinds. Most of them contained seeds with normal germinability. These results indicate that somatic hybridization is a useful tool for Citrus breeding.

  16. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH levels

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    Okon Uduak Uduak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T 4 , T 3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Objective: To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T 4 and T 3 and TSH. Materials and Methods: Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ, 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T 4 and T 3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. Results: The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T 4 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T 4 when compared with FOJ group. T 3 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB.

  17. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experi...

  18. Light controls phospholipase A2α and β gene expression in Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    The low-molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2α (CssPLA2α) and β (CsPLA2β) cloned in this study exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in leaf tissue of Citrus sinensis. Only CssPLA2α displayed distinct diurnal patterns in fruit tissues. CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β diurnal expression exhibited periods of approximately 24 h; CssPLA2α amplitude averaged 990-fold in the leaf blades from field-grown trees, whereas CsPLA2β amplitude averaged 6.4-fold. Diurnal oscillation of CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β gene expressi...

  19. Effect of dried Citrus sinensis peel on gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ebrahimi; Antonello Santini; Mosè Alise; Zohreh Pourhossein; Nariman Miraalami; Alireza Seidavi

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308) were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25), 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50), 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75), and 1% w/w (DCSP-1). Control diet (DCSP-0), with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five t...

  20. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Copia-like Retrotransposons from 12 Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-Guo TAO; Juan XU; Yun-Jiang CHENG; Liu HONG; Wen-Wu GUO; Hua-Lin YI; Xiu-Xin DENG

    2005-01-01

    As the largest transposable element in the plant genome, retrotransposons are thought to be involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution, especially in sweet orange, which is prone to bud mutation. In the present study, the presence of copia-like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity, genomic distribution, and transcriptional activities in Citrus were investigated in 12 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cultivars using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT)sequences. Twelve amplification products from each cultivar were cloned and sequenced. The cloned sequences showed great heterogeneity, except "Dream" navel and "Hamlin", both of which shared the same sequence. Frame shifting, termination, deletion, and substitution accounted for the heterogeneity of RT sequences. Southern blot hybridization using the RT1 clone from the "Cara Cara" navel as a probe showed that multiple copies were integrated throughout the sweet orange genomes, which made the retrotransposon possible an effective molecular marker to detect citrus evolution events and to reveal its relationship with bud mutation. No transcriptional activities of the retrotransposon were detected by RT-PCR and Northern analysis in the fruits and leaves of either "Cara Cara" or "Seike" navels.

  2. Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus in lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was monitored in different lemon varieties derived from shoot tip grafted (STG selections proven to be free of CTV before planting. The trial was planted in November, 2007, with a randomized four-block design with four replications. This experiment was originally established to compare selected clones with their duplicates recovered by STG. The selected clones were originally nucellar clones kept in the germplasm bank in the field for 30 to 40 years, so the plants were naturally infected with CTV. The lemon varieties tested were two lines of both Frost Eureka and Limoneira 8A Lisbon and one line of Feminello Santa Teresa and Genoa EEAT. Plants were grafted on Poncirus trifoliata Flying Dragon, except for Eureka lemon, which was grafted on 79 AC [Citrus reshni x (C. paradisi x P. Trifoliata]. Direct immunoprinting-ELISA with 3DF1+3CA5 monoclonal antibodies (Plant Print Diagnostics, Valencia was used to determine the presence of CTV in field samples. Each sample was composed of four young shoots collected from the four sides of each tree. Two diagnoses were performed, one in September 2009 and another in September 2010. STG trees showed significant differences in CTV infection among them. The variety most infected with CTV was Limoneria 8 A and the least infected was Feminello Santa Teresa. Infected plants were found in a random distribution in the plot. All selected lemon trees were CTV positive. CTV spread will be monitored until 100% of all varieties show positive.

  3. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  4. Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci Adriana Patrícia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

  5. INFLUENCE OF CITRUS LEPROSIS ON THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Citrus sinensis LEAVES

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    N. de L. Nogueira

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis is the main viral disease affecting citrus in Brazil. Viral diseases can affect the mineral composition of citrus leaves, inducing mineral deficiencies. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of citrus leprosis on the mineral composition of citrus leaves, cultivar Pera. Orange seedlings were grown in pots containing sterile soil, and kept under greenhouse conditions. When plants had 15 to 20 leaves, they were infested with the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, the leprosis vector, collected from infected citrus plants. Other plants were not infested, and were used as the control. Ninety days after infestation, all the infested plants presented leprosis lesions. The six upper leaves of each plant were collected and the determination of macro and micro-elements was performed. Leaves from the infected plants showed lower levels of N and higher levels of Ca, S and Fe, as compared to the control (= 0.05. Both treatments presented similar levels of P, K, Mg, Cu,Mn, Zn and B.A leprose dos citros é uma das principais doenças de citros no Brasil. As doenças causadas por vírus podem afetar a composição mineral de folhas de citros, induzindo deficiências minerais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência da leprose dos citros na composição mineral de folhas de citros, cultivar Pera. Seedlings de laranja foram crescidos em vasos contendo solo estéril e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Plantas com 15 a 20 folhas foram infestadas com ácaro da espécie Brevipalpus phoenicis, vetor da leprose dos citros, provenientes de plantas de citros com sintomas da doença. Outras plantas não foram infestadas, e serviram como controle. Após noventa dias, todas as plantas infestadas apresentavam lesões de leprose. Seis folhas da parte superior de cada planta foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de macro e micronutrientes. As folhas das plantas infectadas apresentaram níveis mais baixos de N e mais elevados de Ca, S

  6. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K.; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif anal...

  7. Effects of open-top chambers on Valencia' orange trees. [Citrus sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszyk, D.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Takemoto, B.K. (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States)); Kats, G.; Dawson, P.J.; Morrison, C.L.; Preston, J.W.; Thompson, C.R. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    Open-top field chambers are the most widely used technology for evaluating the impacts of air pollutants on vegetation. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of chambers on Valencia orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). The trees were exposed to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) for 51 months in large (4.3-m diam. by 2.9-m high) nonfiltered open-top chambers (NF) and in ambient air without chambers (AA). Results suggest that the yield increases for NF compared to AA trees could, in part, be accounted for by decreased flux of O{sub 3} into leaves (based on decreased O{sub 3} exposure and leaf conductance). However, other factors, i.e., increased tree growth, altered leaf C allocation, and lack of wind stress occurring only in chambers, likely contributed to higher NF tree yields.

  8. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity.

  9. Effect of dried Citrus sinensis peel on gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308 were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25, 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50, 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75, and 1% w/w (DCSP-1. Control diet (DCSP-0, with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five treatments in a time frame of six weeks (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 10 chickens. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test. The results allowed to observe that the mean of Escherichia coli in caecum on day 42 was significantly different (P>0.05 but did not affect other gastrointestinal microbial population traits (P>0.05. The mean of total sheep red blood cells and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM on day 28 (P>0.05 were also determined. Total sheep red blood cells on day 42 were significantly different (P<0.05. The IgG and IgM mean titers on days 28 and 42 was of no significant difference (P>0.05. Supplementing the feed with Citrus sinensis had no significant effect on Newcastle disease on day 42 (P>0.05. The mean value for hemagglutination inhibition on day 42 was significantly different (P<0.05. It can be then concluded that DCSP feed supplemention ameliorated the gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits.

  10. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  11. Physiological Mechanism on the Difference of Sugar Accumulation in Four Citrus Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-zhong; ZHANG Shang-long; LIU Shuan-tao; CHEN Jun-wei; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of sucrose,glucose,fructose,titratable acid,ABA and the activity of acid invertase(AI)were measured injuice sacs of Bendizao mandarin(Citrus succosa Hort),Ponkan(Citrus reticulata Blanco),Miyagawa wase(Citrus unshiu Marc)and Meyer lemon(Citrus,meyeri Y).The acid hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro was also studied.The results showed that the sugar content,the ratio of different sugars,titratable acidity,ABA content and the activity of AI were obviously different in four citrus varieties.The sugar content inj uice sacs of citrus fruit was related to that of ABA at the late stage of fruit development.The result suggested that ABA played an important role in sugar accumulation in juice sacs of citrus fruit.Bendizao mandarin and Miyagawa wase mainly accumulated sucrose inj uice sacs of citrus fruit.Meyer lemon accumulated hexose,and Ponkan citrus was the sucrose-hexose accumulating type variety.In Meyer lemon with high acid degree,the composition of sugar inj uice sacs was determined by acid-hydrolysis of sucrose.In Bendizao mandarin,Ponkan citrus and Miyagawa wase with low acid degree,the composition of sugars at the late stage of fruit development was obviously affected by the AI activity.

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic responses resulting from physiological changes that occur in plants displaying citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC symptoms, we adopted a strategy of comparing two EST libraries from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. One of them was prepared with plants showing typical CVC symptoms caused by Xylella fastidiosa and the other with non-inoculated plants. We obtained 15,944 ESTs by sequencing the two cDNA libraries. Using an in silico hybridization strategy, 37 genes were found to have significant variation at the transcriptional level. Within this subset, 21 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in plants with CVC. The main functional categories of the down-regulated transcripts in plants with CVC were associated with metabolism, protein modification, energy and transport facilitation. The majority of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some transcripts associated with adaptation to stress conditions were up-regulated in plants with CVC and could explain why plants remain alive even under severe water and nutritional stress. Others of the up-regulated transcripts are related to defense response suggesting that sweet orange plants activate their defense machinery. The genes associated with stress response might be expressed as part of a secondary response related to physiological alterations caused by the infection.

  13. Characterization of three terpenoid glycosyltransferase genes in 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Li, Zheng-Guo; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2010-10-01

    Three putative terpenoid UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, designated CsUGT1, CsUGT2, and CsUGT3, were isolated and characterized in 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). CsUGT1 consisted of 1493 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 492 amino acids, CsUGT2 consisted of 1727 nucleotides encoding 504 amino acids, and CsUGT3 consisted of 1705 nucleotides encoding 468 amino acids. CsUGT3 had a 145 bp intron at 730-874, whereas CsUGT1 and CsUGT2 had none. The three deduced glycosyltransferase proteins had a highly conserved plant secondary product glycosyltransferase motif in the C terminus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CsUGT1 and CsUGT3 were classified into group L of glycosyltransferase family 1, and CsUGT2 was classified into group D. Through Southern blotting analysis, CsUGT1 was found to have two copies in the sweet orange genome, whereas CsUGT2 and CsUGT3 had at least seven and nine copies, respectively. CsUGT1, CsUGT2, and CsUGT3 were constitutively expressed in leaf, flower, and fruit tissues. The results facilitate further investigation of the function of terpenoid glycosyltransferases in citrus and the biosynthesis of terpenoid glycosides in vitro.

  14. Preliminary In Vitro Antisickilng Properties of Crude Juice Extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus Sinensis, Carica Papaya and Ciklavit®

    OpenAIRE

    Iweala, EE J; Uhegbu, FO; Ogu, GN

    2009-01-01

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle ce...

  15. (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Revuelta Llano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desechos de naranja pueden ser un importante subproducto en las plantas procesadoras para obtener el jugo y los aceites esenciales. Varios parámetros bromatológicos, tanto del material fresco como del fermentado, fueron investigados para caracterizar el potencial nutricional y fermentativo de los desechos de naranja con vistas a la producción de ensilajes. El ensilaje directo sin el uso de aditivos es un método alternativo, pero se presenta un alto contenido de alcohol en relación con los carbohidratos solubles del material inicial. El deterioro aeróbico ocurrió sin el crecimiento, visible a simple vista, de mohos sobre la superficie del ensilado durante el ensayo de laboratorio. El ensilaje mixto de desecho de naranja–leucaena presentó un alto contenido de alcohol. Por otra parte, el tratamiento que emplea urea al 0,5 % y el de la proporción desecho de naranja–pescado (2:1 mostraron adecuadas propiedades químicas y podrían ser recomendados a los productores.

  16. HLB/ACP Resistance or Tolerance in Non-transgenic Citrus Scion Varieties: Potential Commercial Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncirus trifoliata hybrids grown in the USHRL variety block on Sun Chu Sha (a unifoliate mandarin rootstock similar to Cleopatra) were tested for CLas 16S rDNA and Citrus dehydrin (as an internal standard to permit expression of data in CLas genomes/citrus genomes) by qPCR, assessing random quadran...

  17. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  18. Production of Transgenic Anliucheng Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) with Xa21 Gene for Potential Canker Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ding-li; XIAO Xuan; and GUO Wen-wu

    2014-01-01

    Citrus canker, an epidemic quarantine disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, has brought a great damage in citrus production worldwide. Herein, a rice PRR (pattern recognition receptor) gene Xa21 together with GUS reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) was introduced into Anliucheng sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic callus. The transgenic calluses were screened on MT basal medium containing hygromycin (HYG) and detected by histochemical GUS staining. The transgenic plantlets were recovered through somatic embryogenesis pathway. The regenerated plantlets were accustomed to and maintained in the greenhouse. The transgene integration of recovered plantlets was identiifed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. It showed that all the transgenic plantlets tested had undergone single copy integration, the expression of Xa21 in eight different transgenic lines detected by qRT-PCR can be divided into three grades, high for T5 and T6, middle for T4 and low for the rest. The tolerance to citrus canker disease of the three recovered transgenic lines T2, T4 and T6 was assessed by in vitro pin-puncture inoculation. The results showed that all the three transgenic lines conferred improved resistance to citrus canker bacterium infection and the T4 transgenic line displayed the highest resistance. The mechanism and feasibility of rice Xa21 in triggering innate immunity in citrus was brielfy discussed.

  19. BIOSORPTION STUDIES OF CADMIUM (II IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO ORANGE RIND (CITRUS SINENSIS L. OSBECK

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    Satish A. Bhalerao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption studies for effective removal of cadmium (II ions from aqueous solutions using orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, cost effective biosorbent, was carried out in batch system. FTIR analysis of biosorbent confirmed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl group which was responsible for biosorption of cadmium (II ions. The SEM represents porous structure with surface area. The effects of operational factors including solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial cadmium (II ions concentration, contact time and temperature were studied. The optimum solution pH for cadmium (II ions biosorption by biosorbent was 7.0 with the optimal removal 80.30 %. The biosorbent dose 5 mg/ml was enough for optimal removal of 65.15 %. The biosorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was achieved after 90 minutes of contact. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were analysed by four widely used two-parameters Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm model provided a better fit with the experimental data than Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR isotherm models by high correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.911. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 83.33 mg/g of biosorbent. Simple kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion rate equation were employed to determine the adsorption mechanism. Results clearly indicates that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.998 was found to be correlate the experimental data strongest than other three kinetic models and this suggests that chemical adsorption process was more dominant. Thermodynamic study revealed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and increasing randomness of the solid solution interfaces. Orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck was successfully used for the

  20. [Spider diversity in cultures of Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae) in Corrientes province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gilberto; Bar, Maria Esther; Oscherov, Elena Beatriz; González, Alda

    2013-09-01

    Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. In spite that the presence of spider assemblages has been described in different crop plants, no reports have been done for Citrus species in Argentina. We studied the spider community associated with cultures of Citrus sinensis in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, in two plots (AM1 irrigated and AM2 unirrigated) of 0.82 hectares each. Spiders were collected monthly by using pitfall traps, hand capture, agitation of foliage and sieving of soil litter. A total of 7174 specimens were collected (33 families, 44 genera and 200 species/morphospecies). The AM1 recorded 3811 individuals (33 families, 179 species/morphospecies) and AM2 3363 individuals (31 families, 174 species/morphospecies). November, December and January showed the highest abundance in both plots. A total of 70% of collected spiders were juveniles. Eight families were the most abundant and represented 75% of spiders collected in both plots, the largest being Lycosidae. We identified eight guilds in both plots, for which the ground runners resulted the most abundant (AM1 n = 1341, s=39, n=999 AM2, s = 33), followed by orb weavers (AM1 n = 637, s = 36; AM2 n = 552, s = 33), the stalkers (AM1 n = 471, s = 43, AM2 n = 453, s = 47) and the space web-builders (AM1 n = 446, s = 23; AM2 n = 342, s = 25). The analysis of alpha diversity in both plots (AM1H' = 4.161, J' = 0.802; AM2 H' = 4.184, J' = 0.811) showed no significant differences (t = 1.083 p = 0.279). The linear dependences model was the one with the best fit results, where the species observed were more than estimated. Clench model estimated 90.9% of the spiders observed in the unit with irrigation and 90.6% in the unit without irrigation. PMID:24027921

  1. Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O, Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella.To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W, RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and

  2. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  3. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  4. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  5. C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Sanguinello and Tarocco blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice: Identification and influence on antioxidant properties and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Sanguinello and Tarocco are the blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) cultivars most diffused worldwide. Reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with MS-MS analysis showed that these two varieties have a similar chromatographic pattern, characterised by the presence of C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids. Of the two, Sanguinello was found to be far richer in flavonoids than Tarocco. In the juices, twelve individual components were identified for the first time, namely, four C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), three flavonol derivatives (quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-glycoside), an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activity of these juices has been evaluated.

  6. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life.

  7. Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, M I; Akubor, P I

    1999-01-01

    Flour samples were prepared from dehulled and undehulled sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds. The flour samples were evaluated for proximate composition, mineral content and selected functional properties. Proximate analysis showed a composition of 54.2% fat, 28.5% carbohydrate, 5.5% crude fiber, 3.1% crude protein and 2.5% ash for the dehulled orange seed flour (dry weight). Mineral analyses showed high levels of calcium and potassium in flour samples. Partially defatted and undefatted flour samples prepared from dehulled orange seeds had least gelation concentrations of 10 and 12% (w/v), respectively. Water absorption capacity for the defatted and undefatted dehulled flour samples were 240 and 220%, respectively. Defatting improved oil absorption capacity of the orange seed flour by 84%. Emulsion activity, emulsion stability and foaming capacity decreased following defatting of flour. Foam prepared from defatted flour was less stable than that from full-fat flour. Incorporation of NaCl up to 0.2 M improved the foaming capacity of orange seed flour. PMID:10798346

  8. Corn (Zea mays growth in petroleum contaminated soil, remediated with orange (Citrus sinensis peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Darío Marín Veláquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has a strong impact when oil activity takes place within a savanna ecosystem. Any oil spill affects agricultural soils. Biostimulation with orange peel extract (Citrus sinensis is an alternative for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil and in this research the corn plant (Zea mays was used as a biomarker of contamination level of a savanna soil after their treatment. Three samples of savannah soil contaminated with oil light crude were treated with dissolutions 1, 3 and 5% of extract of orange peel in water at a dose of 150 mL per kg of soil treated. The content of oils and fats was measured every 7 days, up to 42 days. Corn seeds were planted in soil samples, their growth was measured every 5 days for a period of 35 consecutive days, comparing their growth with seeds planted in a soil sample without contamination. According to an analysis of rank contrast, the plant growth was statistically the same in all samples up to 20 days; from there, evident differences regarding the pattern were shown.

  9. Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Malerbo-Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality, nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized. Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g than in covered flowers (168.5g. Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice. The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud. Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.

  10. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues. [Citrus sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J. (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels.

  11. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification gen...

  12. MicroRNA regulatory mechanisms on Citrus sinensis leaves to magnesium-deficiency

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    Cui-Lan eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-deficiency, which affects crop productivity and quality, widespreadly exists in many agricultural crops, including citrus. However, very limited data are available on Mg-deficiency-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs in higher plants. Using Illumina sequencing, we isolated 75 (73 known and 2 novel up- and 71 (64 known and 7 novel down-regulated miRNAs from Mg-deficient Citrus sinensis leaves. In addition to the remarkable metabolic flexibility as indicated by the great alteration of miRNA expression, the adaptive responses of leaf miRNAs to Mg-deficiency might also involve the following several aspects: (a up-regulating stress-related genes by down-regulating miR164, miR7812, miR5742, miR3946 and miR5158; (b enhancing cell transport due to decreased expression of miR3946 and miR5158 and increased expression of miR395, miR1077, miR1160 and miR8019; (c activating lipid metabolism-related genes by repressing miR158, miR5256 and miR3946; (d inducing cell wall-related gene expansin 8A by repressing miR779; and (e down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of S, K and Cu by up-regulating miR395 and miR6426. To conclude, we isolated some new known miRNAs (i.e., miR7812, miR8019, miR6218, miR1533, miR6426, miR5256, miR5742, miR5561, miR5158 and miR5818 responsive to nutrient deficiencies and found some candidate miRNAs that might contribute to Mg-deficiency tolerance. Therefore, our results not only provide novel information about the responses of plant to Mg-deficiency, but also are useful for obtaining the key miRNAs for plant Mg-deficiency tolerance.

  13. MicroRNA Regulatory Mechanisms on Citrus sinensis leaves to Magnesium-Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cui-Lan; Qi, Yi-Ping; Liang, Wei-Wei; Yang, Lin-Tong; Lu, Yi-Bin; Guo, Peng; Ye, Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency, which affects crop productivity and quality, widespreadly exists in many agricultural crops, including citrus. However, very limited data are available on Mg-deficiency-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in higher plants. Using Illumina sequencing, we isolated 75 (73 known and 2 novel) up- and 71 (64 known and 7 novel) down-regulated miRNAs from Mg-deficient Citrus sinensis leaves. In addition to the remarkable metabolic flexibility as indicated by the great alteration of miRNA expression, the adaptive responses of leaf miRNAs to Mg-deficiency might also involve the following several aspects: (a) up-regulating stress-related genes by down-regulating miR164, miR7812, miR5742, miR3946, and miR5158; (b) enhancing cell transport due to decreased expression of miR3946 and miR5158 and increased expression of miR395, miR1077, miR1160, and miR8019; (c) activating lipid metabolism-related genes by repressing miR158, miR5256, and miR3946; (d) inducing cell wall-related gene expansin 8A by repressing miR779; and (e) down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of S, K and Cu by up-regulating miR395 and miR6426. To conclude, we isolated some new known miRNAs (i.e., miR7812, miR8019, miR6218, miR1533, miR6426, miR5256, miR5742, miR5561, miR5158, and miR5818) responsive to nutrient deficiencies and found some candidate miRNAs that might contribute to Mg-deficiency tolerance. Therefore, our results not only provide novel information about the responses of plant to Mg-deficiency, but also are useful for obtaining the key miRNAs for plant Mg-deficiency tolerance. PMID:26973661

  14. 湖南柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害特点研究初报%The Damage Characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen on Different Citrus Varieties in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文力; 杨水芝; 潘美山; 陈海玲; 黄泽培; 龙建国; 肖伏莲

    2011-01-01

    采用定点观察和普查的方式对湖南省吉首市、麻阳县柑橘大实蝇的危害特点进行了研究.结果表明:柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害时间由早到晚依次为:脐橙>温洲蜜柑>冰糖橙≥大红甜橙=广柑>椪柑;其危害最严重的品种是脐橙,虫果率达63%,其次是早熟温洲蜜柑和冰糖橙,达22%,再次是椪柑,达6%;同时还发现,柑橘不同品种果皮表面存在产卵假痕迹现象.这些结果可为柑橘大实蝇的防治提供理论参考依据.%The damage characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen in Mayang County, Jishou City, Hunan Province were investigated by fixed-point observation method and general survey method. The results indicated that the harm time of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>satsuma mandarin>Citrus sinensis ^Citrus sineasis Osbeck cv. Dahong= Citrussinensis (L.) Osbeck >Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan; the damage level of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>early mature satsuma mandarin and Citrus sinensis >dtrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan, and the insect infestation ratio of navel orange, early mature satsuma mandarin, Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan was 63%, 22%, 22% and 6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the research also showed that there are fake oviposition traces of Tetradacus citri Chen on the Peels of different varieties of citrus. These results above can provide the theory basis for the control of Tetradacus citri Chen.

  15. Transcriptional profiling of canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT) and the transgenic line (TG9) by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO) annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease.

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Canker-Resistant Transgenic Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck Constitutively Overexpressing a Spermidine Synthase Gene

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    Xing-Zheng Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT and the transgenic line (TG9 by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease.

  17. Inotropic effect of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck leaf extracts on the guinea pig atrium

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    Oliveira E.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to determine the contractile effect of crude and acetone leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. on mammalian myocardium. Crude leaf extracts have been used in folk medicine to treat neurological disorders. Some flavonoids isolated from this plant presented a positive inotropic effect on myocardium. This motivated us to test the extracts on the atria of guinea pigs of both sexes (300-500 g and surprisingly we observed inotropic depression instead of an increase in force. The maximum effect of the crude extract was 79.4 ± 8.1% of the control force amplitude (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, stimulus: 2 Hz, 400 V, 0.5 ms. The EC50 for crude, ethanol, acetic, aqueous, and acetone extracts was 300, 300, 600, 1000, and 140 µg/ml, respectively, with a Hill constant of 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.4, respectively. Blockade of cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, or opioid membrane receptors with 1.5 µM atropine sulfate, 1 µM propranolol, and 10 µM naloxone, respectively, did not change the effect of the crude extract. The acetone extract abolished the Bowditch positive staircase phenomenon (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, suggesting a possible reduction of the calcium inward current, and also promoted the so-called Woodworth phenomenon. The effect was concentration-dependent and indicated the existence of another inhibitory contractile mechanism such as the simultaneous activation of some of the membrane potassium channels reducing the myocardial action potential duration and further decreasing the cellular calcium entry.

  18. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongZhong; LIU Qing; XIONG JingJing; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Resuits showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering)and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1)was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  19. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ‘Fengjiewancheng’(FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of‘Fengjie 72-1’navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of su-crose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Re-sults showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant’s gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its pa-rental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  20. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO DE HASTES DE LARANJA CACAU (Citrus sinensis Osb NO "PEGAMENTO" DE BORBULHAS EFFECT OF THE STORAGE PERIOD OF “CACAU” ORANGE (Citrus sinensis OSB BUDWOODS ON THE QUALITY OF BUDS FOR GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Teixeira Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da conservação de borbulhas de laranja “Cacau” (Citrus sinensis Osb embaladas em sacos plásticos, no pegamento de enxertos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram enxertia com borbulhas de hastes com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias de conservação. A percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente em função do período de conservação. À medida que aumentava a intensidade de descoloração das hastes, diminuía a percentagem de "pegamento" de enxertos. Para nossas condições as borbulhas de laranja "cacau" (Citrus sinensis Osb não devem ser conservadas em sacos plásticos, à temperatura ambiente, por mais de 5 dias, pois a percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente com o período de conservação das hastes.

    This work was carried out at the Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO. This study was made to test the effect of the storage period of the “cacau” orange budwood on the quality of buds for grafting. Budwoods of the “Cacau” orange (Citrus sinensis  Osb were harvested, packed in polyethylene bags and maintained at environmental temperature. The buds were grafted on rootstocks of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osb at intervals of 6 days (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. It was noted that the loss of bud viability increased simultaneously with progressive change in budwood color from the natural green to an intense brown. The percentages of buds alive after 60 days of grafting were: 100% on the day budwoods were harvested; 70% after 5 days of storage; 36% after 10 days of storage and 00% after 15 days.

  1. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika Warikoo; Ankita Ray; Jasdeep Kaur Sandhu; Roopa Samal; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results: The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions:The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  2. Insecticidal evaluation of essential oils of Citrus sinensis L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is one of the most common insects, associated with vectoring of various etiological agents. In order to search for effective control agent, the essential oil of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was evaluated for its insecticidal activity against the larvae and pupae of housefly using contact toxicity and fumigation bioassays. In the contact toxicity assay, lethal concentration, LC(50) of C. sinensis essential oil against housefly larvae, varied between 3.93 and 0.71 μl/cm(2) for different observation days, while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 5.8 to 2.3 days. Mortality of larvae were significant with different concentrations (F = 2.79, df = 4, P housefly larvae, LC(50) of 71.2 and 52.6 μl/l was obtained in 24 and 48 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of oil treated larvae revealed extreme dehydration and surface distortion while control larvae were free from any of the above symptoms and presented smooth surface, conforming effect of essential oil on housefly larvae. Percentage inhibition rate of oil against housefly pupae was 27.3-72.7% for contact toxicity and 46.4-100% for fumigation assay. Compositional analysis of C. sinensis essential oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed D: -limonene (73.24%), α-pinene (5.86%) and myrcene (4.45%) as major components whereas its vapour profile (solid-phase micro extraction-GC/MS) was dominated by D: -limonene at 92.57%. Significant activity of C. sinensis essential oil against larvae and pupae of housefly, pave the way for its use as eco-friendly housefly control measure.

  3. Physiological changes and expression characteristics of ZIP family genes under zinc deifciency in navel orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Fei; FU Xing-zheng; WANG Nan-qi; XI Jian-long; HUANG Yi; ZHOU Wei; LING Li-li; PENG Liang-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deifciency is widespread among citrus plants, but information about the mechanisms for Zn deifciency response in these plants is scarce. In the present study, different navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves with various yelowing levels were sampled in our experimental orchard, and upon estimation of nutrient contents, Zn deifciencies were diagnosed as mild, moderate, and severe. Further analysis of chlorophyl content, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expression levels ofZn/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family genes were conducted in the sampled Zn-deifcient leaves. The results showed that chlorophyl contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) seemed to decrease with reduced Zn contents. In addition, comparison of severe Zn-deifcient and normal leaves revealed that activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased signiifcantly, whereas that of Zn-containing enzymes such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) signiifcantly reduced with decreasing Zn contents. As expected, expression of the ZIP family genes,ZIP1,ZIP3, andZIP4, was induced by Zn deifciencies. These results deepen our understanding of Zn deifciency in citrus plants as wel as provide useful preliminary information for further research.

  4. Comportamiento de crecimiento y rendimiento de naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. injertado en varios portainjertos en suelos calcisol vértico y pétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 16 portainjertos para naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. en suelos Calcisol vértico y pétrico de textura migajón arcilloso y migajón arenosos, respectivamente. El objetivo fue comparar el potencial de sitio y los portainjertos en el crecimiento y rendimiento de naranja a 10 años de plantada. Los tratamientos (portainjertos incluyeron limones, citranges, mandarinos, lima ácida y trifoliados; como testigo, se utilizó Naranjo agrio (Citrus aurantium L.. En los suelos utili-zados, resultaron sobresalientes, con respecto a naranjo agrio: Volkameriana (Citrus volkameriana, Pasq., Carrizo (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf. x Citrus sinensis L., Macrofila (Citrus macrophylla Wester, Amblicarpa (Citrus amblycarpa Ochse y Sunki x Trifoliado (Sunki x Poncirus trifoliata. La altura, el diámetro de tronco y de copa, así como el volumen de copa fue 14%, 17%, 3% y 18.7% mayor en el suelo Calcisol vértico que en el Calcisol pétrico. El rendimiento en 2001 y el acumulado (de 5 años fue 35% y 23% superior, respectivamente, en el suelo de textura migajón arcilloso que en el suelo de textura migajón arenoso.

  5. 柑橘木虱对柑橘不同品种的趋性%Diaphorina citri's Gost Preference on Thirteen Citrus Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建利; 阮传清; 刘波; 范国成; 段永平; D.HALL

    2011-01-01

    用2种方法测定了柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuw.成虫对13个柑橘品种离体嫩梢的选择性.结果表明,对不同品种进行两两组合的选择性试验,柑橘木虱停靠在处理组合早金和四季斑叶橘的虫量占总虫量的23%和1%,停靠在处理组合台湾玫瑰橙和纽荷尔脐橙上的虫量分别占总虫量的33%和20%,停靠在处理组合日辉和佩奇甜橙上虫量分别占总虫量的38%和15%,两两之间差异显著.将13个品种组合在一起进行选择性试验,结果表明柑橘木虱停靠在纽荷尔、福橘和佩奇甜橙上的成虫数量为每梢3.2~6.6只·d-1,显著高于木虱在其余10个品种枝梢上的停靠数量.福橘是柑橘黄龙病高发品种的原因是其对柑橘木虱的吸引力较强.%Under laboratory conditions, preference of adult Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuw, for infestation among 13 citrus varieties was determined with two experimentations. Experiment A applied every 2 detached shoots of different citrus varieties and put together for choice. Experiment B used the detached shoots of all tested citrus varieties and put together for choice. The results of Experiment A revealed that the percentage of ACP adults on each shoot of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Earlygold and C. medurensis (C. mitis) cv. Varigated Calamondin were 23 % and 1 %, respectively, which was significantly different from each other. The percentage on C. sinensis Osbeck cv. Taiwanmeiguicheng (33%) and cv. Newhall Navel Orange (20%) were also significantly different from each other. Significant different percentages of ACP adults were also observed between C. reticulata C. paradisi cv. Rihui (38%) and C. reticulata C. grandis cv. Page (15%). In Experiment B, the number of ACP on the shoots of C. sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall Navel Orange, C. tangerina Tanaka cv. Fuju and C. reticulata Citrusgrandis cv. Page was 3.2-6.6 adults · shoot-day-1 , which were significantly higher than that

  6. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality.

  7. Production of intergeneric somatic hybrids between round kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle) and 'Morita navel' orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, K; Matsumara, A; Yahata, M; Imayama, T; Kunitake, H; Komatsu, H

    2004-08-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybrids between embryogenic callus-derived protoplasts of round kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle) and 'Morita navel' orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) were produced by electrofusion. Among the eight different fusion strains obtained, six showed normal morphology, whereas the remaining two showed malformation. All the regenerated plants were intermediate in leaf morphology and had thick and round leaves, which are typical characteristics of polyploids. Ploidy analyses by flow cytometry and chromosome counting in root-tip cells revealed that these plants are amphidiploid (2n=4x=36). Hybridity of the fusion products was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analyses. Furthermore, analyses of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA by CAPS showed that these somatic hybrids contained cp- and mt-DNA of round kumquat without recombination in the regions analyzed. PMID:14997338

  8. In vitro Plant Regeneration from the Mature Tissue of Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) by Direct Organogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jia-quan; YIN Li-yan; YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai

    2005-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration system by direct organogenesis from mature nodal and internodal stem segments of Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was developed. Illuminating conditions together with plant growth regulators affected the adventitious bud regeneration frequency and efficiency. The initial 15 d darkness inoculation is beneficial for the adventitious bud regeneration. The highest regeneration frequency (85.2%) and bud formation efficiency (3.7 per responsive internodal stem segment) were obtained in the media supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. ABA at 0.2 mg L-1 positively affected the bud formation efficiency, which amounted to 8.5 buds per internodal segment in the presence of BAP at 1.0 mg L-1. The adventitious shoots successfully rooted and were transferred to the soil.

  9. Morphogenesis and tissue culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.): effect of temperature and photosynthetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both incubation temperature and photosynthetic radiation affected morphogenesis, callus culture and plantlet culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cultured in vitro. Bud culture from nodal stem segments, regeneration of shoots and buds from internode stem segments and induction of primary callus were near optimal at incubation temperatures between 21–30°C. The optimal temperature for root formation was 27°C with temperatures above and below being clearly deleterious. Incubation in the dark or under low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was beneficial for callus induction and growth and also favored the production of rooted plantlets from bud cultures. Incubation in the dark improved considerably the regeneration of shoots and buds from internode segments and the recovery of whole plants. No off-types, as determined by protein and isoenzyme analysis, were observed among plantlets recovered from bud cultures or from regeneration of shoots from internode stem segments

  10. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585

  11. GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF CITRUS ROOTSTOCK VARIETIES UNDER SALT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ERIC BARBOSA BRITO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High salt concentration in water are common in Brazilian semirad region, being important to research alternatives for use this waters on crop, like use of tolerant genotypes to salinity. Thus, in order to evaluate the saline stress perception of citrus rootstocks varieties crop from gas exchange and fluorescence analysis, an experiment was realized in greenhouse at the Center for Science and Technology Agrifood, CCTA, of Federal University of Campina Grande, UFCG, Pombal, PB, Brazil. It was studied in a randomized block design with factorial scheme (2x4, two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dSm-1 and four varieties of citrus rootstocks [1 -common Sunki mandarin (TSKC, 2 - Florida Rough lemon (LRF, 3 -Santa Cruz Rangpur lime (LCRSTC and 4-Volkamer lemon (LVK], with three replications. The citrus rootstocks varieties grown on hydroponic system and at 90 days after sowing the plants were evaluated by gas exchange and PSII fluorescence at 0, 24 and 48 hours after application of treatments to determine the times for the physiological establishment of salt stress. The first 48h under saline conditions promoted changes in gas exchange and PSII fluorescence in varieties TSKC, LRF and LCRSTC indicating the begin of physiological stress; the common ‘Sunki’ mandarin and the ‘Florida Rough’ lemon are the more sensitive genotypes to saline stress, in order hand the ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime and ‘Volkamer’ lemon are the genotypes more tolerant.

  12. Comparative analysis of surface wax in mature fruits between Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) from the perspective of crystal morphology, chemical composition and key gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinqiu; Hao, Haohao; Liu, Runsheng; Ma, Qiaoli; Xu, Juan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-06-15

    Surface wax of mature Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) was analysed by crystal morphology, chemical composition, and gene expression levels. The epicuticular and total waxes of both citrus cultivars were mostly composed of aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids and primary alcohols. The epicuticular wax accounted for 80% of the total wax in the Newhall fruits and was higher than that in the Satsuma fruits. Scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and more wax platelets were deposited on the surface of Newhall fruits than on the Satsuma fruits. Moreover, the expression levels of genes involved in the wax formation were consistent with the biochemical and crystal morphological analyses. These diversities of fruit wax between the two cultivars may contribute to the differences of fruit postharvest storage properties, which can provide important information for the production of synthetic wax for citrus fruits.

  13. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H2O2 production and transcriptional alteration

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    Wang Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. Results In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1 was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng' via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9 varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac, the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT. In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm and polyamine oxidase (PAO activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H2O2. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H2O2 accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H2O2 due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  14. Construction and Characterization of a cDNA Library from the Pulp of Cara Cara Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed and characterized from the pulp of Cara Cara navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) at different stages of ripening. Tittering results revealed that approximately 5.086x105 independent clones were included in this library. Electrophoresis gel results of 15 randomly selected clones revealed that the size of the insertion fragments ranged from 400 bp to 2 kb, with an average size of 900 bp. Sequencing results of 150 randomly picked clones showed that the recombination rate was 94%. During subsequent sequence analysis, 41 of 139 clones failed to be identified and the amino sequence of 71 clones shared less than 30% identity with related plants in GenBank. Of 27 clones whose amino sequences shared more than 60% identity with other related plants in GenBank, 17 clones showed an 80% identity with the corresponding candidate genes of citrus. The clone recognized as the type Ⅲ metallothionein-like (MT) gene was observed to occur 13 times, indicating that the protein may play an important role in fruit development and ripening.

  15. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the polyamine oxidase gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-25

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are FAD-dependent enzymes associated with polyamine catabolism. In plants, increasing evidences support that PAO genes play essential roles in abiotic and biotic stresses response. In this study, six putative PAO genes (CsPAO1-CsPAO6) were unraveled in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using the released citrus genome sequences. A total of 203 putative cis-regulatory elements involved in hormone and stress response were predicted in 1.5-kb promoter regions at the upstream of CsPAOs. The CsPAOs can be divided into four major groups, with similar organizations with their counterparts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcripts of CsPAOs were detected in leaf, stem, cotyledon, and root, with the highest levels detected in the roots. The CsPAOs displayed various responses to exogenous treatments with polyamines and ABA and were differentially altered by abiotic stresses, including cold, salt, and mannitol. Overexpression of CsPAO3 in tobacco demonstrated that spermidine and spermine were decreased in the transgenic line, while putrescine was significantly enhanced, implying a potential role of this gene in polyamine back conversion. These data provide valuable knowledge for understanding the roles of the PAO genes in the future.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  18. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between UV-irradiated Citrus unshiu and C. sinensis: regeneration and characterization of hybrid shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Li, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ji-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper, attempts were made to explore the possibility of employing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in citrus asymmetric fusion for transfer of limited amount of favorable traits from a desirable cultivar to a target one. Exposure of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) embryogenic protoplasts to UV at an intensity of 300 muW cm(-2) led to reduced viability, especially under long irradiation duration. The protoplasts could not grow during culture when they were irradiated for over 30 s. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed extensive DNA fragmentation in the UV-irradiated protoplasts compared with those without UV treatment. Electrofusion between UV-irradiated protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin (donor) with those of Jincheng (C. sinensis Osbeck, recipient), a local cultivar of superior quality, gave rise to regeneration of several lines of shoots, which failed to root despite enormous endeavors. Ploidy analysis via flow cytometry and chromosome counting showed that four selected shoots were either diploid, triploid or tetraploid. Random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) confirmed the shoots, irrespective of their ploidy level, as putative somatic hybrids. Cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (CAPS) demonstrated that the shoots predominantly got their cytoplasmic components, in terms of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrion DNA, from Jincheng, along with possible recombination of cpDNA in some shoot lines. The current data indicated that UV-based asymmetric fusion could also be employed in citrus somatic hybridization with the intention of creating novel germplasms, which may provide an alternative approach for cultivar improvement. PMID:17443330

  19. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  20. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total o...

  1. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of lineage-specific genes within sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuantao; Wu, Guizhi; Hao, Baohai; Chen, Lingling; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background With the availability of rapidly increasing number of genome and transcriptome sequences, lineage-specific genes (LSGs) can be identified and characterized. Like other conserved functional genes, LSGs play important roles in biological evolution and functions. Results Two set of citrus LSGs, 296 citrus-specific genes (CSGs) and 1039 orphan genes specific to sweet orange, were identified by comparative analysis between the sweet orange genome sequences and 41 genomes and 273 transcr...

  2. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Robert K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is one of the major impediments for development of transgenic trees. We have sequenced the Citrus chloroplast genome to facilitate genetic improvement of this crop and to assess phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms. Results The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis is 160,129 bp in length, and contains 133 genes (89 protein-coding, 4 rRNAs and 30 distinct tRNAs. Genome organization is very similar to the inferred ancestral angiosperm chloroplast genome. However, in Citrus the infA gene is absent. The inverted repeat region has expanded to duplicate rps19 and the first 84 amino acids of rpl22. The rpl22 gene in the IRb region has a nonsense mutation resulting in 9 stop codons. This was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers that flank the IR/LSC boundaries. Repeat analysis identified 29 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with expressed sequence tags revealed six putative RNA edits, five of which resulted in non-synonymous modifications in petL, psbH, ycf2 and ndhA. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods of a dataset composed of 61 protein-coding genes for 30 taxa provide strong support for the monophyly of several major clades of angiosperms, including monocots, eudicots, rosids and asterids. The MP and ML trees are incongruent in three areas: the position of Amborella and

  4. Seasonal Dynamic of Mineral Macronutrients in Three Varieties of Clementine (Citrus Reticulate Leaves

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    M. Ayoub

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient composition in terms of macronutrients of three different varieties (Early season “Orogrande”, season “Nules” and late season “Nour” of clementine leaves (Citrus reticulata was monitored at monthly intervals during three years in order to provide information for the development of nutrition management guidelines more suited to local conditions of southern Morocco. Nutrient concentrations at the sampled leaves for all the three elements, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, changed seasonally for all tested varieties. Seasonal dynamic of those three elements doesn‟t differ significantly between years, particularly during the spring-summer period. Results of statistical analysis show a significant variability between the tested varieties in term of leaf nitrogen and potassium concentrations. However, no significant differences between tested varieties were recorded in term of the leaf phosphorus concentration.

  5. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the AP2/ERF gene superfamily in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T M; Polido, P B; Rampim, M C; Kaschuk, G; Souza, S G H

    2014-09-26

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plays an important role in the economy of more than 140 countries, but it is grown in areas with intermittent stressful soil and climatic conditions. The stress tolerance could be addressed by manipulating the ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors because they orchestrate plant responses to environmental stress. We performed an in silico study on the ERFs in the expressed sequence tag database of C. sinensis to identify potential genes that regulate plant responses to stress. We identified 108 putative genes encoding protein sequences of the AP2/ERF superfamily distributed within 10 groups of amino acid sequences. Ninety-one genes were assembled from the ERF family containing only one AP2/ERF domain, 13 genes were assembled from the AP2 family containing two AP2/ERF domains, and four other genes were assembled from the RAV family containing one AP2/ERF domain and a B3 domain. Some conserved domains of the ERF family genes were disrupted into a few segments by introns. This irregular distribution of genes in the AP2/ERF superfamily in different plant species could be a result of genomic losses or duplication events in a common ancestor. The in silico gene expression revealed that 67% of AP2/ERF genes are expressed in tissues with usual plant development, and 14% were expressed in stressed tissues. Because the AP2/ERF superfamily is expressed in an orchestrated way, it is possible that the manipulation of only one gene may result in changes in the whole plant function, which could result in more tolerant crops.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sweet Orange Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Cultivars in Iraq Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saeed Atiyah AL-Janabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crops of Citrus. Genetic diversity and inter-relationship among 5 cultivars (Indian, Iraqi, Japanese, Syrian, Egyptian of C. sinensis were analyzed based on RAPD markers. Six primers generated reproducible and easily storable RAPD profiles with a number of amplified DNA fragments ranging from 6 to 14 fragment bands. The total number of amplicons detected was 51, including 14 fragments unique bands with average reached 2.8 fragments ̸ primers. While the number of polymorphic ranged from 0 to 8 with an average reached 4.4 fragments ̸ primers with the polymorphic percentage ranged from 0% to 57.1%. While the number of monomorphic ranged from 2 to 5 fragment bands and was total of the monomorphic 15 fragments with an average reached 3 fragments ̸ primers with the monomorphic percentage was 14.2 % to 83.3%. A maximum numbers of amplicons was amplified with primer OPS-238 reached 14 fragments while the minimum number of fragments was amplified with primer OPS-253 reached 6 fragments. The highest number of polymorphic bands reached 8 fragments was obtained with primer OPS-238 with high percentage 57.1%, while the highest number of monomorphic bands reached 5 fragments with high percentage 83.3% was obtained with primer OPS-253. RAPD markers detected genetic distance and similarity, amaximum genetic distance value was observed between Japanese (Jap and Syrian (Syr cultivars reached 0.530 with less similarity value reached 47%, a minimum genetic distance value was observed between sweet Iraqi (Irq and Indian (Ind cultivars reached 0.239 with high similarity value reached 76.1%. The similarity matrices were employed in the cluster analysis to generate a dendrogram using the UPGMA method. The cluster tree analysis showed that the sweet orange cultivars were broadly divided into two main groups A and B with similarity reached 50%. A group including

  7. Antiradical, Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of the Essential Oils of the Varieties of Citrus Limon and Citrus Aurantifolia Growing in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Michel Jazet Dongmo; François Tchoumbougnang; Fabrice Fekam Boyom; Eliane Tchinda Sonwa; Paul Henri Amvam Zollo; Chantal Menut

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils of the leaves of Eureka, Lisbon and Meyer varieties of Citrus limon, as well as the Mexican, “Sans épines” and Bearss varieties of Citrus aurantifolia of Cameroon were extracted by hydrodistillation, with respective yields 0.64%, 0.90% and 0.46% 0.57%, 0.25% and 0.29%.Chemical composition analysis was carried out by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. As a whole, the six samples are very rich in monoterpenes, and limonene; thus proved to be...

  8. Fractionation of the secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is interest in the detection of changes in secondary metabolites in orange leaves in response to citrus greening disease. Conventional HPLC analysis readily provides detection of major phenolic compounds, but further, more detailed chromatographic analyses show many more compounds, to an exten...

  9. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, J.G., E-mail: julianaggalvao@gmail.com [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); França, F.R.M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2015-05-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm.

  10. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC50 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC50 21.5 ppm

  11. Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

    2009-12-30

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells.

  12. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts.

  13. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  14. THE EFFECT AND MECHANISM OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BUPLEURUM AND CITRUS ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL MOTILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝庆; 李岩

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficiency of the different varieties of Bupleurum and Citrus for chinical application and to investigate their mechanisms for clinical application.Methods With oral Blue Dextran 2000 as a marker, mice gastro-intestinal motility was studied with two varieties of Bupleurm and Citrus separately, viz: BcDC, BsW, Ca, and Cs. Gastric emptying time(GET) was evaluated and plasma motilin level was detected in 15 healthy volunteers who had taken daily the mixture of BcDC and Ca for 7 days.Results BcDC and Ca had obvious enhancing effects on gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsive function, while the effect of BsW and Cs showed no difference in negative control group (P>0.05). The GET of 15 healthy persons was shortened and their plasma motilin level was increased after they had taken the mixture for 7 days successively.Conclusion Decoctum of BcDC, Ca, and BcDC with Ca together proved to be strong promoters on gastrointestinal motility and their mechanism was probably by increasing the endogenous plasma motilin level.

  15. Mineral Elements in Different Varieties of Camellia sinensis%不同品种茶树矿质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华; 王云

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mineral elements in different varieties of tea (Camellia sinensis), 17 mineral elements in eight tea varieties including Yunnan Dayezhong, No.43 Longjing and No.6 Zaobaijian, were measured. The results showed that nine elements, such as P, K, Ba, Mn, Cu, were significantly different among varieties, others did not. Black tea varieties usually contain high contents of Cu and K. As a conclusion, mineral elements should be extensively considered in breeding tea varieties.

  16. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  17. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  18. Época da indução e evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio The flower induction and evocation period in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Alvarenga Mesquita Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção do estímulo floral (indução e emissão das primeiras sépalas, na gema floralmente determinada (evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio pôde ser acompanhada pelas variações anatômicas nos meristemas apicais e axilares. Com objetivo de determinar a época na qual ocorre a indução e evocação floral, cortes longitudinais de gemas apicais e axilares, corados com pironina Y-methylgreen foram efetuados em períodos regulares de maio a agosto. Através das mudanças no formato da gema, principalmente diâmetro, que aumentou com a indução, foi possível determinar a época do ano na qual gemas vegetativas são induzidas a florescerem. Foram detectadas variações nos diâmetros das gemas no período de início da morfogênese floral (meados até o final de julho. A medição do diâmetro das gemas mostra-se um procedimento eficiente para acompanhar os fenômenos decorrentes da indução, evocação e morfogênese florais. Gemas vegetativas apresentam diâmetro médio de 100µm, com túnica composta por três camadas, de formato cônico, recobrindo o corpo, ao passo que a reprodutiva é mais achatada, após a iniciação do primeiro primórdio de sépala, exibindo diâmetro médio de 200µm. Coloração com pironina Y-methylgreen proporciona a captação do fenômeno da evocação floral, pela detecção de regiões mais concentradas em RNA, nas zonas periféricas das gemas; alteração bioquímica esta que precede a emissão das sépalas.The research aims to determine the time in which the inflorescence induction and evocation occurs. The production of inflorescence stimulus (induction and emission of first sepals in a bud determined as a flower bud (floral evocation in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio could be observed through the anatomic variations of the apical and lateral meristems. Longitudinal sections, stained with pironina Y-methylgreen were done in regular periods from May to August. The

  19. The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family

    OpenAIRE

    Ulasli, Mustafa; Gurses, Serdar A.; Bayraktar, Recep; Yumrutas, Onder; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Igci, Mehri; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Cakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of Anthemis hyalina (Ah), Nigella sativa (Ns) and peels of Citrus sinensis (Cs) have been used as folk medicine to fight antimicrobial diseases. To evaluate the effect of extracts of Ah, Ns and Cs on the replication of coronavirus (CoV) and on the expression of TRP genes during coronavirus infection, HeLa-CEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cells were inoculated with MHV-A59 (mouse hepatitis virus–A59) at moi of 30. 1/50 dilution of t...

  20. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Curk

    Full Text Available Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105 were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species

  1. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  2. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  3. 柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的产卵偏好和幼虫取食选择%Adult oviposition and larval feeding preference for different citrus varieties in Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 周琼; 宋傲群; 尤克西

    2014-01-01

    [Aim] This study aims to understand the preference of Bactrocera minax for several citrus varieties.[Methods] We investigated the diseased citrus ratio of different citrus varieties in citrus orchards under natural conditions by five-point sampling method,counted the numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on the basal hemisphere and distal hemisphere of citrus fruit,and examined the larval feeding preference of B.minax to host odorants of citrus petals by the selection tests in the laboratory.[Results] The results showed that the rate of oviposition sites on citrus fruits facing the forest harborage was significantly higher than that at any other directions in citrus orchards,and the oviposition preference of B.minax found was Citrus sinensis cv.Navel and C.aurantium > C.sinensis cv.Bingtang,Amakusa,and C.reticulata cv.Satsuma > C.maxima cv.Shatian > C.reticulata cv.Ponkan.The numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on oranges (C.sinensis cv.Navel,C.aurantium and C.sinensis cv.Bingtang) were higher than those on tangerines (Amakusa,C.reticulata cv.Satsuma,C.reticulata cv.Ponkan) and C.maxima cv.Shatian (P < 0.05).The number of egg-laying marks on the distal hemisphere of citrus fruit was significantly than that on the basal hemisphere (P < 0.05)(except C.reticulata cv.Satsuma).Larval feeding preference was closely correlated with adult oviposition preference.[Conclusion] Our results suggest that oviposition preference of B.minax is related to larval feeding preferences.%[目的]掌握柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera minax对不同品种柑橘的产卵偏好,以及与幼虫取食喜嗜性的关系.[方法]我们用五点取样法分别调查了自然条件下不同品种柑橘果园的虫果率,统计了各品种柑橘虫果基半部和端半部产卵痕量和卵量,并在实验室内采用培养皿桔瓣选择法研究了其幼虫对不同柑橘品种果实的取食选择.[结果]在未采取防控措施的情况下,果树面朝杂树林的方位虫果率

  4. Phytoene Synthase Gene Cloning from Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.Cara Cara and Its Prokaryotic Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; TAO Neng-guo; TONG Zhu; DENG Xiu-xin

    2008-01-01

    Using the mRNA from the fruit of Cara Cara as the template,the cDNA of phytoene synthase(PSY)gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerse chain reaction(RT-PCR).Sequence analysis indicated that the eDNA was of 1 520 bp,which had an open reading frame of 1 308 bp and encoded a protein of 436 amino acids.The homology analysis showed that PSY of Cara Cara shared high similarities of nucleotides and deduced amino acids with those in other plants up to more than 75 and 70%,respectively.A putative signal transit peptide for plastid targeting was found in the N-terminal region of PSY.The mature forms of PSY included a transmembrane(TM) domain.The recombinant plasmid pET-CitPSY was constructed by subeloning the full coding sequence of PSY eDNA into pET-28(+).After transformation of E.coil BL21 and induced by 1 mmol L-1 isopropyl-a-D-thiogalacropyranoside(IPTG),the fusion protein(6×His-PSY)with 52 kD was produced at a high level by prokaryotic expression system.The results of Western blot demonstrated that the fusion protein(6xHis-PSY)could be recognized by anti-6×His monoclonal antibody.The study could establish a basis for molecular improvement of Citrus fruit colors.

  5. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Paula Santos Martins

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  6. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  7. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus. PMID:26397813

  8. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Concentração de suco de laranja (Citrus sinensis por osmose inversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Fernando Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de suco de laranja por osmose inversa combinada com ultrafiltração foi estudada em escala semi-piloto, visando avaliar a utilização dessa tecnologia para substituição parcial da evaporação. Foram utilizados no processamento 100 litros de suco de laranja, com teor de polpa de 1,5%, cedidos pela CTM Citrus. Na primeira etapa, todo o suco passou pela etapa de ultrafiltração, para separação da polpa, enzimas pectinolíticas e microrganismos, que foram retidos. Foi utilizada uma membrana da Romicom (HF-43 de polissulfona em um sistema de configuração tubular, com peso molecular de corte de 50.000 daltons, à pressão de 1,2 bar. Obteve-se um fator de concentração de 27,6. O retentado da ultrafiltração foi pasteurizado à temperatura de 90°C, em trocador de calor de superfície raspada desenvolvido para este projeto. O processo de osmose inversa foi conduzido no equipamento Lab-unit M-20 da DDS, utilizando membranas da DDS (HR 95 PP de filme composto em um sistema de configuração quadro e placas. Foram realizados três tratamentos com pressões de 20, 40 e 60 bar e para cada experimento, foram feitas três repetições. O retentado pasteurizado da ultrafiltração foi adicionado ao retentado da osmose inversa e caracterizado química, física e sensorialmente. Na osmose inversa foram obtidos fatores de concentração de 2,7, 3,5 e 3,6 e teores de sólidos solúveis de 18, 23 e 30 °Brix, para os tratamentos de 20, 40 e 60 bar, respectivamente. Os respectivos permeados apresentaram teores de sólidos solúveis de 3,3, 1,3 e 0,3°Brix e acidez de 262,50, 91,50 e 34,25 mg de ácido cítrico/100 ml. Os sucos obtidos pelos três tratamentos apresentaram valores de "defect score" e "color score" superiores aos do suco original, enquanto que para o "flavor score", os sucos obtidos às pressões de 40 e 60 bar, apresentaram valores próximos ao ideal. Os valores de "ratio", pH e formol foram semelhantes entre os

  10. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  11. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  12. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  13. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses. PMID:26300904

  14. First evidence of C- and O-glycosyl flavone in blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS separation/identification protocol has been employed for the identification and characterisation of nine C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice grown in Southern Italy. For the first time we reported the presence of five C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl glycosyl flavonol (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl glycosyl quercetin) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity of crude juice has been evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH•, OH• and ABTS•+ radicals and to reduce iron.

  15. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  16. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Faraco de Oliveira Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  17. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; Deus, Juliana Telles de; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  18. EFEITOS DE STIMULATE E DE MICRO-CITROS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO VEGETATIVO E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA LARANJEIRA `PÊRA' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro P.R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de aplicações do estimulante vegetal Stimulate e do fertilizante foliar Micro-Citrus no número de ramos, comprimento dos ramos, número e caracterização de frutos na colheita da laranjeira `Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck sobre limoeiro `Cravo'. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, num Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro Álico, em Holambra (S.P., sendo que em 13/02, 22/04 e 17/06/96 foram efetuadas pulverizações com Stimulate (1 L.ha-1, 2L. ha-1 e 4L. ha-1, Stimulate 2L. ha-1 + Micro-Citros e Micro-Citros, além do controle. Realizaram-se seis tratamentos distribuídos em dez árvores inteiramente casualizadas em um pomar uniforme com seis anos de idade. Foram demarcadas quatro ramificações em diagonal, nas quais efetuaram-se determinações biométricas em 22/04 e 23/09/96. Observou-se que Stimulate (1 L. ha-1 aumentou o número de ramos 69 dias após a primeira aplicação, além de incrementar o peso médio dos frutos por árvore, em relação ao controle, na colheita.

  19. Study on Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Citrus%柑橘的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉娟; 胡蝶; 张萍; 聂迎春

    2012-01-01

    A method for evaluating antioxidant activities of different varieties of citrus was developed based on the strong inhibition of the antioxidant constituents on the chemiluminescence of luminol-NaClO system, and the antioxidant activities of four kinds of citrus were determined. Antioxidant activities of citrus were evaluated according to IC50. The results showed that ail of the tested citrus had good antioxidant activities, among which the sweet orange showed the highest acivity, followed by green tangerine and orange Shatang. And the weakest activity was found with kumquat. The method based on chemiluminescence of luminol-NaC1O system was efficient, rapid and can widely used in evaluating the antioxidant activities of varieties of fruits or other food.%基于抗氧化成分对鲁米诺-NaClO体系化学发光强烈的抑制作用,建立了一种评价不同品种柑橘总体抗氧化性大小的方法,并测定了四种柑橘的抗氧化性.周IC50值来评价柑橘的抗氧化性,IC50越小,柑橘的抗氧化性越强.结果表明实验所用柑橘均具有良好的抗氧化性,其中甜橙抗氧化性最强,青橘和沙糖橘次之,金橘最弱.本文建立的鲁米诺-NaClO化学发光法可作为一种高效、快速的抗氧化性测定的分析法,能广泛用于观察多种水果或其他食品的抗氧化性.

  20. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Warikoo

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  1. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author)

  2. Analysis of the Inheritance and Expression of Antibacterial Peptide Gene Shiva A in Transgenic Citrus(Citrus sinensis) during Its Asexual Propagation%抗菌肽Shiva A基因在转基因柑橘无性繁殖后代中的遗传与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰珍; 何永睿; 彭爱红; 雷天刚; 刘小丰; 邹修平; 姚利晓; 陈善春

    2013-01-01

    In order to further clarify the genetic stability and the target traits of the foreign gene in the progeny of transgenic citrus,the asexual reproduction plants of transgenic Newhall navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)containing bivalent antibacterial peptide gene(Shiva A-cecropin B) were studied.In this study,the genetic stability of Shiva A gene in To,T1,T2 and T3 progenies of transgenic citrus varieties were analyzed by PCR,Southern hybridization,Real-time quantitative PCR and greenhouse disease index statistic to Xathomonas axonopodis pv.Citri(Hasse) Dye.The results showed that the antimicrobial peptides Shiva A gene was existed and expressed in To,T1,T2 and T3 plants.This meant target gene could be stably inherited from one generation to another through asexual propagating.There was difference of Shiva A gene copy number between transgenic To and its asexual propagation.Southern bloting analysis showed that To generation had two hybridizations,but its progenies had only one hybridization consistent with To generation.It could be speculated that the T0 generation plant was a transgenic multicellular mixed cytochimera.In addition,Realtime quantitative PCR results showed that,even if Shiva A gene in the To generation genome was double copy numbers,but its expression level was lower than a single copy of the T1,T2 and T3 generation.Therefore,in this study,exogenous gene expression and transgene copy number was a negative correlation.The results of this study provide some basic date and the material for extending the stable phenotype of transgenic citrus strains in carrying out the safety evaluation of transgenic plants.%为进一步明确外源基因在转基因柑橘无性繁殖后代中的遗传稳定性及目标性状表现,本研究以转双价抗菌肽基因(ShivaA-cecropinB)纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus Sinensis Osbeck)无性繁殖后代植株为材料,通过PCR扩增,Southern杂交和实时定量PCR检测,以及温室抗病性评价分析等,对抗菌肽ShivaA基

  3. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the Ci...

  4. Two Lycopene β-Cyclases Genes from Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Encode Enzymes With Different Functional Efifciency During the Conversion of Lycopene-to-Provitamin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; ZHOU Wen-jing; XU Qiang; TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; GUO Fei; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2013-01-01

    Citrus fruits are rich in carotenoids. In the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb, EC:1.14.-.-) is a key regulatory enzyme in the catalysis of lycopene to β-carotene, an important dietary precursor of vitamin A for human nutrition. Two closely related lycopeneβ-cyclase cDNAs, designated CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2, were isolated from the pulp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis). The expression level of CsLCYb genes is lower in the lfavedo and juice sacs of a lycopene-accumulating genotype Cara Cara than that in common genotype Washington, and this might be correlated with lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara fruit. The CsLCYb1 efifciently converted lycopene into the bicyclicβ-carotene in an Escherichia coli expression system, but the CsLCYb2 exhibited a lower enzyme activity and converted lycopene into theβ-carotene and the monocyclic γ-carotene. In tomato transformation studies, expression of CsLCYb1 under the control of the caulilfower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S constitutive promoter resulted in a virtually complete conversion of lycopene intoβ-carotene, and the ripe fruits displayed a bright orange colour. However, the CsLCYb2 transgenic tomato plants did not show an altered fruit colour during development and maturation. In fruits of the CsLCYb1 transgenic plants, most of the lycopene was converted intoβ-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching about 700 µg g-1 DW. Unexpectedly, most transgenic tomatoes showed a reduction in total carotenoid accumulation, and this is consistent with the decrease in expression of endogenous carotenogenic genes in transgenic fruits. Collectively, these results suggested that the cloned CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2 genes encoded two functional lycopene β-cyclases with different catalytic efifciency, and they may have potential for metabolite engineering toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of food crops.

  5. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process.

  6. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Causing Proteomic and Enzymatic Changes in Sweet Orange Variety “Westin”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Milena Santos; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Barbosa, Cristiane de Jesus; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Souza, Regina Martins; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus Tristeza disease, caused by CTV (Citrus tristeza virus), committs citrus plantations around the world and specifically attacks phloem tissues of the plant. The virus exists as a mixture of more or less severe variants, which may or may not cause symptoms of Tristeza. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes caused by CTV in the proteome of stems of sweet orange, as well as in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The CTV-infected sweet orange displayed mild symptoms, which were characterized by the presence of sparse stem pitting throughout their stems. The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Proteomic analysis by 2DE-PAGE-MS / MS revealed the identity of 40 proteins differentially expressed between CTV- infected and -non-infected samples. Of these, 33 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in CTV-infected samples. Among the proteins identified stands out a specific from the virus, the coat protein. Other proteins identified are involved with oxidative stress and for this their enzymatic activity was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in CTV-infected samples, as catalase (CAT) showed higher activity in uninfected samples. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) did not vary significantly between samples. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was more active in the infected samples. The relative expression of the genes encoding CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). The CTV-infected samples showed greater accumulation of transcripts, except for the CAT gene. This gene showed higher expression in the uninfected samples. Taken together, it can be concluded that the CTV affects the protein profile and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in plants infected by this virus. PMID:26207751

  7. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Causing Proteomic and Enzymatic Changes in Sweet Orange Variety "Westin".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Milena Santos; Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira de; Barbosa, Cristiane de Jesus; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Souza, Regina Martins; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus Tristeza disease, caused by CTV (Citrus tristeza virus), committs citrus plantations around the world and specifically attacks phloem tissues of the plant. The virus exists as a mixture of more or less severe variants, which may or may not cause symptoms of Tristeza. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes caused by CTV in the proteome of stems of sweet orange, as well as in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The CTV-infected sweet orange displayed mild symptoms, which were characterized by the presence of sparse stem pitting throughout their stems. The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Proteomic analysis by 2DE-PAGE-MS / MS revealed the identity of 40 proteins differentially expressed between CTV- infected and -non-infected samples. Of these, 33 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in CTV-infected samples. Among the proteins identified stands out a specific from the virus, the coat protein. Other proteins identified are involved with oxidative stress and for this their enzymatic activity was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in CTV-infected samples, as catalase (CAT) showed higher activity in uninfected samples. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) did not vary significantly between samples. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was more active in the infected samples. The relative expression of the genes encoding CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). The CTV-infected samples showed greater accumulation of transcripts, except for the CAT gene. This gene showed higher expression in the uninfected samples. Taken together, it can be concluded that the CTV affects the protein profile and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in plants infected by this virus. PMID:26207751

  8. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV Causing Proteomic and Enzymatic Changes in Sweet Orange Variety "Westin".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Santos Dória

    Full Text Available Citrus Tristeza disease, caused by CTV (Citrus tristeza virus, committs citrus plantations around the world and specifically attacks phloem tissues of the plant. The virus exists as a mixture of more or less severe variants, which may or may not cause symptoms of Tristeza. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes caused by CTV in the proteome of stems of sweet orange, as well as in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The CTV-infected sweet orange displayed mild symptoms, which were characterized by the presence of sparse stem pitting throughout their stems. The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Proteomic analysis by 2DE-PAGE-MS / MS revealed the identity of 40 proteins differentially expressed between CTV- infected and -non-infected samples. Of these, 33 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in CTV-infected samples. Among the proteins identified stands out a specific from the virus, the coat protein. Other proteins identified are involved with oxidative stress and for this their enzymatic activity was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was higher in CTV-infected samples, as catalase (CAT showed higher activity in uninfected samples. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX did not vary significantly between samples. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX was more active in the infected samples. The relative expression of the genes encoding CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. The CTV-infected samples showed greater accumulation of transcripts, except for the CAT gene. This gene showed higher expression in the uninfected samples. Taken together, it can be concluded that the CTV affects the protein profile and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in plants infected by this virus.

  9. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morillo Coronado Yacenia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  10. INFLUENCIA DE UNA COBERTURA DE Neonotonia wightii EN LOS CAMBIOS FLORÍSTICOS DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE NARANJA VALENCIA LATE (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

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    I. R. Gutiérrez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos para el control de malezas en el cultivo de los cítricos, condiciona la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria ¿José Martí¿ en Ceballos, provincia de Ciego de Avila, se evaluaron los efectos que una cobertura viva de la leguminosa Neonotonia wightii produjo en la composición florística de las ¿calles¿ de una plantación de naranja Valencia Late (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, usando como unidad experimental ¿la calle¿ de 400 m2, diez de las cuales contaban con cobertura mejorada por N.wightii y otras diez con pasto natural, que fueron utilizadas para la evaluación correspondiente a los indicadores de producción de los naranjos en el transcurso de dos años de establecimiento de la cobertura, obteniéndose la reducción del 68.4 % de las especies de la clase Magnoliatae inicialmente encontradas, así como del 94 % de las poáceas evaluadas en las áreas, además de la elevación de los rendimientos del cultivo principal.

  11. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  12. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hossein; Seidavi, Alireza; Liu, Wuyi; Asadpour, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of agricultural by-products in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp (DCSP) is a potential source of valuable nutrients and natural antioxidants for poultry feed. In the experiment, a feeding trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of dried orange residues in diet on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, humoral immunity, and cecum microbial population. A total of 200 one day experimental broiler chicks were distributed into a completely randomized design (CRD) which included 5 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment and 10 birds fed in each replicate. The experimental treatments consist of a control group (without additive), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2% of DCSP (residue) in diet. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Blood parameters and carcass traits were measured in the postnatal 35th day. The highest level of dried orange residues in treatment 5 (T5) had significantly increased the feed intake and body weight of broilers in groups and overall during the rearing period (P > 0.05). Different levels of dried orange residues had no significant effect on chicken FCR. Using of dried orange residues significantly decreased the liver and abdominal fat of broilers (P broiler chicken. PMID:25737644

  13. Cloning of the Seed Storage Protein Gene in Citrus Sinensis cv.Jincheng%柑桔种子贮藏蛋白基因部分序列的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍静; 林忠平; 胡鸢蕾; 高峰

    2003-01-01

    应用染色体步移技术从柑桔优良品种锦橙(Citrus sinensis cv.Jincheng)的总DNA中获得一条长度为2 054 bp的片段. 序列分析结果表明, 该片段含有柑桔种子贮藏蛋白基因(citrin)的5'端部分序列, 并且它与同一物种的伏令夏橙(C.sinensis cv.Valencia)的citrin是高度同源的. 从而证明, 已克隆并获得了锦橙种子贮藏蛋白基因的部分序列.

  14. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

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    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  15. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

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    Andresa Muniz Pedrosa

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72 of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs. Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further

  16. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  17. Efeito do tratamento agudo do óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck na aquisição da memória espacial de ratos avaliada no labirinto aquático de Morris

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    Ciro Gonçalves Sá

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Alzheimer está relacionada a prejuízos na aquisição e retenção da memória, processos que podem ser estudados no laboratório por meio de modelos animais, entre eles o labirinto aquático de Morris, que avalia a memória espacial em ratos. Estudos sobre as propriedades biológicas do gênero Citrus destacam atividades importantes como antioxidantes e anticolinesterásica. O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do tratamento agudo com o óleo essencial de folhas (OEF de Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck no processo de aquisição da memória espacial em ratos Wistar, utilizando o paradigma do labirinto aquático de Morris. O óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis possui em sua composição principalmente compostos da classe dos monoterpenos, como o limoneno (20,14%, citronelol (30,42% e o geranial (31,42%. Os animais foram tratados previamente com doses do óleo essencial (OE de C. sinensis (L. Osbeck de 50, 100 e 200 mg/ kg e realizados testes de campo aberto e do labirinto aquático de Morris. A aquisição da memória espacial é avaliada pelo tempo que o animal leva para localizar a plataforma depois de ter sido treinado. Nos resultados do campo aberto foi demonstrado que os animais não apresentam estímulo motor quando tratados com o óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis e os resultados do labirinto aquático foram significativamente menores na latência para encontrarem a plataforma submersa do que o grupo controle negativo [p<0,01] indicando uma capacidade de memória maior nos animais tratados, mas que devem ser reforçados por outros testes de memória preconizado na literatura.

  18. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel cDNA Encoding Late Embryogenesis-Abundant Protein 5 Like (LEA-5) Gene from Cara Cara Navel Orange Fruit(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2006-01-01

    LEA5 gene was postulated related with both stress and hormone responses. In an attempt to find genes exclusively expressed during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange, a novel cDNA clone encoding late embryogenesis-abundant protein 5 like gene (CitLEA5-1) was obtained. It was 582 bp in length, containing 97 deduced amino acids. Compared with the stress-induced LEA5 from leaves of Citrus sinensis, CitLEA5-1 had a shorter 3' untranslated region (UTR). Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that CitLEA5-1 was transcriptional regulated during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange.

  19. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall and the effects on internal fruit quality.

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    Jinjin Cheng

    Full Text Available The effects of soil rare earth element (REE on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe oxide (Feox significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60. From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01, total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01 and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01. Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality.

  20. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red

  1. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  2. Floración, crecimiento y maduración de la naranja valle Washington, citrus sinensis Osbek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Héctor R.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En cítricos de ocho años, se determinó la caída de flores y frutos en tres épocas de floración y se evaluó el crecimiento utilizando el modelo logístico y modelos de línea recta. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de jugo, pulpa y cáscara en tres estados de madurez. Se encontraron tres etapas de caída de estructuras: rápida en los primeros 25 -30 días (flores, lenta 30 -200 días y estabilización; el porcentaje de formación de frutos fue del 9%. El modelo logístico no describió bien el crecimiento del fruto; con modelos de línea recta, se explicaron cuatro fases: muy lenta (0-30 días con 0.21 cm3/día intermedia (30 -105 días con 121 cm3/día, rápido crecimiento (105-195 días con 2.36 cm3/día y tendencia a estabilización (>195días con 1.1 cm3/día. Los frutos fueron aptos para el consumo desde los 180 -200 días pero pueden permanecer en el árbol hasta los 295 - 350 días. El contenido de jugo de la fruta madura fue del 35.5%.The fall of flowers and fruit was studied in 8 years old citrus at three times of flowering, growth following the logistic model and straigh line model was also studied. Percentaje of juice, pulp, and skin in three maturity stages were quantified. Three stages of structures fall were found: quick during the first 25 -30 days (flowers, slow 30-200 days and stabilization. Fruit formation percentaje was 9%. The logistic model did not describe well fruit growth; with straight line models four phases were explained: Slow (0-30 days with 0.21 cm3/day, intermediate (30-105 days with 1.21 cm3/day, quick growth (105-195 days with 2.36 cm3/day and tendency to stabilization (195 days with 1.1 cm3/day. Fruits good for consumption after 180 - 200 but main remain on the tree up to 295 - 350 days. Juice content of the rippen fruit reached 35.5 %.

  3. The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulasli, Mustafa; Gurses, Serdar A; Bayraktar, Recep; Yumrutas, Onder; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Igci, Mehri; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Cakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    Extracts of Anthemis hyalina (Ah), Nigella sativa (Ns) and peels of Citrus sinensis (Cs) have been used as folk medicine to fight antimicrobial diseases. To evaluate the effect of extracts of Ah, Ns and Cs on the replication of coronavirus (CoV) and on the expression of TRP genes during coronavirus infection, HeLa-CEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cells were inoculated with MHV-A59 (mouse hepatitis virus-A59) at moi of 30. 1/50 dilution of the extracts was found to be the safe active dose. ELISA kits were used to detect the human IL-8 levels. Total RNA was isolated from the infected cells and cDNA was synthesized. Fluidigm Dynamic Array nanofluidic chip 96.96 was used to analyze the mRNA expression of 21 TRP genes and two control genes. Data was analyzed using the BioMark digital array software. Determinations of relative gene expression values were carried out by using the 2(-∆∆Ct) method (normalized threshold cycle (Ct) value of sample minus normalized Ct value of control). TCID50/ml (tissue culture infectious dose that will produce cytopathic effect in 50% of the inoculated tissue culture cells) was found for treatments to determine the viral loads. The inflammatory cytokine IL-8 level was found to increase for both 24 and 48 h time points following Ns extract treatment. TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8 and TRPV4 were the genes which expression levels changed significantly after Ah, Ns or Cs extract treatments. The virus load decreased when any of the Ah, Ns or Cs extracts was added to the CoV infected cells with Ah extract treatment leading to undetectable virus load for both 6 and 8 hpi. Although all the extract treatments had an effect on IL-8 secretion, TRP gene expression and virus load after CoV infection, it was the Ah extract treatment that showed the biggest difference in virus load. Therefore Ah extract is the best candidate in our hands that contains potential treatment molecule(s). PMID

  4. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars Indução de calos embriogênicos a partir de nucelos de variedades de Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.Nucelos de sete variedades de Citrus foram introduzidos em três meios de cultura para produção de calos embriogênicos. Os meios de cultura testados foram: EME [MT, modificado pela adição de extrato de malte (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio MT + 1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio BH3 + 500 mg.L-1 extrato de malte + 1,55 g.L-1 de glutamina]; e EBA [EME + 0,44 miM 6-benziladenina + 0,04 miM 2,4 D]. Calos friáveis foram obtidos nas variedades tangerinas 'Cravo' e 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, tangor 'Murcote' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, laranja 'Valencia

  5. 两类柑桔杂种砧木对脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)幼树生长和叶片糖营养含量年变化的影响%Effects of Two Kinds of Rootstocks on the Growth of Navel Orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)Young Tree and the Annual Changes in the Contents of Carbohydrates in Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开兵; 郭文武; 夏仁学; 王贵元; 沈婷

    2004-01-01

    以体细胞杂种红桔+枳和红桔+粗柠檬、有性杂种Troyer枳橙和Swingle枳柚作砧木的耐湿脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)2年生嫁接苗为试材,通过盆栽试验研究了砧木对苗木生长和叶片糖营养含量年变化动态的影响.结果表明:红桔+枳的生长势和花量明显地强于和大于其它砧木,红桔+粗柠檬的生长和花量表现介于2种有性杂种之间.叶绿素a/b和类胡萝卜素含量在不同砧木间无显著差异,而不同砧木显著或极显著地影响叶绿素含量各指标.砧木影响叶片可溶性糖和淀粉含量年变化动态的基本特征.在休眠期,红桔+枳的可溶性糖和淀粉含量都高于2种有性杂种砧木,而红桔+粗柠檬则反之;在生长期,红桔+粗柠檬的可溶性糖和淀粉含量表现出高于有性杂种砧木的趋势,而红桔+枳则介于2种有性杂种砧木之间.同时还重点讨论了2种体细胞杂种砧木的利用价值.

  6. 咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜对脐橙果实采后品质的影响%Effect of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex Coating on the Postharvest Quality of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂青玉

    2012-01-01

    以脐橙为试材,果实采后以1%的壳寡糖为涂膜剂,分别与质量分数为0.01%,0.05%,0.10%浓度的咪鲜胺(有效成份450 g/L水乳剂)组合,浸泡处理后置于18~25℃,75%~85%RH环境中贮藏,比较与不涂膜处理及仅用1%的壳寡糖处理对脐橙贮藏品质、采后生理的影响.结果表明:不同浓度的咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜均能降低果实的失重率、腐烂率;延缓果实可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、还原性抗坏血酸含量的下降;抑制呼吸强度、丙二醛含量、相对电导率的上升;有效保持贮藏脐橙果实的感官品质、风味品质、营养品质,延长果实的贮藏期.其中,0.05%咪鲜胺与1%壳寡糖复合涂膜处理果实的各项品质、生理指标优于其它处理组,为有效延长脐橙果实贮藏时间的最经济、安全组合浓度.%Postharvest Citrus sinensis Osbeck has been stored after being soaked in 18 - 25 ℃ , 75% -85% RH environment,by the treatment of 1. 0% of Oligochitosan Combined with 0. 01 %, 0. 05% and 0. 1 % of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) respectively. The effects of 1 % Oligochitosan treatment and uncoating treatment on the postharvest physiology and storage quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck have been compared. The result illustrates that all kinds of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex coating could reduce rate of weight loss and decay, delay the decline of soluble solids, titratable acidity and the content of ascorbic acid in fruits, inhibit the increase of the respiration rate, MDA content and relative electrical conductivity, maintain effectively the sensory, flavor, nutritional quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck stored, and extend the storage period of Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Furthermore, the most economical and secure combination is 0.05% of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) and 1% of Oligochitosan, which can make all kinds of the quality, physiological indexes

  7. Consideration for alternative outlet for new citrus hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus sinensis (sweet orange, ex. Hamlin, Midsweet, Valencia) is the source of “orange juice” and juice must contain no less than 90% C. sinensis to be marketed as such. Juice produced from Citrus reticulata (mandarins) and C. reticulata hybrids (Orlando, Murcott, Fallglo, Sunburst, Minneola) can b...

  8. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  9. 甜橙挥发油成分及药理研究进展%Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.(Osbeck)) of volatile oil constituents and pharmacological research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹

    2011-01-01

    甜橙Citrus sinensis L.(Osbeck)为芸香科(Rutaceae)柑橘亚科柑橘属(Citrus)植物,属于乔木.西汉时(公元前117年)已有"黄柑、橙、楱"等关于甜橙的记载.甜橙又名广柑、黄果、橙子、新会橙,广橘、雪柑、印子柑[1],原产于我国南方及亚洲的中南半岛,在15世纪初期从中国传入欧洲,在15世纪末传入美洲.在我国,甜橙主产于四川、广东、台湾、广西、福建、湖南、江西、湖北等省.在全球各种柑橘的年产量中,甜橙所占的比例最大,其年产量约占橘类总产量的2/3[2].而且,甜橙品种在柑橘类中最为丰富,全世界品种达400个以上.

  10. Efeito de herbicidas residuais, aplicados por vários anos consecutivos, na distribuição do sistema radicular da laranjeira Natal (Citrus sinensis.(L. osbeck Effects of residual herbicides, applyed for several years son the root system distribution of 'Natal' orange (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Victória Filho

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a influência do uso contínuo de vários herbicidas residuais, sobre a distribuição das radicelas de laranjeiras Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertadas sobre limão Cravo (Cithus limonia Osbeck e plantadas em janeiro de 1970. O experimento foi instalado no pomar de produção da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias do Campus de Jaboticabal (UNESP, em Latossol Roxo distrófico, com 1,6% de matéria orgânica e 51% de argila. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, dentro de um esquema fatorial 11x 3x2x2, com três repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados, com as respectivas doses em kg do i.a/ha foram: fluometuron a 4,2; simazíne a 4,8; atrazine a 4,8; bromacil a 3,2;bromacil (40% + diuron (40% a 4,8; bromacil (53,3% + diuron (27,6% a 4,8; terbacil a 3,2; oxadiazon a 1,5; dichlobenil a 3,0 e 6,0; além de uma testemunha capinada. O estudo das radicel as foi feito pelo "método do trado", tendo sido tomadas amostras de solo contendo radicelas, nas distâncias de 80, 160 e 240 cm do tronco, nas camadas de 0 a 15 cm e 15 a 30 cm de profundidade e em duas direções distintas (entrelinhas e entreplantas. Os resultados mostraram que as radicelas localizam-se superficialmente, com 70% delas nos primeiros 15 cm, do total encontrado na camada superficial de 0 a 30 cm de profundidade do solo. Cerca de 75% das radicelas situam-se até a distância de 160 cm do tronco. Na camada mais superficial do solo (0 a 15 cm, a quantidade de radicelas diminuiu de maneira acentuada, à medida que se afastou do tronco. Na camada de 15 a 30 cm de profundidade, ocorreu uma distribuição horizontal mais uniforme, comparada com a da camada de 0 a 15 cm. As radicelas das plantas do cultivar Natal distribuiram-se uniformemente, tanto na direção das plantas da linha vizinha, quanto nas das plantas de uma mesma linha, para o espaçamento de 7,0 m x 7,2 m. Não se

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Robert K; Lee Seung-Bum; Singh Nameirakpam D; Bausher Michael G; Daniell Henry

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is ...

  12. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor(ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    si-bei eli; wei-zhi eouyang; xiao-jin ehou; liang-liang eXie; chun-gen ehu; Jin-Zhi eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes. A total of 19 non-redundant ARF genes (CiARF) were identified and validated from the sweet orange genome. A c...

  13. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  14. 脐橙凝胶型果派产品配方优化及工艺研究%Research on Formulation and Process Optimization of Citrus sinensis Osbeck gel Style Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秋潜; 刘幸科; 杨禹晗; 欧阳健; 朱建华; 钟瑞敏; 邹秀容

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜脐橙果浆、食品亲水胶体、果葡糖浆与白砂糖为主要原料制备脐橙凝胶型果派产品。以感官品评总体评价分值为产品质量评价指标,在单因素实验结果基础上,通过正交实验获得最优配方为:47.0%(质量比)甜味剂(果葡糖浆:白砂糖为1.3∶1)、13.0%(质量比)脐橙果浆、1.7%(质量比)胶凝剂(琼脂1.3%、黄芪胶0.2%、卡拉胶0.2%)、1.1%(质量比)柠檬酸。该配方下制备的产品色泽均一,具典型脐橙香味,酸甜味适中,并具良好的咀嚼性和弹性等质构特性。%In this paper the Citrus sinensis Osbeck gel style candy was prepared mainly with fresh orange pulp , food hydrocolloids, high fructose syrup and sugar. Based on single factor and orthogonal experiments, combined with overall sensory evaluation score as quality indicators the optimal formula was obtained as follows:47.0%(w/w)sweeteners(high fruit syrup to sugar as 1.3∶1),13.0%(w/w)orange pulp, 1.7%(w/w)gelling agent(agar 1.3%,tragacanth 0.2%, carrageenan0.2%), 1.1%(w/w) citric acid. The gel style candy prepared with the optimal formula had uniform color, a typical Citrus sinensis Osbeck flavor, moderate sweet and sour taste, and with good texture such as chewing and elasticity characteristics.

  15. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor(ARF gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    si-bei eli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes. A total of 19 non-redundant ARF genes (CiARF were identified and validated from the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive overview of the CiARF gene family was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs, and cis-elements in promoter sequences. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members in citrus growth and development.

  16. Identification of Disease Resistance to Anthracnose and Sooty Mould of the Main Citrus Varieties in Guizhou Province%贵州柑橘主栽种对炭疽病和煤污病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜于兰; 侯小莉; 谭萍

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the resistance to citrus anthracnose and citrus sooty mould of the seven main citrus varieties in Guizhou Province, for the citrus anthracnose, the methods of the indoor in vitro identification and outdoor field investigation were used. And for the citrus sooty mould, the method of outdoor field investigation was used. The results showed that the strongest resistance variety was Murcott orange, and the most susceptibility variety was Zhuju.%为了解贵州柑橘7个主栽种(椪柑、朱橘、沙田柚、温州蜜橘、南丰蜜桔、纽贺尔脐橙和默科特桔橙)对柑橘炭疽病和煤污病的抗病性,采用室内离体鉴定和田间调查的方法,对柑橘主栽种的炭疽病和煤污病的抗性进行了鉴定.结果表明,默科特桔橙对炭疽病和煤污病的抗性最强,而朱橘最易感这2种病.

  17. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis. [Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Translocation of {sup 14}C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. {times} Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the {sup 14}C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems.

  18. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.)

    OpenAIRE

    de Paula Santos Martins, Cristina; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sin...

  19. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamloo, M. M.; Sharifani, M.; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  20. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello; Gabriel Porto Quadros

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.12615 This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT), total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP) and conductivity (EC), of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with P...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  2. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  3. Influencia de 46 porta-injertos para cítricos en la precocidad o retardo de maduración de la naranja "Frost valencia" (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

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    Caselles N. Álvaro A.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Of 46 graft carrier influence in citrics on ripe precocity or retardation from "Frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck was studied looking for to guaranter a fruit constant supply toward market. Graft carrier influence was tested in orange blosson, fruiting ripeness season. Stock influence to induce early intermediate or later blossoms was observed, related with period and intensity so them same ocurr. Stock influence on solubles solids content, juici volume, ripeness index, ripe fruit, mantenence on tree also was found . Early of later yields are feasible to obtain using trifoliado x Ruby Or (1437 and "Garcia Valencia" stock markedly, or which highly significant ripeness gains were found with "Frost Valencia" Orange respectively.Se estudió la influencia de los portainjertos para cítricos buscando la obtención de producciones tempranas o tardías para garantizar un suministro continuo de fruta fresca al mercado. Se analizó por espacio de dos años la influencia de los porta-injertos en el período de floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja. Se observó influencia del patrón para inducir floraciones precoces, intermedias o tardías haciendo referencia al período de intensidad con que ocurren las mismas. También se encontró influencia del patrón en contenido de sólidos solubles, volumen de jugo, acidez, índice de marez y mantenimiento de la fruta madura en el árbol. Es posible obtener producciones tempranas o tardías con la utilización de los patrones trifoliados x Ruby Or (1437 Y García Valencia, sobre las cuales se encontró adelantos altamente significativos de maduración de la naranja "Frost Valencia" respectivamente.

  4. Induction of Embryoids,Embryogenic Callus and Plantlet Regeneration from Bingtangcheng(Citrus sinensis)%冰糖橙胚状体、胚性愈伤组织的诱导及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小东; 廖伟

    2010-01-01

    以冰糖橙(Citrus sinensis)成熟果实中未发育胚珠为外植体,以MT为基本培养基,通过添加不同种类植物生长调节剂(ZT、GA3、BA、IAA以及2,4-D)、麦芽浸出物(ME)或AgNO3,诱导胚状体、胚性愈伤组织,并进行了植株再生研究.结果表明:不同培养基不仅影响胚状体的诱导率,而且影响诱导胚状体的类型;MT培养基有利于诱导出球型胚状体,MT+1.0 mg/L GA3 + 500 mg/L ME培养基有利于诱导子叶形胚状体;不同类型的胚状体在不同培养基中胚性愈伤组织发生的频率不同,球形胚状体和MT+0.5 mg/L IAA+0.1 mg/L ZT培养基最有利于胚性愈伤组织的诱导,球形胚状体接种于此培养基上胚性愈伤组织的发生率高达40%.这些胚状体经过生芽和生根培养,再生了大量完整植株.

  5. Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucía Garzón Correa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlada de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia. Los tratamientos (T de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc; T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g, estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo, fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05 en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos y el testigo mostró los menores valores, 13.82% y -2.5 MPa, lo cual indica un estrés moderado.

  6. EFECTO DE LA ÉPOCA DE RECOLECCIÓN DE LA NARANJA (Citrus sinensis L. VARIEDAD VALENCIA 'LATE' SOBRE EL PROCESAMIENTO INDUSTRIAL DE CÍTRICOS EN LAS TRES GRANDES REGIONES EDAFOCLIMÁTICAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenia Pérez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la especie Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck variedad Valencia 'Late' procedente de 10 empresas citrícolas del país, ubicadas en tres regiones edafoclimáticas, que suministran la fruta a la producción de jugo concentrado congelado de naranja (JCCN, en las plantas industriales de Pinar del Río, Ceballos y Contramaestre durante el período 2000-2002. Se evaluó el comportamiento del rendimiento potencial (RP de la fruta utilizada como materia prima para el procesamiento industrial, obteniendo los menores valores dados por las empresas de la región oriental asociada a laplanta industrial de Contramaestre, que se traduce en destinar menos volúmenes de fruta para producir 1 t de JCCN. Se mantuvo la tendencia de esta planta industrial de obtener la mejor eficiencia del sistema en términos de RP comparadas con las dos restantes en estudio. Estos resultados mostraron que en la región oriental se alcanzaron los mayores valores de SST del sistema, ya que el 91.6 % de la fruta alcanza valores medio desde 11.3 hasta 15.57 0Bx, mientras el 100 % de la fruta alcanza un contenido de jugo por encima de 51.6 %. Las variables de calidad de la fruta asociadas al rendimiento industrial de sólidos solubles totales (SST y contenido de jugo (CJ mostraron un incremento sostenido en febrero-marzo, causando un efecto importante en la fecha de recolección de la naranja Valencia 'Late' durante los tres años evaluados.

  7. Construction and characterization of two Citrus BAC libraries and identification of clones containing the phytoene synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M N R; Yu, An; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2009-05-01

    Two deep-coverage Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Cara Cara' navel orange and Citrus reticulata (L.) Blanco 'Egan No. 1' Ponkan mandarin, which belong to the two most important species of the Citrus genus, have been constructed and characterized to facilitate gene cloning and to analyze variety-specific genome composition. The C. sinensis BAC library consists of 36 000 clones with negligible false-positive clones and an estimated average insert size of 126 kb covering ~4.5 x 109 bp and thus providing an 11.8-fold coverage of haploid genome equivalents, whereas the C. reticulata library consists of 21 000 clones also with negligible false-positive clones and an estimated average of 120 kb covering ~2.5 x 109 bp representing a 6.6-fold coverage of haploid genome equivalents. Both libraries were evaluated for contamination with high-copy vector, empty pIndigoBAC536 vector, and organellar DNA sequences. Screening has been performed by Southern hybridization of BAC filters, which results in genomics research in the two important species C. sinensis and C. reticulata. Resources, high-density filters, individual clones, and whole libraries are available for public distribution and are accessible at the National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University.

  8. Character impact odorants of Citrus Hallabong [(C. unshiu Marcov x C. sinensis Osbeck) x C. reticulata Blanco] cold-pressed peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyang-Sook

    2003-04-23

    The volatile components of Hallabong ([C. unshiu Marcov x C. sinensis Osbeck] x C. reticulata Blanco) cold-pressed peel oil were quantitatively and qualitatively determined by use of two internal standards with GC, GC-MS, and GC-olfactometry. According to instrumental analysis by GC and GC-MS, limonene (90.68%) was the most abundant compound, followed by sabinene (2.15%), myrcene (1.86%), and gamma-terpinene (0.88%). Flavor dilution (FD) factors of the volatile flavor components from Hallabong peel oil were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis. Furthermore, relative flavor activity was investigated by means of FD factor and weight percent. The highest FD factors were found for citronellal and citronellyl acetate, and delta-murollene showed a higher relative flavor activity. Results of sniff testing of the original oil and its oxygenated fraction revealed that citronellal, cis-beta-farnesene, and citronellyl acetate were regarded as the character impact odorants of Hallabong peel oil, and citronellal gave the most odor-active character of Hallabong aroma. PMID:12696958

  9. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges. PMID:11453761

  11. 不同除草剂对清家脐橙夏梢的毒害作用%Toxic effects of herbicides on young summer shoots of Seike navel orange(Citrus sinensis )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小焕; 彭良志; 曹立; 张雯雯

    2011-01-01

    为了解除草剂对柑橘的毒害作用,筛选对柑橘安全的除草剂,选用乙羧氟草醚等7种化学除草剂,采用生产上施用的常规浓度,对清家脐橙的嫩夏梢进行树冠喷布.结果表明,0.008 3%(按有效成分计,下同)乙羧氟草醚和0.075%苄嘧磺隆对嫩夏梢的毒害死亡率均为100%;0.025%啶嘧磺隆和0.020 8%氟磺胺草醚对4 cm以下嫩夏梢毒害死亡率分别为100%和81.54%,但对4 cm以上嫩夏梢毒害死亡率分别为56.68%和5.48%;0.17%草甘膦和0.16%莠去津对嫩夏梢毒害死亡率分别在24%和15%以下;0.009%精喹禾灵对嫩夏梢没有毒害作用.0.075%苄嘧磺隆会导致果实和成熟枝叶伤害,引起异常落叶落果,其余5种除草剂对果实和成熟枝叶安全.%In order to select safe herbicides for citrus orchard weed control, seven kinds of herbicides with normal concentrations were sprayed on the summer shoots of Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)trees. The results showed that the toxic effects on young shoots were different for the 7 herbicides. Both 0.0083% (of effective ingredient, the same below) fluoroglycofen-ethyl and 0.075% bensulfuron methyl resulted in 100% death rates of young shoots.0.025% flazasulfuron and 0.020 8% fomesafen resulted in 100% and 81.54% death rates of short young shoots (length ≤4 cm), respectively ,but 56.68% and 5.48% death rates of longer young shoots (length ≥ 4 cm) , respectively. Below 24% and 15% death rates were observed when young shoots were separately treated with 0.17% glyphosate and 0.16% atrazine.0.009% quizalofop-p-ethyl showed no toxicity for young shoots. 0.075% bensulfuron methyl damaged fruits and mature shoots seriously and caused their unusual drops. The herbicides had no damage to both fruits and mature shoots except bensulfuron methyl. As to some herbicides had strong toxic effects, the possibity of controlling citrus summer shoots by spraying those herbicides was also discussed.

  12. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erukainure, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA, total phospholipid (TP content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p Ratas albinas machos fueron alimentadas con aceites de soja y de cáscara de naranja (C. sinensis para determinar su efecto sobre el malondialdehído (MDA, fosfolípidos (TP y el contenido total de biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo de su tejido cerebral. Además de alimento para ratones, cuatro dietas fueron diseñadas conteniendo el 50% de la energía en forma de carbohidratos, el 35% en forma de grasa, y el 15% como proteína, y una cuarta dieta libre de lípidos donde se había sustituido la grasa por agua destilada. Grupos de cinco ratas fueron alimentadas cada uno con estas dietas, mientras que un quinto grupo fue alimentado con alimento para ratones peletizado. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en TP del grupo alimentado concomida para ratón. Los TP fue mayor (p < 0,05 en los alimentados con mezcla de aceite de soja y de cáscaras de naranja, en comparación con los alimentados con estos aceites por separado. La alimentación con aceite de soja llevó a una disminución del MDA en los tejidos del cerebro e influyó en el contenido de TP. Se observó un descenso significativo (p < 0,05 de las actividades de GSH y SOD en los grupos alimentados con aceite de soja+aceite de piel de naranja, y con las dietas de aceite de soja. Se observaron actividades significativamente más altas (p < 0,05 en el grupo alimentado con aceite de naranja. Una actividad catalasa significativamente mas alta (p < 0,05 se observ

  13. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; Maccheroni, jr. W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independen

  14. Digital gene expression analysis of corky split vein caused by boron deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck for selecting differentially expressed genes related to vascular hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Quan Yang

    Full Text Available Corky split vein caused by boron (B deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1(st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2(nd and 3(rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study.

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Pulp of the Red Mutant 'Cara Cara' Navel Orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Li Ye; An-Dan Zhu; Neng-Guo Tao; Qiang Xu; Juan Xu; Xiu-Xin Deng

    2010-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag(EST)analysis of the pulp of the red-fleshed mutant 'Cara Cara' navel orange provided a starting point for gene discovery and transcriptome survey during citrus fruit maturation. Interpretation of the EST datasets revealed that the mutant pulp transcriptome held a high section of stress responses related genes,such as the type Ⅲ metallothionein-like gene(6.0%),heat shock protein(2.8%),Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase(0.8%),late embryogenesis abundant protein 5(0.8%),etc. 133transcripts were detected to be differentially expressed between the red mutant and its orange-color wild genotype 'Washington' via digital expression analysis. Among them,genes involved in metabolism,defense/stress and signal transduction were statistical overrepresented. Fifteen transcription factors,composed of NAM,ATAF,and CUC transcription factor(NAC); myeloblastosis(MYB); myelocytomatosis(MYC); basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH); basic leucine zipper(bZIP)domain members,were also included. The data reflected the distinct expression profile and the unique regulatory module associated with these two genotypes. Eight differently expressed genes analyzed in digital were validated by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. For structural polymorphism,both simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)loci were surveyed; dinucleotide presentation revealed a bias toward AG/GA/TC/CT repeats(52.5%),against GC/CG repeats(0%). SNPs analysis found that transitions(73%)outnumbered transversions(27%). Seventeen potential cultivar-specific and 387 heterozygous SNP loci were detected from 'Cara Cara' and 'Washington' EST pool.

  16. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  17. A Proteomic Analysis of the Chromoplasts Isolated from Sweet Orange Fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] Revealed Clues to Their Ripening Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliu Zeng; Zhiyong Pan; Yuduan Ding; Andan Zhu; Hongbo Cao; Qiang Xu; Xiuxin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid biosynthesisis believed to occur in chromoplasts,which are non-photosynthetic plastids often present in flowers and fruits.We report a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts,which were purified from sweet orange by a novel protocol using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation.Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against marker proteins for different cell compartments suggested the chromoplast extraction were of high purity.Systematic analysis of the chromoplast proteome identified 493 proteins,of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses.Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins,a large proportion (~60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism,amino acid/protein synthesis,and secondary metabolism.Of note,HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase),PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein),and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified.A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways.However,the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis,extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation,and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis.In conclusion,this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level.

  18. 甜橙精油的挥发性成分分析及抗氧化和抑菌活性研究%Analysis of essential oil of Citrus sinensis and its antioxidative and antimicrobial effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 张宝月; 黄蓉; 赵春霞; 王改香; 张磊; 鲍其泠

    2013-01-01

    The components of essential oil of Citrus sinensis were analyzed by GC-MS,and twenty-four components in the oil were identified,which accounted for 92. 24% of the total contents. Its main content was limonene, which accounted for about 78. 24% of the total contents. The other main contents were β-pinene(3.22%) , ( +)-limonene 1,2-epoxide(1. 89%),β-phellandrene(1.45%),linalool(1.28%), α-pinene( 1.05% ) Respectively. The antioxidant property of the oil was evaluated by exploing DPPH an-tioxidant assay. The oil sample had free radical scavenging activity. DPPH free radical scavenging ability and essential oil concentration were positively correlated (y = 55. 11x + 12.48,R2 = 0.994,the oil concentration in the 20%~100% ). In addition,the essential oil antibacterial results showed that the essential oil against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans had certain antimicrobial activity.%使用GC-MS联用技术对甜橙精油进行分析,从中鉴定了24种化学成分,占总含量的92.24%.主要成分为柠檬烯,达到了78.24%;其次为β-蒎烯、(+)-柠檬烯-1,2-环氧化物、β-水芹烯、芳樟醇、α-蒎烯,含量依次为3.22%,1.89%,1.45%,1.28%,1.05%.甜橙精油的DPPH抗氧化研究表明,甜橙精油具有体外清除DPPH自由基的能力,且DPPH自由基的清除能力与精油浓度呈正相关,在精油浓度20% ~ 100%范围内,y=55.11x+12.48,R2=0.994.抗菌实验结果显示,甜橙精油对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌和白色念珠菌等具有一定的抗菌能力.

  19. Evaluación del efecto de diferentes cepas de levadura (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ® y clarificantes sobre los atributos sensoriales del vino de naranja criolla (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E Olivero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of effect of various strains of yeast (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ® and clearer on the sensory attributes orange wine (Citrus sinensis RESUMEN En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de diferentes cepas de levadura (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE ® sobre los atributos sensoriales del vino de naranja. Estos atributos fueron medidos utilizando la escala modificada de UC Davis. En una prueba de ordenamiento para determinar el mejor tratamiento de clarificación se determinó que la gelatina por sí sola no causa efecto sobre el atributo apariencia general, la combinación de la gelatina y la microfiltración tienen un efecto positivo sobre la apariencia del vino de naranja. Los cinco vinos tratados con diferentes levaduras presentaron diferencias significativas sobre la puntuación total, acidez total, sabor y calidad en general. En términos del efecto de las levaduras, la evaluación sensorial realizada a los vinos mostró que el de naranja con la levadura K1-V1116 fue el que sobresalió en términos de puntuación en los promedios de casi todos los atributos analizados por el panel sensorial.  Palabras clave: vino de naranja criolla, levaduras, clarificantes, atributos sensoriales.  ABSTRACT In this Wort was evaluated the effect of different types of strains of yeast (Montrachet, K1-V1116, EC-1118, 71B-1122 y IVC-GRE over the sensorial attributes of orange wines were also studied. These attributes were measured in a modified scale of UC Davis. By using an order test in order to know the best cleared treatment, it was determined that gelatin by itself does not cause any effect over the general quality attribute, but the combination of gelatin and microfiltration, cause a positive effect over the orange wine appearance. The five wines treated with different yeasts presented significant differences on individual scores, total acidy, flavor and general quality of the UC Davis scale. The

  20. Study on the Flavonoids and Their Antioxidant Activities in Citrus Peel of Different Varieties%不同品种柑橘皮中黄酮化合物含量及抗氧化性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万利秀; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 陈卫东; 陈于陇; 吴继军; 蒋爱民

    2011-01-01

    比较了9个柑橘品种的柑橘皮总黄酮含量及黄酮成分,并对其清除DPPH自由基的能力和对铁离子的还原力进行了评价.结果表明:几乎所有品种间柑橘皮总黄酮含量及黄酮成分都存在显著差异(P<0.05);总黄酮含量最高和最低的品种分别为南丰橘和福建蜜柑,其总黄酮含量分别为9.68,5.28 mg/g;福建蜜柑中柚皮苷的含量较多,江西柳橙、江西脐橙、南方蜜橘和江西蜜柑中橙皮苷的含量较多.9个品种柑橘皮总黄酮含量与其还原力和清除DPPH自由基的能力之间线性无关,即总黄酮含量高的品种其抗氧化水平不一定高.%The total contents and components of flavonoids in 9 different citrus varieties and their DPPH radical scavenging activities and reducing powers were studied in this paper. The results showed that there were significant differences in total contents and components of flavonoids almost among all citrus varieties (P < 0.05 ) ;The content of total flavonoids in NanFeng Miju was 9.68 mg/g, which was highest among all citrus varieties, while the content of total flavonoids in FuJian Migan was 5.28mg/g, which was the lowest; The content of naringin in FuJian Migan was high, while Jiangxi Liucheng, Jiangxi Qicheng, Nanfang Miju and Jiangxi Migan have a high content of hesperidin.There was no linear correlation between the contents of total flavonoids and their DPPH radical scavenging activities and reducing powers, that is, the antioxidant activity of the variety in which the content of total flavonoids was highest wasn't always strongest. The study can offer beneficial reference for establishing fingerprint of flavonoids in different citrus varieties in south China, as well as for the comprehensive utilization of citrus peel.

  1. Crescimento de híbridos e variedades porta-enxerto de citros sob salinidade = Growth of hybrids and rootstock varieties of citrus under salinity.

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    Pedro Dantas Fernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade da água e do solo afeta o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção de espécies frutíferas, dentre as quais os citros. O uso de porta-enxertos tolerantes pode garantir a sustentabilidade do agronegócio citrícola em tais condições. Assim, estudou-se a sensibilidade à salinidade durante a fase de formação de portaenxertoscompreendendo variedades e híbridos selecionados. O experimento foirealizado em casa-de-vegetação, considerando cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação [testemunha, irrigação com água de abastecimento local, condutividade elétrica da água (CEa de 0,41 dS m-1 e água com CEa de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1] e sete genótipos, utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetiçõesem esquema fatorial e quatro plantas úteis por parcela, durante o período de 150 dias. Avaliaram-se variáveis de crescimento e fisiológicas. A redução mais expressiva foi observada na fitomassa seca total da parte aérea com aumento unitário da CEa. Observou-se redução linear no crescimento com aumento da salinidade nos híbridosLVK x LVA-009 e TSK x TRENG-256. Dentre os genótipos avaliados, o limoeiro ‘Volkameriano’ foi o menos sensível ao estresse salino.Water and soil salinity affects the growth, development and production of fructiferous species, such as citrus. The use of tolerant rootstocks can guarantee the agribusiness of citrus under such conditions. Thus, the sensibility to salinity during the phase of rootstock formation of varieties and selected hybrids was studied. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with five levels of irrigation water salinity [control, tap water with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.41 dS m-1, and water with ECw of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1] and seven genotypes, in a randomized block designand five replications each consisting of four plants, during 150 day period. Growth and physiologic variables were evaluated. Significant effects

  2. Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have comp

  3. Ozone fluxes from Citrus species exposed to different levels of atmospheric ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S.; Ormeño, E.; Park, J.; Gentner, D. R.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2009-12-01

    Citrus includes a large number of species and varieties widely cultivated in the Central Valley of California and in many other countries having Mediterranean climates. Orchards in California often experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed from reactions of VOC and NOx. On one hand, citrus trees may contribute to cleaning the air when the ozone is deposited on the canopies through stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms, but on the other hand ozone is known to oxidize leaf tissues after entering stomata, resulting in a decrease of carbon assimilation and decrease in crop yield. To characterize ozone deposition for lemon (Citrus limon), mandarin (Citrus reticulata), and orange (Citrus sinensis), we designed branch enclosures which allowed a direct measurement of ozone uptake under different physiological conditions obtained in a greenhouse-controlled environment. A second aim of this study was to test the capability of Citrus species to emit volatile organic compounds which may play a key role in locally removing ozone through chemical reactions in the intercellular spaces and in the gas phase or forming more ozone on the regional scale through reactions with NO¬x. Ozone uptake was quantified to be in the range of 5-12 nmol m-2 s-1 under the highest conditions of physiological activity. Under high levels of ozone concentration, measured ozone deposition was lower than modeled ozone deposition based on the level of stomatal aperture. Our study evaluates the possible role of VOC in scavenging ozone through gas-phase reactions, but the results instead lead to the hypothesis of an accumulation of ozone in the intercellular spaces resulting in a decrease of ozone fluxes for the citrus species studied.

  4. 刈割、AM真菌和施磷对根箱栽培中柑橘和柱花草生长的影响%Effects of mowing, AM fungal inoculation and phosphorus application on growth of Citrus sinensis and Stylosanthes gracilis in a rhizobox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青; 朱红惠; 胡志群; 陈杰忠

    2004-01-01

    利用根箱栽培模拟果园生草栽培,以柑橘Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.cv.Luogangcheng和柱花草Stylosanthes gracilis H.B.K.cv.Graham来研究生草刈割、AM真菌和施磷在减轻养分竞争上的作用.结果表明,3种措施在不同程度上减轻了柱花草对柑橘生长的抑制效应,增加了柑橘的株高、叶片数和干质量;柱花草刈割的作用最明显,导致柱花草的根冠比急剧降低,表明刈割可能是通过抑制根系生长来减轻养分竞争.

  5. Efecto de cinco porta-injertos sobre la floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja "frost valencia" Citrus sinensis (L. Obs. en condiciones del CNI-Palmira, Valle del Cauca Effect of five rootstocks in flowering, fructification and maturity in orange "frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L. obs. in Palmira, the Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holguín E. Carmen Lucía

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trabajo, realizado en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se consideraron 20 árboles cítricos injertados sobre Citrumelo 4475, Citrus amblycarpa, Citrange yuma, Trifoliado por Ruby Or y Mandarina Cleopatra. Se evaluaron los parámetros desarrollo floral, época e intensidad de la floración, porcentaje de cuajamiento, desarrollo del fruto, proceso de maduración y número y peso de frutos cosechados. La floración de la naranja ocurrió 15-30 días después de una lluvia; la máxima producción de frutos se presentó entre cinco y seis meses después de la máxima precipitación. Los porta-injertos mostraron diferenciase significativas en período de maduración y producción de frutos; no obstante, su potencial productivo fue relativamente similar (17-20%.

    The work was made at Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira in the Cauca Valley. It was considered under observation twenty citric trees over five rootstocks: Citrumelo 4475, Citrus amblycarpa, Citrange yuma, Trifoliado por Ruby Or and Mandarina Cleopatra. Flower development, intensity of flower and fruit production, thicken percentage, fruit's development, fruits falled percentage, maduration process and number and weight at harvested fruits was evaluated. Flowering is induced between 15-30 days after any rain. The maximum fruit production was between five and six months after maximum precipitation. The rootstocks are different in maturity epoch, fruit's production; however there were not great differences in potential production (17-20%.

  6. Effect of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Citrus sinensis%柑橘黄龙病菌侵染对甜橙叶片糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 苏华楠; 黄爱军; 周彦; 李中安; 刘金香; 周常勇

    2015-01-01

    具有显著相关性(P<0.05)。蔗糖分解相关基因中,蔗糖合成酶基因 SuSy 在感病不同时期的表达差异不大,变化幅度小;细胞壁酸性转化酶基因 CSCWI 在不同时期均上调表达,最高上调约7.4倍,且表达量一直维持在较高水平;与 CSCWI 相比,液泡酸性转化酶基因 CUAI1的表达水平较低。淀粉合成相关酶 ADP-葡萄糖焦磷酸化酶基因最高上调3倍左右;淀粉分解相关基因 BAM3、MEX1和 DPE2在不同时期有所下调,达到显著性差异水平(P<0.05)。【结论】柑橘黄龙病感染甜橙后,对植株叶片中光合产物的形成与运转产生影响,扰乱宿主糖代谢平衡,与宿主淀粉积累及后期症状的产生有密切关系。%[Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) infection on carbohydrate metabolism in Citrus sinensis, elucidate the relationship between HLB infection and starch accumulation, and provide a theoretical basis for HLB pathogenesis. [Method]C. sinensis were used as the experimental materials, plants were inoculated by grafting three bark pieces onto the rootstock portion of each plant. For infected plants, bark pieces were derived from trees infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which were confirmed positive for Ca. L. asiaticus by PCR. For non-infected plants, bark pieces were obtained from healthy trees. Three plants in good growth state were chosen for successive test, mature leaves were collected every month until October. DNA and RNA were extracted, the content of soluble sugar and starch were measured immediately, the other leaf tissue was snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃ for testing carbohydrate metabolism related key enzyme activities. At the same time, the expression levels were compared using real-time quantitative PCR analysis.[Result]The content of soluble sugar and starch tended to increase with time extended, and their peak value were respectively

  7. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  8. Patogenicidade cruzada de Ceratobasidium spp. do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki e do chá(Camellia sinensis e reação de cultivares de caqui ao patógeno Cross pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. from kaki (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis and reaction of kaki varieties to the pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Costa Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Ceratobasidium spp. é o agente causal da doença mal-do-fio ou queima-do-fio em várias plantas frutíferas, em cafeeiro e em chá. Esta doença ocorre com maior freqüência em zonas de alta precipitação e temperaturas elevadas, típicas de regiões de florestas tropicais como a Amazônica e a Mata Atlântica. Em São Paulo, o primeiro relato do mal-do-fio em caquizeiro ocorreu na região de Mogi das Cruzes. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a patogenicidade cruzada de isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. de caquizeiro e chá para ambas as culturas e também para o cafeeiro e citros. Avaliou-se, também, a reação de oito cultivares de caquizeiro, sob condições controladas, a isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. obtidos da mesma cultura. Constatou-se que os isolados de caquizeiro e de chá, embora filogeneticamente distintos, foram patogênicos para ambas as culturas, além de afetarem cafeeiro e citros. Não foram verificados indícios de reação de resistência aos isolados de Ceratobasidium spp. para as oito cultivares de caquizeiro testadas.The fungus Ceratobasidium spp. causes the white-thread blight disease, which affects several fruit trees, coffee and tea crops. This disease frequently occurs in zones of high precipitation and temperatures, typical of the tropical forest regions such as the Amazon and the Atlantic Forests. In São Paulo State, Brazil, this disease was reported by the first time affecting kaki plants in Mogi das Cruzes county. The objective of this study was to test the cross-pathogenicity of Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki and tea to both host plants and also to coffee and citrus. This study also aimed to determine the reaction of local kaki varieties to Ceratobasidium spp. isolates from kaki under controlled conditions. Although phylogenetically distinct, kaki- and tea-infecting isolates were cross-pathogenic to both hosts, besides infecting coffee and citrus. There was no indication of resistance reaction

  9. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

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    Lucilene Dornelles Mello

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT, total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP and conductivity (EC, of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, Camellia sinensis with Citrus sinensis. All extracts showed high percentages of TAA and were not significantly different by Tukey’s test. The correlation matrices indicated that except for the extract of Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, all the other extracts had statistically significant correlations. Strong correlations were found between TAA and FT, and between pH and FT. The extract of Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita presented the highest correlation between TAA and FT. The same compounds that influence the pH and ORP may also influence the EC, for almost all teas. For the fermented and unfermented extracts of Camellia sinensis all parameters had been strongly correlated (r > 0.7.

  10. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Gentner, Drew R.; McKay, Megan; Loreto, Francesco; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2010-09-01

    The Citrus genus includes a large number of species and varieties widely cultivated in the Central Valley of California and in many other countries having similar Mediterranean climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed by reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with oxides of nitrogen (NO x). Citrus trees may improve air quality in the orchard environment by taking up ozone through stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms, but they may ultimately be detrimental to regional air quality by emitting biogenic VOC (BVOC) that oxidize to form ozone and secondary organic aerosol downwind of the site of emission. BVOC also play a key role in removing ozone through gas-phase chemical reactions in the intercellular spaces of the leaves and in ambient air outside the plants. Ozone is known to oxidize leaf tissues after entering stomata, resulting in decreased carbon assimilation and crop yield. To characterize ozone deposition and BVOC emissions for lemon ( Citrus limon), mandarin ( Citrus reticulata), and orange ( Citrus sinensis), we designed branch enclosures that allowed direct measurement of fluxes under different physiological conditions in a controlled greenhouse environment. Average ozone uptake was up to 11 nmol s -1 m -2 of leaf. At low concentrations of ozone (40 ppb), measured ozone deposition was higher than expected ozone deposition modeled on the basis of stomatal aperture and ozone concentration. Our results were in better agreement with modeled values when we included non-stomatal ozone loss by reaction with gas-phase BVOC emitted from the citrus plants. At high ozone concentrations (160 ppb), the measured ozone deposition was lower than modeled, and we speculate that this indicates ozone accumulation in the leaf mesophyll.

  11. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  12. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  13. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a nematode survey in 2012-2013 in EL-Nobarria, EL-Behera governorate, northern Egypt, specimens of dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.) were collected from soil around the rhizosphere of citrus trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) exhibiting poor growth and low yield. The morphology of females esta...

  14. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...

  15. Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryz Melinski Serciloto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três diferentes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1 e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas, em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS; acidez titulável (AT; quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT, e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in three different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1 and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0

  16. Application of natural colorants on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  17. Characterization and biological properties of Citrus industrial derivatives and waste products for the formulation of nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Polyphenols are natural chemical compounds, common in higher plants as and particularly known and appreciated for their health properties. We focused attention on Citrus bergamia, Citrus sinensis, Mela annurca and Vitis Vinifera. Citrus is one of larges species among plant; it consists of 40 species which are distributed in all continents and its fruits. We have developed a fast HPLC with ion-trap TOF-MS method for the analysis of flavonoids in these juices. With respect to the...

  18. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  19. Identification of Disease Resistance of Different Introduced Citrus Varieties to Anthracnose in Guizhou%贵州新引进柑橘品种对炭疽病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小燕; 曾琛; 姜于兰

    2012-01-01

    The detached leaf disease resistance identification method was used to assess the resistance of 14 kinds of introduced citrus varieties to citrus anthracnose in Guizhou. The results showed that there were some differencees between the 14 kinds of citrus cultivars in disease resistance at 4 and 5 days after inoculation. The disease index of Amakusa was 0 and 0. 46,Fola was 52. 78 and 79. 17,Setoka was 1. 85 and 2. 78,Nova was 4. 63 and 9. 26,respectively,after 4 and 5 days. The results of two surveys revealed that the disease index of Amakusa was the minimum, and its disease resistance was the strongest, showing immunity or high resistance. The disease index of Fola was the maximum,and its disease resistance was the weakest,showing high susceptibility. Setoka and Nova were all highly resistant.%为明确贵州新引进的14个柑橘品种对炭疽病的抗病能力,采用离体叶片法测定了其对柑橘炭疽病的抗病性.结果表明,14个参试柑橘品种在接种4d和5d后,抗病性存在差异.其中,天草在接种4d和5d后的病情指数分别为0和0.46,佛拉的病情指数分别为52.78、79.17,濑户佳的病情指数分别为1.85、2.78,若瓦的病情指数分别为4.63、9.26.2次的调查结果都说明天草的病情指数最小,抗病性最强,表现为免疫或高抗;佛拉的病情指数最大,抗病性最弱,表现为感病;濑户佳、若瓦均表现高抗.

  20. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  1. Effect of Cold Storage and On-tree Storage on Fruit Carotenoid Composition and Content of ' Redflesh navel orange' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%冷藏和留树保鲜对红肉脐橙果实类胡萝卜素种类和含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璠; 伊华林; 郭琳琳

    2007-01-01

    红肉脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv.‘Redflesh navel orange’)丰产优质,是唯一果肉粉红且着色均匀的甜橙品种,源自华盛顿脐橙的芽变,20世纪90年代初由美国引进,于2001年被湖北省农作物品种审定委员会认定为新品种。已有研究证明:红肉脐橙果肉中的主要色素为番茄红素和β-胡萝b素。但通过对红肉脐橙果实进行冷藏及留树保鲜处理,发现其果实品质及果皮、果肉颜色与明亮度变化有些不同。

  2. 通过机械加工获得的甜橙油(ISO3140:2005)%The International Standard of Crude or Rectified Oil of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck),obtained by mechanical treatment(ISO 3140:2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐易

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 目的 本标准规定了甜橙油[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck]的某些特性,以便对其 质量进行评估. 2 规范性引用文件 下列规范性文件所包含的条款,通过在本标准中的引用而成为本标准的条款.凡是注日期的引用文件,其随后所有的修改单(不包括勘误的内容)或修订版均不适用于本标准,然而鼓励根据本标准达成协议的各方研究是否可使用这些标准的最新版本.凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本适用于本标准.

  3. Construction of Plant Expression Vectors with PMI Gene as Selection Marker and Their Utilization in Transformation of Citrus sinensis%PMI基因作为选择标记的植物表达载体构建及其在雪柑转基因中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾黎辉; 徐海峰; 王会全; 吴少华; 朱艺萱

    2008-01-01

    以大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)6-磷酸甘露糖异构酶(6-phosphomannose isomerase,PMI)基因替换植物表达载体pCAMBIA1301中的hpt基因以及pBI121中的gus基因,构建了以PMI基因为选择标记基因的植物表达载体pCAMBIA1301PMI和pBIPMI,并导人根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)EHA105中.研究了两种表达载体对雪柑(Citrus sinensis L.Osbeck)上胚轴的转化,在培养基附加25 g/L甘露糖和5 g/L蔗糖为碳源的选择压力下,pCAMBIA1301PMI的转化率为27.7%,pBIPMI转化率为12.7%,对再生植株用氯酚红和PCR检测证实了PMI基因的导入,建立了以PMI/甘露糖为选择系统的雪柑转基因体系.

  4. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Corky Split Vein Caused by Boron Deficiency in ‘Newhall’ Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) for Selecting Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Vascular Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cheng-Quan; Liu, Yong-Zhong; An, Ji-Cui; Li, Shuang; Jin, Long-Fei; Zhou, Gao-Feng; Wei, Qing-Jiang; Yan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Nan-Nan; Fu, Li-Na; Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Ting-Shuai; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2013-01-01

    Corky split vein caused by boron (B) deficiency in ‘Newhall’ Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profi...

  5. THE ENDOPHYTE CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS REDUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUSAN ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIUM FROM CITRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is a disease of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all sweet orange cultivars. Sweet orange trees are sometimes observed to be infected by Xylella fastidiosa without showing seve...

  6. 印度查谟地区甜橙上柑桔潜叶蛾为害动态及其与重要气候因子的关系%Infestation dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton ( Lepidoptera: Phyllocnistidae) on Mosambi (Citrus sinensis) and its relation with important weather factors in Jammu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monika CHHETRY; Janak Singh TARA; Ruchie GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在揭示印度查谟柑桔潜叶蛾Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton为害甜橙Citrus sinensis的季节性变化.以及降雨量、相对湿度和温度等重要的气候因子对其种群的影响.本文对不同季节印度查谟的一个甜橙园里的柑桔潜叶蛾丰度进行了调查,从2005年3月到2008年2月每两周调查一次.柑桔潜叶蛾在一年内有3个为害高峰,分别是4月中旬、7月中旬和9月中旬,这与甜橙新营养梢的生长期相吻合.相关分析表明,上午和下午的相对湿度和平均相对湿度与柑桔潜叶蛾的数量呈负相关;然而,平均降雨量、最高气温、最低气温和平均气温与柑桔潜叶蛾的数量呈正相关.降雨量和温度与柑桔潜叶蛾为害程度呈显著正相关.总之,柑桔潜叶蛾的数量不能简单地通过观察某一特殊地区的相对湿度来预测,而降雨量和温度在影响虫害方面均起着重要的作用.%The objective of this work is to study the seasonal variation of percentage infestation, and effect of important weather factors viz. rainfall, relative humidity and temperature on the population of Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in J&K State of India. Seasonal abundance of Citrus leaf miner was investigated fortnightly in an orchard of Mosambi (Citrus sinensis) from March 2005 to Feb 2008, located in Jammu. There were three infestation peaks in a year that coincided with the availability of new vegetative flush viz. mid April, mid July and mid September. Correlation analysis indicated that morning,afternoon and average relative humidity were negatively correlated, whereas, average rainfall, and maximum, minimum and average temperature were positively correlated with the population of citrus leaf miner. Rainfall and temperature had significant positive correlation with the population infestation. In general, population of P. citrella can not be predicted simply by observing the relative humidity of a particular area

  7. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  8. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  9. Preliminary Studies on Species and Distribution of Citrus Viroids in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Chang-yong; TANG Ke-zhi; LAN Jian-qiang; ZHOU Yan; LI Zhon-gan

    2008-01-01

    Citrus viroids are the small but economically important RNA pathogens.For investigating their occurrence and distribution in China,65 viroid samples collected from 8 major citrus cultivated regions were evaluated using one-step or multiplex one-step RT-PCR and biological indexing for specifically detection of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd),Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd),Hop stunt viroid (HSVd),Citrus viroid-ⅢI (CVd-Ⅲ) and Citrus viroid-Ⅳ (CVd-Ⅳ).The results showed that there were at least 4 kinds of citrus viroids (CEVd,CBLVd,HSVd,and CVd-Ⅲ) on citrus trees in China.Most of the infected citrus plants harbored more than one viroid species,and two plants were infected with up to 4 citrus viroids.Sweet orange was more frequently infected by viroids than other citrus varieties.It is the preliminary report on the species and distribution of citrus viroids in China.

  10. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  11. 缺硼条件下两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙矿质元素含量变化的比较%Changes in mineral element contents of 'Newhall' navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb.)grafted on two different rootstocks under boron deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂东; 姜存仓; 王运华; 彭抒昂; 钟八莲; 曾庆銮; 袁水秀

    2011-01-01

    采用溶液培养试验,研究了缺硼对两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙硼、锌、钙、镁和钾元素含量变化.结果表明,缺硼显著降低了枳壳砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙体内硼含量而对锌含量影响不大;相反,缺硼对枳橙砧木脐橙体内硼含量的影响不是很大,而显著降低了其叶片中锌的含量.这可能足缺硼条件下枳壳砧木脐橙容易出现缺硼症状,而枳橙砧木脐橙容易出现缺锌症状的原因之一.与对照相比,缺硼处理的枳壳砧木脐橙叶的钙含量明显增加;而根的钾含量明显高于枳橙砧木橙根.这些结果与枳壳砧木脐橙对硼更敏感有一定的关系.缺硼对镁含量的影响两种砧木间基本没有差异.%The hydroponic method was used to study the changes in boron (B), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) concentrations of ‘ Newhall’ navel orange ( Citrus sinensis Osb. ) grafted on citrange [ C. sinensis ( L. ) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliate ( L. ) Raf. ] or trifoliate orange [ Poncirus trifoliata ( L. )Raf. ] under B deficiency. The results show that under the B deficiency, B concentrations of trifoliate orange-grafted plants and Zn concentrations of citrange-grafted plants are significantly decreased, which may be one of the reasons why trifoliate orange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of B deficiency and citrange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of Zn deficiency under the B deficiency. Compared to the normal B treatment, Ca concentration in leaves of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is increased obviously under the B deficiency, and K concentration in root of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is much higher than that of citrange-grafted plants. These results indicate trifoliate orange-grafted plants are more sensitive to the B deficiency. There are not significantly differences in Mg concentrations between trifoliate orange-grafted and citrange-grafted plants under the B deficiency.

  12. Biological Characteristics and Culture Techniques of New Citrus Variety Beef-red Cumquat%柑橘新品种牛肉红朱橘的生物学特性及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守一; 袁启凤; 李金强; 蔡永强; 李文云

    2013-01-01

    牛肉红朱橘由贵州省果树科学研究所从贵州省惠水县实生金钱橘中选育而成。2011年通过贵州省农作物品种审定委员会审定。对其生物学特性、经济性状及栽培技术进行了介绍。综合认为,牛肉红朱橘树势较强、抗逆性强、结果早、产量高、品质优、商品性好,适合在贵州宽皮柑橘的次适宜区推广种植。%Beef-red cumquat is selected from sexual reproduction of cumquat in Huishui County of Guizhou Province by Guizhou Fruit Institute, and it had been approved by Guizhou Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in 2011. Its biological characteristics, economic characteristics and culture techniques were introduced. Moreover, the comprehensive results indicated that the beef-red cumquat has strong tree vigor, strong stress resistance, early setting fruit, high yield, good quality and marketability. Therefore, the beef-red cumquat is suitable for promoting in the sub-suitable area of Citrus reticulata in Guizhou province.

  13. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  14. Citrus Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter, Fred G.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  15. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  16. Resistance and tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stover-led research team focuses on developing improved citrus scion varieties, through both conventional breeding and transgenics, with special attention to confronting the threat of citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Collaborations are underway with more than 20 research groups around the world to ha...

  17. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Tenório Costa; William Mário de Carvalho Nunes; Carlos Alexandre Zanutto; Gerd Walter Müller

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG) analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational po...

  18. Efficient Isolation of RNA from Fruit Peel and Pulp of Ripening Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%一种适合于成熟脐橙果皮和果肉的RNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 刘庆; 陶能国; 邓秀新

    2006-01-01

    An efficient RNA isolation method was established in the present paper. RNA extracted from peel and pulp collected at different ripening time was successfully used for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) without DNase treatment, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), and RNA blotting. The A260/A230ratios were higher than 2. 0, and the A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.65 to 1.92. In addition, the protocol is safe, convenient and proved to be widely applicable, since it was successfully employed for RNA extraction from citrus leaves, immature fruit, Poncirus seedling and citrus callus as well.%研究了一种适合脐橙果实成熟过程中有效的RNA提取方法.结果表明利用该方法从不同成熟时期果实的果皮和果肉中提取的RNA可以有效用于RT-PC,cDNA-AFLP和RNA杂交.其A260/A230的比值超过2.0,A260/A280的比值在1.65-1.92的范围之间.另外该方法也证明可以广泛用于柑橘叶片,未成熟的幼果,枳壳幼苗和柑橘愈伤组织的RNA提取,是一种安全、方便和适用性较广的RNA提取方法.

  19. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

  20. Respective Effects of Post-harvest Citrus Oil Induction and Vibration Stress Treatment on Oleocellosis in Jincheng Orange Peel(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Jincheng)%采后橘油诱导及振动胁迫对贮藏期锦橙果皮油胞病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丹; 吴日章; 曾凯芳

    2011-01-01

    The respective effects of post-harvest citrus oil induction and vibration stress treatment on oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel were studied based on collapse index and color index.Oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel showed a gradual increase as the concentration of citrus oil increased.The most serious oleocellosis in citrus peel could arise from 100% citrus oil treatment.In addition,mechanical vibration stress also could induce oleocellosis in Jincheng orange peel.Mechanical vibration stress at 500 r/min revealed the most obvious effect on oleocellosis formation.Moreover,Jincheng oranges treated with citrus oil or mechanical vibration stress were also used to explore the effect of storage temperature on oleocellosis in their peels.As a result,Jincheng oranges stored at 20 or 5 ℃had the severest change in oleocellosis.However,Jincheng oranges had the slightest change in oleocellosis during 5 ℃ storage.Therefore,these results can provide a theoretical reference for exploring the mechanisms and control strategies of oleocellosis.%以果皮塌陷指数和变色指数为测定指标,研究橘油及振动胁迫处理对锦橙果皮油胞病的影响。结果表明:随橘油体积分数增大果皮油胞病逐渐加重,并以100%橘油处理对锦橙果皮油胞病的诱导效果最明显;锦橙果皮油胞病发病程度随着振动胁迫强度增大而加重,其中500r/min的诱导效果最显著。另外,在橘油和振动胁迫处理后的果实在不同温度下贮藏时,发现20℃贮藏的锦橙果皮油胞病最为严重,0℃冷害温度也能加剧果实油胞病的发生,5℃贮藏的锦橙果皮油胞病最轻微。研究结果为进一步研究柑橘油胞病的发生机理及防控措施提供理论依据。

  1. VARIEDADES DE CITROS MAIS SUSCETÍVEIS AO ATAQUE DE Macropophora accentifer (OLIVIER, 1795 COLEOPTERA CERAMBYCIDAE VARIETIES OF CITRUS MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO THE ATTACK OF Macropophora accentifer (OLIVIER, 1975 COLEOPTERA, CERAMBYCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    recapture were carried out in September/October/November, and in March/April/May. A total of 231 females insects were collected in each variety, labeled and immediately released in different varieties, including those who collected firstly. The recaptures were carried out twelve days after each release; 30 releases and 50 recaptures were performed. The preference was determined considering the number of female insects that remained, returned or migrated to each one of the citrus varieties. It was observed that 2.16% of the females returned to the varieties where they were previously collected, 59.31% remained in the variety where they were released, 30.74% migrated to different varieties, and 7.79% were not recaptured. The cravo tangerine presented 46.75% of preference, followed by tangor sabará with 16.88%, baianinha orange with 10.82%, natal orange with 9.95% and rio tangerine with 7.8%. Cravo lemon did not present any preference by the insect females.

  2. The effects of the use of organic solid wastes on the growth of citrus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M; Beltrão, J.; Brito, J. C.; Neves, Alcinda; Correia, Maribela Pestana; Guerrero, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two types of organic solid wastes were selected to be applied in a citrus orchard: the sewage sludge (the most common on the settlements) and the manure (the most common on the agricultural fields). The sewage sludge is a residue originated from the wastewater treatment - the solid phase. Its application as an organic fertilizer may represent an alternative to the pollution effects in nature. In an orchard of orange-trees (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck), the application of sludge was compared w...

  3. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; A. Gentile; LA MALFA, S

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus was isolated consistently from symptomatic tissues on 2% potato-dextrose agar (PDA). The mycelium was composed of branched, septate, brown hyphae which disarticulated into 0-1-septate phragmospores....

  4. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus was isolated consistently from symptomatic tissues on 2% potato-dextrose agar (PDA). The mycelium was composed of branched, septate, brown hyphae which disarticulated into 0-1-septate phragmospores....

  5. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  6. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  7. Skewed RAPD markers in linkage maps of Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of RAPD markers with skewed segregation on genetic linkage maps. Segregation data for 123 Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra markers and 53 C. reticulata Blanco cv. Cravo markers in F1 progeny composed of 94 hybrids were used. Genetic linkage maps of the two varieties were constructed with non-skewed markers (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 using the program MAPMAKER 3.0 and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The maps were compared to those constructed with all markers. Alterations in the genetic distances were observed based on the location of the skewed markers within the linkage groups. Generally, the skewed markers were located at the end of the linkage groups, sometimes forming entire linkage groups, without causing significant distance modifications. However, skewed markers located between non-skewed markers caused significant distance modifications and, in some cases, altered the order of the markers. Most of the skewed markers can be included in linkage maps, but in each case the degree of distance modification caused by each marker needs to be assessed.

  8. Cloning of a Calcium Binding Protein Gene from Citrus sinensis and Construction of Sense and Antisense Expression Vectors%柑桔钙离子结合蛋白基因克隆及植物表达载体构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝学军; 钟广炎

    2012-01-01

    以伏令夏橙叶片中分离的总RNA为模板,经RT-PCR扩增到一条约600 bp、含钙离子结 合蛋白基因(CsCaBP)的片段,将此片段克隆到pMD-19T中,经测序分析该片段与甜橙基因组中的对应序列完全吻合.设计2对带有限制性内切酶位点的特异性引物,以cDNA为模板扩增到2个CsCaBP片段,并连接到TA克隆载体pMD-19T上;经双酶切消化后,分别以正反2个方向插入到植物表达载体pFGC5941的查耳酮合成酶(CHSA)内含子两侧,构建成功CsCaBP的RNA干扰载体,但未获得转基因植株.将CsCaBP的正向片段定向克隆到具有CaMV35S启动子的pFGC5941表达质粒上,构建成功CsCaBP过量表达载体.将构建好的表达载体导入根癌农杆菌LBA4404菌株,转化酸橙下胚轴,经PCR检测,获得9株过量表达转基因植株,荧光定量PCR验证发现目的基因在转基因植株中有不同程度的表达.%A calcium binding protein gene (CsCaBP) was amplified by Reverse Transcription Polymerse Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)from Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia', and a 600 bp-long PCR product was obtained and cloned into pMD-19T plasmid. Sequence analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was exactly the same as the corresponding genomic sequence. Two PCR products were re-amplified from cDNA and inserted in inverted orientations into the RNAi vector at the two sides of the intron of chalcone synthase gene. The over-expression construct was obtained by inserting the full-length CsCaBP cDNA into pF(iC5941 under the control of 35S promoter. Both constructs were verified by PCR and sequencing. The constructs were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transformants were tested positive by PCR. Transformation of Citrus auantittm hypocotyledon segments by co-culturing the segments with the bacteria followed by regeneration of transgenic plants yielded only the overexpression transgenic plants but not the RNAi plant.

  9. [Relationship between drought resistance and endogenous hormone content in different citrus species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Tao; Fan, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Eight plant seedlings of citrus species, Citrus tangerina, C. erythrosa, C. chuana, Poncirus trifoliate, C. sinensis x P. trifoliate, C. grandis, C. sinensis and C. vessucosa were used to investigate the effects of drought stress on plant biomass, drought resistance coefficient and leaf hormone (ABA, GA1+3 , ZR, IAA) changes. The results showed that, on the condition of precipitation less than 1200 mm, the biomass of different citrus species reduced obviously, and drought-resistance index and drought resistance showed in order of C. erythrosa > C. tangerina > P. trifoliate > C. chuana > C. sinensis x P. trifoliate > C. grandis > C. sinensis > C. vessucosa. The leaf ABA contents of the eight species increased whereas GA1+3 , ZR and IAA decreased, under the condition of drought stress. The ratios of ABA/GA1+3 and ABA/ZR in the species of C. erythrosa and C. tangerina increased drastically, yet there was no significant correlation between the ratio of ABA/IAA and the drought tolerance. The drought-resistance index was significantly positively related to the relative content of ABA (P drought resistance by those endogenous hormones in the citrus species showed in order of ABA > GA1+3, ZR > IAA. PMID:24765854

  10. Study on the Relationship between Rootstock Varieties and the Survival Rate of Shoot-tip Grafting%砧木品种与茎尖嫁接成活率关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科宏

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the relationship between rootslock varieties and the survival rate of shool-tip grafting. [ Method] Poncirus trifoliata, Ruta "Citrange" and Citrus sinensis (L. ) Osbeck were prepared for rootstock in vitro. The citrus tristeza virus (CTV) of Huangguo, Changtai, Yuhuan Gaorheng and Yuhuan pomelo was eliminated by shoot-tip grafting using "T"method. [ Result] The highest shoot-tip grafting survival rale of Huangguo and Yuhuan Gaocheng grafted on Citrus sinensis ( L. ) Osbeck was 75.0% and 60.0% respectively. And the highest shoot-tip grafting survival rate of Changtai and Yuhuan pomelo grafted on Ruta "CUrange" was 46. 7% and 18. 2% respectively. [Conclusion] The shoot-lip grafting survival rate was related to the compatibility of rootstock varieties and cultivate. The survival rale of the same cultivars grafted on different rootstock varieties was different.%[目的]明确砧木品种与茎尖嫁接成活率的关系.[方法]分别以枳(Poncirus trifoliota)、枳橙(Ruta“Citrange”)和甜橙[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck]作为茎尖嫁接砧木,采用倒“T”字法对黄果柑、长泰芦柑、玉环高橙以及玉环柚进行茎尖嫁接脱毒.[结果]黄果柑和玉环高橙用甜橙作砧木成活率最高分别为75.0%和60.0%,长泰芦柑和玉环柚用枳橙作砧木成活率最高分别为46.7%和18.2%.[结论]茎尖嫁接成活率的高低与砧木和脱毒品种的亲和性有关,同一品种选用不同的砧木其茎尖嫁接成活率有差异.

  11. 电子鼻检测不同品种和加工类型的柑橘汁%Detection of different variety and processing type of Citrus juices using electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宇; 程薇; 王少华; 熊光权; 潘思轶; 徐晓云; 范刚; 马明辉; 廖李; 汪兰; 王俊; 杜欣

    2011-01-01

    % RSD. The electronic nose could be used in the detection of the citrus juices from different varieties and processing type, also monitor the orange juice process.

  12. Citrus leprosis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  13. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua importância econômica em citros induzindo menor número de sementes por fruto em certas variedades. Com a finalidade de caracterizar 44 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck quanto à viabilidade do pólen, foram coletadas anteras das variedades enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra. As variedades estudadas pertencem aos principais grupos de laranja doce: com acidez (como a laranja 'Pêra', de baixa acidez (como a laranja 'Lima', com umbigo (como a laranja 'Bahia' e sangüíneas (como a laranja 'Rubi Blood'. O percentual de pólen viável foi avaliado por meio da coloração com carmim acético a 25% e contagem sob microscópio ótico. Foram observados valores que variaram desde 12,0% para a 'Pêra Sem Sementes' até 88,8% para a variedade 'Hamlin Reserva'. Os clones de laranja 'Hamlin' mostraram maior percentual de pólen viável. Não foi observada presença de pólen para as variedades produtoras de laranjas de umbigo, originadas da variedade Bahia. As variedades 'Pêra', 'Valência' e 'Natal', as quais são as principais cultivares da citricultura paulista e nacional, apresentaram baixos percentuais de pólen viável.Pollination is one of the most critical points in fruit growth and development, contributing with male gametes for fertilization and determine, greatly, fruit setting in citrus. It is necessary to evaluate male sterility in sweet orange varieties for their possible use in breeding programs. The sterility limits

  14. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  15. Mechanisms of sexual polyploidization and inheritance in triploid citrus populations

    OpenAIRE

    CUENCA IBÁÑEZ, JOSÉ

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the main fruit crop in the world and Spain is the 6th producer and the major exporter for the fresh fruit market. Seedlessness is one of the most important fruit quality traits for this market since consumers do not accept seedy fruits. Recovery of triploid hybrids has become an important breeding strategy to develop new seedless citrus varieties and several of them have been already released from citrus breeding programs worldwide. Despite the undisputable importance of polyploidy ...

  16. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail.

  17. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. PMID:26261026

  18. Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-04-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid. PMID:23315666

  19. Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-04-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid.

  20. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  1. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco, no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest

  2. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  3. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... to movement. Citrus canker is a plant disease that is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp... quarantined for citrus canker are found in Sec. 301.75-6. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus...

  4. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... citrus canker are found in Sec. 301.75-6. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a... areas of the world where the disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and die within a few years and...

  5. 基于冠层光谱的锦橙叶片磷素营养监测研究%Monitoring Leaf Phosphorus Nutrition Based on Canopy Spectrum of Jincheng Orange [Citrus Sinensis (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易时来; 邓烈; 何绍兰; 郑永强; 吕强; 谢让金

    2013-01-01

    以盆栽蓬安100号锦橙施肥调控试验为基础,利用田间冠层光谱信息探索建立植株磷素营养监测技术与方法.通过采集蓬安100号锦橙95个单株样本的冠层光谱信息和室内检测分析叶片磷含量,随机选取76个作为建模样本,19个为检验样本,运用多种光谱预处理方法和偏最小二乘法(Partial leastsquare method,PLS)及内部交叉验证方法建立校正模型与模型检验.结果表明,经多种光谱预处理方法的建模结果比较,冠层原始反射光谱经二阶求导和SNV处理后建立的蓬安100号锦橙叶片磷含量冠层光谱监测模型预测能力和稳健性最佳,其主成分数4个,能表达全波段63%的信息;校正模型相关系数为0.90,偏差Bias =2.45E-10,且RMSEC和RMSEP均最小.模型检验预测的决定系数R2 =0.85.因此,利用二阶导数及标准归一化(Standard normal variate transformation,SNV)预处理的田间冠层光谱信息快速无损监测蓬安100号锦橙叶片磷含量具有一定的可行性.%The present thesis is based on potted plants Peng'an 100 Jincheng control experiment, using field canopy spectrum information to explore the monitoring technology and methods of plant phosphorus ( P) nutrition. Using the indoor experiments of canopy spectrum information and leaf phosphorus content 95 plant samples of Peng' an 100 Jincheng was collected, analyzing 76 samples was selected randomly calibration samples, 19 as test samples, many spectrum pretreatment methods and partial least square method (PLS) and internal cross-validation were used to establish calibration models and process test of the model accuracy. It shows that the way to establish a monitoring model with best prediction capacity and robustness of Peng' an 100 Jincheng leaf phosphorus is: compare a variety of spectrum modeling results with different pretreatmentss and then the obtained original canopy reflectance spectrum was processed using the second derivative and standard

  6. ISSR标记技术在湖南柑橘主要品种亲缘关系研究中的应用%Application of ISSR Markers in Analysis of Genetic Relationship for Main Varieties of Citrus in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄绿红; 刘咏红; 李高阳; 张菊华

    2012-01-01

    利用ISSR分子标记技术对16个湖南柑橘主要品种进行了分子鉴定和亲缘关系分析.结果表明:9个引物共扩增出72条谱带,其中54条为多态性条带,多态率高达75%,平均每条引物扩增的DNA条带数目为8条.·利用Popgene 1.32程序进行了Nei遗传距离和遗传相似性分析,橙类中彭娜和纽荷尔的亲缘关系最近.UPGMA聚类分析结果表明,在遗传距离为0.76的水平上,16个柑橘品种可分为四大类群.%Sixteen main varieties of citrus were used as materials for analyzing their genome polymorphism by ISSR markers. The results showed that total 72 bands were generated by nine primers, of which 54 bands were polymorphic bands (the percentage of polymorphic band, PPB=75%). The average number of DNA fragments produced by each primer was eight. Nei similarity coefficients and genetic distances were calculated by using Popgene 1.32 software, and results indicated that Penna and Newhall have the closest relationship among citrus; the dendrogram were constructed by using UPGMA, and the results indicated that 16 citrus materials were divided into four major groups while the genetic distance was 0.76.

  7. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm and Amp solution (2.83 mm alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  8. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  9. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  10. [Chemical constituents from Spatholobus sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ting; Liu, Hua; Wang, Bin; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Spatholobus sinensis is a plant of the Spatholobus genus (Leguminosae family). Its caulis are used as "ji-xue-teng" regionally. However, to our knowledge, no phytochemical investigation on S. sinensis has been reported to date. In this study, eight compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the caulis of S. sinensis, by solvents extraction and column chromatography methods. By analysis of their physic-chemical constants and spectral data, the structures of 8 compounds were identified as spatholosineside A (1), 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), lupinalbin A (4), coumestrol (5), naringenin (6), protocatechuic acid (7), leonuriside A (8). Compound 1 is a new compound. PMID:18357735

  11. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  12. Investigation on the resistance of different varieties of citrus to Xanthomonas citri%不同柑橘品种对柑橘溃疡病的抗性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋盛英; 杨光兰; 潘盛勇; 赵春穆; 石安鸠

    2002-01-01

    通过柑橘Citrus sp.4类10个品种对柑橘溃疡病Xanthomonas citri(Hasse)Dowson抗病性的调查发现,不同的柑橘品种对柑橘溃疡病的抗病程度有明显差异,甜橙类、脐橙类普遍容易感病,属高度感病品种;宽皮橘类的抗病性最强;而柚类感病轻重不一,以台湾白柚抗病性最强,而沙田柚抗病性较弱.

  13. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  14. Long-Term Boron-Excess-Induced Alterations of Gene Profiles in Roots of Two Citrus Species Differing in Boron-Tolerance Revealed by cDNA-AFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is observed in some citrus orchards in China. However, limited data are available on the molecular mechanisms of citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance. Using cDNA-AFLP, we identified 20 up- and 52 down-regulated genes, and 44 up- and 66 down-regulated genes from excess B-treated Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis roots, respectively, thereby demonstrating that gene expression profiles were more affected in the latter. In addition, phosphorus and total soluble protein concentrations were lowered only in excess B-treated C. grandis roots. Apparently, C. sinensis had higher B-tolerance than C. grandis. Our results suggested that the following several aspects were responsible for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species including: (a) B-excess induced Root Hair Defective 3 expression in C. sinensis roots, and repressed villin4 expression in C. grandis roots; accordingly, root growth was less inhibited by B-excess in the former; (b) antioxidant systems were impaired in excess B-treated C. grandis roots, hence accelerating root senescence; (c) genes related to Ca2+ signals were inhibited (induced) by B-excess in C. grandis (C. sinensis) roots. B-excess-responsive genes related to energy (i.e., alternative oxidase and cytochrome P450), lipid (i.e., Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 and citrus dioxygenase), and nucleic acid (i.e., HDA19, histone 4, and ribonucleotide reductase RNR1 like protein) metabolisms also possibly accounted for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species. These data increased our understanding of the mechanisms on citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance at transcriptional level. PMID:27446128

  15. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Marcos A; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Marinês Bastianel

    2011-01-01

    Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possi...

  16. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... disease of citrus and referred to below as HLB) is considered to be one of the most serious citrus... world where the disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and die within a few years and may never.... Manjunath. Asian Citrus Psyllids (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) and Greening Disease of Citrus: A...

  17. 无核乳橘新品种金水橘的选育研究%Study on the Selection of New Seedless Variety Citrus reticulata var.kinokuni cv.Jinshuiju

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴黎明; 蒋迎春; 王志静; 仝铸; 何利刚; 许淼; 孙中海; 邓必贵; 罗静

    2012-01-01

    金水橘是从湖北省通山县大畈镇西坑柑橘场发现的普通乳橘优良芽变单株经过对其母本树及后代的多年观察选育而成的无核乳橘新品种.该品种适应性强,树势生长强旺,丰产,后代遗传稳定;果实外观和内在品质优良,单果重35.8 g,汁多较化渣,总糖含量12.0%,可溶性固形物含量14.1%,维生素C含量为246.9 mg/kg,单果平均种子数0.8粒,基本无核;果实于11月上旬成熟,耐贮藏,深受生产者和消费者欢迎.%The Citrus reticulata Blanco var. kinokuni (Takana) H.H.Hu cv. Jinshuiju was a monoclonal C. reticulata cultivar bred by years of observation on the mother tree and offspring of an excellent bud mutation in Xikeng citrus field, Dafan town, Tongshan county, Hubei province. Multiple spots regional trial and tests indicated that this cultivar had excellent characteristics such as strong adaptability and growth potential, stable inheritance and high production. The fruits were juicy and tender with good flavor, nice in appearance and quality with the average fruit weight of 35.8 g. After fully ripe, the content of total sugars, soluble solids and vitamin C in fruit was 12.0%, 14.1%, and 246.9 mg/kg, respectively. There were only 0.8 seeds per fruit, nearly seedless. Moreover, the ripen season was in the first ten days of November; and the fruits had good storage tolerance, and was with good market prospect.

  18. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  19. Atomless varieties

    OpenAIRE

    VENEMA, Yde

    2003-01-01

    We define a nontrivial variety of boolean algebras with operators such that every member of the variety is atomless. This shows that not every variety of boolean algebras with operators is generated by its atomic members, and thus establishes a strong incompleteness result in (multi-)modal logic.

  20. Transient gene expression of b-glucuronidase in citrus thin epicotyl transversal sections using particle bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalhok Filho João C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to optimize the conditions for transient gene expression through particle bombardment on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata thin epicotyl sections. The best conditions for transient GUS expression were: M-25 tungsten particles, 1550 psi helium pressure, 9 cm distance between specimen and DNA/particle holder and culture of explants in a high osmolarity medium (0.2 M mannitol + 0.2 M sorbitol 4 h prior and 20 h after bombardment. Under these conditions, an average of 102 blue spots per bombardment (20 explants/plate were achieved. This protocol is currently being used for transformation of Carrizo citrange and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

  1. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  2. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  3. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

  4. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  5. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  6. Relationship Between Leaf Vein Splitting and Mineral Nutrition of Citrus%柑橘叶脉开裂症与矿质营养的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 谢钟琛; 谢文龙; 吴兴明; 施清

    2011-01-01

    柑橘叶脉开裂症属于多病因的病症,缺Mg或缺B均可导致发病,对'纽荷尔'脐橙[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck'Newhall']的缺Mg叶脉开裂症病株,在生长季4月采用1.0%硝酸镁叶面喷施矫治2~3次,可有效降低病叶发生.通过福建柑橘产区普查,由缺Mg引起叶脉开裂症占86.2%,其次为B与Mg共同缺乏,缺B仅占2.3%.不同品种缺Mg叶脉开裂的感病顺序为:纽荷尔脐橙>琯溪蜜柚,其它发病品种还有金柑、早熟温州蜜柑、瓯柑.采用易感品种纽荷尔脐橙与抗性品种椪柑互为中间砧高接比对发现,纽荷尔脐橙对Mg和B的吸收能力低于椪柑,对K的吸收高于椪柑,这可能是纽荷尔脐橙易患叶脉开裂症的原因.缺Mg和缺B病症的最显著的区别为,缺Mg叶脉开裂多位于叶片项部"∧"形黄化部位;缺B叶脉开裂症病叶呈绿色不黄化;Mg、B缺乏症的病叶主脉和侧脉明显开裂与全叶黄化,或叶脉开裂达基部"∧"形绿色区域.%This study confirmed that leaf vein splitting of citrus was multi-pathogeny caused by both Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency. Spraying 1.0% Mg(NO3)2· 6H2O had significant effect on remedying leaf vein splitting of‘ Newhall’ [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] caused by Mg-deficiency in April. According to the investigation in Fujian citrus orchards, 86.2% of leaf vein splitting was suffered from Mg-deficiency, 11.5% from Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency, only 2.3% from B-deficiency. Infection rates of leaf vein splitting caused by Mg-deficiency ranked in descending order was as follow: Newhall navel orange, ‘Guanxi-miyou' [C. grandis (L.) Osbeck]. Other infected varieties included ‘Kumquat’(Fortunella crassifolia Swingle), Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc. ‘Early variety’ ) and ‘Ougan’(C. suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). Leaf vein splitting susceptible variety Newhall [C. sinensis(L. )Osbeck]and resistant varieties Ponkan ( C. reticulate Blanco) were used as intermediate stocks in graft

  7. New excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G

    2013-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease.

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  9. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  10. Organic Acid Concentrations and the Relative Enzymatic Changes During the Development of the Citrus Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO An-cai; YANG Xiao-hong; DENG Ying-yi; LI Chun-fan; XIANG Ke-shu; LI Dao-gao

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in enzyme activities and citrate concentration during the development of citrus fruits were investigated. The result showed that the organic acid concentrations reached a peak in the 100 - 130days after anthesis and gradually declined during later stages of fruit maturation in most varieties of citrus,but declined only slightly thereafter in lemon [Citrus lin on (L.) Burm]; there is no relation between the activity of citrate synthetase(CS) and the different acid concentration in different citrus fruits; the increase of the activity of the cytosolic aconitase in the late period of the development of citrus fruits accelerated the degradation of citric acid in citrus fruits; the higher the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) and the ratio of NAD-dependent isocitrate hydrogenase(PEPC/NAD-IDH- ), the more the concentrations of organic acids in citrus fruit.

  11. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  12. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  13. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  14. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-01-01

    Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

  15. Cloning and analysis of LFY-like gene from Citrus%柑橘LEAFY同源基因片段的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 陈力耕; 陈大明; 徐昌杰

    2001-01-01

    在提取大三岛脐橙(Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck)基因组DNA的基础上,利用Uneven PCR的方法克隆了脐橙中的LEAFY(LFY)同源基因片段。经对该基因片段的核苷酸序列分析表明,它和烟草中的LFY同源基因NFY基因在结构上高度保守,同源性高达90%以上。%The homologous DNA fragment of LFY was cloned from citrus genomic DNA that had been isolated from Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck)using Uneven PCR. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that homology was up to 90% between it and NFY, another LFY-like gene, which implied that they were highly conserved on their structure.

  16. Resistance of Citrus and Related Genera to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, P C; Vendramim, J D; Lourencão, A L; Machado, M A

    2014-10-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of Citrus and related genera to this pest: 'Pera,' 'Natal', and 'Washington Navel' oranges (Citrus sinensis), 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'Rubidoux' (Poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle), citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata), and citrange 'Troyer' (P. trifoliata x C. sinensis). The experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia) and placed individually in voile cages. The preference for oviposition in a no-choice test, and the effect of genotype were evaluated. The egg-adult cycle was monitored to determine the effect of genotype on the biology of the insect. Poncirus 'Rubidoux' was the least preferred genotype for oviposition; reduced number of eggs was also found to occur on citrange 'Troyer', and 'Marsh Seedless' was the genotype with the most eggs. No significant variation in the duration of the embryonic period was observed; however, a difference in the viability of eggs was found, with the lowest egg viabilities on 'Swingle.' Kumquat and 'Marsh Seedless' genotypes were correlated with increased durations of the nymphal phase, however, there was no difference in the survival of this phase. Fecundity of females on 'Troyer', 'Swingle', and kumquat was reduced. Considering all of the evaluated parameters, it was concluded that cultivars of sweet orange are the most susceptible genotypes to Diaphorina citri. Regarding oviposition, P. trifoliata 'Rubidoux' showed resistance of the antixenosis type. PMID:27193957

  17. Resistance of Citrus and Related Genera to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, P C; Vendramim, J D; Lourencão, A L; Machado, M A

    2014-10-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of Citrus and related genera to this pest: 'Pera,' 'Natal', and 'Washington Navel' oranges (Citrus sinensis), 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'Rubidoux' (Poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle), citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata), and citrange 'Troyer' (P. trifoliata x C. sinensis). The experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia) and placed individually in voile cages. The preference for oviposition in a no-choice test, and the effect of genotype were evaluated. The egg-adult cycle was monitored to determine the effect of genotype on the biology of the insect. Poncirus 'Rubidoux' was the least preferred genotype for oviposition; reduced number of eggs was also found to occur on citrange 'Troyer', and 'Marsh Seedless' was the genotype with the most eggs. No significant variation in the duration of the embryonic period was observed; however, a difference in the viability of eggs was found, with the lowest egg viabilities on 'Swingle.' Kumquat and 'Marsh Seedless' genotypes were correlated with increased durations of the nymphal phase, however, there was no difference in the survival of this phase. Fecundity of females on 'Troyer', 'Swingle', and kumquat was reduced. Considering all of the evaluated parameters, it was concluded that cultivars of sweet orange are the most susceptible genotypes to Diaphorina citri. Regarding oviposition, P. trifoliata 'Rubidoux' showed resistance of the antixenosis type.

  18. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  19. Temporal responses of peak citrus flowering to climate change in Iran: 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p agricultural planning and fruit crop supply to local and international markets.

  20. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  1. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit.

  2. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit. PMID:25948248

  3. Fuel from citrus waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    University of Florida researchers are looking for methods of using citrus peel to produce fuel for the citrus industry by using the methane gas given off in a special continuous digestion vessel. They are trying to discover ways to reduce the peel oil content of oranges as this oil inhibits the growth of organisms which produce the methane. The citrus industry currently utilizes orange peel and pulp to make cattle feed, but since the peel has to be dried this step consumes a lot of energy.

  4. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon, Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent weight methoxyl content, each content solubility in cold and hot alkali, pH as well as sugar and organic acid. The result showed that the colors of the pectin from these 3 sources were the same i.e., Brown they were all soluble in hot and cold alkali and water, the moisture content, the methoxyl content and the ash were all higher in the pectin extracted from peels of sweet orange with 95.25, 5.79 and 35%, respectively. However, the equivalent weight of the pectin extracted from peels of grape was higher with 793.6 mg/mol. The overall results showed that the pectin from these sources were suitable for industrial use.

  5. The Genome Sequence of an Isolate of Indian Citrus Ringspot Virus Infecting the Sweet Orange in India

    OpenAIRE

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence ident...

  6. Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Haag

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco, L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr., em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco. Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco, varia entre 30 a 95.The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr., State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco; Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L

  7. Preparation and Identification of Angelica sinensis Polysaccharide-iron Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kai-ping; ZHANG Yu; DAI Li-quan

    2005-01-01

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide(ASP) was extracted from Angelica sinensis by boiling water. An Angelica sinensis polysaccharide-iron complex(APC) was prepared under the alkaline condition by adding a ferric chloride solution to the ASP solution. Then some identifiable properties of the complex were studied. The content of iron (Ⅲ) in the complex was determined with iodometry. The thermal property, the microscopic structure, the spectral characteristics, and N, C, H contents of the complex were examined by a variety of techniques including DSC, TEM, IR,NMR, and elemental analysis. The content of iron (Ⅲ) in the complex ranges from 10% to 40%. The DSC result shows that the melting point of the complex is about 450 ℃. The TEM result shows that the complex has an iron(Ⅲ)core(β-FeOOH core) linked by hydroxy and oxy bridges, with the polysaccharide chains attached to the surface of the core. The IR and NMR results also show that there is aβ-FeOOH core in the complex. The elemental analysis shows that the contents of N, C , H in the complex are, respectively, lower than those of N, C, H in ASP. All our studies indicate that the APC consists of aβ-FeOOH core surrounded by ASP.

  8. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (≤1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  9. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  10. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  12. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  13. Screening of new reagents for preventing fruit-drop on late-maturing Citrus%晚熟柑橘越冬保果新药剂筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁高鹏; 淳长品; 彭良志; 彭震宇; 习建龙; 张梦娇; 朱春钊; 付行政; 江才伦

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]Fruit drop is severe in late-maturing citrus varieties during winter and early spring seasons.Therefore,how to address the fruit drop problem is very important for the late-maturing citrus industry.2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is the best effective reagent preventing citrus preharvest drop,but the toxicity of 2,4-D residues has been a concern and also controversial for a long time,and 2,4-D has been limited or forbidden to be used on citrus fruits in many countries or regions.There are no substitutes for controlling citrus preharvest drop.Thus,it is necessary to investigate the efficacy of some new reagents,which have a no or low toxicity to humans and animals,on preventing fruit-drop of the late-maturing citrus.[Methods] This experiment was executed at the Citrus Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences during the 2014-2015 seasons.Seven year old ‘Tarocco' blood orange (Citrus sinensis ‘Tarocco') and ‘Kiyomi' tangor (Citrus sinensis × Citrus unshiu Marc.) growing under the same conditions were used as experimental materials,and fifty trees were divided into five test groups.Using 2,4-D as a positive control (TCK),the resistance of three preliminary screened chemicals [2-methyl-4-chloro-sodium (T1),2-methyl-4-chloro-dimethgl amine salt (T2) and 2-methyl-4-chloro-phenoxy acetic acid (T3)] against citrus preharvest drop were investigated.Prochloraz and TritonX-100 were used as a blank control (CK).At four different times,sprays of reagents were applied to ‘Tarocco' blood orange and ‘Kiyomi' tangor every 20-30 days on sunny days from Nov.2014 to Jan.2015.The fruit drops of each tree were investigated every two weeks,and the dropped fruit were removed from the orchard.The fruit drops were divided into two types including physiological fruit drop and pathological fruit drop,and only the data of the physiological fruit drops were analyzed in this study.To evaluate mature fruit quality,the soluble solid content (TSS

  14. Regional Division of Production and Development Strategy of Citrus in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu YANG; Wen DENG; Jianquan LI; Weihong WANG; Guolin HUANG; Ping ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research regional division of citrus production and development strategies in Hunan Province. [Method] According to Rural Statisti- cal Yearbook in Hunan Province during 2002-2011, Citrus in Hunan province were divided into three production regions, namely, superior region, sub-superior and non- superior region. On the base of the divisions, the ecological regionalization and brand strategy, Optimization of regional distribution and developing strategy were proposed, with consideration of avoiding frozen zones, in this paper. [Result] Fresh and processing bases of mandarin orange (C.unshiu Marc), and specialty industries of seedless ponkan(C.reticulata Blanco), Bingtang orange (C.sinensis Osbeck Bing- tangcheng), Dayongjuhuaxinyou (Cgrandis (L.) Osbeck Dayongjuhuaxinyou) and An- jiangxiangyou (C.grandis (L.) Osbeck Anjiangxiangyou) should be constructed, where fresh fruit is dominant, supplemented by canned fruit and juice. Industry belt of sat- suma orange, fresh or processing food, is mainly built, for proportion of early and earlier ripe satsuma orange is over 50% of total yield in Xiangzhong citrus zone; in- dustry belt of excellent fresh navel orange and processing sweet orange should be highlighted in Xiangnan. [Conclusion] The research provides references for decision- making for governments, especially on optimization of citrus production regions and development of citrus industry.

  15. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...) 851-2286. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening... citrus greening disease. In areas of the world where the disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and...

  16. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  17. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  18. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in Citrus using array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome

    OpenAIRE

    Usach Antonio; Geraud Marion; Ruiz-Rivero Omar; Iglesias Domingo J; Naranjo Miguel A; Ríos Gabino; Talón Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Many fruit-tree species, including relevant Citrus spp varieties exhibit a reproductive biology that impairs breeding and strongly constrains genetic improvements. In citrus, juvenility increases the generation time while sexual sterility, inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility prevent the production of homozygous cultivars. Genomic technology may provide citrus researchers with a new set of tools to address these various restrictions. In this work, we report a val...

  19. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the “grapefruit juice effect”. Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in

  20. Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

  1. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J.Z.; Zhu, Li; Crous, P.W.; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isol

  2. Comportamento de seis variedades de pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cultivadas sob irrigação na região semi-árida de Pernambuco Behavior of six grapefruit varieties grown under irrigation at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildo Eliezer Lederman

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso da irrigação nas regiões semi-áridas do Nordeste brasileiro tem viabilizado o cultivo comercial de inúmeras fruteiras, tais como a uva, a manga, a goiaba, o coco e a banana. Outras espécies, como o pomelo, ou grapefruit, vêm sendo ainda objeto de estudos e avaliações. Uma coleção formada de 06 variedades de pomelos (Citrus paradisi, de polpas com coloração rosa-avermelhada ('Marsh Foster', 'Star Ruby', 'Rio Red' e 'Red Blush' e amarelada ('Triumph' e 'Marsh Foster Nucelar', foi implantada em 1993 na Estação Experimental de Ibimirim, localizada no município de Ibimirim, no Vale do Rio Moxotó - região semi-árida de Pernambuco. Contando com cinco plantas por parcela, a coleção foi conduzida sob irrigação localizada e as avaliações realizadas durante três anos (2000 a 2002. Os resultados demostraram alta variabilidade na produção de frutos, tendo a variedade 'Marsh Foster Nucelar' alcançado a produção média de 135,0 kg/planta, enquanto a 'Star Ruby' atingiu apenas 31,0 kg/planta. O peso médio dos frutos variou de 285,5g ('Red Blush' até um máximo de 401,6g na variedade 'Triumph'. O volume de suco extraído, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SSS/ATT também apresentaram mudanças entre as variedades estudadas.The use of irrigation at the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil has made feasible several commercial fruit trees crops such as grapevines, mango, guava, coconut, banana and others, like grapefruit, which actually is being studied. A collection formed by six grapefruit varieties showing a pink-red pulp color (Marsh Foster, Star Ruby, Rio Red and Red Blush and a creamy color (Triumph and Marsh Foster Nucelar and consisting of five plants/plot was installed in 1993 at the Ibimirim Experimental Station, located in the Moxotó river valley at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco - Northeast Brazil, under irrigation. Evaluations carried out during three years (from

  3. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tami Turner; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

  4. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  5. A New Dimeric Phthalide from Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YI; Ping LI; Zhi Ming BI

    2006-01-01

    A new dimeric phthalide named Z, Z'-3.3'a, 7.7'a-diligustilide was isolated from the roots of Angelica sinensis. Its structure was determined using spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallographic diffraction analysis.

  6. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work. PMID:26302964

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n = 2x = 38, as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Nei's genetic diversity index (He of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83% was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.

  8. Phytochemical analysis of Camellia sinensis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants possess an important source of pharmacological effects that acts as new anti-infections, antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. The most important bioactive constituents of plants are steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides which serve a valuable starting material for drug development. Tea (Camellia sinensis is consumed worldwide and is second only to water in its popularity as a beverage. It has ascribed many health benefits viz reduction of cholesterol, protection against cardio – vascular diseases and cancer. By concerning all these studies, we have traced out the presence of phytochemical in Camellia sinensis leave. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins by changing the colour of medium when treated with respective reagents. One gram of Camellia sinensis leaves extract contained 0.7 grams of phenolic compounds. While flavonoid content was 14 mg/gram of Camellia sinensis leave extract. one gram of leaf extracts contained 0.11 gram of reducing power. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the presence of various functional groups when run through Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus sp. It reveals the highest zone of inhibition around the bacterial colonies when compared with standard antibiotics Erythromycin, Tetracycline and Ampicillin.

  9. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelli Valdenice Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzymatic polymorphism analysis was used to determine genetic variability among species and hybrids of Citrus spp. and one accession of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Ten enzymatic systems aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, acid phosphatase (ACP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, diaphorase (DIA, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKD and peroxidase (PRX were analyzed. Twenty loci and 48 alleles were identified. Sweet orange cultivars (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck showed the highest polymorphism with the largest number of heterozygous loci, although the alleles of those loci were the same in all cultivars, with the exception of Westin and Lima graúda. Mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco exhibited diverse patterns, whereas Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. showed high variability with all Citrus species and hybrids. Exclusive phenotypes were observed in some enzymatic systems, and similar patterns were found among interspecific hybrids and their putative parents.

  10. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  11. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  12. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus.

  13. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus. PMID:26407870

  14. Complete genome sequence analysis of two Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolates from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhen; LI Zhong-an; LIU Ke-hong; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolated from China, ful-length cDNAs of CTLV-MTH and CTLV-XHC from Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis were cloned and sequenced based on whole-genome ampliifcation by RT-PCR. The complete nucleotide sequences of CTLV-MTH and CTLV-XHC were determined to be 6 497 nucleotides in length and shared 79.9–91.0%and 78.8–98.0%nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with other Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) or CTLV strains available in GenBank. Unexpectedly, CTLV-MTH showed the highest nucleo-tide sequence identity (91%) with an apple isolate of ASGV, fol owed by 86.5%with ASGV-HH and 85.7%with ASGV-CHN. Furthermore, CTLV-MTH and three ASGV strains were grouped to a separate cluster in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting it has a closer relationship to ASGV than to CTLV. Therefore, it can be concluded roughly that CTLV may be not a distinct strains of ASGV. We proposed that Citrus tatter leaf virus should be renamed Apple stem grooving virus.

  15. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  16. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  17. Fruits foraging patterns and seed dispersal effect of frugivorous birds on Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xianwen; SUN Kun; MA Ruijun; ZHANG Hui; SU Xue; WANG Mingli

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors of 18 species of birds eating fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides spp.sinensis were observed from September 2003 to March 2004.Their foraging patterns were found to be very different and Can be divided into five classes:(1)direct swallowing the fruits on crown of the shrubs and sometimes regurgitating seeds soon after;(2)carrying the fruits to their perching sites and swallowing;(3)pecking the fruits from the shrubs to the ground,eating pulp and seeds but leaving pericarp;(4)pecking through the pericarp,eating pulp and leaving pericarp and seeds;(5)pecking through the pericarp on the top of fruits,and only eating seeds.These foraging patterns have different effects on seed dispersal of H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis.The germination experiment of three groups of seeds(seeds from feces,dry fruits and extracted seeds from dry fruits)was carried out.Although ingestion processes of birds had some adverse effects on the seed germination of H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis,the seeds from feces still have a relatively higher germination ratio.H.rhamnoides spp.sinensis provides food to a variety of frugivorous birds.and the birds disperse its seeds.Thus,a mutually beneficial relationship between the bird and the seed is formed.

  18. Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondino C. Bataglia

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo.Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The

  19. Small RNA profiling reveals phosphorus deficiency as a contributing factor in symptom expression for citrus huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Ruobai; Albrecht, Ute; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Wang, Airong; Coffey, Michael D; Girke, Thomas; Wang, Zonghua; Close, Timothy J; Roose, Mikeal; Yokomi, Raymond K; Folimonova, Svetlana; Vidalakis, Georgios; Rouse, Robert; Bowman, Kim D; Jin, Hailing

    2013-03-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca. L.). Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB. Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases, including cancers. To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB, sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue. Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs), 76 conserved miRNAs, and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered. Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection, and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB. miR399, which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species, was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn-a disease with symptoms similar to HLB. We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees. Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida. Our molecular, physiological, and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  20. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future.

  1. Low cost freshwater fish pickle using cheap citrus fruit (C. reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Batthacharyya, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The juice extracted from a locally abundant cheap variety of citrus fruit namely, Citrus reticulata was utilized for pickling. The paper highlights the trials made to select the optimum concentrations of acetic acid and sodium chloride to be used along with the juice of C. reticulata so as to obtain the best, product. The product can be stored well at room temperature for six months.

  2. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  3. Development of genomic resources for Citrus clementina: Characterization of three deep-coverage BAC libraries and analysis of 46,000 BAC end sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Talon Manuel; Ollitrault Patrick; Naranjo M Angel; Terol Javier

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus species constitute one of the major tree fruit crops of the subtropical regions with great economic importance. However, their peculiar reproductive characteristics, low genetic diversity and the long-term nature of tree breeding mostly impair citrus variety improvement. In woody plants, genomic science holds promise of improvements and in the Citrus genera the development of genomic tools may be crucial for further crop improvements. In this work we report the char...

  4. Citrus peel waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, I.; Kuno, H.

    1977-07-30

    Citrus peel waste from canneries are treated with an acid and an additional base then fermented by anaerobic bacteria to produce CH/sub 4/. Then the solution is aerobically treated and discharged. The excess activated sludge is recycled for fermentation. Thus, a mixture of mandarin-orange cannery waste (80% water) and 0.5% HCl was heated at 120/sup 0/ to hydrolyze the organic matter to obtain a solution containing glucose and suspended solids. The solution is then enriched with N and P for fermentation to produce 50 L of CH/sub 4/ in 5 days vs 25 L without HCl.

  5. Allelopathic effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L. peel essential oil Efeitos alelopáticos do óleo essencial da casca da laranja (Citrus sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop weeds are the main problem in agriculture, causing a worldwide annual loss of about US$95 billion. The principal method for control is the use of synthetic herbicides. The continued use of these products increases crop costs, reduces crop quality, and leaves toxic residues in the environment, which are a threat to human and livestock health. Therefore, there is a demand for environmentally friendly methods of weed control. The use of allelopathic compounds from crop residues is an alternative. Orange is one of the biggest crops in the world, and its cultivation generates large amounts of residues. There is strong evidence of bioactivity in orange peel essential oil. Therefore, the objective in this work was to verify the allelopathic proprieties of this oil. We extracted the oil from the peels of recently discarded oranges using water vapor flow with a Clevenger extractor, and tested it against the growth of Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell seedlings when placed in contact with the oil vapor. The results were both quantitative and qualitative in the inhibition of the seedlings.Plantas daninhas são o principal problema da agricultura no mundo, causando anualmente um prejuízo de U$95 bilhões. A principal forma de combate às plantas daninhas são os herbicidas sintéticos. Entretanto, o uso continuado desses produtos encarece a produção, reduz a qualidade dos alimentos, deixa resíduos tóxicos no ambiente e ameaça a saúde humana e animal. Existe assim, uma demanda por técnicas menos agressivas de controle. O uso de compostos alelopáticos de descartes de culturas para esse fim é uma alternativa. A laranja é uma das maiores culturas do mundo, e gera grandes quantidades de resíduos. Existem evidências da bioatividade no óleo essencial da casca da laranja. Nesse trabalho, nosso objetivo foi verificar a existência de propriedades alelopáticas desse óleo. Para isto, extraímos o óleo por arraste de vapor de água utilizando o aparelho de Clevenger, e colocamos os produtos volatilizáveis do óleo essencial em contato com plântulas de Euphorbia heterophylla L. e Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell. O resultado foi inibição tanto quantitativa quanto qualitativa das plântulas

  6. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended to have the highest yield when grafted on 'Rangpur' lime rootstocks, and the 'Aquiri' orange when grafted on 'Carrizo' citrange. Compared to the other rootstocks used, the 'Rangpur' lime tended to induce the highest yield/canopy volume and highest mean fruit weight, and the lowest total soluble solids and total acidity. Sweet orange cultivars of the 'Baia' group ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' and 'Monte Parnaso' produced fruit with low juice content, therefore they are not recommended for planting in Rio Branco. Based on the results, the rootstocks 'Carrizo' citrange, 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Rangpur' lime are recommended for 'Aquiri' sweet orange, and the 'Rangpur' lime is recommended for 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars.

  7. STUDY ON FREEZING RESISTANCE OF 5 CITRUS SOMATIC HYBRIDS%5个柑桔体细胞杂种的抗寒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伯勋; 曾凤

    2001-01-01

    研究了5个柑桔细胞杂种的抗寒性,其结果是伏令夏橙+宜昌橙( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + C.ichangensis Swingle)抗-11℃、伏令夏橙+‘key'来檬( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + C. aurantifolia cv. Key lime)抗-7.59℃、伏令夏橙+宁波金柑( C. sinensis Osb. cv. Valencia + Fortunella crassifolia Swingle cv. Meiwa)抗-9.54℃、哈姆林甜橙+粗柠檬( C. sinensis Osb.cv. Hamlin + C .jamhiri L. )抗-7.1℃,哈姆林甜橙+飞龙枳( Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Hamlin + Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Flying Dragon)抗-12.89℃、并且证明了5个体细胞杂种的抗寒性均介于两亲本之间.其中哈姆林甜橙+飞龙枳杂种、伏令夏橙+宜昌橙杂种的抗寒性均高于其它几个组合.还证明了柑桔体细胞杂种的抗寒能力几乎不受栽培管理水平的影响.

  8. The role of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and phytoene synthase gene family in citrus carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gang; Wang, Chunyan; Song, Song; Fu, Xiumin; Azam, Muhammad; Grierson, Don; Xu, Changjie

    2013-10-01

    Three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthases (DXS) and three phytoene synthases (PSY) were identified in citrus, from Affymetrix GeneChip Citrus Genome Array, GenBank and public orange genome databases. Tissue-specific expression analysis of these genes was carried out on fruit peel and flesh, flower and leaf of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in order to determine their roles in carotenoid accumulation in different tissues. Expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 was highest in all test tissues, while that of CitDXS2 and CitPSY2 was lower, and that of CitDXS3 and CitPSY3 undetectable. The transcript profiles of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 paralleled carotenoid accumulation in flesh of Satsuma mandarin and orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) during fruit development, and CitPSY1 expression was also associated with carotenoid accumulation in peel, while the CitDXS1 transcript level was only weakly correlated with carotenoid accumulation in peel. Similar results were obtained following correlation analysis between expression of CitDXS1 and CitPSY1 and carotenoid accumulation in peel and flesh of 16 citrus cultivars. These findings identify CitPSY1 and CitDXS1 as the main gene members controlling carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruit. Furthermore, chromoplasts were extracted from flesh tissue of these citrus, and chromoplasts of different shape (spindle or globular), different size, and color depth were observed in different cultivars, indicating chromoplast abundance, number per gram tissue, size and color depth were closely correlated with carotenoid content in most cultivars. The relationship between carotenoid biosynthesis and chromoplast development was discussed.

  9. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva Souza; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo Nascimento; William Costa Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues Cassino

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos ...

  10. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Cymbidium sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Fen; Zeng, Ruizhen; Guo, Herong; Zhou, Yuliang; Zhang, Zhisheng

    2015-04-01

    Genetic transformation is an effective method to improve breeding objective traits of orchids. However, there is little information about genetic transformation of Cymbidium sinensis. Rhizomes from shoot-tip culture of C. sinensis cv. 'Qijianbaimo' were used to establish a practical transformation protocol of C. sinensis. Pre-culture time, concentration and treating methods of acetosyringone, concentration of infection bacteria fluid (OD600), infection time, and co-culture time had significant effects on β-glucuronidase (GUS) transient expression rate of C. sinensis cv. 'Qijianbaimo' rhizome. The GUS transient expression rate of rhizome was the highest (11.67%) when rhizomes pre-cultured for 39 d were soaked in bacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.9) supplemented with 200 μmol/L acetosyringone for 35 min, followed by culturing on co-culture medium supplemented with 200 μmol/L acetosyringone for 7 d. Under this transformation conditions, 3 transgenic plantlets, confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR, were obtained from 400 regenerated plantlets, and the genetic transformation rate was 0.75%. This proved that it was feasible to create new cultivars by the use of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in C. sinense.

  11. High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Zhang; Shu Zhang; Mu Wang; Fengyan Bai; Xingzhong Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis speci...

  12. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  13. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease, caused by strains of the bacterial pathogen... a tree with citrus greening disease. In areas of the world where the disease is endemic,...

  14. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella spp., Into the Continental United States AGENCY... citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the... certificate issued by the national plant protection organization of Uruguay with an additional...

  15. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI HuaLin; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaThirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross between Yiben No,4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. x2(Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However,these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA,skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribution was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  16. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross be- tween Yiben No.4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. χ2 (Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However, these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA, skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribu- tion was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  17. Pathotypes and Genetic Diversity of Chinese Collections of Elsinoë fawcettii Causing Citrus Scab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin; HUANG Feng; ZHANG Tian-yuan; XU Jian-guo; Hyde D Kevin; LI Hong-ye

    2014-01-01

    Two scab diseases are currently recognized on citrus:citrus scab, caused by Elsinoë fawcettii, and sweet orange scab, caused by E. australis. Although these pathogens are economically important, there is no molecular data on these species in China. Here we use internal transcribed spacer sequence data to report on host-speciifcity and genetic relationships among 46 isolates collected from the main citrus varieties grown across China. All strains isolated were E. fawcettii. Based on pathogenicity testing on 9 different citrus species, isolates were divided into 11 pathotypes (SM, FBHR, SJCR, SPOJCR, SR, SOJG, SPOJC, SRGC, Lemon and two unnamed pathotypes). SM is a new pathotype, and two isolates did not ift into any of the known pathotypes of E. fawcettii. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR-PCR) assays separated the E. fawcettii isolates into 10 subgroups;the groupings basically corresponded to the pathogenicity test.

  18. Distribuição espacial de Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae na cultura de citros Spatial distribution of Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae in citrus orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ricardo de Toledo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da distribuição espacial de pragas é fundamental para elaboração de planos de amostragem para o uso do manejo integrado de pragas. Para o afídeo Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, estudou-se a distribuição espacial em talhões de pomares de citros comerciais de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] da variedade Pêra, com 5; 9 e 15 anos de idade, durante o período de setembro de 2004 a abril de 2005. Foram realizadas 14 amostragens de número de T. citricida em intervalos aproximados de 15 dias entre as mesmas, utilizando-se de armadilhas adesivas de cor amarela (0,11 x 0,11 m fixadas à planta, a 1,5 m de altura aproximadamente. As armadilhas foram distribuídas na área, a cada cinco plantas na linha, em linhas alternadas, totalizando 137 armadilhas no talhão com 5 anos, 140 no talhão com 9 anos e 80 no talhão com 15 anos. Os índices de dispersão utilizados foram: razão variância média (I, índice de Morisita (Idelta, coeficiente de Green (Cx e expoente k da distribuição Binomial Negativa. O índice que melhor representou a agregação do pulgão foi o expoente k da distribuição Binomial Negativa, e a distribuição binomial negativa foi o modelo que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Através destas análises, verificou-se que a maioria das amostragens apresentou uma distribuição agregada da população de T. citricida.The study of insects' spatial distribution is fundamental to elaborate potential sampling plans to be used in integrated pest management. Spatial distribution of Toxoptera citricida was studied in plots of commercial orange orchards (Citrus sinensis from 'Pêra' variety of 5, 9 and 15 years old, respectively, from September 2004 to April 2005. It was carried through 14 fortnightlies Toxoptera citricida samplings numbers, utilizing yellow adhesive traps (0.11 x 0.11 m settled on the plant at 1.5 m of height approximately. The traps were distributed in the area each five plants in the line, in alternated

  19. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  20. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  1. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  2. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; Jihui Wang; Wei Wang; Hanyue Zhang; Xuelan Zhang; Chunchao Han

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding ph...

  3. [Effects of light on carotenoid biosynthesis and color formation of citrus fruit peel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Shanglong; An, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhizhong

    2003-11-01

    The effects of shading fruit with opaque paper bag at the late stage of fruit enlargement on the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid and in "Hongshigan" citrus (C. reticulata x C. sinensis) fruit peel and its color were examined. The results showed that after shading, the chlorophyll content in peel decreased quickly, which resulted in its earlier color shifting. In contrast, the contents of total carotenoids and each carotenoid component did not increase, but decreased significantly. At the stage of fruit riping, both chlorophyll in shaded and unshaded fruit disappeared, and the shaded fruit, owing to its lower level of carotenoids, had a lighter color than the unshaded fruit. The sugar content in peel of shaded fruit did not differ obviously from that of unshaded fruit at the earlier stage, but dropped markedly at the late stage of shading. Removing the enclosing paper bag from shaded fruit at the late stage of shading resulted in the increase of sugar, and correspondingly in the increase of carotenoid, especially of beta-cryptoxanthin accumulation with consequent darkening of fruit color. These results stressed the effect of light on stimulating carotenoid synthesis, especially the accumulation of beta-cryptoxanthin in citrus fruit peel. The light is the enviromental signal essential for carotenoid synthesis in citrus fruit during certain stage of fruit development. PMID:14997627

  4. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Omani lime (Citrus aurantiifolia and comparative analysis within the rosids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Jiun Su

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia. The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution.

  5. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Omani lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and comparative analysis within the rosids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huei-Jiun; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia). The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis) chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution.

  6. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  7. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, William O.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Satyanarayana eTatineni; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Scott J Harper; S eGowda

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  8. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional br...

  9. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  10. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  11. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  12. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tenório Costa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP. Initially, the isolates were characterized by symptoms of stem pitting observed in clones. Then viral genome was extracted and used as template for the amplification of CPG by reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (RTPCR. RTPCR products electrophoretic profiles were analyzed using the Jaccard coefficient and the UPGMA method. The majority of the clones had weak to moderate stem pitting symptoms and its CTV isolates showed alterations in the SSCP profiles. However, the stability of the protective complex has been maintained, except for isolates from two analised clones. Low genetic variability was observed within the isolates during the studied years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a manutenção da estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus (CTV em clones selecionados de laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis pré-imunizados ou infectados naturalmente pelo vírus, após sucessivas propagações clonais. O trabalho foi realizado em condições de campo, no norte do Estado do Paraná. A análise do gene da capa protéica (GPC de 33 isolados, coletados de 16 clones de laranjeira 'Pêra', foi realizada com o uso da técnica polimorfismo conformacional da fita simples (SSCP. Inicialmente, os isolados foram caracterizados por meio de sintomas de caneluras observados nos clones. Em seguida, o genoma viral foi extraído e utilizado como molde para a amplificação do GCP com uso da transcrição reversa da rea

  13. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  14. Isolation of cytoplasts from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and production of alloplasmic hybrid calluses via cytoplast-protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Y; Liu, J H; Deng, X X

    2006-06-01

    Cytoplasm of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is known to influence seedlessness. Transfer of cytoplasm to a seedy cultivar could possibly lead to the production of seedless citrus fruits. In the present paper cytoplasts were isolated from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin via ultra-centrifugation in a discontinuous gradient. No nucleus could be detected in the cytoplasts by DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining compared with normal protoplasts. The cytoplasts, with high viability and small size, did not divide during solid embedding culture. Cytoplasts of Satsuma mandarin were electrically fused with embryogenic protoplasts of Murcott tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis), which led to regeneration of several cell lines. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the cell lines were diploids. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) and cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) showed that the cell lines got their nuclear DNA from the protoplast parent, whereas the cytoplast parent donated the mtDNA, confirming transfer of mtDNA from Satsuma mandarin into Murcott tangor via cytoplast-protoplast fusion though no polymorphism was detected in chloroplast DNA between the fusion partners. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of cytoplasts, together with cytoplast-protoplast fusion in Citrus, which has a potential for citrus cultivar improvement involving cytoplasm transfer via cytoplast-protoplast fusion. PMID:16477406

  15. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

  16. Mutagenesis of hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction is an alternative method to create more variation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Radiosensitivity test was carried out to determine the effective doses for irradiation of stem cuttings. Stem cuttings of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 60 Gy using a gamma cell with a Co-60 source at a dose rate of 1.66 Gys-1. Irradiated stem cuttings were planted in sand-beds and data on the number of growing shoots were taken. Increasing gamma ray doses resulted in a reduction of growing shoots on the irradiated stem cuttings. It was shown that the LD50 for the stem cuttings was 36.2 Gy and at 75% growth was 17.15 Gy. Based on these results, 20 to 30 Gy were chosen for irradiation of the stem cuttings to induce mutation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Irradiated stem cuttings were then planted into sand-beds for rooting. After one month, the rooted stems were transferred into polybags and allowed to grow under 70% shade provided by plastic netting and the variants were subsequently observed. Three variants with variation in flower shapes and colours were obtained. (Author)

  17. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  18. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  19. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  20. THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS DERIVED FROM SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS PLANTLET AND SCION STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Friyanti Devy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE of callus culture in vitro is one of citrus propagation ways for producing free virus and genetically true-to-type plantlets. To induce growing of plantlets derived from this technology, they should be grafted ex vitro onto a citrus rootstock. The research aimed to evaluate the growth performance of citrus plants cv. Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis L. that used both plantlets and scions as their stocks. The research was conducted at Tlekung Research Station, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from June 2011 to December 2012. The treatments were done at nursery house by grafting a plantlet and budding a scion onto an eight-month-old Japanese Citroon (JC rootstock plant. The grafted and budded plants of one-year old were maintained at nursery house then transplanted into the field. In the field, the research was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and used 15 plants as unit samples. The results showed that the vegetative growth of Siam Kintamani seedling derived from SE or grafted plant was faster than that of budded plant started from 10 to 12 months after treatment in the nersery house. In the field, the growth of SE grafted plant was only significantly different up to 6 months after transplanting. Plantlets produced from SE in vitro propagation can be used as a good alternative stock material for producing healthy citrus plants. Therefore, a further research is required especially on varieties used, reproductive growth and massive planlets production.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _sinensis_S.png Citrus_sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NS ...

  2. Fruit quality properties of some virus-free grapefruit varieties grafted on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay KURT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation studies against virus and virus like diseases causing large economic losses in citrus plantations in Turkey were begun at Antalya Citrus Research Institute in 1988. As a result of the study, some virus-free grapefruit varieties (Redblush, Rio Red, Ray Ruby, Henderson, Star Ruby and Marsh Seedless budded on Local sour orange and Troyer citrange rootstocks were planted at breeding parcel in 1995. Effects of rootstocks on fruit quality properties were investigated in these grapefruit varieties. Local sour orange and Troyer citrange affected similarly on the fruit quality of grapefruit cultivars. It could be suggested that these rootstocks could be recommended for grapefruit growing.

  3. Organogênese in vitro a partir de diferentes regiões do epicótilo de Citrus sp Citrus sp. organogenesis in vitro from different epicotyl's regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro é essencial para o uso de técnicas de transformação genética no melhoramento de citros. Visando à obtenção de um protocolo eficiente de regeneração in vitro para laranja-azeda (Citrus aurantium, laranjas 'Natal' e 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, limão 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana e citrange 'Carrizo' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, avaliou-se a resposta morfogênica de diferentes regiões do epicótilo (basal, mediana e apical em relação a distância do nó cotiledonar, na presença (1,0 mg/L-1 ou ausência de 6-BAP, em meio de cultura MT. Após 60 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas adventícias por explante. A resposta morfogênica em função da região do epicótilo e da presença ou ausência da citocinina (6-BAP foi influenciada pelo genótipo. A presença de 6-BAP no meio de cultura promoveu aumento na porcentagem de explantes responsivos para citrange 'Carrizo'. A suplementação do meio de cultura com a citocinina 6-BAP proporcionou aumento no número de brotos por explante para citrange 'Carrizo', laranja 'Natal' e limão 'Volkameriano'.The establishment of an in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for the use of genetic transformation techniques in Citrus breeding programs. Aiming to obtain an efficient protocol of in vitro regeneration for sour orange (Citrus aurantium, sweet oranges 'Natal' and 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana and 'Carrizo' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, the morphogenetic response was evaluated for different epicotyl's regions (basal, medium and apical regarding the distance from the cotyledonary node, in presence (1,0 mg/L-1 or absence of 6-BAP in MT medium. After 60 days, the percentage of responsive explants and number of shoots per explants were evaluated. The morphogenetic response related to the epicotyl's region and the presence or absence

  4. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Y Folimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  5. Targeted cybridization in citrus: transfer of Satsuma cytoplasm to seedy cultivars for potential seedlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W W; Prasad, D; Cheng, Y J; Serrano, P; Deng, X X; Grosser, J W

    2004-05-01

    CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility) can be controlled by the mitochondrion genome in higher plants, including Satsuma mandarin. Somatic fusion experiments in citrus combining embryogenic callus protoplasts of one parent with leaf protoplasts of a second parent often produce cybrid plants of the leaf parent, a phenomenon occurring most often with interspecific fusion combinations. In an attempt to practically exploit this cybridization phenomenon, we conducted somatic fusion experiments combining embryogenic suspension-derived protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin, Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Guoqing No. 1 (G1), a male-sterile cultivar, with leaf protoplasts of other seedy types--Hirado Buntan Pink pummelo (HBP) [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck], Sunburst mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), Orie Lee hybrid (C. reticulata cv. Clementine x Murcott tangor), and Murcott tangor [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck], respectively--in an attempt to generate seedless cybrids by the targeted transfer of CMS. The genetic identities of regenerated plants from all four parental combinations were determined by flow cytometry, SSR, CAPS (or PCR-RFLP), RFLP, and chloroplast-SSR analyses. Regenerated plants from the first three parental combinations were diploids, and the cybrid nature of G1 + HBP with the mitochondrion genome from G1 and the chloroplast genome from HBP was confirmed, whereas the cybrid nature of the remaining two combinations was difficult to confirm because of the close phylogenetic relatedness of both fusion parents, as expected. Plants from G1 + Murcott were confirmed as tetraploid somatic hybrids. This is the first report of targeted citrus cybrid production by symmetric fusion with male-sterile Satsuma as the callus parent and other seedy cultivars as the leaf parents. PMID:14730385

  6. Control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans on Citrus With Aldicarb, Oxamyl, and DBCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, L W; French, J V

    1979-10-01

    Soil application of DBCP (l,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) and foliar applications of oxamyl (methyl N',N'-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate) were compared for control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) orchard, DBCP reduced nematode populations and increased fruit growth rate, fruit size at harvest, and yield compared to the untreated controls in the 2 years following treatments. Foliar applications of oxamyl reduced nematode populations and increased fruit growth rate slightly the first year, but not in the second. Foliar applications of oxamyl did not improve control attained by DBCP alone. Soil application of aldicarb [2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde-O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime] or DBCP to an orange (C. sinensis) orchard reduced T. semipenetrans populations in the 3 years tested and increased yield in 1 of 3 years. Aldicarb treatment reduced fruit damage caused by the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora. Aldicarb, applied at 5.7 or 11.4 kg/ha, by disk incorporation or chisel injection, was equally effective in controlling nematodes, improving yields, fruit size, and external quality. In a grapefruit orchard, chisel-applied aldicarb reduced nematode populations and rust mite damage and increased yields in both years and increased fruit size in one year. The 11.4-kg/ha rate was slightly more effective than the 5.7-kg/ha rate. Aldicarb appears to be an adequate substitute for DBCP for nematode control in Texas citrus orchards and well-suited to an overall pest management system for Texas citrus.

  7. Control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans on Citrus With Aldicarb, Oxamyl, and DBCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, L W; French, J V

    1979-10-01

    Soil application of DBCP (l,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) and foliar applications of oxamyl (methyl N',N'-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate) were compared for control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) orchard, DBCP reduced nematode populations and increased fruit growth rate, fruit size at harvest, and yield compared to the untreated controls in the 2 years following treatments. Foliar applications of oxamyl reduced nematode populations and increased fruit growth rate slightly the first year, but not in the second. Foliar applications of oxamyl did not improve control attained by DBCP alone. Soil application of aldicarb [2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde-O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime] or DBCP to an orange (C. sinensis) orchard reduced T. semipenetrans populations in the 3 years tested and increased yield in 1 of 3 years. Aldicarb treatment reduced fruit damage caused by the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora. Aldicarb, applied at 5.7 or 11.4 kg/ha, by disk incorporation or chisel injection, was equally effective in controlling nematodes, improving yields, fruit size, and external quality. In a grapefruit orchard, chisel-applied aldicarb reduced nematode populations and rust mite damage and increased yields in both years and increased fruit size in one year. The 11.4-kg/ha rate was slightly more effective than the 5.7-kg/ha rate. Aldicarb appears to be an adequate substitute for DBCP for nematode control in Texas citrus orchards and well-suited to an overall pest management system for Texas citrus. PMID:19300660

  8. Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco and Okitsu satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcovitch, and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco, utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7. The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%, and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco, satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch e híbridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco, por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5% e

  9. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  10. 广东曲江区柑橘园天敌瓢虫种类调查及食性观察(鞘翅目:瓢虫科)%Survey and preys of lady beetles (Coccinellidae) in citrus groves in Qujiang, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝武; 虞国跃

    2013-01-01

    对广东曲江区4个柑橘园4种橘类植物(甜橙Citrus sinensis(Linn.)Osbeck,沙田柚Citrus grandis(Linn.)Osbeck var.shatinyu Hort,温州蜜橘Citrus unshiu Marcovitch和沙糖桔Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Shiyue Ju)上的瓢虫进行种类调查和食性观察,共采集320头瓢虫标本,鉴定结果为24属51种,多数为蚜虫的捕食性天敌,其中龟纹瓢虫、六斑月瓢虫、红肩瓢虫、黄斑盘瓢虫、台湾隐势瓢虫、后斑小瓢虫和细缘唇瓢虫为优势种.对大多数种类的食性作了观察或进行室内饲养,基本明确了它们在橘类上的猎物.%Survey and preys of lady beetle species in citrus groves were carried out in Qujiang District, Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province between January 2010 to July 2012. The surveyed 4 Citrus plants are Citrus sinensis (Linn. ) Osbeck, C. grandis (Linn. ) Osbeck var. shatinyu Hort, C. unshiu Marcovitch and C. reticulata Blanco cv. Shiyue Ju. A total of 320 lady beetle specimens (excluding plant -eating ones) were collected and identified. They belonged to 51 species of 24 genera. Most of them are predator of citrus aphids, and Propylea japonica (Thunberg, 1781), Cheilomems sexmaculata (Fabricius, 1781), Harmonia dimidiata ( Fabricius, 1755), Lemnia saucia ( Mulsant, 1850), Cryptogonus horishanus (Ohta, 1929), Scymnus (Pullus) posticalis Sicard, 1912 and Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyhhenhal, 1808) were dominant species. Most of them are provided with the observed preys in field or the feeding preys indoor.

  11. Genome-wide identification, classification and analysis of HD-ZIP gene family in citrus, and its potential roles in somatic embryogenesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chai, Li-Jun; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2015-12-10

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors, which belong to a class of Homeobox proteins, has been reported to be involved in different biological processes of plants, including growth and development, photomorphogenesis, flowering, fruit ripening and adaptation responses to environmental stresses. In this study, 27 HD-Zip genes (CsHBs) were identified in Citrus. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and characteristics of individual gene or protein, the HD-Zip gene family in Citrus can be classified into 4 subfamilies, i.e. HD-Zip I, HD-Zip II, HD-Zip III, and HD-Zip IV containing 16, 2, 4, and 5 members respectively. The digital expression patterns of 27 HD-Zip genes were analyzed in the callus, flower, leaf and fruit of Citrus sinensis. The qRT-PCR and RT-PCR analyses of six selected HD-Zip genes were performed in six citrus cultivars with different embryogenic competence and in the embryo induction stages, which revealed that these genes were differentially expressed and might be involved in citrus somatic embryogenesis (SE). The results exhibited that the expression of CsHB1 was up-regulated in somatic embryo induction process, and its expression was higher in citrus cultivars with high embryogenic capacity than in cultivars recalcitrant to form somatic embryos. Moreover, a microsatellite site of three nucleotide repeats was found in CsHB1 gene among eighteen citrus genotypes, indicating the possible association of CsHB1 gene to the capacity of callus induction.

  12. Genome-wide identification, classification and analysis of HD-ZIP gene family in citrus, and its potential roles in somatic embryogenesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chai, Li-Jun; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2015-12-10

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors, which belong to a class of Homeobox proteins, has been reported to be involved in different biological processes of plants, including growth and development, photomorphogenesis, flowering, fruit ripening and adaptation responses to environmental stresses. In this study, 27 HD-Zip genes (CsHBs) were identified in Citrus. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and characteristics of individual gene or protein, the HD-Zip gene family in Citrus can be classified into 4 subfamilies, i.e. HD-Zip I, HD-Zip II, HD-Zip III, and HD-Zip IV containing 16, 2, 4, and 5 members respectively. The digital expression patterns of 27 HD-Zip genes were analyzed in the callus, flower, leaf and fruit of Citrus sinensis. The qRT-PCR and RT-PCR analyses of six selected HD-Zip genes were performed in six citrus cultivars with different embryogenic competence and in the embryo induction stages, which revealed that these genes were differentially expressed and might be involved in citrus somatic embryogenesis (SE). The results exhibited that the expression of CsHB1 was up-regulated in somatic embryo induction process, and its expression was higher in citrus cultivars with high embryogenic capacity than in cultivars recalcitrant to form somatic embryos. Moreover, a microsatellite site of three nucleotide repeats was found in CsHB1 gene among eighteen citrus genotypes, indicating the possible association of CsHB1 gene to the capacity of callus induction. PMID:26232336

  13. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor; Perla Osorio-Diaz; Luis A. Bello-Perez; Juscelino Tovar; Maria R. Romero-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low...

  14. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  15. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.

  16. Fractionation of secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional HPLC provides ready detection of the major phenolic compounds in methanol extracts of orange leaves, yet conventional HPLC also shows the presence of many more compounds, to an extent where extensive peak overlap prevents distinct peak detection and reliable quantitation. A more complet...

  17. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  18. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP, evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin. Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response.

  19. Cytoplasmic Genome Analysis of Asymmetric Somatic Hybrids in Citrus%柑橘非对称体细胞杂种的胞质基因组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小勇; 刘继红

    2008-01-01

    采用CAPS(cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence)分子标记对通过非对称原生质体融合获得的2个组合体细胞杂种植株进行了胞质遗传分析.结果表明,在伏令夏甜橙(Citrus sinensis)十默科特橘橙(C.reticulata ×C.sinensis )组合中,分析的2棵植株胞质DNA都来自伏令夏甜橙(供体);在丹西红橘(C.retic-ulata)十佩琦橘柚(C.reticulata×C.paradisi)组合中,分析的3棵植株胞质DNA都来自来源于佩琦橘柚(受体).

  20. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  1. Análise espaço-temporal da clorose variegada dos citros no Noroeste do Paraná, com uso de PCR para detecção de Xylella fastidiosa = Spatio-temporal analysis of the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC in the Northwest of Paraná, using PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mário de Carvalho Nunes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A citricultura é afetada por inúmeras doenças, como a clorose variegada do citros (CVC, causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a distribuição espacial da doença dentro de pomares comerciais do Noroeste do Paraná com o uso de métodos moleculares. Foram selecionados pomares sintomáticos para CVC com as variedades ‘Pêra’, ‘Valência’ e ‘Folha Murcha’ (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Foram marcadas para cada variedade, 4 plantas-referência positivas para CVC (por sintomas e análise molecular e 8 plantas ao redor de cada uma das plantas-referência foram amostradas, num total de 36 plantas por variedade. Realizou-se o teste da Reação da Polimerase em Cadeia (PCR para detecção da bactéria e na mesma época foram conduzidas avaliações visuais de sintomas de CVC. Os resultados da análise temporal, utilizando-se os modelos Monomolecular, Logístico e Gompertz, apontaram o modelo Logístico como o que melhor se ajustou para descrever o comportamento da doença no tempo, para todas as variedades estudadas. Observou-se que o comportamento espacial da doença diferiu quando a mesma área foiavaliada pelos métodos visual e molecular, resultando em uma diferença no padrão espacial das áreas avaliadas. Portanto, ambos os métodos empregados, sintomas e PCR, foram capazes de constatar asmudanças no padrão espacial apresentado, sendo que a análise molecular (PCR foi mais sensível para detectar as mudanças ocorridas.Countless diseases affect the citriculture, as the citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC which is caused by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa.The aim of this work was to determine the space distribution of the disease inside commercial orchards in the Northwest of Paraná, using molecular methods. Symptomatic orchards were selected for CVC with the varieties 'Pêra', 'Valência' and 'Folha Murcha' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. For each variety, 4 positive reference-plant for CVC

  2. Two new flavonoid diglycosides from Cephalotaxus sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new acetylated flavonoid diglycosides, scutellarein-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-6-O-acetylglucopyranoside](1), apigenin-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-β-D-3,6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the leaves of Cephalotaxus sinensis. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods including HR-FAB-MS,1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments.(C) 2007 Yu Hong Yu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A new hydrochalcone from Miliusa sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Tran Thi Thanh; Quan, Tran Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Van Sung, Tran

    2011-08-01

    A new dihydrochalcone 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',3',4-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) along with nine known compounds, pashanone (2), dihydropashanone (3), pinostrobin (4), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (5), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (7), 24-methylencycloartane-3β,21-diol (8), liriodenine (9) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (10), were isolated from the extracts, exhibiting cytotoxic activity (n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts) of Miliusa sinensis. The structure of (1) was elucidated by the analysis of spectral data (IR, HR-MS, EI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:21859261

  4. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  5. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  6. Small RNA Profiling Reveals Phosphorus Deficiency as a Contributing Factor in Symptom Expression for Citrus Huanglongbing Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Zhao; Ruobai Sun; Ute Albrecht; Chellappan Padmanabhan; Airong Wang; Michael D.Coffey; Thomas Girke

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus "Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca.L.).Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB.Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases,including cancers.To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB,sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca.L.asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue.Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs),76 conserved miRNAs,and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered.Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection,and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB.miR399,which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species,was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn--a disease with symptoms similar to HLB.We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees.Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida.Our molecular,physiological,and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  7. The biology and fecundity of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) at different temperatures under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    KASAP, İsmail

    2009-01-01

    The developmental time and fecundity of Panonychus citri (McGregor 1916) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Washington navel sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) leaves were determined at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH, and a 16:8-h (L:D) photoperiod under laboratory conditions. Total development time of P. citri females was 37.2, 16.6, 12.2, 9.8, and 9.0 days at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C, respectively. Total and daily egg production levels of P. citri were highest at 25 °C (25.6 an...

  8. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  9. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  10. Recent advances in Citrus psorosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Achachi, Asmae; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Ibriz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Psorosis is a globally devastating disease of citrus caused by an infectious filamentous ophiovirus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which causes annual losses of about 5 % and a progressive decline of trees by affecting the conductive tissues. The disease can be harboured asymptomatically in many citrus species. In the field, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease in adult trees are bark scaling in the trunk and main branches and also internal staining in the underlying wood. The viru...

  11. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid citrus rootstocks may present different morphological characteristics and growth when compared to diploid ones. This worked aimed at comparing morphological characteristics and height growth of diploid and tetraploid plants from the rootstocks 'Swingle' citrumelo [C. paradise Macf. x Poncirus trifoliate (L. Raf], citrange 'Troyer' (C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata and citranges 'Fepagro C 13' and 'Fepagro C 37' [C. sinensis cv. Pêra x P. trifoliata] during twelve months. Diploid (2n=18 and tetraploid (2n=36 plants originated from the same seed were identified, cultivated and evaluated every 45 days regarding color, height, petiole length, leaf length and central leaflet width. Significant differences were observed for the evaluated characteristics: the average of petiole length was 1.78 cm in the diploid and 0.99 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of leaf length was 2.32 cm in the diploid and 2.95 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of central leaflet width was 1.33 cm in the diploid and 1.69 cm in the tetraploid plants. Moreover, tetraploid plants had darker and thicker leaves than the diploid ones. Variation regarding height was observed and the diploid plants presented higher growth than the tetraploid ones. As tetraploid plants are smaller, have a slow height growth and wider and longer leaves.

  12. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.;

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  13. Varieties of Musical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  14. REAL PIECEWISE ALGEBRAIC VARIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-hong Wang; Yi-sheng Lai

    2003-01-01

    We give definitions of real piecewise algebraic variety and its dimension. By using the techniques of real radical ideal, P-radical ideal, affine Hilbert polynomial, Bernstein-net form of polynomials on simplex, and decomposition of semi-algebraic set, etc., we deal with the dimension of the real piecewise algebraic variety and real Nullstellensatz in Cμ spline ring.

  15. Monitoramento populacional das cigarrinhas vetoras de Xylella fastidiosa, através de armadilhas adesivas amarelas em pomares comerciais de citros Population monitoring of leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, through yellow sticky traps in commercial citrus orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença causada pela bactéria de xilema Xylella fastidiosa Wells. A disseminação ocorre por meio de insetos vetores pertencente à ordem Hemiptera, família Cicadellidae (subfamília Cicadellinae, os quais transmitem a bactéria depois de se alimentarem em plantas contaminadas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se identificar e monitorar as espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras em um pomar comercial no município de Paranavaí, Paraná. O experimento foi realizado em um talhão comercial de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, variedade Pera, com 1.000 plantas de dez anos de idade. A amostragem foi realizada por meio de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, distribuídas na área periférica e central do pomar, com duas repetições por rua amostrada. As etiquetas foram distribuídas entre a 5ª e 30ª plantas em 10 ruas, totalizando 20 armadilhas que foram renovadas no pomar, a cada trinta dias, durante o período de avaliação que foi entre junho de 2005 e setembro de 2006. As principais espécies de Cicadellinae capturadas foram Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, Dilobopterus costalimai Young e Macugonalia cavifrons Stal. Essas espécies apresentaram ocorrência constante e frequência de 3,97%, 4,2%, 13,0% respectivamente, em relação ao total de cigarrinhas coletadas.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is the disease caused by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa Wells. Dissemination occurs through insect vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, family Cicadellidae (subfamily Cicadellinae, which transmit the bacteria after feeding on infected plants. The objective of this study was to identify the species of insect vectors in an orchard in the municipality of Paranavaí, in the State of Paraná. The experiment was conducted in a commercial stand of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Pêra variety with 1,000 10-year-old plants. Monitoring was performed using yellow sticky traps, distributed in the central

  16. Spatial-temporal distribution of sharpshooters (Hemyptera: Cicadellidae insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in citrus orchards = Distribuição espaço-temporal de cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae vetores da Xylella fastidiosa em pomares cítricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Variegated chlorosis (CVC is a citrus disease, reported initially in the northwest of São Paulo state and in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Minas Gerais state in 1987. The CVC is caused by the xylematic bacteria Xylella fastidiosa. The bacteria is spread through contaminated bubbles or by insect vectors belonging to the Hemyptera order and Cicadellidae family. The aimed of this study was to identify the species of Xylella fastidiosa insect vector and to determine its spatial and temporal distribution in commercial orchards of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. The experiment was conducted in a commercial area of sweet orange, Pêra variety, grafted on Rangpur lime, located in northwest Paraná. For sampling, yellow sticky traps were used, distributed in the peripheral and central area of the orchard with four replicates per street sampled (5, 30, 55 and 80th plant, each plant was considered a sample unit. Were evaluated ten plots per street, totaling 40 traps for sampling. Every thirty days during the evaluation period, the traps were renewed in the orchard. The main species caught were Acrogonia citrine and Dilobopterus costalimai. The highest incidences occurred from winter to spring, and summer to autumn of the next year. According to the geostatistical analysis, the spatial distribution of these species concentrated in the peripheral zone of the portion where a higher incidence of these species was captured. The results show that it is necessary to adopt pest management practices for the Cicadellidae vector of X. fastidiosa differentiated in space and time. = A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença de plantas cítricas, constatada, em 1987, inicialmente nos municípios do noroeste paulista e da região do triângulo mineiro. Ela é causada por uma bactéria de xilema, denominada Xylella fastidiosa. Sua disseminação ocorre através de borbulhas contaminadas ou por meio de insetos vetores da ordem Hemiptera e fam

  17. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    vulnerable to disease outbreaks, including citrus greening disease (also known as Huanglongbing) that is rapidly spreading throughout the world's major citrus producing regions1. Understanding the population genomics and domestication of citrus will enable strategies for improvements to citrus including resistance to greening and other diseases. The domestication and distribution of edible citrus types began several thousand years ago in Southeast Asia and spread globally following ancient land and sea routes. The lineages that gave rise to most modern cultivated varieties, however, are lost in undocumented antiquity, and their identities remain controversial2, 3. Several features of Citrus biology and cultivation make deciphering these origins difficult. Cultivated varieties are typically propagated clonally by grafting and through asexual seed production (apomixis via nucellar polyembryony) to maintain desirable combinations of traits (Fig. 1). Thus many important cultivar groups have characteristic basic genotypes that presumably arose through interspecific hybridization and/or successive introgressive hybridizations of wild ancestral species. These domestication events predated the global expansion of citrus cultivation by hundreds or perhaps thousands of years, with no record of the domestication process. Diversity within such groups arises through accumulated somatic mutations, generally without sexual recombination, either as limb sports on trees or variants among apomictic seedling progeny. Two wild species are believed to have contributed to domesticated pummelos, mandarins and oranges. Based on morphology and genetic markers, pummelos have generally been identified with the wild species C. maxima (Burm.) Merrill that is indigenous to Southeast Asia. Although mandarins are similarly widely identified with the species C. reticulata Blanco 4-6, wild populations of C. reticulata have not been definitively described. Various authors have taken dif

  18. γ辐照杀螨对伏令夏橙果实生理效应的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Physiological Effects of γ -irradiation on Valencia Late Orange for Disinfestation of Citrus Rust Mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧玲; 叶蕙; 胡美英; 罗雪梅

    2001-01-01

    @@ 伏令夏橙(Citrus sinensis Osb)是我国重要的反季节鲜果之一,但采后螨害严重.笔者选择0.3~0.6 kGy剂量辐照杀螨,并对杀螨后伏令夏橙果实营养成分和贮存期间生理效应的变化做了初步的研究.

  19. Improvement of polyploidy induction in Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhaoxia; XIANG Jianhai; ZHOU Linghua; CAI Naner; SONG Linsheng

    2004-01-01

    An incubating temperature of 15 ℃ is used to induce triploidy in Eriocheir sinensis through inhibition of the release of polar body Ⅱ, and that of 18 ℃ to induce tetraploidy through inhibition of the first cleavage. Flow cytometry is used to identify the ploidy in different developmental stages. For induction of triploidy in fertilized eggs in vitro, the highest induction rate observed in blastula by cytochalasin B, 6-DMAP and KC1 is 49.1%, 51.7% and 77.5%,respectively. In the KCl treatment of pregnant crabs with the fertilized eggs, the highest triploid induction rate observed in the zoea is 85.3%. For induction of tetraploidy, the highest induction rate observed in the blastula by cytochaslasin B, 6-DMAP and KCl is 50.3%, 54.9% and 79.8% respectively. In the KC1 treatment of pregnant crabs with the fertilized eggs, the highest induction rate in zoea is 27.3%. Through this study such difficulty as in vitro culture is overcome. Triploid zoea Eriocheir sinensis has been developed for the first time. The induction rate of tetraploid zoea has also been greatly improved.

  20. Refinement of the Citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) positional map in Poncirus trifoliata and generation of transgenic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plant lines with candidate resistance genes in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mamta

    2006-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen of Citrus. A single dominant gene Ctv present in the trifoliate relative of Citrus, Poncirus trifoliata confers broad spectrum resistance against CTV. Refinement of genetic maps has delimited this gene to a 121 kb region, comprising of ten candidate Ctv resistance genes. The ten candidate genes were individually cloned in Agrobacterium based binary vector and transformed into three CTV susceptible grapefruit varieties. Two of the candidate R-genes, R-2 and R-3 are exclusively expressed in transgenic plants and in Poncirus trifoliata, while five other genes are also expressed in non-transformed Citrus controls. Northern blotting with a CTV derived probe for assessment of infection in virus inoculated plants over a span of three growth periods, each comprising of six to eight weeks, indicates either an absence of initiation of infection or it's slow spread in R-2 plant lines or an initial appearance of infection and it's subsequent obliteration in some R-1 and R-4 plant lines. Limited genome walk up- and downstream form R-1 gene, based on it's 100% sequence identity between Poncirus and Citrus, indicates promoter identity of 92% between the two varieties. Further upstream and downstream sequencing indicates the presence of an O-methyl transferase and a Copia like gene respectively in Citrus instead of the amino acid transporter like gene upstream and a sugar transporter like gene downstream in Poncirus. The possibility of recombinations in the resistance locus of Citrus and the need for consistent monitoring for virus infection and gene expression in the transgenic Citrus trees is discussed. PMID:16830176

  1. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

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    Mohammad M. Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose. Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  2. Geometry of graph varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jeremy L.

    2003-01-01

    A picture P of a graph G = (V,E) consists of a point P(v) for each vertex v in V and a line P(e) for each edge e in E, all lying in the projective plane over a field k and subject to containment conditions corresponding to incidence in G. A graph variety is an algebraic set whose points parametrize pictures of G. We consider three kinds of graph varieties: the picture space X(G) of all pictures, the picture variety V(G), an irreducible component of X(G) of dimension 2|V|, defined as the closu...

  3. Influence of ozone and HCl gas on citrus and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCool, P.M.; Menge, J.A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1977-01-01

    One half of Troyer citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x Citrus sinensis) seedlings were grown from seed and inoculated during transplanting with Glomus fasciculatus. Inoculum consisted of soil and roots from sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare) containing hyphae, vesicles, arbuscles, and chlamydospores of G. fasciculatus. At 5, 12, and 16 weeks after inoculation, both inoculated and noninoculated seedlings were exposed to 110-140 mg/m/sup 3/ (73-92 ppm) HCl gas for 20 minutes or to 2 mg/m/sup 3/ (1 ppm) ozone for 4 hours. HCl produced moderate marginal leaf necrosis while ozone produced no visible symptoms. Control and HCl-exposed mycorrhizal seedlings were 28% and 36% taller, respectively, than corresponding nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Exposure to HCl reduced mycorrhizal seedling height by 24% compared to mycorrhizal controls. Ozone exposed mycorrhizal citrus were not significantly taller than non-mycorrhizal citrus but were 37% shorter than mycorrhizal controls. Total biomass of control and HCl-exposed mycorrhizal seedlings were greater than their nonmycorrhizal counterparts but the biomass was not significantly different between ozone-exposed seedlings. Spore production by G. fasciculatus was reduced 50% in ozone-exposed seedlings while spore populations of HCl-exposed seedlings were not statistically different from the controls.

  4. The genome sequence of an isolate of Indian citrus ringspot virus infecting the sweet orange in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V K

    2012-11-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence identity with the complete genome of the ICRSV K1 isolate (AF406744.1) infecting the kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco, a hybrid between King and Willow mandarins) in north India. The ICRSV Pune genome formed a complex secondary structure with a large number of unpaired cytosine-rich regions, and recombination analysis highlighted potential recombination in the ICRSV genome.

  5. Nonlinear models for describing the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in groves of two counties at northwestern Paraná state, Brazil = Modelo não-linear para a curva de progresso de incidência da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC em dois municípios da região noroeste do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Matiko Ueda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the production of sweet oranges has been threatened by the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC incited by the gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells. Commercial citrus groves in two counties at the Northwestern Paraná state were evaluated to estimate the disease progression by using parameterizations of nonlinear models. Groves of Citrus sinensis Osbeck, variety “Pêra”, “Valência”, “Natal” and “Folha Murcha” had all the plants evaluated for the presence of disease symptoms. Thereafter, different parameterizations of the Logistic and Gompertz models were fitted to these data. The goodness of fit was evaluated by the intrinsic (IN and parameter-effects (PE curvatures of Bates and Watts, the bias of Box and the Hougaard measures of skewness. In Loanda, the best model was the Fermi-Dirac, and in Nova Esperança the data were best fitted to the parameterization L5, which is also a parameterization from the Logistic model.A citricultura é afetada por diversas doenças, dentre as quais a Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa (Wells. Para a região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, onde foi avaliada a CVC, propõe-se encontrar modelos não-lineares de curvas de progresso de incidência da CVC que representem o percentual de plantas acometidas pela doença. Para avaliar o comprometimento dos pomares com relação à doença, foram escolhidos pomares comerciais em dois municípios, onde foi determinada a proporção de plantas doentes. Foram selecionados talhões de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck nas variedades “Pêra”, “Valência”, “Natal” e “Folha Murcha” e a avaliação de todas as plantas do talhão foi realizada visualmente em relação à presença ou à ausência de sintomas de CVC. Para estimar o modelo que melhor se ajustou aos dados de progresso da proporção da doença em cada talhão, foram considerados modelos não-lineares decrescimento sigmoidal

  6. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  7. Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) based on rbcL and matK Sequences of Chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoi, Ajit; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Choudhary, Ravish; Kumar, Susheel; Rohini, M R; Pal, Digvender; Ercisli, Sezai; Chaudhury, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Indian Citron (Citrus medica L.) with other important Citrus species have been inferred through sequence analyses of rbcL and matK gene region of chloroplast DNA. The study was based on 23 accessions of Citrus genotypes representing 15 taxa of Indian Citrus, collected from wild, semi-wild, and domesticated stocks. The phylogeny was inferred using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. Both MP and NJ trees separated all the 23 accessions of Citrus into five distinct clusters. The chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis based on rbcL and matK sequence data carried out in Indian taxa of Citrus was useful in differentiating all the true species and species/varieties of probable hybrid origin in distinct clusters or groups. Sequence analysis based on rbcL and matK gene provided unambiguous identification and disposition of true species like C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata, and related hybrids/cultivars. The separation of C. maxima, C. medica, and C. reticulata in distinct clusters or sub-clusters supports their distinctiveness as the basic species of edible Citrus. However, the cpDNA sequence analysis of rbcL and matK gene could not find any clear cut differentiation between subgenera Citrus and Papeda as proposed in Swingle's system of classification. PMID:26956119

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  9. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26912165

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  11. Minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G H; Chen, J C; Liu, D H; Zhang, Y H; Jiang, P; Ye, X Q

    2008-01-01

    Some dried citrus peels, more familiar as chenpi in China, have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicines from ancient times. This paper reports the efficiency of infusion cooking on extracting minerals and phenolic compounds (flavanone glycosides [FGs], polymethoxylated flavones [PMFs], and phenolic acids), and also antioxidant activity of hot water extract of citrus peels. Peels of 2 citrus varieties, namely, Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) and Ponkan (C. poonensis Hort. ex Tanaka), which belong to C. reticulata, were selected. As a result, hot water extraction was efficient in extracting phenolic acids and some minerals. As for citrus flavonoids, narirutin, nobiletin, and tangeretin were easier to extract than hesperidin. The result of antioxidant capacity assays indicated that for citrus peels, hot water extract had almost the same capacity as the methanol extract. We suggested that Ponkan was more suitable as the source of chenpi, since its hot water extract had much higher content of phenolic acids, FGs and PMFs, and higher antioxidant capacity than those of Satsuma mandarin. Generally, to raise the extraction temperature or to prolong the time could not yield higher content of phenolic compounds and stronger antioxidant capacity, though the content of minerals increased to some extent. Furthermore, a 2nd-time extraction seemed necessary since considerable minerals and phenolic compounds could be obtained by doing so. Finally, we suggested that 2 times extraction at 100 degrees C for 30 min was proper to extract the minerals and phenolic compounds in chenpi. PMID:18211343

  12. Influencia del porta-injertos y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad de pomelo (Citrus paradisis Macfad variedad Rio Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés José Armadans Rojas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción San Lorenzo, Paraguay, se estudió la influencia del tipo de porta-injerto y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo rosado (Citrus paradisis. Macfad var. Rio Red. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, siendo la parcela principal las épocas (abril, mayo y junio de cosecha y la subparcela los porta-injertos [tangelo Orlando -Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tanaka x Citrus paradisi Macfad., limón rugoso -Citrus jambhiri Luch, lima Rangpur -Citrus limonia y Citrange C35 -Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Ruby en cuatro repeticiones. Se cosecharon 10 frutos por unidad experimental y se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos: diámetro y forma del fruto, y los porcentajes de jugo, bagazo, sólidos solubles totales,acidez titulable y relación o cociente entre sólidos solubles totales: acidez. Los resultados mostraron la influencia de los porta-injertos sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo Rio Red. El limón rugoso fue el porta-injerto que presentó el menor porcentaje de jugo (47.33% y el mayor en bagazo (48.72%, sólido soluble (10.54% y acidez (1.42%. Mientras que el mayor porcentaje de jugo (52.76 y 50.75% se presentó en los frutos cosechados en abril y mayo. El mayor porcentaje de acidez se presentó en abril (9.53%.

  13. Developmental transcriptomic features of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gi Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  15. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with O. sinensis is briefly reviewed and an extensive literature survey is presented. Ninety-one insect names, spanning 13 genera, related to host insects of O. sinensis are investigated. The relationships between the reported insect species and O. sinensis are analyzed. Fifty-seven of these are considered as recognizable potential host species of the fungus distributed throughout the Tibetan Plateau, whilst eight are considered as indeterminate hosts and 26 as non-hosts. Among the names of recognizable potential host insects, three are invalid (nomen nudum and require further study. This work provides basic information for management of the insect resources and for the conservation and sustainable use of O. sinensis.

  16. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. PMID:25882968

  18. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  19. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  20. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  1. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Meikle, William G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mangan, Robert; Yang, Chenghai; Malik, Nasir; Adamczyk, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. First, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri dish, D. citri spent more time on yellow versus gray rings; however, this response disappeared when either gray or yellow wax droplets were applied. When the psyllids were presented with droplets scented with terpenes, the response to both scent and color was increased. The addition of a dilute (≍0.1 M) sucrose solution to the wax droplets increased the magnitude of D. citri responses. Next, groups of D. citri were placed on plastic laboratory film covering a sucrose solution, to mimic a leaf surface. Test stimuli were presented via two 'midribs' made from lines of emulsified wax formulation. Probing levels were measured as a function of color saturation and scent composition, and concentration. The test scents were based on qualitatively major volatiles emitted by Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The highest probing response was observed on the middle concentration (20-μl scent/10 ml wax formulation) of the C. aurantifolia-scented wax lines. Results indicate that there are interactive effects between the different sensory modalities in directing host-plant assessment behavior.

  2. Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Flores, Daniel; French, J Victor; Hall, David G

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and spatial dispersion of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) and six sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of D. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. D. citri immatures also were found in significantly higher numbers in the southeastern quadrant of trees than other parts of the canopy. The spatial distribution of D. citri nymphs and adults was analyzed using Iowa's patchiness regression and Taylor's power law. Taylor's power law fitted the data better than Iowa's model. Based on both regression models, the field dispersion patterns of D. citri nymphs and adults were aggregated among flush shoots in individual trees as indicated by the regression slopes that were significantly >1. For the average density of each life stage obtained during our surveys, the minimum number of flush shoots per tree needed to estimate D. citri densities varied from eight for eggs to four flush shoots for adults. Projections indicated that a sampling plan consisting of 10 trees and eight flush shoots per tree would provide density estimates of the three developmental stages of D. citri acceptable enough for population studies and management decisions. A presence-absence sampling plan with a fixed precision level was developed and can be used to provide a quick estimation of D. citri populations in citrus orchards.

  3. Studies on the Annual Cycle of Endogenous Free Polyamines in Citrus%柑橘不同器官内源游离多胺的年周期变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋明; 郑玉生; 刘昆玉; 谢深喜; 李大志

    2003-01-01

    对32年生特洛伊(Troyer)枳橙砧(Citrus sinensis×Poncinus trifoliata)华盛顿脐橙[Citrus sinensis (L.)Osbeck]及8年生枳砧[Poncirus trifoliata(L.)Raf.]宫川温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu Marc.)进行了内源游离多胺年变化规律的研究.结果表明:柑橘不同器官在生长发育的重要时期均伴随着多胺含量的变化,春梢叶片内源多胺含量随叶龄增加而上升,在越冬期急剧增加达全年最高峰,尤以精胺含量增加显著;花期以腐胺含量变化最大,盛花期达高峰,谢花后迅速下降;果实多胺总量变化与横径增长呈平行关系.前期腐胺上升较快,后期主要以亚精胺和精胺增加为主.果皮内源多胺含量大于果肉部分,占果实含量2/3左右.

  4. 不同品种的陈皮挥发油含量的比较研究%A Comparative Study on Volatile Oil Content of Orange Peel from Different Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小斌; 雷燕妮

    2011-01-01

    陈皮中挥发油含量作为陈皮质量控制指标之一,收集不同品种来源的陈皮(橘子、茶枝柑、大红袍、温州蜜橘、福橘),用水蒸气蒸馏法对其挥发油含量进行测定。结果表明:不同品种陈皮挥发油含量由大到小的顺序依次为温州蜜橘、福橘、茶枝柑、大红袍、橘子;通过对五种不同品种陈皮挥发油含量差异的对比研究,温州蜜橘挥发油含量最高,在临床应用时应根据临床需要区别应用,并为陈皮的进一步开发利用研究提供理论依据。%Orange peel volatile oil content as orange peel quality control of the indicators of different variety,to collect the different variety of orange peel(Citrus reticulate Blanco,Citrus reticulata Chachi,Citrus reticulata Dahongpao,Citrus reticulata Unshiu,Citrus reticulata Tangerina,by steam distillation of them were on the content determination.Results show orange peel volatile oil content discretion order from maximum to minimum is Citrus reticulata Unshiu,Citrus reticulata Tangerina,Citrus reticulata Chachi,Citrus reticulata Dahongpao,Citrus reticulate Blanco.Through to the five different variety of the comparison of the differences between the volatile oil content,Citrus reticulata Unshiu orange peel volatile oil is the highest content for the further development of the dried tangerine or orange peel of research to provide the theory basis.

  5. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  6. Reaction of detached leaves from different varieties of sweet orange to inoculation with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria Orbolato Gonçalves-Zuliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Citrus genotypes show a broad range of resistance to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (Xcc, the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC. The aim of this study was to evaluate a detached leaf inoculation method to compare nine different citrus genotypes that exhibit varied resistance levels to ACC, and to evaluate infection, colonization and symptom development of the varieties by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Inoculation of Xcc in the leaves was carried out by producing injuries with needles. Lesion diameters were measured at 7, 10 and 13 days after inoculation (DAI. The variety Pera IAC was most resistant to the pathogen and had lesions with smaller diameters, while the variety Washington was most susceptible and had the largest lesions, indicating low resistance to Xcc. SEM images were taken from the lesion development, and sections were obtained from the disease lesions in the tested varieties. The most resistant variety, Pera IAC, had smaller stomatal openings and produced greater quantity of foliar exudates, compared with the variety Washington. We hypothesize that the exudates may contain Xcc toxic compounds and thus may be a defense mechanism against infection by Xcc, but further research is required to establish any antibiotic effects of the exudates against citrus canker.

  7. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I.; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G.; Patrizi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  8. Questions on Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionna, E

    2011-01-01

    P. Dolbeault: Residus et courants.- D. Mumford: Varieties defined by quadratic equations.- A. Neron: Hauteurs et theorie des intersections.- A. Seidenberg: Report on analytic product.- C.S. Seshadri: Moduli of p-vector bundles over an algebraic curve.- O. Zariski: Contributions to the problem of equi-singularity.

  9. Schubert varieties and generalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springer, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution reviews the main results on Schubert varieties and their generalizations It covers more or less the material of the lectures at the Seminar These were partly expository introducing material needed by other lecturers In particular Section reviews classical material used in several

  10. Final Report DE-SC0006634. Quantifying phenotypic and genetic diversity of Miscanthus sinensis as a resource for knowledge-based improvement of M. ×giganteus (M. sinensis × M. sacchariflorus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, Erik [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Miscanthus is especially attractive as a bioenergy crop for temperate environments because it produces high yields, needs few inputs, and grows well during the cool weather of early spring and late fall when few warm-season grasses can. However, Miscanthus feedstock production for the emerging U.S. bioenergy industry and for existing demand in Europe is based on a single sterile, vegetatively propagated variety of M. ×giganteus. M. ×giganteus is an interspecific hybrid of the parental species M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Prior to the current study, little information existed about the genetic diversity and breeding potential of either M. ×giganteus parental species. In the current project, we studied more than 600 accessions of M. sinensis from throughout its native range in China, Japan, and Korea, in addition to ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations. Using thousands of DNA markers, we identified seven geographically distinct genetic groups of M. sinensis. Notably, we found that the ornamental cultivars and U.S. naturalized populations were derived from only a subset of the Southern Japan group, indicating that our study greatly increased the genetic diversity available for breeding new biomass cultivars. Additionally, this new understanding of M. sinensis population structure could be used to predict which crosses may produce progeny with the greatest hybrid vigor. Replicated field trials were also established at multiple locations in North America and Asia. Data on traits of importance for biomass productivity, such as flowering time, yield and height, were taken. Analyses of the phenotypic data from the field trials along with the DNA markers allowed us to identify many marker-trait associations. These results will enable marker-assisted breeding, which will allow selection at the seedling stage rather than waiting two to three years to obtain phenotypic data. Thus, this study is expected to greatly increase the efficiency of breeding

  11. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Nan; Yan, Bing-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Di; Qiu, Ye; Guo, Yun-Long; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Compound K (CK), a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO₄ without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C-50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1→Rd→F2→CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes. PMID:26512632

  12. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Compound K (CK, a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO4 without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C–50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1 → Rd → F2 → CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  13. Determining Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Henderson Grapefruit and Some Pomelo (Shaddock Varieties under Adana Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berken Çimen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomelo [Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck] has the largest fruit size among citrus species. There are several cultivars for pomelo species which is sensitive to low temperatures thus its cultivation is possible in relatively preserved areas in subtropical regions. The interest to pomelo production has increased due to several reasons such as, its has a little or no bitterness in fruit flesh conversaly to grapefruit, avaibility of pigmented varieties, high concentration of vitamin C, total phenolics and carotenoids in fruit flesh, as well as its efficiency in destroying free radicals such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Several pomelo varieties have been introduced to Turkey and adaptation studies have been established. In the present study, Reinking, Pomelo WN, Kao Panne and Citrus hassaku which is a spontaneous hybrid between pomelo and mandarin were investigated in terms of fruit yield and pomological characteristics. In addition, Henderson grapefruit was included in this study in order to obtain a comparasion between pomelo and grapefruit. A large variation was observed in fruit yield of cultivars established in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, the highest yield was determined in Henderson whereas it was obtained from Citrus hassaku in 2012. Pomelo varieties yielded between 5-60 kg fruit per tree and 8.6-50 kg fruit per tree in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In terms of pomological traits, Citrus hassaku had the highest fruit weight; Pink, Kao Panne and Reinking pomelos had the highest peel thickness and Pomelo WN yielded the highest TSS/TA ratio.

  14. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  15. Basal respiration and stratification ratio in soil cultivated with citrus and treated with organic residues in the state of Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Augusta Moura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic residues in the soil to improve its quality, provide nutrients to plant growth and increase carbon storage is an ancient practice, but little is known about the application of laminar composting in citrus orchards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial activity through microbial respiration, and the different rates stratification of some variables related to this attribute of an Ultisol cultivated with citrus and treated with organic waste in the state of Sergipe. Soil samples were collected in the layers 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-15 cm in a citrus orchard (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck under different treatments 1. Layering organic residue (crop wastes placed in layers under the plant canopy 2. Layering organic residue + NPK (the same as described in iten 1 + NPK; 3. Humus (Humified organic compost applied under the plant canopy; 4. Humus + NPK (the same as described in iten 3 + NPK; 5. Control + NPK (plant canopy was kept free of residues, + NPK application; 6. Control – NPK (plant canopy was kept free of residues, without application of NPK, with three replications. It has been found that the use of the organic residue in the plant canopy increased microbial respiration rate and total organic matter content, as well as an increase in some chemical attributes as pH, P, Ca and Mg in all treatments compared the control. The ratio stratification was effective to evaluate the influence of different management practices between depths demonstrating an improvement in microbial activity by more practical conservation treatments and indicating that the use of Humus, humus + NPK and alternate layering residues + NPK were the most effective in increasing the organic matter content in the soil

  16. Tetraploidization events by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent in apomictic citrus and are dependent on genotype and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Froelicher, Yann; Schwarz, Sergio; Agustí, Manuel; Hernández, María; Juárez, José; Luro, François; Morillon, Raphael; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a major component of plant evolution. The citrus gene pool is essentially diploid but tetraploid plants are frequently encountered in seedlings of diploid apomictic genotypes. The main objectives of the present study were to establish the origin of these tetraploid plants and to ascertain the importance of genotypic and environmental factors on tetraploid formation. Methods Tetraploid seedlings from 30 diploid apomictic genotypes were selected by flow cytometry and genotyped with 24 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse their genetic origin. Embryo rescue was used to grow all embryos contained in polyembryonic seeds of ‘Tardivo di Ciaculli’ mandarin, followed by characterization of the plantlets obtained by flow cytometry and SSR markers to accurately establish the rate of tetraploidization events and their potential tissue location. Inter-annual variations in tetraploid seedling rates were analysed for seven genotypes. Variation in tetraploid plantlet rates was analysed between different seedlings of the same genotype (‘Carrizo’ citrange; Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) from seeds collected in different tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean countries. Key Results Tetraploid plants were obtained for all the studied diploid genotypes, except for four mandarins. All tetraploid plants were identical to their diploid maternal line for SSR markers and were not cytochimeric. Significant genotypic and environmental effects were observed, as well as negative correlation between mean temperature during the flowering period and tetraploidy seedling rates. The higher frequencies (20 %) of tetraploids were observed for citranges cultivated in the Mediterranean area. Conclusions Tetraploidization by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent events in apomictic citrus, and are affected by both genotypic and environmental factors. Colder conditions in marginal climatic areas appear to favour the expression of

  17. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  18. Identification and transcript profiles of citrus growth-regulating factor genes involved in the regulation of leaf and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ling-Xia; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yu-Hua; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2016-10-01

    Growth-regulating factor (GRF) is an important protein in GA-mediated response, with key roles in plant growth and development. However, it is not known whether or how the GRF proteins in citrus to regulate organ size. In this study, nine citrus GRF genes (CsGRF1-9) were validated from the 'Anliu' sweet orange (AL, Citrus sinensis cv. Anliu) by PCR amplification. They all contain two conserved motifs (QLQ and WRC) and have 3-4 exons. The transcript levels of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. Transcript analysis showed that (1) CsGRF 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 9 expressed predominantly in young leaf, CsGRF 3 and 4 expressed predominantly in fruit immature juice sacs and CsGRF 8 expressed predominantly in root; (2) all citrus GRF genes had significantly higher expression in young leaves than mature leaf; (3) in juice sacs, the transcript levels of CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 increased significantly while the transcript levels of CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 had no significant change from 80 DAF to 100 DAF. Besides, GA3 treatment did not affect the transcript levels of CsGRF5 and CsGRF6 but significantly increased the transcript levels of the other seven CsGRF genes in young leaves. These results suggested that all CsGRF genes involve in the leaf development, CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 act developmentally whilst CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 play fundamental roles in fruit cell enlargement, which may be through GA pathway or GA-independent pathway.

  19. Evaluation of the protective capacity of new mild Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates selected for a preimmunization program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Zanutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of tolerant rootstocks and preimmunization has satisfactorily controlled losses associated with the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. Several researchers have shown that CTV mild isolates that are selected in the same region where they are used are superior to isolates obtained from other areas. Thus, budwoods of 20 outstanding citrus trees were collected in north and northwestern Paraná state (Brazil citrus-producing areas and established to be used in a preimmunization program. These budwoods were tested to evaluate the potential protection of the inherently present viral complex. Based on biological indexing and molecular characterization of the capsid protein gene by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism, which indicated that the plants were infected with mild isolates of CTV, some of the selected plants could be used in a preimmunization program. These potentially mild and protective isolates were challenged with severe 'Rolândia' isolate inoculations by grafting and by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy vector, which was faster in transmitting the virus. Some isolates had a better protective value than others, particularly when challenged with the severe CTV isolate. The SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism molecular analysis was an excellent complementary tool for monitoring the performance of the experiments and the stability of the viral complex present in the plants. Isolate number 1, collected in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul (CS-1, was the most promising for protecting commercial Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis L. orchards in northern and northwestern Paraná. The Rolândia severe CTV isolate was stable and had a high genetic divergence among the severe isolates used as a control (Capão Bonito and Barão B and all of the isolates tested.

  20. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  1. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  2. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  3. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg...

  4. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety. PMID:27596421

  5. Varieties of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Jipsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The study of lattice varieties is a field that has experienced rapid growth in the last 30 years, but many of the interesting and deep results discovered in that period have so far only appeared in research papers. The aim of this monograph is to present the main results about modular and nonmodular varieties, equational bases and the amalgamation property in a uniform way. The first chapter covers preliminaries that make the material accessible to anyone who has had an introductory course in universal algebra. Each subsequent chapter begins with a short historical introduction which sites the original references and then presents the results with complete proofs (in nearly all cases). Numerous diagrams illustrate the beauty of lattice theory and aid in the visualization of many proofs. An extensive index and bibliography also make the monograph a useful reference work.

  6. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of Transgenic Miscanthus sinensis Plants Overexpressing Arabidopsis Phytochrome B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Jin Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochromes are dimeric pigment proteins with reversible photochromism between red and far-red light-absorbing forms. They are photoreceptors that regulate various aspects of plant growth and development and have been used for biotechnological applications to improve agricultural performance of crops. Miscanthus species have been suggested as one of the most promising energy crops. In this paper, Arabidopsis phytochrome B (PHYB gene was introduced into Miscanthus sinensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method that we developed recently, with the herbicide resistance gene (BAR as a selection marker. After putative transgenic plants were selected using the herbicide resistance assay, genomic integration of the transgene was confirmed by genomic PCR and Southern blot analysis, and transgene expression was validated by Northern blot analysis. Compared to nontransformed control plants, transgenic plants overexpressing PHYB showed phenotypes with increased phytochrome B function, which includes increased chlorophyll content, decreased plant height, and delayed flowering. Therefore, these results suggest that Arabidopsis phytochrome B is functional in M. sinensis and provide a method to develop Miscanthus varieties with enhanced agricultural performance using phytochromes.

  8. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in Citrus using array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usach Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many fruit-tree species, including relevant Citrus spp varieties exhibit a reproductive biology that impairs breeding and strongly constrains genetic improvements. In citrus, juvenility increases the generation time while sexual sterility, inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility prevent the production of homozygous cultivars. Genomic technology may provide citrus researchers with a new set of tools to address these various restrictions. In this work, we report a valuable genomics-based protocol for the structural analysis of deletion mutations on an heterozygous background. Results Two independent fast neutron mutants of self-incompatible clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. cv. Clemenules were the subject of the study. Both mutants, named 39B3 and 39E7, were expected to carry DNA deletions in hemizygous dosage. Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH using a Citrus cDNA microarray allowed the identification of underrepresented genes in these two mutants. Subsequent comparison of citrus deleted genes with annotated plant genomes, especially poplar, made possible to predict the presence of a large deletion in 39B3 of about 700 kb and at least two deletions of approximately 100 and 500 kb in 39E7. The deletion in 39B3 was further characterized by PCR on available Citrus BACs, which helped us to build a partial physical map of the deletion. Among the deleted genes, ClpC-like gene coding for a putative subunit of a multifunctional chloroplastic protease involved in the regulation of chlorophyll b synthesis was directly related to the mutated phenotype since the mutant showed a reduced chlorophyll a/b ratio in green tissues. Conclusion In this work, we report the use of array-CGH for the successful identification of genes included in a hemizygous deletion induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. The study of gene content and order into the 39B3 deletion also led to the unexpected

  9. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  10. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447].

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  12. Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen González-Mas

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

  13. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Parkin in Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuelian; Kim, Tae Im; Lee, Ji-Yun; Dai, Fuhong; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis habitating in the bile duct of mammals causes clonorchiasis endemic in East Asian countries. Parkin is a RING-between-RING protein and has E3-ubiquitin ligase activity catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins. A cDNA clone of C. sinensis was predicted to encode a polypeptide homologous to parkin (CsParkin) including 5 domains (Ubl, RING0, RING1, IBR, and RING2). The cysteine and histidine residues binding to Zn2+ were all conserved and participated in formation of tertiary structural RINGs. Conserved residues were also an E2-binding site in RING1 domain and a catalytic cysteine residue in the RING2 domain. Native CsParkin was determined to have an estimated molecular weight of 45.7 kDa from C. sinensis adults by immunoblotting. CsParkin revealed E3-ubiquitin ligase activity and higher expression in metacercariae than in adults. CsParkin was localized in the locomotive and male reproductive organs of C. sinensis adults, and extensively in metacercariae. Parkin has been found to participate in regulating mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. From these results, it is suggested that CsParkin play roles in energy metabolism of the locomotive organs, and possibly in protein metabolism of the reproductive organs of C. sinensis. PMID:25748711

  14. The use of Citrus tissue culture for mutation breeding. Effects of plant growth substances and gamma irradiation on embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An embryogenic callus subcultured from unfertilized ovules of the 'Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis) was established and is used for mutation-breeding. The callus is habituated and lines of differing embryogenic potential were established. The effect of growth substances and of gamma-irradiation on embryogenesis were studied. Auxins and cytokinins inhibited embryogenesis while inhibitors of auxin synthesis and a cytokinin antagonist significantly stimulate embryogenesis in an embryogenic line. A non-embryogenic callus line did not respond to these treatments. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when callus but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture and irradiation intensities modify irradiation induced embryogenesis by changing optimal dose range and radiosensitivity of the callus. Addition of IAA to unirradiated medium resulted in increased embryogenesis and greatly stimulated plantlet development in certain combinations of irradiation dose and IAA concentration. (author)

  15. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri. PMID:27338332

  16. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  17. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa), and Pomelo (Citrus maxima) Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert Adrianto; Subagyo Yotopranoto; Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, ...

  18. Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon) cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; El Tamer, M.K.; Schwab, W.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus limon possesses a high content and large variety of monoterpenoids, especially in the glands of the fruit flavedo. The genes responsible for the production of these monoterpenes have never been isolated. By applying a random sequencing approach to a cDNA library from mRNA isolated from the pe

  19. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  20. HPLC estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour. Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°. The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia .

  1. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, G V; Unnikrishnan, K P; Rema Shree, A B; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia. PMID:20390090

  2. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insectici...

  3. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  4. Substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuka; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. One of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (Rha) after serial glycosylation steps. The linkage type of Rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. Such Rha residues are attached by either an α1,2- or an α1,6-rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT or 1,6RhaT). Although the genes encoding these RhaTs from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have been functionally characterized, the details of the biochemical characterization, including the substrate preference, remain elusive due to the lack of availability of the UDP-Rha required as substrate. In this study, an efficient UDP-Rha in vivo production system using the engineered fission yeast expressing Arabidopsis thaliana rhamnose synthase 2 (AtRHM2) gene was constructed. The in vitro RhaT assay using the constructed UDP-Rha revealed that recombinant RhaT proteins (Cm1,2RhaT; Cs1,6RhaT; or Cm1,6RhaT), which were heterologously produced in fission yeast, catalyzed the rhamnosyl transfer to naringenin-7-O-glucoside as an acceptor. The substrate preference analysis showed that Cm1,2RhaT had glycosyl transfer activity toward UDP-xylose as well as UDP-Rha. On the other hand, Cs1,6RhaT and Cm1,6RhaT showed rhamnosyltransfer activity toward quercetin-3-O-glucoside in addition to naringenin-7-O-glucoside, indicating weak specificity toward acceptor substrates. Finally, naringin and narirutin from naringenin-7-O-glucoside were produced using the engineered fission yeast expressing the AtRHM2 and the Cm1,2RhaT or the Cs1,6RhaT genes as a whole-cell-biocatalyst. PMID:26433966

  5. Substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuka; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. One of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (Rha) after serial glycosylation steps. The linkage type of Rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. Such Rha residues are attached by either an α1,2- or an α1,6-rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT or 1,6RhaT). Although the genes encoding these RhaTs from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have been functionally characterized, the details of the biochemical characterization, including the substrate preference, remain elusive due to the lack of availability of the UDP-Rha required as substrate. In this study, an efficient UDP-Rha in vivo production system using the engineered fission yeast expressing Arabidopsis thaliana rhamnose synthase 2 (AtRHM2) gene was constructed. The in vitro RhaT assay using the constructed UDP-Rha revealed that recombinant RhaT proteins (Cm1,2RhaT; Cs1,6RhaT; or Cm1,6RhaT), which were heterologously produced in fission yeast, catalyzed the rhamnosyl transfer to naringenin-7-O-glucoside as an acceptor. The substrate preference analysis showed that Cm1,2RhaT had glycosyl transfer activity toward UDP-xylose as well as UDP-Rha. On the other hand, Cs1,6RhaT and Cm1,6RhaT showed rhamnosyltransfer activity toward quercetin-3-O-glucoside in addition to naringenin-7-O-glucoside, indicating weak specificity toward acceptor substrates. Finally, naringin and narirutin from naringenin-7-O-glucoside were produced using the engineered fission yeast expressing the AtRHM2 and the Cm1,2RhaT or the Cs1,6RhaT genes as a whole-cell-biocatalyst.

  6. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, G. V.; Unnikrishnan, K.P.; A B Rema Shree; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:wat...

  7. Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different citrus species

    OpenAIRE

    González-Mas, M. Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standar...

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    OpenAIRE

    González-Mas, M. Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards....

  9. Effects of precooling and degreening treatments on the susceptibility of peach and citrus to handling damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Garcia Garcia, F.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical damage to fruits results from a combination of fruit properties and of damage inflicting effects by the handling equipment. Treatments were applied to fruits which affect mechanical damage susceptibility: precooling for stone fruits and degreening to citrus fruits. Laboratory tests (compression, impact, tumbling, abrasion) and field tests (damage in the handling lines) were applied to (3) peach, (2) apricot, (2) orange and (1) lemon varieties. Hydroor-air-cooling influence positive...

  10. The occurrence and distribution of Tuckerella japonica (Acari: Tuckerellidae) on tea bushes, Camellia sinensis and C. assamica, in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ebert, Timothy A; Rogers, Michael E; Shepard, Merle

    2016-08-01

    Adults, immatures and eggs of Tuckerella japonica (Ehara) were collected from unknown clones or varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze tea bushes in the Clemson University Farm, Coastal Research and Education Center, Charleston, South Carolina; from Assam hybrids in The Caw Caw Nature Preserve in Ravenel, SC; from C. sinensis and C. assamica (Masters) in the Charleston Tea Plantation on Wadmalaw Island, SC; C. sinensis in the Fairhope Tea Plantation in Fairhope, Alabama; and from C. sinensis 'Rosea' and a C. sinensis and C. assamica hybrid in Savannah and Ellabell, Georgia, between 1994 and 2015. This mite was consistently collected from 1-, 2- and 3+-year-old wood of tea plants with significantly greater numbers collected from 2-year-old wood. All stages of the mite were found within longitudinally split areas of the wood where underlying green bark tissues were exposed. As 1-year-old wood matured, there was increased splitting of the bark with increased mite presence. Mature green fruit (= developing seed pods) of tea were also frequented by T. japonica between June-July and October and their numbers were no greater than those on 1- or 3+-year wood. When the fruit were small (March-May) or as they hardened in late fall, they were not suitable feeding sites for this mite. Very few T. japonica were collected from 50 mature, inner or outer leaf samples with none usually found. Tuckerella japonica has multiple, overlapping generations and occurs on tea throughout the year in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina, USA. PMID:27294360

  11. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  12. Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, van E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus Hirsutellathompsonii Fisher and partly through a decline in feed qual

  13. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... (78 FR 8435-8441, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0060) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including... the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the continental United States. As a...

  14. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  15. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  16. RAPD analysis of 16 orange varieties in Lishui of Zhejiang%浙江丽水16个柑橘特色品种的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾燕如; 胡瑛; 斯金平; 徐象华

    2005-01-01

    以浙江省丽水市生产的16个柑橘品种为试验材料,利用随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)技术对其亲缘关系进行研究.用21个引物扩增出了216个RAPD位点,平均每个引物10.29个位点,其中多态性位点达96.76%.每个引物不同的品种能扩增出0~10个条带.引物S13信息量最少,扩增出了48个条带,而引物S317信息量最大,扩增出了143个条带.文旦Citrus grandis var.wentanyu是最特殊的品种,21个PCR扩增引物中有8个引物未扩增出任何条带.UPGMA聚类结果是瓯柑类、椪柑类、温州蜜柑类及柚类基本上能聚在一起;南香Citrus unshiu × Citrus clementina与天草Citrus hybrid在遗传上与温州蜜柑类接近;属于杂柑的胡柚Citrus paradisi‘Changshanhuyou’与红肉脐橙Citrus sinensis var.brasiliensis在遗传上接近.另外,用引物S304可以区分无籽瓯柑Citrus suavissima ‘Seedless'与普通瓯柑C.suavissima,用S356可以区分无籽柑Citrus poonensis‘Seedless’与普通椪柑C.poonensis.研究结果表明,这些柑橘不仅在DNA水平上是有差异的,而且RAPD标记技术可用于柑橘DNA水平的鉴别.图4表1参8

  17. Evaluating Toxicity of Extracted Destruxin from Metarhizium Anisopliae Against Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin produces some cyclic peptide toxins, destruxins, which exhibit a variety of insecticidal actions. Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of young citrus trees; therefore its effective and safe control is a important issue. Approach: Five isolates of M. anisopliae were inoculated in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB mediums. Destruxin was extracted by adding chloroform. Citrus leafminer was bioassayed by using the leaves containing early stages larvae and the data were recorded after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after treatment. Results: The range of mortality was between 30-65% based on the endpoint data. The minimum of three days to achieve 50% mortality was proved by probit analysis of time-mortality responses. The 10, 15 and 20 fold dilutions of extracted destruxins from isolates cause 17.2-48.5, 9.4-37.5 and 0-26.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Bioassay of destruxin by using citrus leafminer larvae shows its acceptable effect of destruxin. By considering biology of this species and calculated LT50s, destruxin seems to be an effectiveness component of IPM programs. The 10, 15 and 20 fold dilutions of extracted destruxin have a reduced amount of mortality, but in some cases it can balance the expensive production process of microbial agents and their efficacy.

  18. Odorants for surveillance and control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB, a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. RESULTS: In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs. We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ∼230%. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect.

  19. Observações citológicas em citrus: ll. variedades triplóides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Krug

    1944-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho apresenta-se um breve resumo dos conhecimentos atuais sôbre a citologia do gênero Citrus; descrevem-se, a seguir, duas variedades triplóides de interêsse econômico. Admite-se que uma delas se tenha derivado da outra por meio de um "seedling" nucelar. Os caracteres morfológicos e citológicos dêstes triplóides são apresentados em detalhes. Chama-se a atenção para a importância da triploidia nos trabalhos de melhoramento das plantas cítricas.A review is presented of citrus cytology and account is given of the author's investigations of this subject. Two triploid citrus varieties are described which are of economic importance. It appears probable that one of these is a nucellar seedling derived from the other. The morphological and cytological characteristics of these triploids are given in detail. Attention is called to the importance of triploidy in citrus breeding.

  20. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.