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Sample records for citrus sinensis red-flesh

  1. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-01-01

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants. PMID:26782492

  2. Comparative transcripts profiling reveals new insight into molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis red-flesh mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianchen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in lycopene metabolism and regulation is growing rapidly because accumulative studies have suggested an important role for lycopene in human health promotion. However, little is known about the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in fruits other than tomato so far. Results On a spontaneous sweet orange bud mutant with abnormal lycopene accumulation in fruits and its wild type, comparative transcripts profiling was performed using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 6,877,027 and 6,275,309 reliable signatures were obtained for the wild type (WT and the mutant (MT, respectively. Interpretation of the MPSS signatures revealed that the total number of transcribed gene in MT is 18,106, larger than that in WT 17,670, suggesting that newly initiated transcription occurs in the MT. Further comparison of the transcripts abundance between MT and WT revealed that 3,738 genes show more than two fold expression difference, and 582 genes are up- or down-regulated at 0.05% significance level by more than three fold difference. Functional assignments of the differentially expressed genes indicated that 26 reliable metabolic pathways are altered in the mutant; the most noticeable ones are carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and citrate cycle. These data suggest that enhanced photosynthesis and partial impairment of lycopene downstream flux are critical for the formation of lycopene accumulation trait in the mutant. Conclusion This study provided a global picture of the gene expression changes in a sweet orange red-flesh mutant as compared to the wild type. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed new insight into the molecular processes regulating lycopene accumulation in the sweet orange red-flesh mutant.

  3. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  4. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mallick; Rafeeq Alam Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypo...

  5. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  6. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  8. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) a...

  9. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  10. Effects of Citrus sinensis juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Sedigheh; keshvari, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Citrus sinensis juice (CSJ) is a rich source of dietary flavonoids which reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine the effects of four-week intake of natural and commercial orange (Citrus sinensis) juice on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. METHODS In this single-blind randomized crossover study, 22 healthy subjects (age: 18-59 years old) were included and randomly divided into two groups of 11. Group A consumed commercial CSJ during the firs...

  11. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Papiya Bigoniya; Kailash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic res...

  12. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  14. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, DiJun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

  15. Essential oils of flowers of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina cultivated in Algarve, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Dandlen, S.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Duarte, Amílcar; Faísca, J

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation, from the flowers of different cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Cs) and Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. (Cc) collected at different harvesting times, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. All the samples studied afforded yellowish oil which yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 % (v/w). The monoterpene fraction dominated both oils (66-91%), being the monoterpene hydrocarbons the main components of this fraction (45-69%). Sabinene (31-48%), linaloo...

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status. PMID:27166529

  17. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals possible common ancestors of nucleotide-binding sites domain containing genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementina genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified and re-annotated candidate disease resistance (R) genes with nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) domain from a Citrus clementina genome and two complete Citrus sinensis genome sequences (one from the USA and one from China). We found similar numbers of NBS genes from three citrus genomes, r...

  18. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Dhiman; Arun Nanda; Sayeed Ahmad; Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae) fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± s...

  19. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 270C. (M.A.C.)

  20. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  1. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano R. Lucheta; Ana Carla O. Silva-Pinhati; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Irving J. Berger; Juliana Freitas-Astúa; Mariângela Cristofani

    2007-01-01

    Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST) in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck co...

  2. Structural Basis of the Rind Disorder Oleocellosis in Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    OpenAIRE

    KNIGHT, TOBY G.; KLIEBER, ANDREAS; Sedgley, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Oleocellosis, a physiological rind disorder of citrus fruit, is an unattractive surface blemish caused by phytotoxic effects of released rind oils. The development of oleocellosis in Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was examined by following a time sequence of surface symptoms and microscopic rind changes. The two natural causes of oleocellosis were simulated: mechanical damage to the fruit and transfer of rind oil between fruit. Mechanical fruit injury resulted in rupture ...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium mesophilicum Strain SR1.6/6, Isolated from Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho Almeida, Diogo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Oliveira de Souza Lima, André; Caracciolo Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique; Ribeiro Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Silva, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome.

  4. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  5. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  6. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Science.gov (United States)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  7. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manosh Kumar Biswas

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02% are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21% polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  8. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  9. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  11. An in silico analysis of the key genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R. Lucheta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are known by their high content of phenolic compounds, including a wide range of flavonoids. In plants, these compounds are involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stresses, cell structure, UV protection, attraction of pollinators and seed dispersal. In humans, flavonoid consumption has been related to increasing overall health and fighting some important diseases. The goals of this study were to identify expressed sequence tags (EST in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck corresponding to genes involved in general phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the key genes involved in the main flavonoids pathways (flavanones, flavones, flavonols, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. A thorough analysis of all related putative genes from the Citrus EST (CitEST database revealed several interesting aspects associated to these pathways and brought novel information with promising usefulness for both basic and biotechnological applications.

  12. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approxima...

  13. Characterization of Pectin from Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectin is a structurally diverse polysaccharide synthesized in plants. Its core element is a backbone of a-(1,4)-galacturonic acid residues, which may be interspersed with rhamnose residues, esterified, and decorated with a variety of glycan chains. In citrus juice, pectin comprises the majority o...

  14. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  15. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix) and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf.) Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thi Khoe; Tran Van Mi

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf.) rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck), seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck), Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour.) and...

  16. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okon Uduak Uduak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T 4 , T 3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Objective: To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T 4 and T 3 and TSH. Materials and Methods: Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ, 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T 4 and T 3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. Results: The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T 4 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T 4 when compared with FOJ group. T 3 was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB.

  17. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experi...

  18. Light controls phospholipase A2α and β gene expression in Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    The low-molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2α (CssPLA2α) and β (CsPLA2β) cloned in this study exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in leaf tissue of Citrus sinensis. Only CssPLA2α displayed distinct diurnal patterns in fruit tissues. CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β diurnal expression exhibited periods of approximately 24 h; CssPLA2α amplitude averaged 990-fold in the leaf blades from field-grown trees, whereas CsPLA2β amplitude averaged 6.4-fold. Diurnal oscillation of CssPLA2α and CsPLA2β gene expressi...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Copia-like Retrotransposons from 12 Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-Guo TAO; Juan XU; Yun-Jiang CHENG; Liu HONG; Wen-Wu GUO; Hua-Lin YI; Xiu-Xin DENG

    2005-01-01

    As the largest transposable element in the plant genome, retrotransposons are thought to be involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution, especially in sweet orange, which is prone to bud mutation. In the present study, the presence of copia-like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity, genomic distribution, and transcriptional activities in Citrus were investigated in 12 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cultivars using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT)sequences. Twelve amplification products from each cultivar were cloned and sequenced. The cloned sequences showed great heterogeneity, except "Dream" navel and "Hamlin", both of which shared the same sequence. Frame shifting, termination, deletion, and substitution accounted for the heterogeneity of RT sequences. Southern blot hybridization using the RT1 clone from the "Cara Cara" navel as a probe showed that multiple copies were integrated throughout the sweet orange genomes, which made the retrotransposon possible an effective molecular marker to detect citrus evolution events and to reveal its relationship with bud mutation. No transcriptional activities of the retrotransposon were detected by RT-PCR and Northern analysis in the fruits and leaves of either "Cara Cara" or "Seike" navels.

  20. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  1. Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci Adriana Patrícia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

  2. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K.; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif anal...

  3. Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

    2010-04-01

    alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

  4. Effect of dried Citrus sinensis peel on gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308 were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25, 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50, 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75, and 1% w/w (DCSP-1. Control diet (DCSP-0, with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five treatments in a time frame of six weeks (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 10 chickens. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test. The results allowed to observe that the mean of Escherichia coli in caecum on day 42 was significantly different (P>0.05 but did not affect other gastrointestinal microbial population traits (P>0.05. The mean of total sheep red blood cells and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM on day 28 (P>0.05 were also determined. Total sheep red blood cells on day 42 were significantly different (P<0.05. The IgG and IgM mean titers on days 28 and 42 was of no significant difference (P>0.05. Supplementing the feed with Citrus sinensis had no significant effect on Newcastle disease on day 42 (P>0.05. The mean value for hemagglutination inhibition on day 42 was significantly different (P<0.05. It can be then concluded that DCSP feed supplemention ameliorated the gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits.

  5. In vitro organogenesis optimization and plantlet regeneration in Citrus sinensis and C. limonia

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    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous genes can be introduced in plants by genetic transformation techniques. However, an efficient tissue culture system with high rates of plant recovery is necessary for gene introduction. This work aimed to define organogenesis and plant regeneration protocols for sweet orange varieties Natal, Valencia and Hamlin (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck which can be used in plant transformation experiments. Seeds of which teguments were removed, were germinated in vitro and maintained in the dark for three weeks, followed by one week at 16-h photoperiod (40 µmol m-2 s-1 and 27 ± 2°C. Organogenesis induction was done by introducing epicotyl segments in MT medium with 25 g L-1 sucrose and different BAP concentrations. After adventitious bud growth, the shoots were transferred to MT medium with either NAA or IBA (1 mg L-1, or absence of auxin, for rooting. The best results were obtained with 1 mg L-1 BAP for bud induction and 1 mg L-1 IBA for rooting for all three sweet orange cultivars. The use of 0.5-2.5 mg L-1 BAP, followed by 1 mg L-1 IBA were the best growth regulator combinations for bud induction and rooting, respectively, for 'Rangpur' lime. The protocols presented in this work are suitable for associations with genetic transformation experiments for these cultivars.

  6. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic responses resulting from physiological changes that occur in plants displaying citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC symptoms, we adopted a strategy of comparing two EST libraries from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. One of them was prepared with plants showing typical CVC symptoms caused by Xylella fastidiosa and the other with non-inoculated plants. We obtained 15,944 ESTs by sequencing the two cDNA libraries. Using an in silico hybridization strategy, 37 genes were found to have significant variation at the transcriptional level. Within this subset, 21 were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in plants with CVC. The main functional categories of the down-regulated transcripts in plants with CVC were associated with metabolism, protein modification, energy and transport facilitation. The majority of the up-regulated transcripts were associated with metabolism and defense response. Some transcripts associated with adaptation to stress conditions were up-regulated in plants with CVC and could explain why plants remain alive even under severe water and nutritional stress. Others of the up-regulated transcripts are related to defense response suggesting that sweet orange plants activate their defense machinery. The genes associated with stress response might be expressed as part of a secondary response related to physiological alterations caused by the infection.

  7. Preliminary In Vitro Antisickilng Properties of Crude Juice Extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus Sinensis, Carica Papaya and Ciklavit®

    OpenAIRE

    Iweala, EE J; Uhegbu, FO; Ogu, GN

    2009-01-01

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle ce...

  8. (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Revuelta Llano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desechos de naranja pueden ser un importante subproducto en las plantas procesadoras para obtener el jugo y los aceites esenciales. Varios parámetros bromatológicos, tanto del material fresco como del fermentado, fueron investigados para caracterizar el potencial nutricional y fermentativo de los desechos de naranja con vistas a la producción de ensilajes. El ensilaje directo sin el uso de aditivos es un método alternativo, pero se presenta un alto contenido de alcohol en relación con los carbohidratos solubles del material inicial. El deterioro aeróbico ocurrió sin el crecimiento, visible a simple vista, de mohos sobre la superficie del ensilado durante el ensayo de laboratorio. El ensilaje mixto de desecho de naranja–leucaena presentó un alto contenido de alcohol. Por otra parte, el tratamiento que emplea urea al 0,5 % y el de la proporción desecho de naranja–pescado (2:1 mostraron adecuadas propiedades químicas y podrían ser recomendados a los productores.

  9. BIOSORPTION STUDIES OF CADMIUM (II IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO ORANGE RIND (CITRUS SINENSIS L. OSBECK

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    Satish A. Bhalerao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption studies for effective removal of cadmium (II ions from aqueous solutions using orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, cost effective biosorbent, was carried out in batch system. FTIR analysis of biosorbent confirmed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl group which was responsible for biosorption of cadmium (II ions. The SEM represents porous structure with surface area. The effects of operational factors including solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial cadmium (II ions concentration, contact time and temperature were studied. The optimum solution pH for cadmium (II ions biosorption by biosorbent was 7.0 with the optimal removal 80.30 %. The biosorbent dose 5 mg/ml was enough for optimal removal of 65.15 %. The biosorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was achieved after 90 minutes of contact. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were analysed by four widely used two-parameters Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm model provided a better fit with the experimental data than Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR isotherm models by high correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.911. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 83.33 mg/g of biosorbent. Simple kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion rate equation were employed to determine the adsorption mechanism. Results clearly indicates that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.998 was found to be correlate the experimental data strongest than other three kinetic models and this suggests that chemical adsorption process was more dominant. Thermodynamic study revealed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and increasing randomness of the solid solution interfaces. Orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck was successfully used for the

  10. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  11. [Spider diversity in cultures of Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae) in Corrientes province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gilberto; Bar, Maria Esther; Oscherov, Elena Beatriz; González, Alda

    2013-09-01

    Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. In spite that the presence of spider assemblages has been described in different crop plants, no reports have been done for Citrus species in Argentina. We studied the spider community associated with cultures of Citrus sinensis in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, in two plots (AM1 irrigated and AM2 unirrigated) of 0.82 hectares each. Spiders were collected monthly by using pitfall traps, hand capture, agitation of foliage and sieving of soil litter. A total of 7174 specimens were collected (33 families, 44 genera and 200 species/morphospecies). The AM1 recorded 3811 individuals (33 families, 179 species/morphospecies) and AM2 3363 individuals (31 families, 174 species/morphospecies). November, December and January showed the highest abundance in both plots. A total of 70% of collected spiders were juveniles. Eight families were the most abundant and represented 75% of spiders collected in both plots, the largest being Lycosidae. We identified eight guilds in both plots, for which the ground runners resulted the most abundant (AM1 n = 1341, s=39, n=999 AM2, s = 33), followed by orb weavers (AM1 n = 637, s = 36; AM2 n = 552, s = 33), the stalkers (AM1 n = 471, s = 43, AM2 n = 453, s = 47) and the space web-builders (AM1 n = 446, s = 23; AM2 n = 342, s = 25). The analysis of alpha diversity in both plots (AM1H' = 4.161, J' = 0.802; AM2 H' = 4.184, J' = 0.811) showed no significant differences (t = 1.083 p = 0.279). The linear dependences model was the one with the best fit results, where the species observed were more than estimated. Clench model estimated 90.9% of the spiders observed in the unit with irrigation and 90.6% in the unit without irrigation. PMID:24027921

  12. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  13. Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Malerbo-Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality, nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized. Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g than in covered flowers (168.5g. Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice. The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud. Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.

  14. Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, M I; Akubor, P I

    1999-01-01

    Flour samples were prepared from dehulled and undehulled sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds. The flour samples were evaluated for proximate composition, mineral content and selected functional properties. Proximate analysis showed a composition of 54.2% fat, 28.5% carbohydrate, 5.5% crude fiber, 3.1% crude protein and 2.5% ash for the dehulled orange seed flour (dry weight). Mineral analyses showed high levels of calcium and potassium in flour samples. Partially defatted and undefatted flour samples prepared from dehulled orange seeds had least gelation concentrations of 10 and 12% (w/v), respectively. Water absorption capacity for the defatted and undefatted dehulled flour samples were 240 and 220%, respectively. Defatting improved oil absorption capacity of the orange seed flour by 84%. Emulsion activity, emulsion stability and foaming capacity decreased following defatting of flour. Foam prepared from defatted flour was less stable than that from full-fat flour. Incorporation of NaCl up to 0.2 M improved the foaming capacity of orange seed flour. PMID:10798346

  15. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

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    Vanessa Cardeñosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C. The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  16. Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis – as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Methods Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Results Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has

  17. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Ghorbani; Zahra Pakkish

    2014-01-01

    The effect of brassinosteroid (BR) on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L.) fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that...

  18. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification gen...

  19. Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10 for red flesh and foliage colour in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.

  20. Inotropic effect of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck leaf extracts on the guinea pig atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira E.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to determine the contractile effect of crude and acetone leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. on mammalian myocardium. Crude leaf extracts have been used in folk medicine to treat neurological disorders. Some flavonoids isolated from this plant presented a positive inotropic effect on myocardium. This motivated us to test the extracts on the atria of guinea pigs of both sexes (300-500 g and surprisingly we observed inotropic depression instead of an increase in force. The maximum effect of the crude extract was 79.4 ± 8.1% of the control force amplitude (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, stimulus: 2 Hz, 400 V, 0.5 ms. The EC50 for crude, ethanol, acetic, aqueous, and acetone extracts was 300, 300, 600, 1000, and 140 µg/ml, respectively, with a Hill constant of 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.4, respectively. Blockade of cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, or opioid membrane receptors with 1.5 µM atropine sulfate, 1 µM propranolol, and 10 µM naloxone, respectively, did not change the effect of the crude extract. The acetone extract abolished the Bowditch positive staircase phenomenon (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, suggesting a possible reduction of the calcium inward current, and also promoted the so-called Woodworth phenomenon. The effect was concentration-dependent and indicated the existence of another inhibitory contractile mechanism such as the simultaneous activation of some of the membrane potassium channels reducing the myocardial action potential duration and further decreasing the cellular calcium entry.

  1. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ‘Fengjiewancheng’(FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of‘Fengjie 72-1’navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of su-crose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Re-sults showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant’s gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its pa-rental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  2. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongZhong; LIU Qing; XIONG JingJing; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Resuits showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering)and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1)was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  3. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO DE HASTES DE LARANJA CACAU (Citrus sinensis Osb NO "PEGAMENTO" DE BORBULHAS EFFECT OF THE STORAGE PERIOD OF “CACAU” ORANGE (Citrus sinensis OSB BUDWOODS ON THE QUALITY OF BUDS FOR GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Teixeira Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da conservação de borbulhas de laranja “Cacau” (Citrus sinensis Osb embaladas em sacos plásticos, no pegamento de enxertos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram enxertia com borbulhas de hastes com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias de conservação. A percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente em função do período de conservação. À medida que aumentava a intensidade de descoloração das hastes, diminuía a percentagem de "pegamento" de enxertos. Para nossas condições as borbulhas de laranja "cacau" (Citrus sinensis Osb não devem ser conservadas em sacos plásticos, à temperatura ambiente, por mais de 5 dias, pois a percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente com o período de conservação das hastes.

    This work was carried out at the Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO. This study was made to test the effect of the storage period of the “cacau” orange budwood on the quality of buds for grafting. Budwoods of the “Cacau” orange (Citrus sinensis  Osb were harvested, packed in polyethylene bags and maintained at environmental temperature. The buds were grafted on rootstocks of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osb at intervals of 6 days (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. It was noted that the loss of bud viability increased simultaneously with progressive change in budwood color from the natural green to an intense brown. The percentages of buds alive after 60 days of grafting were: 100% on the day budwoods were harvested; 70% after 5 days of storage; 36% after 10 days of storage and 00% after 15 days.

  4. Red-fleshed Apples: Old Autochthonous Fruits as a Novel Source of Anthocyanin Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:26134879

  5. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika Warikoo; Ankita Ray; Jasdeep Kaur Sandhu; Roopa Samal; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results: The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions:The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  6. Insecticidal evaluation of essential oils of Citrus sinensis L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is one of the most common insects, associated with vectoring of various etiological agents. In order to search for effective control agent, the essential oil of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was evaluated for its insecticidal activity against the larvae and pupae of housefly using contact toxicity and fumigation bioassays. In the contact toxicity assay, lethal concentration, LC(50) of C. sinensis essential oil against housefly larvae, varied between 3.93 and 0.71 μl/cm(2) for different observation days, while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 5.8 to 2.3 days. Mortality of larvae were significant with different concentrations (F = 2.79, df = 4, P oil treated larvae revealed extreme dehydration and surface distortion while control larvae were free from any of the above symptoms and presented smooth surface, conforming effect of essential oil on housefly larvae. Percentage inhibition rate of oil against housefly pupae was 27.3-72.7% for contact toxicity and 46.4-100% for fumigation assay. Compositional analysis of C. sinensis essential oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed D: -limonene (73.24%), α-pinene (5.86%) and myrcene (4.45%) as major components whereas its vapour profile (solid-phase micro extraction-GC/MS) was dominated by D: -limonene at 92.57%. Significant activity of C. sinensis essential oil against larvae and pupae of housefly, pave the way for its use as eco-friendly housefly control measure. PMID:22127387

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes in a spontaneous altered leaf shape mutant of the navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Xinlei; Yu, Keqin; Shen, Shihui; Zhang, Yajian; Wu, Juxun; Yi, Hualin

    2012-07-01

    Most of the economically important citrus cultivars have originated from bud mutations. Leaf shape and structure are important factors that impact plant photosynthesis. We found a spontaneous bud mutant exhibiting a narrow leaf phenotype in navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. To identify and characterize the genes involved in the formation of this trait, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and macroarray analysis. A total of 221 non-redundant differentially expressed transcripts were obtained. These transcripts included cell wall- and microtubule-related genes and two transcription factor-encoding genes, yabby and wox, which are crucial for leaf morphogenesis. Many highly redundant transcripts were associated with stress responses, while others, encoding caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) and a myb-like transcription factor, might be involved in the lignin pathway, which produces a component of secondary walls. Furthermore, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for selected genes to validate the quality of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the SSH libraries. This study represents an attempt to investigate the molecular mechanism associated with a leaf shape mutation, and its results provide new clues for understanding leaf shape mutations in citrus. PMID:22609459

  8. Physiological changes and expression characteristics of ZIP family genes under zinc deifciency in navel orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Fei; FU Xing-zheng; WANG Nan-qi; XI Jian-long; HUANG Yi; ZHOU Wei; LING Li-li; PENG Liang-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deifciency is widespread among citrus plants, but information about the mechanisms for Zn deifciency response in these plants is scarce. In the present study, different navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves with various yelowing levels were sampled in our experimental orchard, and upon estimation of nutrient contents, Zn deifciencies were diagnosed as mild, moderate, and severe. Further analysis of chlorophyl content, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expression levels ofZn/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family genes were conducted in the sampled Zn-deifcient leaves. The results showed that chlorophyl contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) seemed to decrease with reduced Zn contents. In addition, comparison of severe Zn-deifcient and normal leaves revealed that activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased signiifcantly, whereas that of Zn-containing enzymes such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) signiifcantly reduced with decreasing Zn contents. As expected, expression of the ZIP family genes,ZIP1,ZIP3, andZIP4, was induced by Zn deifciencies. These results deepen our understanding of Zn deifciency in citrus plants as wel as provide useful preliminary information for further research.

  9. Comportamiento de crecimiento y rendimiento de naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. injertado en varios portainjertos en suelos calcisol vértico y pétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 16 portainjertos para naranjo Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. en suelos Calcisol vértico y pétrico de textura migajón arcilloso y migajón arenosos, respectivamente. El objetivo fue comparar el potencial de sitio y los portainjertos en el crecimiento y rendimiento de naranja a 10 años de plantada. Los tratamientos (portainjertos incluyeron limones, citranges, mandarinos, lima ácida y trifoliados; como testigo, se utilizó Naranjo agrio (Citrus aurantium L.. En los suelos utili-zados, resultaron sobresalientes, con respecto a naranjo agrio: Volkameriana (Citrus volkameriana, Pasq., Carrizo (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf. x Citrus sinensis L., Macrofila (Citrus macrophylla Wester, Amblicarpa (Citrus amblycarpa Ochse y Sunki x Trifoliado (Sunki x Poncirus trifoliata. La altura, el diámetro de tronco y de copa, así como el volumen de copa fue 14%, 17%, 3% y 18.7% mayor en el suelo Calcisol vértico que en el Calcisol pétrico. El rendimiento en 2001 y el acumulado (de 5 años fue 35% y 23% superior, respectivamente, en el suelo de textura migajón arcilloso que en el suelo de textura migajón arenoso.

  10. Morphogenesis and tissue culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.): effect of temperature and photosynthetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both incubation temperature and photosynthetic radiation affected morphogenesis, callus culture and plantlet culture of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cultured in vitro. Bud culture from nodal stem segments, regeneration of shoots and buds from internode stem segments and induction of primary callus were near optimal at incubation temperatures between 21–30°C. The optimal temperature for root formation was 27°C with temperatures above and below being clearly deleterious. Incubation in the dark or under low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was beneficial for callus induction and growth and also favored the production of rooted plantlets from bud cultures. Incubation in the dark improved considerably the regeneration of shoots and buds from internode segments and the recovery of whole plants. No off-types, as determined by protein and isoenzyme analysis, were observed among plantlets recovered from bud cultures or from regeneration of shoots from internode stem segments

  11. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality.

  12. 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for evaluation of metabolic changes in citrus sinensis Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis (Xac) bacterium causes one of the most feared and untreatable diseases in citriculture: citrus canker. To understand the response mechanisms of orange trees when attacked by Xac, leaves and fruits of Citrus sinensis were directly evaluated by HRMAS NMR (high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. This technique allows the analysis of samples without laborious pre-treatments and also allows access to important information about chemical composition of samples. The orange tree leaves and fruit peels investigated in this study demonstrated the biochemical changes caused by Xac. Aided by chemometric analysis, the HRMAS NMR results show relevant changes in amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and terpenoids content. (author)

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the polyamine oxidase gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-25

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are FAD-dependent enzymes associated with polyamine catabolism. In plants, increasing evidences support that PAO genes play essential roles in abiotic and biotic stresses response. In this study, six putative PAO genes (CsPAO1-CsPAO6) were unraveled in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using the released citrus genome sequences. A total of 203 putative cis-regulatory elements involved in hormone and stress response were predicted in 1.5-kb promoter regions at the upstream of CsPAOs. The CsPAOs can be divided into four major groups, with similar organizations with their counterparts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcripts of CsPAOs were detected in leaf, stem, cotyledon, and root, with the highest levels detected in the roots. The CsPAOs displayed various responses to exogenous treatments with polyamines and ABA and were differentially altered by abiotic stresses, including cold, salt, and mannitol. Overexpression of CsPAO3 in tobacco demonstrated that spermidine and spermine were decreased in the transgenic line, while putrescine was significantly enhanced, implying a potential role of this gene in polyamine back conversion. These data provide valuable knowledge for understanding the roles of the PAO genes in the future. PMID:25445392

  14. Construction and Characterization of a cDNA Library from the Pulp of Cara Cara Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed and characterized from the pulp of Cara Cara navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) at different stages of ripening. Tittering results revealed that approximately 5.086x105 independent clones were included in this library. Electrophoresis gel results of 15 randomly selected clones revealed that the size of the insertion fragments ranged from 400 bp to 2 kb, with an average size of 900 bp. Sequencing results of 150 randomly picked clones showed that the recombination rate was 94%. During subsequent sequence analysis, 41 of 139 clones failed to be identified and the amino sequence of 71 clones shared less than 30% identity with related plants in GenBank. Of 27 clones whose amino sequences shared more than 60% identity with other related plants in GenBank, 17 clones showed an 80% identity with the corresponding candidate genes of citrus. The clone recognized as the type Ⅲ metallothionein-like (MT) gene was observed to occur 13 times, indicating that the protein may play an important role in fruit development and ripening.

  15. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  16. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of lineage-specific genes within sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuantao; Wu, Guizhi; Hao, Baohai; Chen, Lingling; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background With the availability of rapidly increasing number of genome and transcriptome sequences, lineage-specific genes (LSGs) can be identified and characterized. Like other conserved functional genes, LSGs play important roles in biological evolution and functions. Results Two set of citrus LSGs, 296 citrus-specific genes (CSGs) and 1039 orphan genes specific to sweet orange, were identified by comparative analysis between the sweet orange genome sequences and 41 genomes and 273 transcr...

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Pulp of the Red Mutant 'Cara Cara' Navel Orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Li Ye; An-Dan Zhu; Neng-Guo Tao; Qiang Xu; Juan Xu; Xiu-Xin Deng

    2010-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag(EST)analysis of the pulp of the red-fleshed mutant 'Cara Cara' navel orange provided a starting point for gene discovery and transcriptome survey during citrus fruit maturation. Interpretation of the EST datasets revealed that the mutant pulp transcriptome held a high section of stress responses related genes,such as the type Ⅲ metallothionein-like gene(6.0%),heat shock protein(2.8%),Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase(0.8%),late embryogenesis abundant protein 5(0.8%),etc. 133transcripts were detected to be differentially expressed between the red mutant and its orange-color wild genotype 'Washington' via digital expression analysis. Among them,genes involved in metabolism,defense/stress and signal transduction were statistical overrepresented. Fifteen transcription factors,composed of NAM,ATAF,and CUC transcription factor(NAC); myeloblastosis(MYB); myelocytomatosis(MYC); basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH); basic leucine zipper(bZIP)domain members,were also included. The data reflected the distinct expression profile and the unique regulatory module associated with these two genotypes. Eight differently expressed genes analyzed in digital were validated by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. For structural polymorphism,both simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)loci were surveyed; dinucleotide presentation revealed a bias toward AG/GA/TC/CT repeats(52.5%),against GC/CG repeats(0%). SNPs analysis found that transitions(73%)outnumbered transversions(27%). Seventeen potential cultivar-specific and 387 heterozygous SNP loci were detected from 'Cara Cara' and 'Washington' EST pool.

  18. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

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    Jansen Robert K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is one of the major impediments for development of transgenic trees. We have sequenced the Citrus chloroplast genome to facilitate genetic improvement of this crop and to assess phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms. Results The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis is 160,129 bp in length, and contains 133 genes (89 protein-coding, 4 rRNAs and 30 distinct tRNAs. Genome organization is very similar to the inferred ancestral angiosperm chloroplast genome. However, in Citrus the infA gene is absent. The inverted repeat region has expanded to duplicate rps19 and the first 84 amino acids of rpl22. The rpl22 gene in the IRb region has a nonsense mutation resulting in 9 stop codons. This was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers that flank the IR/LSC boundaries. Repeat analysis identified 29 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with expressed sequence tags revealed six putative RNA edits, five of which resulted in non-synonymous modifications in petL, psbH, ycf2 and ndhA. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods of a dataset composed of 61 protein-coding genes for 30 taxa provide strong support for the monophyly of several major clades of angiosperms, including monocots, eudicots, rosids and asterids. The MP and ML trees are incongruent in three areas: the position of Amborella and

  20. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sweet Orange Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Cultivars in Iraq Using RAPD Markers

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    Ali Saeed Atiyah AL-Janabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crops of Citrus. Genetic diversity and inter-relationship among 5 cultivars (Indian, Iraqi, Japanese, Syrian, Egyptian of C. sinensis were analyzed based on RAPD markers. Six primers generated reproducible and easily storable RAPD profiles with a number of amplified DNA fragments ranging from 6 to 14 fragment bands. The total number of amplicons detected was 51, including 14 fragments unique bands with average reached 2.8 fragments ̸ primers. While the number of polymorphic ranged from 0 to 8 with an average reached 4.4 fragments ̸ primers with the polymorphic percentage ranged from 0% to 57.1%. While the number of monomorphic ranged from 2 to 5 fragment bands and was total of the monomorphic 15 fragments with an average reached 3 fragments ̸ primers with the monomorphic percentage was 14.2 % to 83.3%. A maximum numbers of amplicons was amplified with primer OPS-238 reached 14 fragments while the minimum number of fragments was amplified with primer OPS-253 reached 6 fragments. The highest number of polymorphic bands reached 8 fragments was obtained with primer OPS-238 with high percentage 57.1%, while the highest number of monomorphic bands reached 5 fragments with high percentage 83.3% was obtained with primer OPS-253. RAPD markers detected genetic distance and similarity, amaximum genetic distance value was observed between Japanese (Jap and Syrian (Syr cultivars reached 0.530 with less similarity value reached 47%, a minimum genetic distance value was observed between sweet Iraqi (Irq and Indian (Ind cultivars reached 0.239 with high similarity value reached 76.1%. The similarity matrices were employed in the cluster analysis to generate a dendrogram using the UPGMA method. The cluster tree analysis showed that the sweet orange cultivars were broadly divided into two main groups A and B with similarity reached 50%. A group including

  1. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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    Le Thi Khoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck, seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. and Duong mandarin  (C. reticulata, budded on Kaffir lime and Carrizo citrange, in the 3rd and 4th  year after planting under the trial fields at Mekong Delta Vietnam, the trees of Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. budded on Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix were supperior with precocity, producing high number of fruits (16.67 fruits per tree , and very good fruit quality of larger fruit size (334.6 g and 11.16 cm, fruit weight and diameter, respectively, higher total soluble solids (12.5 brix, better orange-yellow juice color development, and excellent flavor and aroma of juice, as compared to the typical characteristics; meanwhile these were followed by trees of seedless Mat orange budded on Kaffir lime, which produced the highest number of fruits (47.33 fruits per tree, with little inferior quality of seedy fruit (1-3 seeds per fruit, lower total soluble solids (7.33%, and no good flavor and aroma, as somewhat differed from the typical fruit traits.

  2. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, J.G., E-mail: julianaggalvao@gmail.com [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, V.F.; Ferreira, S.G. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); França, F.R.M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, D.A.; Freitas, L.S.; Alves, P.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Araújo, A.A.S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Nunes, R.S. [Pharmacy Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2015-05-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC{sub 50} of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC{sub 50} 21.5 ppm.

  3. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts. PMID:25977057

  4. β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oil: An alternative to control Aedes aegypti larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was useful to determine the formation of inclusion complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. • HS/GC-FID quantitative analysis revealed that the best method of obtaining a CSEO/β-CD complex was the PWE, with the largest inclusion content [78.5%]. • The inclusion complex revealed LC50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC50 21.5 ppm. - Abstract: The development of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complexes is an interesting way for increasing the aqueous solubility of essential oils. The aim of this study was to prepare inclusion complexes of Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) with β-CD using paste complexation (with and without co-solvent) and co-precipitation methods. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complexes using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, CSEO content (%) and solubility of complexes were measured. The biological activity against the Aedes aegypti Linn. larvae was further evaluated. For comparison purposes, a physical mixture between β-CD and CSEO was prepared and evaluated. Thermal analysis clearly indicated the formation of complexes by paste and co-precipitation methods. The headspace/gas chromatography quantitative analysis showed inclusions contents higher than 50%. On the other hand, the product revealed LC50 of 23.01 ppm, close to CSEO LC50 21.5 ppm

  5. Citrus sinensis leaf petiole and blade colonization by Xylella fastidiosa: details of xylem vessel occlusion Colonização de pecíolo e folha de Citrus sinensis por Xylella fastidiosa

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    Eduardo Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of citrus in Brazil. X. fastidiosa is restricted to xylem vessels of plants and knowledge regarding xylem colonization is still limited. Our goal was to verify how this bacterium colonizes and spreads within xylem vessels of sweet orange Citrus sinensis cv. Pêra. Petioles and pieces of leaf blades from naturally infected plant exhibiting characteristic symptoms were prepared for light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold labeling (IGL. Petioles from healthy plants were used as control. IGL results, using an antibody against wall hemicelluloses, revealed that the pit membrane of vessels was altered. Bacterial cells were observed in the pit between adjacent vessels. Results support the contention that X. fastidiosa produces cellulases to reach adjacent vessels. SEM revealed that colonization of sweet orange started with X. fastidiosa cells attaching to the xylem wall, followed by an increase in the number of bacterial cells, the production of fibrous material, and finally vessel occlusion by biofilm composed of copious amounts of amorphous material, strands and cells. Phenolic materials, hyperplasia and hypertrophy were noticed in leaves with gummy material. Xylem vessels frequently contained an unknown needle-like, crystallized matter blocking the vessel.A clorose variegada dos citrus (CVC, causada por uma bactéria restrita ao xilema (Xylella fastidiosa, é uma importante doença de citros no Brasil, entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a colonização dos vasos do xilema pela bactéria. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar como X. fastidiosa invade os vasos adjacentes do xilema e algumas das alterações expressas por plantas de laranja Pêra. Foram coletadas 15 amostras de pecíolos e áreas das folhas de plantas com sintomas característicos da doença, as quais foram preparadas para

  6. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  7. Época da indução e evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio The flower induction and evocation period in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio

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    Iara Alvarenga Mesquita Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção do estímulo floral (indução e emissão das primeiras sépalas, na gema floralmente determinada (evocação floral em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio pôde ser acompanhada pelas variações anatômicas nos meristemas apicais e axilares. Com objetivo de determinar a época na qual ocorre a indução e evocação floral, cortes longitudinais de gemas apicais e axilares, corados com pironina Y-methylgreen foram efetuados em períodos regulares de maio a agosto. Através das mudanças no formato da gema, principalmente diâmetro, que aumentou com a indução, foi possível determinar a época do ano na qual gemas vegetativas são induzidas a florescerem. Foram detectadas variações nos diâmetros das gemas no período de início da morfogênese floral (meados até o final de julho. A medição do diâmetro das gemas mostra-se um procedimento eficiente para acompanhar os fenômenos decorrentes da indução, evocação e morfogênese florais. Gemas vegetativas apresentam diâmetro médio de 100µm, com túnica composta por três camadas, de formato cônico, recobrindo o corpo, ao passo que a reprodutiva é mais achatada, após a iniciação do primeiro primórdio de sépala, exibindo diâmetro médio de 200µm. Coloração com pironina Y-methylgreen proporciona a captação do fenômeno da evocação floral, pela detecção de regiões mais concentradas em RNA, nas zonas periféricas das gemas; alteração bioquímica esta que precede a emissão das sépalas.The research aims to determine the time in which the inflorescence induction and evocation occurs. The production of inflorescence stimulus (induction and emission of first sepals in a bud determined as a flower bud (floral evocation in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra Rio could be observed through the anatomic variations of the apical and lateral meristems. Longitudinal sections, stained with pironina Y-methylgreen were done in regular periods from May to August. The

  8. Study of the histamine production in a red flesh fish (Sardina pilchardus) and a white flesh fish (Dicentrarchus punctatus)

    OpenAIRE

    (1), M.A. Afilal; (1), H. Daoudi; (2), S. Jdaini; (1), A. Asehraou; *(2), A. Bouali

    2006-01-01

    The histaminic poisoning, known since 1910, still raises relevant questions. Several authors have agreed that the red flesh fish is more susceptible to accumulate histamine during deterioration, than the white one. This is why this type of food is often involved in this kind of poisoning. High values of histamine concentration (77.7 mg/100g) was observed in sardines having stored for 24 hours at 30°C, while the rate of histamine in white flesh fish, under the same conditions and at the stag...

  9. The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family

    OpenAIRE

    Ulasli, Mustafa; Gurses, Serdar A.; Bayraktar, Recep; Yumrutas, Onder; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Igci, Mehri; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Cakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of Anthemis hyalina (Ah), Nigella sativa (Ns) and peels of Citrus sinensis (Cs) have been used as folk medicine to fight antimicrobial diseases. To evaluate the effect of extracts of Ah, Ns and Cs on the replication of coronavirus (CoV) and on the expression of TRP genes during coronavirus infection, HeLa-CEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cells were inoculated with MHV-A59 (mouse hepatitis virus–A59) at moi of 30. 1/50 dilution of t...

  10. Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) Method for the Determination of Limonene in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Oil: Implications for Limonene Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernart, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    The citrus-derived bioactive monoterpene limonene is an important industrial commodity and fragrance constituent. An RP isocratic elution C18 ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) method using a superficially porous stationary phase and photodiode array (PDA) detector has been developed for determining the limonene content of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) oil. The method is fast with a cycle time of 1.2 min, linear, precise, accurate, specific, and stability indicating, and it satisfies U.S. Pharmacopeia suitability parameters. The method may be useful in its present form for limonene processing, or modified for research on more polar compounds of the terpenome. A forced-degradation experiment showed that limonene is degraded by heat in hydro-ethanolic solution. PDA detection facilitates classification of minor components of the essential oil, including β-myrcene. PMID:25857884

  11. Polyphenol profiling of a red-fleshed apple cultivar and evaluation of the color extractability and stability in the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, Marta; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Sotin, Hélène; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Bauduin, Rémi; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-07-23

    Red-fleshed apples can be used for the production of innovative products such as rosé juices and ciders. Phenolic compounds including procyanidins (i.e., condensed tannins) and anthocyanins were quantified in the fruits and juices of a red-fleshed apple cultivar by chromatography coupled to UV-visible and mass spectrometry. Juice color was characterized by colorimetry. The influence of oxygen, pH, sulfites, ascorbic acid, and copper on the color stability of the juice was studied in an experimental design. Fruits were rich in polyphenols (0.5 g/100 g FW), with anthocyanins and procyanidins accounting for 9 and 73% of total polyphenols, respectively. Extractability of anthocyanins in the juice was 26%. Juice storage under air atmosphere at 35 °C resulted in significant browning with the anthocyanin level decreasing up to 86% after 14 days. In contrast, color was stable for storage under argon atmosphere. Sulfites, ascorbic acid, and copper have only a slightly influence on color stability in those conditions. PMID:24655330

  12. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Paula Santos Martins

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  13. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus. PMID:26397813

  14. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models. PMID:25892813

  16. Concentração de suco de laranja (Citrus sinensis por osmose inversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Fernando Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de suco de laranja por osmose inversa combinada com ultrafiltração foi estudada em escala semi-piloto, visando avaliar a utilização dessa tecnologia para substituição parcial da evaporação. Foram utilizados no processamento 100 litros de suco de laranja, com teor de polpa de 1,5%, cedidos pela CTM Citrus. Na primeira etapa, todo o suco passou pela etapa de ultrafiltração, para separação da polpa, enzimas pectinolíticas e microrganismos, que foram retidos. Foi utilizada uma membrana da Romicom (HF-43 de polissulfona em um sistema de configuração tubular, com peso molecular de corte de 50.000 daltons, à pressão de 1,2 bar. Obteve-se um fator de concentração de 27,6. O retentado da ultrafiltração foi pasteurizado à temperatura de 90°C, em trocador de calor de superfície raspada desenvolvido para este projeto. O processo de osmose inversa foi conduzido no equipamento Lab-unit M-20 da DDS, utilizando membranas da DDS (HR 95 PP de filme composto em um sistema de configuração quadro e placas. Foram realizados três tratamentos com pressões de 20, 40 e 60 bar e para cada experimento, foram feitas três repetições. O retentado pasteurizado da ultrafiltração foi adicionado ao retentado da osmose inversa e caracterizado química, física e sensorialmente. Na osmose inversa foram obtidos fatores de concentração de 2,7, 3,5 e 3,6 e teores de sólidos solúveis de 18, 23 e 30 °Brix, para os tratamentos de 20, 40 e 60 bar, respectivamente. Os respectivos permeados apresentaram teores de sólidos solúveis de 3,3, 1,3 e 0,3°Brix e acidez de 262,50, 91,50 e 34,25 mg de ácido cítrico/100 ml. Os sucos obtidos pelos três tratamentos apresentaram valores de "defect score" e "color score" superiores aos do suco original, enquanto que para o "flavor score", os sucos obtidos às pressões de 40 e 60 bar, apresentaram valores próximos ao ideal. Os valores de "ratio", pH e formol foram semelhantes entre os

  17. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  18. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

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    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  19. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses. PMID:26300904

  20. Progress in selection for sodium chloride, 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and streptomycin tolerance in Citrus sinensis ovular callus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus sinensis (cultivar Shamouti) nucellar embryogenic callus lines with greatly increased tolerance to salinity (NaCl), 2,4-D and streptomycin were selected. Selected lines were found stable after removal of selection pressure. Gamma irradiation at 8-16 kR was also employed and found to speed up selections. Embryos from NaCl and 2,4-D tolerant lines also showed increased tolerance. Embryogenesis in selected lines, suppressed during selection procedures, was regained by growing cultures in the presence of galactose or lactose as the sole carbon source. A schedule was worked out furthering development of embryos into plantlets. Conditions for adventive shoot formation from embryonic shoot segments were established, thus allowing cloning of embryos. A procedure was worked out for suspension culture and agar plating of cell groups. (author)

  1. C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Sanguinello and Tarocco blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice: Identification and influence on antioxidant properties and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Sanguinello and Tarocco are the blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) cultivars most diffused worldwide. Reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with MS-MS analysis showed that these two varieties have a similar chromatographic pattern, characterised by the presence of C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids. Of the two, Sanguinello was found to be far richer in flavonoids than Tarocco. In the juices, twelve individual components were identified for the first time, namely, four C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), three flavonol derivatives (quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-glycoside), an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activity of these juices has been evaluated. PMID:26593535

  2. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  3. Populational fluctuation of vectors of Xylella fastidiosa, wells in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] varieties of northwest Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia de Oliveira Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the population flutuation of the sharpshooters species subfamily Cicadellinae belonging to the tribes Cicadellini and Proconiini, in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis( L. Osbeck] commercial orchards of the northwest region of Paraná State , Brazil. Samplings were carried out the employing every time 24 yellow sticky cards. Identification of the species showed that the most representative were Dilobopterus costalimai of the Cicadellini tribe and Acrogonia citrina of the Proconiini tribe.A Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma importante doença que ocorre nos citros, cujo agente causal é a bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, Wells. A bactéria depende, obrigatoriamente, de insetos vetores para sua disseminação, que são as cigarrinhas sugadoras do xilema (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae. No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a flutuação populacional de espécies de cigarrinhas nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], Natal, Pêra, Valência e Folha Murcha, em um pomar comercial localizado na região Noroeste do Paraná, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Amostragens quinzenais foram realizadas com o uso de armadilhas adesivas amarelas, num total de 24 armadilhas em cada avaliação. Após a identificação das espécies observou-se, que as mais representativas foram Dilobopterus costalimai da tribo Cicadellini e Acrogonia citrina da tribo Proconiini, sendo que a variedade de laranja Pêra apresentou o maior número de espécies vetoras durante os anos avaliados.

  4. Evaluation sous serre de la tolérance à la salinité de quelques porte-greffes d'agrumes : Citrus aurantium et deux hybrides de Poncirus trifoliata (Poncirus x Citrus sinensis et Poncirus x Mandarinier sunki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus rootstocks response to salinity. To determine the effects of salinity on the intensity of chlorosis, growth and uptake of Na+ and Cl-, we grew three Citrus rootstocks (sour orange Citrus aurantium (C.a and two new hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata [P.t. x Citrus sinensis (PXC and P.t. x Mandarinier sunki (PXM] in nutrient solutions containing 0, 35 or 70 mM NaCl during 30 or 60 days. Foliar damages increase with time for all treatments and rootstocks. The intensity and the frequency of the chlorosis caused after 30 days of saline stress reveal the sensitivity of PXC and the tolerance of PXM. Moreover, if apical growth of the C.a is not affected by 35 mM NaCl, it is stimulated on the other hand for PXM and is inhibited for PXC. The concentration 70 mM NaCl affects the vigour of rootstocks more severely and shows the tolerance of PXM and the sensitivity of PXC. The biomass decreases with time for all treatments and rootstocks. However, it appears that the concentration 35 mM NaCl is insufficient for the discrimination between rootstocks against salt stress. But, at 70 mM NaCl, the reduction of the biomass confirms the sensitivity of PXC and proves the tolerance of PXM. Furthermore, the content of leaves in Cl- and Na+ is affected meaningfully by salinity, time of stress and rootstocks (PXM appears to be efficient excluding of Cl-. Contents in Na+ and Cl- are correlated with foliar toxicity symptoms. This content is also correlated with biomass reduction of PXC. Therefore, in addition to inhibitory effects of high concentrations of Cl- and Na+, an imbalance of essential nutrients may also contribute to the reduction in growth of this rootstocks under saline conditions.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  6. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; Deus, Juliana Telles de; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  7. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Faraco de Oliveira Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  8. EFEITOS DE STIMULATE E DE MICRO-CITROS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO VEGETATIVO E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA LARANJEIRA `PÊRA' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro P.R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de aplicações do estimulante vegetal Stimulate e do fertilizante foliar Micro-Citrus no número de ramos, comprimento dos ramos, número e caracterização de frutos na colheita da laranjeira `Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck sobre limoeiro `Cravo'. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, num Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro Álico, em Holambra (S.P., sendo que em 13/02, 22/04 e 17/06/96 foram efetuadas pulverizações com Stimulate (1 L.ha-1, 2L. ha-1 e 4L. ha-1, Stimulate 2L. ha-1 + Micro-Citros e Micro-Citros, além do controle. Realizaram-se seis tratamentos distribuídos em dez árvores inteiramente casualizadas em um pomar uniforme com seis anos de idade. Foram demarcadas quatro ramificações em diagonal, nas quais efetuaram-se determinações biométricas em 22/04 e 23/09/96. Observou-se que Stimulate (1 L. ha-1 aumentou o número de ramos 69 dias após a primeira aplicação, além de incrementar o peso médio dos frutos por árvore, em relação ao controle, na colheita.

  9. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

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    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  10. Isolation of Xylella fastidiosa from Citrus sinensis (L) Osb. And Vitis vinifera and study of genetic diversity in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in different crops. Symptoms similar to those caused by citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) were observed in sweet orange trees which served as shade and fences in coffee plantations in Costa Rica, in 2002. A total of 35 citrus trees and 24 vines from eight different districts and 3 respectively were evaluated by 'double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay' (DASELISA), resulting in 21 citrus and 19 positive vid. From four citrus trees and six of vines, were obtained six isolates and seven isolates respectively in solid medium, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics coincided with those reported in the literature as characteristic of X. fastidiosa. The identity of the isolates is confirmed by the chain polymerase reaction (PCR) using primers 272-1/272-2int and RST31/RST33. Three isolates from Grecia (Alajuela Province) amplified a band of 500pb using specific primers 272-2int/CVC-1 for strains of X. fastidiosa that cause CVC. The genetic variability of isolates from each other in comparison with isolates of coffee in Costa Rica, U.S. grapes and citrus in Brazil have been studied using techniques of random amplification polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and length polymorphisms of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the products obtained with primers int/272-2int JB-1/JB-2 and 272-1. The results showed a clear separation between citrus isolates of Costa Rica; and, an association of three of them with the strains of citrus in Brasil. Also, an association between strains of coffee of Costa Rica with grape vines in the U.S. An association of molecular analysis confirmed the data variance. (author)

  11. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the Ci...

  12. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds. PMID:25806548

  13. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  14. Two Lycopene β-Cyclases Genes from Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Encode Enzymes With Different Functional Efifciency During the Conversion of Lycopene-to-Provitamin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; ZHOU Wen-jing; XU Qiang; TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; GUO Fei; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2013-01-01

    Citrus fruits are rich in carotenoids. In the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb, EC:1.14.-.-) is a key regulatory enzyme in the catalysis of lycopene to β-carotene, an important dietary precursor of vitamin A for human nutrition. Two closely related lycopeneβ-cyclase cDNAs, designated CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2, were isolated from the pulp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis). The expression level of CsLCYb genes is lower in the lfavedo and juice sacs of a lycopene-accumulating genotype Cara Cara than that in common genotype Washington, and this might be correlated with lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara fruit. The CsLCYb1 efifciently converted lycopene into the bicyclicβ-carotene in an Escherichia coli expression system, but the CsLCYb2 exhibited a lower enzyme activity and converted lycopene into theβ-carotene and the monocyclic γ-carotene. In tomato transformation studies, expression of CsLCYb1 under the control of the caulilfower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S constitutive promoter resulted in a virtually complete conversion of lycopene intoβ-carotene, and the ripe fruits displayed a bright orange colour. However, the CsLCYb2 transgenic tomato plants did not show an altered fruit colour during development and maturation. In fruits of the CsLCYb1 transgenic plants, most of the lycopene was converted intoβ-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching about 700 µg g-1 DW. Unexpectedly, most transgenic tomatoes showed a reduction in total carotenoid accumulation, and this is consistent with the decrease in expression of endogenous carotenogenic genes in transgenic fruits. Collectively, these results suggested that the cloned CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2 genes encoded two functional lycopene β-cyclases with different catalytic efifciency, and they may have potential for metabolite engineering toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of food crops.

  15. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H2O2 production and transcriptional alteration

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    Wang Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. Results In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1 was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng' via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9 varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac, the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT. In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm and polyamine oxidase (PAO activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H2O2. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H2O2 accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H2O2 due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  16. Efeito dos fungicidas Fosetil-Al e Metalaxil na colonização de mudas de Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertadas em C. limon (L. Burmf Effect of the fungicides Fosetyl-Al and Metalaxyl on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck grafted onto C. limon (L. Burmf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Graciolli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O efeito dos fungicidas Fosetil-Al e Metalaxil, recomendados para prevenção e controle da gomose, sobre o desenvolvimento de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em Citrus sinensis Osbeck enxertado em C. limon Burmf foi investigado. Três experimentos foram realizados em 1990 e 1992, em Casa Branca e Ilha Solteira, estado de São Paulo, Brasil, respectivamente. Coletas de raízes foram feitas após a aplicação dos fungicidas, em intervalos mensais e semanais em Casa Branca, e a cada três dias em Ilha Solteira, para avaliar-se a percentagem de colonização radical por FMA. De modo geral, Fosetil-Al não apresentou efeito deletério no desenvolvimento dos micobiontes. Ao contrário, Metalaxil reduziu a colonização radical; e quando ambos os fungicidas foram aplicados juntos, a colonização radical foi diminuída, particularmente nos experimentos mais curtosWe investigated the effect of the fungicides Fosetyl-Al and Metalaxyl, recommended for prevention and control of gummosis, on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in Citrus sinensis Osbeck grafted onto C. limon (L.Burmf. Three experiments were performed in 1990 and 1992, in Casa Branca and Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, respectively. Root samples were collected after fungicide application at long (monthly and short (weekly periods at Casa Branca and every three days at Ilha Solteira, in order to evaluate the percentage of root colonization by AMF. Fosetyl-Al generally did not show a deleterious effect on the development of mycobionts. In contrast, Metalaxyl reduced root colonization by AMF, and when both fungicides were applied together, mycorrhizal colonization was decreased, particularly in the shorter time experiments

  17. Aspects of the regulator and physical-chemical properties of phenylalanine ammoniacliase of the fruit tissue of citrus sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurence of PAL as an enzyme containing calmodulin as an integral part of its structure is discussed against the background of the important regulatory function of the enzyme in secondary plant metabolism. This study also forms the basis of the investigation into the effect of gamma radiation on citrus tissue which leads to the induction of phenylalanineammoniacliase

  18. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  19. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

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    Morillo Coronado Yacenia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  20. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.

  1. Mites (Arachnida, Acari) on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot; Elizabeth Franklin; Denise Navia; Thierry Ray Jehlen Gasnier; Antonio Carlos Lofego; Byatryz Mortágua de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves...

  2. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  3. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

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    Andresa Muniz Pedrosa

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72 of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs. Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further

  4. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  5. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel cDNA Encoding Late Embryogenesis-Abundant Protein 5 Like (LEA-5) Gene from Cara Cara Navel Orange Fruit(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2006-01-01

    LEA5 gene was postulated related with both stress and hormone responses. In an attempt to find genes exclusively expressed during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange, a novel cDNA clone encoding late embryogenesis-abundant protein 5 like gene (CitLEA5-1) was obtained. It was 582 bp in length, containing 97 deduced amino acids. Compared with the stress-induced LEA5 from leaves of Citrus sinensis, CitLEA5-1 had a shorter 3' untranslated region (UTR). Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that CitLEA5-1 was transcriptional regulated during fruit ripening of Cara Cara navel orange.

  6. Efeito do tratamento agudo do óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck na aquisição da memória espacial de ratos avaliada no labirinto aquático de Morris

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    Ciro Gonçalves Sá

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Alzheimer está relacionada a prejuízos na aquisição e retenção da memória, processos que podem ser estudados no laboratório por meio de modelos animais, entre eles o labirinto aquático de Morris, que avalia a memória espacial em ratos. Estudos sobre as propriedades biológicas do gênero Citrus destacam atividades importantes como antioxidantes e anticolinesterásica. O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do tratamento agudo com o óleo essencial de folhas (OEF de Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck no processo de aquisição da memória espacial em ratos Wistar, utilizando o paradigma do labirinto aquático de Morris. O óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis possui em sua composição principalmente compostos da classe dos monoterpenos, como o limoneno (20,14%, citronelol (30,42% e o geranial (31,42%. Os animais foram tratados previamente com doses do óleo essencial (OE de C. sinensis (L. Osbeck de 50, 100 e 200 mg/ kg e realizados testes de campo aberto e do labirinto aquático de Morris. A aquisição da memória espacial é avaliada pelo tempo que o animal leva para localizar a plataforma depois de ter sido treinado. Nos resultados do campo aberto foi demonstrado que os animais não apresentam estímulo motor quando tratados com o óleo essencial de Citrus sinensis e os resultados do labirinto aquático foram significativamente menores na latência para encontrarem a plataforma submersa do que o grupo controle negativo [p<0,01] indicando uma capacidade de memória maior nos animais tratados, mas que devem ser reforçados por outros testes de memória preconizado na literatura.

  7. Uso de Data Logger na determinação da transpiração de Citrus sinensis (L.) e Persea americana (Mill.) no distrito de Jangamo, sul de Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Chambule, Estêvão Eduardo Estêvão

    2013-01-01

    Resumo:O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido num quintal agroflorestal, no distrito de Jangamo, a sul de Mocambique com o objetivo de determinar a transpiracao de Citrus sinensis e Persea americana, bem como o efeito dos fatores ambientais sobre este processo. Para esta finalidade e usando o caule das plantas, foi montado o sistema de velocidade de pulso de calor e conectados os sensores termicos ao Data logger CR 1000 para medir a velocidade com que os liquidos se movem na planta e sensores d...

  8. Phytohormone profiling of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves and roots using GC-MS-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehela, Yasser; Hijaz, Faraj; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser A; El-Zahaby, Hassan M; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-07-20

    Phytohormones mainly affect plant development and trigger varied responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The sensitivity of methods used to profile phytohormones is a vital factor that affects the results. We used an improved GC-MS-based method in the selective ion-monitoring (SIM) mode to study the phytohormone profiling in citrus tissues. One extraction solvent mixture and two derivatization reagents were used, methyl chloroformate (MCF) and N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). The method showed a low limit of detection and low limit of quantification with high extraction recovery percentage and reproducibility. Overall, we detected 13 phytohormones belonging to six different groups. Auxins, SAs, tJA, and ABA were detected after derivatization with MCF while cytokinins and GAs were detected after derivatization with MSTFA. Cytokinins, SAs, and gibberellins were found in all tissues while auxins and tJA were observed only in the leaves. ABA was found in leaves and roots, but not in root tips. The method we used is efficient, precise, and appropriate to study citrus phytohormonal profiles to understand their crosstalk and responses to environmental and biological stresses. PMID:27224902

  9. Efeito dos fungicidas Fosetil-Al e Metalaxil na colonização de mudas de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck enxertadas em C. limon (L.) Burmf Effect of the fungicides Fosetyl-Al and Metalaxyl on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck grafted onto C. limon (L.) Burmf

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antônio Graciolli; Vera Lúcia Ramos Bononin; Rosilaine Carrenho

    2000-01-01

    O efeito dos fungicidas Fosetil-Al e Metalaxil, recomendados para prevenção e controle da gomose, sobre o desenvolvimento de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) em Citrus sinensis Osbeck enxertado em C. limon Burmf foi investigado. Três experimentos foram realizados em 1990 e 1992, em Casa Branca e Ilha Solteira, estado de São Paulo, Brasil, respectivamente. Coletas de raízes foram feitas após a aplicação dos fungicidas, em intervalos mensais e semanais em Casa Branca, e a cada três dias e...

  10. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  11. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red

  12. Ingestão de seiva do xilema de laranjeiras 'Pêra' e 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck sadias e infectadas por Xylella fastidiosa, pelas cigarrinhas vetoras Oncometopia facialis e Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Xylem sap ingestion form healthy "Pera" and "Valencia" sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and infected ones by Xylella fastidiosa, Oncometopia facialis and Dilobopterus costalimai (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Montesino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infecção pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC, sobre a taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema de plantas cítricas por duas espécies de cigarrinhas vetoras (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Foram utilizados pés-francos de laranjeira-doce (Citrus sinensis das variedades 'Pêra' e 'Valência', infectadas por X. fastidiosa da linhagem 9a5c, por meio de inoculação mecânica. Os insetos utilizados nos experimentos foram coletados em campo, sendo um representante da Tribo Cicadellini (Dilobopterus costalimai e um da Proconiini (Oncometopia facialis. A taxa de ingestão de seiva do xilema por O. facialis foi quantificada nos ramos das plantas e a de D. costalimai nas folhas e ramos, por meio da avaliação do volume do líquido (honeydew excretado por unidade de tempo. O consumo pela cigarrinha O. facialis nas plantas doentes foi menor do que nas plantas sadias. Na variedade 'Pêra' doente, o consumo foi baixo, não permitindo a quantificação da seiva eliminada. Na 'Pêra' sadia e na 'Valência' doente e sadia, O. facialis apresentou valores expressivos de excreção, com maior alimentação no período diurno. Nas plantas sadias das duas variedades, o consumo pela cigarrinha D. costalimai foi maior do que nas plantas com CVC. Comparando-se as variedades, o consumo foi superior na variedade 'Valência', e, em relação às partes da planta, folha e ramo, a taxa de ingestão foi maior no ramo das duas variedades, apresentando consumo maior no período diurno.It was studied the effect of Xylella fastidiosa infection, causal agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC, on the xylem sap ingestion rate of citrus plants by two sharpshooters species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. Seedlings of sweet orange Pera and Valencia (Citrus sinensis were used and infected by X. fastidiosa, strain 9a5c, obtained by mechanical inoculation. The insects used in the experiments were collected in the field, one

  13. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  14. Floración, crecimiento y maduración de la naranja valle Washington, citrus sinensis Osbek

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    Torres Héctor R.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En cítricos de ocho años, se determinó la caída de flores y frutos en tres épocas de floración y se evaluó el crecimiento utilizando el modelo logístico y modelos de línea recta. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de jugo, pulpa y cáscara en tres estados de madurez. Se encontraron tres etapas de caída de estructuras: rápida en los primeros 25 -30 días (flores, lenta 30 -200 días y estabilización; el porcentaje de formación de frutos fue del 9%. El modelo logístico no describió bien el crecimiento del fruto; con modelos de línea recta, se explicaron cuatro fases: muy lenta (0-30 días con 0.21 cm3/día intermedia (30 -105 días con 121 cm3/día, rápido crecimiento (105-195 días con 2.36 cm3/día y tendencia a estabilización (>195días con 1.1 cm3/día. Los frutos fueron aptos para el consumo desde los 180 -200 días pero pueden permanecer en el árbol hasta los 295 - 350 días. El contenido de jugo de la fruta madura fue del 35.5%.The fall of flowers and fruit was studied in 8 years old citrus at three times of flowering, growth following the logistic model and straigh line model was also studied. Percentaje of juice, pulp, and skin in three maturity stages were quantified. Three stages of structures fall were found: quick during the first 25 -30 days (flowers, slow 30-200 days and stabilization. Fruit formation percentaje was 9%. The logistic model did not describe well fruit growth; with straight line models four phases were explained: Slow (0-30 days with 0.21 cm3/day, intermediate (30-105 days with 1.21 cm3/day, quick growth (105-195 days with 2.36 cm3/day and tendency to stabilization (195 days with 1.1 cm3/day. Fruits good for consumption after 180 - 200 but main remain on the tree up to 295 - 350 days. Juice content of the rippen fruit reached 35.5 %.

  15. The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulasli, Mustafa; Gurses, Serdar A; Bayraktar, Recep; Yumrutas, Onder; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Igci, Mehri; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Cakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    Extracts of Anthemis hyalina (Ah), Nigella sativa (Ns) and peels of Citrus sinensis (Cs) have been used as folk medicine to fight antimicrobial diseases. To evaluate the effect of extracts of Ah, Ns and Cs on the replication of coronavirus (CoV) and on the expression of TRP genes during coronavirus infection, HeLa-CEACAM1a (HeLa-epithelial carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a) cells were inoculated with MHV-A59 (mouse hepatitis virus-A59) at moi of 30. 1/50 dilution of the extracts was found to be the safe active dose. ELISA kits were used to detect the human IL-8 levels. Total RNA was isolated from the infected cells and cDNA was synthesized. Fluidigm Dynamic Array nanofluidic chip 96.96 was used to analyze the mRNA expression of 21 TRP genes and two control genes. Data was analyzed using the BioMark digital array software. Determinations of relative gene expression values were carried out by using the 2(-∆∆Ct) method (normalized threshold cycle (Ct) value of sample minus normalized Ct value of control). TCID50/ml (tissue culture infectious dose that will produce cytopathic effect in 50% of the inoculated tissue culture cells) was found for treatments to determine the viral loads. The inflammatory cytokine IL-8 level was found to increase for both 24 and 48 h time points following Ns extract treatment. TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8 and TRPV4 were the genes which expression levels changed significantly after Ah, Ns or Cs extract treatments. The virus load decreased when any of the Ah, Ns or Cs extracts was added to the CoV infected cells with Ah extract treatment leading to undetectable virus load for both 6 and 8 hpi. Although all the extract treatments had an effect on IL-8 secretion, TRP gene expression and virus load after CoV infection, it was the Ah extract treatment that showed the biggest difference in virus load. Therefore Ah extract is the best candidate in our hands that contains potential treatment molecule(s). PMID

  16. The effects of nitrogen and potassium nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissue of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

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    Evens Terence J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrients are one of the most basic components of plant tissue culture media. Nitrogen in the form of NH4+ and NO3- is the dominant mineral nutrient in most plant tissue culture formulations, with effects dependent on both the proportion and the amount of NH4+ and NO3-. The effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic cell lines of sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. 'Valencia', tissues routinely used in citrus horticultural and plant improvement research, was explored using an experimental approach free of ion confounding that included a 2-component mixture (NH4+:K+ and a quantitative factor [NO3-] crossed by the mixture, thereby providing ion-specific estimates of proportional and amount effects. Results First, the linear mixture component, though only a comparison of the design space vertices, was highly significant for both tissue types and showed that NH4+ was required by both tissues. Second, the NH4+ * K+ mixture term was highly significant for both tissue types, revealing that NH4+ and K+ exhibit strong synergistic blending and showed that growth was substantially greater at certain blends of these two ions. Third, though the interaction between the NH4+:K+ mixture and NO3- amount on fresh weight accumulation for both tissue types was significant, it was substantially less than the main effect of the NH4+:K+ mixture. Fourth, a region of the design space was identified where fresh weight growth was increased 198% and 67% over the MS medium controls for nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissues. Conclusion By designing a mineral nutrient experiment free of ion confounding, a direct estimation of ion-specific proportional and amount effects on plant tissue growth is possible. When the ions themselves are the independent factors and/or mixture components, the resulting design space can be systematically explored to identify regions where the response(s is substantially improved

  17. High Incidence of Preharvest Colonization of Huanglongbing-Symptomatic Citrus sinensis Fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and Exacerbation of Postharvest Fruit Decay by That Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in “Ca. Liber...

  18. Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Haag; L.E. Gutierrez; A. R. Dechen; Mourão Filho, F. A.A.; C.S. Moreira

    1993-01-01

    De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco), L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr.), em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescim...

  19. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless

  20. Efeito de herbicidas residuais, aplicados por vários anos consecutivos, na distribuição do sistema radicular da laranjeira Natal (Citrus sinensis.(L. osbeck Effects of residual herbicides, applyed for several years son the root system distribution of 'Natal' orange (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Victória Filho

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a influência do uso contínuo de vários herbicidas residuais, sobre a distribuição das radicelas de laranjeiras Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertadas sobre limão Cravo (Cithus limonia Osbeck e plantadas em janeiro de 1970. O experimento foi instalado no pomar de produção da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias do Campus de Jaboticabal (UNESP, em Latossol Roxo distrófico, com 1,6% de matéria orgânica e 51% de argila. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, dentro de um esquema fatorial 11x 3x2x2, com três repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados, com as respectivas doses em kg do i.a/ha foram: fluometuron a 4,2; simazíne a 4,8; atrazine a 4,8; bromacil a 3,2;bromacil (40% + diuron (40% a 4,8; bromacil (53,3% + diuron (27,6% a 4,8; terbacil a 3,2; oxadiazon a 1,5; dichlobenil a 3,0 e 6,0; além de uma testemunha capinada. O estudo das radicel as foi feito pelo "método do trado", tendo sido tomadas amostras de solo contendo radicelas, nas distâncias de 80, 160 e 240 cm do tronco, nas camadas de 0 a 15 cm e 15 a 30 cm de profundidade e em duas direções distintas (entrelinhas e entreplantas. Os resultados mostraram que as radicelas localizam-se superficialmente, com 70% delas nos primeiros 15 cm, do total encontrado na camada superficial de 0 a 30 cm de profundidade do solo. Cerca de 75% das radicelas situam-se até a distância de 160 cm do tronco. Na camada mais superficial do solo (0 a 15 cm, a quantidade de radicelas diminuiu de maneira acentuada, à medida que se afastou do tronco. Na camada de 15 a 30 cm de profundidade, ocorreu uma distribuição horizontal mais uniforme, comparada com a da camada de 0 a 15 cm. As radicelas das plantas do cultivar Natal distribuiram-se uniformemente, tanto na direção das plantas da linha vizinha, quanto nas das plantas de uma mesma linha, para o espaçamento de 7,0 m x 7,2 m. Não se

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Robert K; Lee Seung-Bum; Singh Nameirakpam D; Bausher Michael G; Daniell Henry

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear transformation; it not only increases transgene expression but also facilitates transgene containment, which is ...

  2. Comparative Studies of Various Phytonutrients in Citrus Fruits

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    S. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current piece of research was undertaken to investigate the phytochemicals constituents such as carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, anthraquinone, glycosides, Saponin, glycosides, steroid, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phlobotannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, etc in the species of citrus genus (Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulate Blanco, Citrus aurantium L. All these plants were collected locally. Qualitative analysis of these phytochemicals was performed. All three types of citrus are rich with phytochemicals. Quantitative screenings is in progress in our lab.

  3. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor(ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    si-bei eli; wei-zhi eouyang; xiao-jin ehou; liang-liang eXie; chun-gen ehu; Jin-Zhi eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes. A total of 19 non-redundant ARF genes (CiARF) were identified and validated from the sweet orange genome. A c...

  4. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor(ARF gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    si-bei eli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes. A total of 19 non-redundant ARF genes (CiARF were identified and validated from the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive overview of the CiARF gene family was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs, and cis-elements in promoter sequences. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members in citrus growth and development.

  5. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello; Gabriel Porto Quadros

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.12615 This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT), total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP) and conductivity (EC), of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with P...

  6. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamloo, M. M.; Sharifani, M.; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  7. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.)

    OpenAIRE

    de Paula Santos Martins, Cristina; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G.; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sin...

  8. Analysis of the Inheritance and Expression of Antibacterial Peptide Gene Shiva A in Transgenic Citrus(Citrus sinensis) during Its Asexual Propagation%抗菌肽Shiva A基因在转基因柑橘无性繁殖后代中的遗传与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰珍; 何永睿; 彭爱红; 雷天刚; 刘小丰; 邹修平; 姚利晓; 陈善春

    2013-01-01

    In order to further clarify the genetic stability and the target traits of the foreign gene in the progeny of transgenic citrus,the asexual reproduction plants of transgenic Newhall navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)containing bivalent antibacterial peptide gene(Shiva A-cecropin B) were studied.In this study,the genetic stability of Shiva A gene in To,T1,T2 and T3 progenies of transgenic citrus varieties were analyzed by PCR,Southern hybridization,Real-time quantitative PCR and greenhouse disease index statistic to Xathomonas axonopodis pv.Citri(Hasse) Dye.The results showed that the antimicrobial peptides Shiva A gene was existed and expressed in To,T1,T2 and T3 plants.This meant target gene could be stably inherited from one generation to another through asexual propagating.There was difference of Shiva A gene copy number between transgenic To and its asexual propagation.Southern bloting analysis showed that To generation had two hybridizations,but its progenies had only one hybridization consistent with To generation.It could be speculated that the T0 generation plant was a transgenic multicellular mixed cytochimera.In addition,Realtime quantitative PCR results showed that,even if Shiva A gene in the To generation genome was double copy numbers,but its expression level was lower than a single copy of the T1,T2 and T3 generation.Therefore,in this study,exogenous gene expression and transgene copy number was a negative correlation.The results of this study provide some basic date and the material for extending the stable phenotype of transgenic citrus strains in carrying out the safety evaluation of transgenic plants.%为进一步明确外源基因在转基因柑橘无性繁殖后代中的遗传稳定性及目标性状表现,本研究以转双价抗菌肽基因(ShivaA-cecropinB)纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus Sinensis Osbeck)无性繁殖后代植株为材料,通过PCR扩增,Southern杂交和实时定量PCR检测,以及温室抗病性评价分析等,对抗菌肽ShivaA基

  9. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  11. Influencia de 46 porta-injertos para cítricos en la precocidad o retardo de maduración de la naranja "Frost valencia" (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caselles N. Álvaro A.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Of 46 graft carrier influence in citrics on ripe precocity or retardation from "Frost Valencia" Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck was studied looking for to guaranter a fruit constant supply toward market. Graft carrier influence was tested in orange blosson, fruiting ripeness season. Stock influence to induce early intermediate or later blossoms was observed, related with period and intensity so them same ocurr. Stock influence on solubles solids content, juici volume, ripeness index, ripe fruit, mantenence on tree also was found . Early of later yields are feasible to obtain using trifoliado x Ruby Or (1437 and "Garcia Valencia" stock markedly, or which highly significant ripeness gains were found with "Frost Valencia" Orange respectively.Se estudió la influencia de los portainjertos para cítricos buscando la obtención de producciones tempranas o tardías para garantizar un suministro continuo de fruta fresca al mercado. Se analizó por espacio de dos años la influencia de los porta-injertos en el período de floración, fructificación y maduración de la naranja. Se observó influencia del patrón para inducir floraciones precoces, intermedias o tardías haciendo referencia al período de intensidad con que ocurren las mismas. También se encontró influencia del patrón en contenido de sólidos solubles, volumen de jugo, acidez, índice de marez y mantenimiento de la fruta madura en el árbol. Es posible obtener producciones tempranas o tardías con la utilización de los patrones trifoliados x Ruby Or (1437 Y García Valencia, sobre las cuales se encontró adelantos altamente significativos de maduración de la naranja "Frost Valencia" respectivamente.

  12. Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucía Garzón Correa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlada de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia. Los tratamientos (T de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc; T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g, estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo, fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05 en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos y el testigo mostró los menores valores, 13.82% y -2.5 MPa, lo cual indica un estrés moderado.

  13. EFECTO DE LA ÉPOCA DE RECOLECCIÓN DE LA NARANJA (Citrus sinensis L. VARIEDAD VALENCIA 'LATE' SOBRE EL PROCESAMIENTO INDUSTRIAL DE CÍTRICOS EN LAS TRES GRANDES REGIONES EDAFOCLIMÁTICAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenia Pérez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la especie Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck variedad Valencia 'Late' procedente de 10 empresas citrícolas del país, ubicadas en tres regiones edafoclimáticas, que suministran la fruta a la producción de jugo concentrado congelado de naranja (JCCN, en las plantas industriales de Pinar del Río, Ceballos y Contramaestre durante el período 2000-2002. Se evaluó el comportamiento del rendimiento potencial (RP de la fruta utilizada como materia prima para el procesamiento industrial, obteniendo los menores valores dados por las empresas de la región oriental asociada a laplanta industrial de Contramaestre, que se traduce en destinar menos volúmenes de fruta para producir 1 t de JCCN. Se mantuvo la tendencia de esta planta industrial de obtener la mejor eficiencia del sistema en términos de RP comparadas con las dos restantes en estudio. Estos resultados mostraron que en la región oriental se alcanzaron los mayores valores de SST del sistema, ya que el 91.6 % de la fruta alcanza valores medio desde 11.3 hasta 15.57 0Bx, mientras el 100 % de la fruta alcanza un contenido de jugo por encima de 51.6 %. Las variables de calidad de la fruta asociadas al rendimiento industrial de sólidos solubles totales (SST y contenido de jugo (CJ mostraron un incremento sostenido en febrero-marzo, causando un efecto importante en la fecha de recolección de la naranja Valencia 'Late' durante los tres años evaluados.

  14. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; João C. M. Barreira; Sousa, Maria João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

  15. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

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    Erukainure, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA, total phospholipid (TP content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse chow. A significant difference (p Ratas albinas machos fueron alimentadas con aceites de soja y de cáscara de naranja (C. sinensis para determinar su efecto sobre el malondialdehído (MDA, fosfolípidos (TP y el contenido total de biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo de su tejido cerebral. Además de alimento para ratones, cuatro dietas fueron diseñadas conteniendo el 50% de la energía en forma de carbohidratos, el 35% en forma de grasa, y el 15% como proteína, y una cuarta dieta libre de lípidos donde se había sustituido la grasa por agua destilada. Grupos de cinco ratas fueron alimentadas cada uno con estas dietas, mientras que un quinto grupo fue alimentado con alimento para ratones peletizado. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en TP del grupo alimentado concomida para ratón. Los TP fue mayor (p < 0,05 en los alimentados con mezcla de aceite de soja y de cáscaras de naranja, en comparación con los alimentados con estos aceites por separado. La alimentación con aceite de soja llevó a una disminución del MDA en los tejidos del cerebro e influyó en el contenido de TP. Se observó un descenso significativo (p < 0,05 de las actividades de GSH y SOD en los grupos alimentados con aceite de soja+aceite de piel de naranja, y con las dietas de aceite de soja. Se observaron actividades significativamente más altas (p < 0,05 en el grupo alimentado con aceite de naranja. Una actividad catalasa significativamente mas alta (p < 0,05 se observ

  16. Digital gene expression analysis of corky split vein caused by boron deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck for selecting differentially expressed genes related to vascular hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Quan Yang

    Full Text Available Corky split vein caused by boron (B deficiency in 'Newhall' Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profilings of corky split veins at four morphologic phases. Over 5.3 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and more than 22897 mapped genes per library were simultaneously obtained. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the expressions of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, cell division, vascular development, lignin biosynthesis and photosynthesis in corky split veins were all affected. The expressions of WOL and ARR12 involved in the cytokinin signal transduction pathway were up-regulated at 1(st phase of corky split vein development. Furthermore, the expressions of some cell cycle genes, CYCs and CDKB, and vascular development genes, WOX4 and VND7, were up-regulated at the following 2(nd and 3(rd phases. These findings indicated that the cytokinin signal transduction pathway may play a role in initiating symptom observed in our study.

  17. HISTOLOGY OF SWEET ORANGE STEM PITTING CAUSED BY AN AUSTRALIAN ISOLATE OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some strains of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) cause stem pitting in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). This abnormality causes tree decline and reduction in fruit size and yield of affected citrus trees. Stem-pitting symptoms can occur on trunks, on all sizes of limbs, and on the twigs ...

  18. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  19. A Proteomic Analysis of the Chromoplasts Isolated from Sweet Orange Fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] Revealed Clues to Their Ripening Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliu Zeng; Zhiyong Pan; Yuduan Ding; Andan Zhu; Hongbo Cao; Qiang Xu; Xiuxin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid biosynthesisis believed to occur in chromoplasts,which are non-photosynthetic plastids often present in flowers and fruits.We report a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts,which were purified from sweet orange by a novel protocol using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation.Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against marker proteins for different cell compartments suggested the chromoplast extraction were of high purity.Systematic analysis of the chromoplast proteome identified 493 proteins,of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses.Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins,a large proportion (~60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism,amino acid/protein synthesis,and secondary metabolism.Of note,HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase),PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein),and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified.A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways.However,the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis,extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation,and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis.In conclusion,this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level.

  20. 甜橙精油的挥发性成分分析及抗氧化和抑菌活性研究%Analysis of essential oil of Citrus sinensis and its antioxidative and antimicrobial effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 张宝月; 黄蓉; 赵春霞; 王改香; 张磊; 鲍其泠

    2013-01-01

    The components of essential oil of Citrus sinensis were analyzed by GC-MS,and twenty-four components in the oil were identified,which accounted for 92. 24% of the total contents. Its main content was limonene, which accounted for about 78. 24% of the total contents. The other main contents were β-pinene(3.22%) , ( +)-limonene 1,2-epoxide(1. 89%),β-phellandrene(1.45%),linalool(1.28%), α-pinene( 1.05% ) Respectively. The antioxidant property of the oil was evaluated by exploing DPPH an-tioxidant assay. The oil sample had free radical scavenging activity. DPPH free radical scavenging ability and essential oil concentration were positively correlated (y = 55. 11x + 12.48,R2 = 0.994,the oil concentration in the 20%~100% ). In addition,the essential oil antibacterial results showed that the essential oil against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans had certain antimicrobial activity.%使用GC-MS联用技术对甜橙精油进行分析,从中鉴定了24种化学成分,占总含量的92.24%.主要成分为柠檬烯,达到了78.24%;其次为β-蒎烯、(+)-柠檬烯-1,2-环氧化物、β-水芹烯、芳樟醇、α-蒎烯,含量依次为3.22%,1.89%,1.45%,1.28%,1.05%.甜橙精油的DPPH抗氧化研究表明,甜橙精油具有体外清除DPPH自由基的能力,且DPPH自由基的清除能力与精油浓度呈正相关,在精油浓度20% ~ 100%范围内,y=55.11x+12.48,R2=0.994.抗菌实验结果显示,甜橙精油对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌和白色念珠菌等具有一定的抗菌能力.

  1. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sac...

  2. Effect of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Citrus sinensis%柑橘黄龙病菌侵染对甜橙叶片糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 苏华楠; 黄爱军; 周彦; 李中安; 刘金香; 周常勇

    2015-01-01

    具有显著相关性(P<0.05)。蔗糖分解相关基因中,蔗糖合成酶基因 SuSy 在感病不同时期的表达差异不大,变化幅度小;细胞壁酸性转化酶基因 CSCWI 在不同时期均上调表达,最高上调约7.4倍,且表达量一直维持在较高水平;与 CSCWI 相比,液泡酸性转化酶基因 CUAI1的表达水平较低。淀粉合成相关酶 ADP-葡萄糖焦磷酸化酶基因最高上调3倍左右;淀粉分解相关基因 BAM3、MEX1和 DPE2在不同时期有所下调,达到显著性差异水平(P<0.05)。【结论】柑橘黄龙病感染甜橙后,对植株叶片中光合产物的形成与运转产生影响,扰乱宿主糖代谢平衡,与宿主淀粉积累及后期症状的产生有密切关系。%[Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) infection on carbohydrate metabolism in Citrus sinensis, elucidate the relationship between HLB infection and starch accumulation, and provide a theoretical basis for HLB pathogenesis. [Method]C. sinensis were used as the experimental materials, plants were inoculated by grafting three bark pieces onto the rootstock portion of each plant. For infected plants, bark pieces were derived from trees infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which were confirmed positive for Ca. L. asiaticus by PCR. For non-infected plants, bark pieces were obtained from healthy trees. Three plants in good growth state were chosen for successive test, mature leaves were collected every month until October. DNA and RNA were extracted, the content of soluble sugar and starch were measured immediately, the other leaf tissue was snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃ for testing carbohydrate metabolism related key enzyme activities. At the same time, the expression levels were compared using real-time quantitative PCR analysis.[Result]The content of soluble sugar and starch tended to increase with time extended, and their peak value were respectively

  3. Correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content with physicochemical parameters of blended extracts of Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Dornelles Mello

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluated the total antioxidant activity (TAA and the correlation with parameters such as total phenols (FT, total acidity, pH, redox potential (ORP and conductivity (EC, of commercial teas of Camellia sinensis, single or blended with other plants. The extracts tested were: Camellia sinensis fermented and unfermented, Camellia sinensis with Citrus limonium, Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita, Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, Camellia sinensis with Citrus sinensis. All extracts showed high percentages of TAA and were not significantly different by Tukey’s test. The correlation matrices indicated that except for the extract of Camellia sinensis with Prunus persica, all the other extracts had statistically significant correlations. Strong correlations were found between TAA and FT, and between pH and FT. The extract of Camellia sinensis with Mentha piperita presented the highest correlation between TAA and FT. The same compounds that influence the pH and ORP may also influence the EC, for almost all teas. For the fermented and unfermented extracts of Camellia sinensis all parameters had been strongly correlated (r > 0.7.

  4. Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryz Melinski Serciloto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três diferentes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1 e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas, em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS; acidez titulável (AT; quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT, e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in three different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1 and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0

  5. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Soumaya Bourgou; Fatma Zohra Rahali; Iness Ourghemmi; Moufida Saïdani Tounsi

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-1...

  6. Characterization and biological properties of Citrus industrial derivatives and waste products for the formulation of nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Polyphenols are natural chemical compounds, common in higher plants as and particularly known and appreciated for their health properties. We focused attention on Citrus bergamia, Citrus sinensis, Mela annurca and Vitis Vinifera. Citrus is one of larges species among plant; it consists of 40 species which are distributed in all continents and its fruits. We have developed a fast HPLC with ion-trap TOF-MS method for the analysis of flavonoids in these juices. With respect to the...

  7. Construction of citrus gene coexpression networks from microarray data using random matrix theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dongliang Du; Nidhi Rawat; Zhanao Deng; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    After the sequencing of citrus genomes, gene function annotation is becoming a new challenge. Gene coexpression analysis can be employed for function annotation using publicly available microarray data sets. In this study, 230 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) microarrays were used to construct seven coexpression networks, including one condition-independent and six condition-dependent (Citrus canker, Huanglongbing, leaves, flavedo, albedo, and flesh) networks. In total, these networks contain 3...

  8. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes-da-Glória Fernanda Januzzi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.

  9. Effect of soy oil, orange (Citrus sinensis) peel oil and their blends on total phospholipid, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system in brain tissues of normo rats

    OpenAIRE

    Erukainure, O. L.; Ajiboye, J. A.; Davis, F. F.; Obabire, K.; Okoro, E. E.; Adenekan, S. O.; Adegbola, M. V.; Awogbemi, B. J.; Odjobo, B. O.; Zaruwa, M. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Soy and orange peel (C. sinensis) oils were fed to albino male rats to determine their effects on malondialdehyde (MDA), total phospholipid (TP) content and oxidative stress biomarkers of brain tissue. Beside mouse chow, four diets were designed to contain 50% of their energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein, and one lipid-free diet which had distilled water substituted for fat. Groups of five rats were each fed one of these diets, while a fifth group was fed pelletized mouse c...

  10. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  11. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Corky Split Vein Caused by Boron Deficiency in ‘Newhall’ Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) for Selecting Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Vascular Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cheng-Quan; Liu, Yong-Zhong; An, Ji-Cui; Li, Shuang; Jin, Long-Fei; Zhou, Gao-Feng; Wei, Qing-Jiang; Yan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Nan-Nan; Fu, Li-Na; Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Ting-Shuai; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2013-01-01

    Corky split vein caused by boron (B) deficiency in ‘Newhall’ Navel Orange was studied in the present research. The boron-deficient citrus exhibited a symptom of corky split vein in mature leaves. Morphologic and anatomical surveys at four representative phases of corky split veins showed that the symptom was the result of vascular hypertrophy. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, which was applied to analyze the gene expression profi...

  12. THE ENDOPHYTE CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS REDUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUSAN ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIUM FROM CITRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is a disease of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all sweet orange cultivars. Sweet orange trees are sometimes observed to be infected by Xylella fastidiosa without showing seve...

  13. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  14. 缺硼条件下两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙矿质元素含量变化的比较%Changes in mineral element contents of 'Newhall' navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb.)grafted on two different rootstocks under boron deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂东; 姜存仓; 王运华; 彭抒昂; 钟八莲; 曾庆銮; 袁水秀

    2011-01-01

    采用溶液培养试验,研究了缺硼对两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙硼、锌、钙、镁和钾元素含量变化.结果表明,缺硼显著降低了枳壳砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙体内硼含量而对锌含量影响不大;相反,缺硼对枳橙砧木脐橙体内硼含量的影响不是很大,而显著降低了其叶片中锌的含量.这可能足缺硼条件下枳壳砧木脐橙容易出现缺硼症状,而枳橙砧木脐橙容易出现缺锌症状的原因之一.与对照相比,缺硼处理的枳壳砧木脐橙叶的钙含量明显增加;而根的钾含量明显高于枳橙砧木橙根.这些结果与枳壳砧木脐橙对硼更敏感有一定的关系.缺硼对镁含量的影响两种砧木间基本没有差异.%The hydroponic method was used to study the changes in boron (B), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) concentrations of ‘ Newhall’ navel orange ( Citrus sinensis Osb. ) grafted on citrange [ C. sinensis ( L. ) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliate ( L. ) Raf. ] or trifoliate orange [ Poncirus trifoliata ( L. )Raf. ] under B deficiency. The results show that under the B deficiency, B concentrations of trifoliate orange-grafted plants and Zn concentrations of citrange-grafted plants are significantly decreased, which may be one of the reasons why trifoliate orange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of B deficiency and citrange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of Zn deficiency under the B deficiency. Compared to the normal B treatment, Ca concentration in leaves of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is increased obviously under the B deficiency, and K concentration in root of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is much higher than that of citrange-grafted plants. These results indicate trifoliate orange-grafted plants are more sensitive to the B deficiency. There are not significantly differences in Mg concentrations between trifoliate orange-grafted and citrange-grafted plants under the B deficiency.

  15. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Tenório Costa; William Mário de Carvalho Nunes; Carlos Alexandre Zanutto; Gerd Walter Müller

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG) analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational po...

  16. Citrus Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter, Fred G.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  18. Cloning of a Calcium Binding Protein Gene from Citrus sinensis and Construction of Sense and Antisense Expression Vectors%柑桔钙离子结合蛋白基因克隆及植物表达载体构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝学军; 钟广炎

    2012-01-01

    以伏令夏橙叶片中分离的总RNA为模板,经RT-PCR扩增到一条约600 bp、含钙离子结 合蛋白基因(CsCaBP)的片段,将此片段克隆到pMD-19T中,经测序分析该片段与甜橙基因组中的对应序列完全吻合.设计2对带有限制性内切酶位点的特异性引物,以cDNA为模板扩增到2个CsCaBP片段,并连接到TA克隆载体pMD-19T上;经双酶切消化后,分别以正反2个方向插入到植物表达载体pFGC5941的查耳酮合成酶(CHSA)内含子两侧,构建成功CsCaBP的RNA干扰载体,但未获得转基因植株.将CsCaBP的正向片段定向克隆到具有CaMV35S启动子的pFGC5941表达质粒上,构建成功CsCaBP过量表达载体.将构建好的表达载体导入根癌农杆菌LBA4404菌株,转化酸橙下胚轴,经PCR检测,获得9株过量表达转基因植株,荧光定量PCR验证发现目的基因在转基因植株中有不同程度的表达.%A calcium binding protein gene (CsCaBP) was amplified by Reverse Transcription Polymerse Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)from Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia', and a 600 bp-long PCR product was obtained and cloned into pMD-19T plasmid. Sequence analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was exactly the same as the corresponding genomic sequence. Two PCR products were re-amplified from cDNA and inserted in inverted orientations into the RNAi vector at the two sides of the intron of chalcone synthase gene. The over-expression construct was obtained by inserting the full-length CsCaBP cDNA into pF(iC5941 under the control of 35S promoter. Both constructs were verified by PCR and sequencing. The constructs were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the transformants were tested positive by PCR. Transformation of Citrus auantittm hypocotyledon segments by co-culturing the segments with the bacteria followed by regeneration of transgenic plants yielded only the overexpression transgenic plants but not the RNAi plant.

  19. Construction of citrus gene coexpression networks from microarray data using random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongliang; Rawat, Nidhi; Deng, Zhanao; Gmitter, Fred G

    2015-01-01

    After the sequencing of citrus genomes, gene function annotation is becoming a new challenge. Gene coexpression analysis can be employed for function annotation using publicly available microarray data sets. In this study, 230 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) microarrays were used to construct seven coexpression networks, including one condition-independent and six condition-dependent (Citrus canker, Huanglongbing, leaves, flavedo, albedo, and flesh) networks. In total, these networks contain 37 633 edges among 6256 nodes (genes), which accounts for 52.11% measurable genes of the citrus microarray. Then, these networks were partitioned into functional modules using the Markov Cluster Algorithm. Significantly enriched Gene Ontology biological process terms and KEGG pathway terms were detected for 343 and 60 modules, respectively. Finally, independent verification of these networks was performed using another expression data of 371 genes. This study provides new targets for further functional analyses in citrus. PMID:26504573

  20. Insecticidal activity of some citrus oils against culex quinquefasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the larvicidal potency of peel oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on 4''th instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Orange oil was the most effective followed by grapefruit oil and then lime oil. The toxicity of the oils applied to the 4''th instar larval stage was extended to pupal and adult stages. All oils produced deleterious effects on fecundity of survivors of sublethal doses. By the aid of chemical analysis of oils, the active compound was found to be limonene, a monoterpene compound. The percentages limonene were 97.15%, 92.46% and 32.29% for orange, grapefruit and lime respectively.(Author)

  1. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. PMID:26261026

  2. Differential Reaction of Citrus Species in Malaysia to Huanglongbing (HLB Disease using Grafting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB is a phloem limited disease in citrus caused by a fastidious bacterium called Candidatus Liberibacter found in Africa, Asia and United States of America (USA. HLB can severely reduce vigor and yield or kill all citrus trees within 5 years. There is a need to screen and identify suitable rootstock for propagation of clean plan materials for citrus in the tropics. This study was conducted to detect the presence of HLB on 18 selected citrus species and to categorize the level of infection and susceptibility of citrus species to HLB. Approach: Eighteen citrus species were assessed for susceptibility to HLB by graft transmission from source infection (Citrus reticulata. Results: HLB was detected in 15 species 6 months after grafting using PCR test. Conclusion: The species could be categorized in five groups: Severe group (72-58% severity which includes C. reticulata, C. sinensis, C. reshni cv. cleopatra, moderate group (50- 41% severity includes Fortunella sp. cv. Kasturi Chinai, C. macrophylla, C. microcarpa, mild group (25-17% severity which included C. medica, C. aurantifolia, Citrus sp. (natural biotype, C. jambhiri. The tolerant group which did not show any HLB symptoms but tested positive by PCR test includes C. aurantium and C. aurantifolia. The resistant groups which include C. grandis cv. Limau Bali, C. hysterix and Citrus sp. cv. Limau Tembikai showed no symptoms and were tested negative for HLB.

  3. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  4. [Chemical constituents from Spatholobus sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ting; Liu, Hua; Wang, Bin; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Spatholobus sinensis is a plant of the Spatholobus genus (Leguminosae family). Its caulis are used as "ji-xue-teng" regionally. However, to our knowledge, no phytochemical investigation on S. sinensis has been reported to date. In this study, eight compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the caulis of S. sinensis, by solvents extraction and column chromatography methods. By analysis of their physic-chemical constants and spectral data, the structures of 8 compounds were identified as spatholosineside A (1), 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), lupinalbin A (4), coumestrol (5), naringenin (6), protocatechuic acid (7), leonuriside A (8). Compound 1 is a new compound. PMID:18357735

  5. Metabolic changes in Citrus leaf volatiles in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomonori; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Citrus plants are well known as a rich source of VOCs, and several have important roles in defense responses. However, how VOCs are regulated in response to environmental stress is not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated dynamic changes of VOCs present in leaves of seven Citrus species (Citrus sinensis, C. limon, C. paradisi, C. unshiu, C. kinokuni, C. grandis, and C. hassaku) in response to mechanical wounding, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) as determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis followed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis, OPLS-DA). PCA and OPLS-DA suggested that changes in VOC profiles against stress stimuli were much diverse among Citrus species. OPLS-DA showed that C6 volatiles, such as hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, were induced in response to JA and SA stimuli in C. sinensis and C. grandis, while the other VOCs were decreased under all tested stress conditions. α-Farnesene was induced in all species except C. hassaku after wounding or JA treatment. In addition, α-farnesene was also induced in response to SA stimuli in C. unshiu and C. kinokuni. Therefore these volatiles can be candidates of the common stress biomarkers in Citrus. Our results will give a new insight into defense mechanisms in Citrus species. PMID:26188419

  6. Hesperidin from Citrus sinensis cultivated in Dezful, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghel, N; Ramezani, Z; Beiranvand, S

    2008-10-15

    This study described procedures for extracting and quantitation of hesperidin in the waste orange peel of Dezful. Two extracting procedure were used. In procedure A hesperidin was isolated from orange peel by extracting the dry peel first with petroleum ether, removing the essential oil and then with methanol. In procedure B alkaline extraction followed by acidification of the extract was used. It was purified by treatment with formamide-activated charcoal. Detailed analysis of UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectroscopic data confirm the structure and extent of purity of extracted hesperidin. The spectroscopic results of two extract showed that procedure A produced high extraction yield and more purified hesperidin. Pure hesperidin in gram quantity (11.7% for procedure A and 7.39% for procedure B) was obtained in one purification cycle. PMID:19137859

  7. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  8. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm and Amp solution (2.83 mm alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  9. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  10. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  11. Long-Term Boron-Excess-Induced Alterations of Gene Profiles in Roots of Two Citrus Species Differing in Boron-Tolerance Revealed by cDNA-AFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is observed in some citrus orchards in China. However, limited data are available on the molecular mechanisms of citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance. Using cDNA-AFLP, we identified 20 up- and 52 down-regulated genes, and 44 up- and 66 down-regulated genes from excess B-treated Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis roots, respectively, thereby demonstrating that gene expression profiles were more affected in the latter. In addition, phosphorus and total soluble protein concentrations were lowered only in excess B-treated C. grandis roots. Apparently, C. sinensis had higher B-tolerance than C. grandis. Our results suggested that the following several aspects were responsible for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species including: (a) B-excess induced Root Hair Defective 3 expression in C. sinensis roots, and repressed villin4 expression in C. grandis roots; accordingly, root growth was less inhibited by B-excess in the former; (b) antioxidant systems were impaired in excess B-treated C. grandis roots, hence accelerating root senescence; (c) genes related to Ca2+ signals were inhibited (induced) by B-excess in C. grandis (C. sinensis) roots. B-excess-responsive genes related to energy (i.e., alternative oxidase and cytochrome P450), lipid (i.e., Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 and citrus dioxygenase), and nucleic acid (i.e., HDA19, histone 4, and ribonucleotide reductase RNR1 like protein) metabolisms also possibly accounted for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species. These data increased our understanding of the mechanisms on citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance at transcriptional level. PMID:27446128

  12. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

  13. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  14. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  16. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  17. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  18. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  19. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  20. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  1. Cloning and analysis of LFY-like gene from Citrus%柑橘LEAFY同源基因片段的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 陈力耕; 陈大明; 徐昌杰

    2001-01-01

    在提取大三岛脐橙(Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck)基因组DNA的基础上,利用Uneven PCR的方法克隆了脐橙中的LEAFY(LFY)同源基因片段。经对该基因片段的核苷酸序列分析表明,它和烟草中的LFY同源基因NFY基因在结构上高度保守,同源性高达90%以上。%The homologous DNA fragment of LFY was cloned from citrus genomic DNA that had been isolated from Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck)using Uneven PCR. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that homology was up to 90% between it and NFY, another LFY-like gene, which implied that they were highly conserved on their structure.

  2. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon, Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent weight methoxyl content, each content solubility in cold and hot alkali, pH as well as sugar and organic acid. The result showed that the colors of the pectin from these 3 sources were the same i.e., Brown they were all soluble in hot and cold alkali and water, the moisture content, the methoxyl content and the ash were all higher in the pectin extracted from peels of sweet orange with 95.25, 5.79 and 35%, respectively. However, the equivalent weight of the pectin extracted from peels of grape was higher with 793.6 mg/mol. The overall results showed that the pectin from these sources were suitable for industrial use.

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon), Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi) and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    V.O. Aina; Mustapha M. Barau; O.A. Mamman; Amina Zakari; Hauwa Haruna; M.S. Hauwa Umar; Yagana Baba Abba

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent we...

  4. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ojito Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxidante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL. Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina.Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant

  5. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  6. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  7. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit. PMID:25948248

  8. Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Haag

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco, L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr., em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco. Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco, varia entre 30 a 95.The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr., State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco; Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L

  9. The Genome Sequence of an Isolate of Indian Citrus Ringspot Virus Infecting the Sweet Orange in India

    OpenAIRE

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence ident...

  10. Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS–S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, correspondi...

  11. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (≤1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  12. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  13. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

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    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  14. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD29 Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening... published an interim rule \\1\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048) that....usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml and on Regulations.gov (see footnote 1...

  15. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus... of nursery stock to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family... are also requiring propagative seed of these genera imported from all other countries to...

  16. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  17. Phytochemical analysis of Camellia sinensis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants possess an important source of pharmacological effects that acts as new anti-infections, antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. The most important bioactive constituents of plants are steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides which serve a valuable starting material for drug development. Tea (Camellia sinensis is consumed worldwide and is second only to water in its popularity as a beverage. It has ascribed many health benefits viz reduction of cholesterol, protection against cardio – vascular diseases and cancer. By concerning all these studies, we have traced out the presence of phytochemical in Camellia sinensis leave. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins by changing the colour of medium when treated with respective reagents. One gram of Camellia sinensis leaves extract contained 0.7 grams of phenolic compounds. While flavonoid content was 14 mg/gram of Camellia sinensis leave extract. one gram of leaf extracts contained 0.11 gram of reducing power. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the presence of various functional groups when run through Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus sp. It reveals the highest zone of inhibition around the bacterial colonies when compared with standard antibiotics Erythromycin, Tetracycline and Ampicillin.

  18. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  19. Reação de híbridos somáticos de citros à infecção por Phytophthora nicotianae Reaction of citrus somatic hybrids to the infection by Phytophthora nicotianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Menezes Bassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a resistência à infecção de tronco e de raízes por Phytophthora nicotianae em híbridos somáticos de citros com potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos. Os híbridos somáticos avaliados foram laranja 'Hamlin' (Citrus sinensis + toranja 'Indian Red' (Citrus grandis (plantas 1 e 2 e laranja 'Hamlin' (C. sinensis + toranja 'Singapura' (C. grandis. Plantas de limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, laranja 'Caipira' (C. sinensis, laranja-azeda (C. aurantium e Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata foram utilizadas como plantas-controle devido à reação conhecida à infecção pelo patógeno. Avaliações realizadas entre 30 e 60 dias após as inoculações com o patógeno incluíram o comprimento das lesões no tronco e a massa seca do sistema radicular nas plantas avaliadas. O híbrido somático laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' (planta 1 mostrou-se tolerante a P. nicotianae, indicando potencial para continuidade nas suas avaliações como porta-enxerto para citros.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance to trunk and root infection by Phytophthora nicotianae in citrus somatic hybrids with potential to be utilized as rootstocks. The somatic hybrids evaluated were 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis + 'Indian Red' pummelo (Citrus grandis (plants 1 and 2, and 'Hamlin' sweet orange (C. sinensis + 'Singapura' pummelo (C. grandis. Plants of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis, sour orange (C. aurantium, and Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata were used as control due to their known reaction to the pathogen. Evaluations performed between 30 and 60 days after pathogen inoculation included the length of trunk lesions, and root dry mass of the root system of evaluated plants. The somatic hybrid 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo (plant 1 was tolerant to P. nicotianae, indicating potential to be further evaluated as a rootstock.

  20. Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

  1. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-01-01

    Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C) and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml) and fre...

  2. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tami Turner; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

  3. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  4. Isoenzymatic polymorphism in Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelli Valdenice Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzymatic polymorphism analysis was used to determine genetic variability among species and hybrids of Citrus spp. and one accession of Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. Ten enzymatic systems aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, acid phosphatase (ACP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, diaphorase (DIA, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKD and peroxidase (PRX were analyzed. Twenty loci and 48 alleles were identified. Sweet orange cultivars (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck showed the highest polymorphism with the largest number of heterozygous loci, although the alleles of those loci were the same in all cultivars, with the exception of Westin and Lima graúda. Mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco exhibited diverse patterns, whereas Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. showed high variability with all Citrus species and hybrids. Exclusive phenotypes were observed in some enzymatic systems, and similar patterns were found among interspecific hybrids and their putative parents.

  5. Temporal responses of peak citrus flowering to climate change in Iran: 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p < 0.0001) for Kerman to r = 0.53-0.67 (p = 0.0386; p < 0.0001) for Shiraz, and equating to peak flowering advances of 3.15-3.39d/°C and 4.34-5.47d/°C respectively. By contrast, the strongest relationships between peak flowering dates and climate in Gorgan are with rainfall (r = 0.02-0.3, p = 0.8874-0.0528), indicating a weak phenophase response of 0.1d/mm. Gorgan also provides a

  6. Caracterização de genótipos de Citrus spp. através de marcadores RAPD Characterization of citrus genotypes (Citrus spp using RAPDs markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Bastianel

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Em programas de melhoramento de citros, a caracterização adequada dos recursos genéticos disponíveis é de grande importância, principalmente devido às características biológicas da cultura, como a heterozigosidade, a embrionia nucelar e o longo ciclo reprodutivo. A facilidade com que ocorrem hibridações (interespecíficas e intergenéricas e a embrionia nucelar favoreceram a formação e a preservação de novas combinações, classificadas como espécies. Neste estudo, marcadores RAPDs foram utilizados para analisar 15 acessos de Citrus spp., sendo quatro variedades de laranjeiras doce (C. sinensis Osbeck, quatro tangerineiras (C. reticulata Blanco, C. nobilis Loureiro, C. sunki Loureiro e C. deliciosa Tenore, uma laranjeira azeda (C. aurantium L., um pomeleiro (C. paradisi Macf., uma torangeira (C. grandis Osbeck, uma cidreira (C. medica L., uma limeira ácida (C. latifolia e dois híbridos (Citrus clementina T. x (C. tangerina T. x C. paradisi Macf.. Doze sequências iniciadoras aleatórias foram utilizadas para estudar os 15 genótipos, encontrando-se um grau de similaridade mínimio de 0,81 ("Simple Matching" entre as tangerineiras. Os menores graus de similaridade foram encontrados entre as espécies de Citrus menos aparentadas (C. medica, C. grandis e C. latifolia. As quatro cultivares de laranjeiras doces não puderam ser diferenciadas pelos marcadores RAPD utilizados, apresentando similaridade máxima.In citrus improvement programs the characterization of the available genetic resources is of great importance, mainly concerning biological characteristics of the culture, as the heterozigosity, nucellar the embriony and long reproductive cycle. Favored by nucellar embriony interespecific and intergeneric hybridizations and genotypes preservation happen easily. RAPDs markers were used to analyze 15 Citrus spp., four sweet orange (C. sinensis Osbeck, (C. medica, C. grandis e C. latifolia, four mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco, C

  7. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  8. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future.

  9. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus. PMID:26407870

  10. Complete genome sequence analysis of two Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolates from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhen; LI Zhong-an; LIU Ke-hong; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolated from China, ful-length cDNAs of CTLV-MTH and CTLV-XHC from Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis were cloned and sequenced based on whole-genome ampliifcation by RT-PCR. The complete nucleotide sequences of CTLV-MTH and CTLV-XHC were determined to be 6 497 nucleotides in length and shared 79.9–91.0%and 78.8–98.0%nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with other Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) or CTLV strains available in GenBank. Unexpectedly, CTLV-MTH showed the highest nucleo-tide sequence identity (91%) with an apple isolate of ASGV, fol owed by 86.5%with ASGV-HH and 85.7%with ASGV-CHN. Furthermore, CTLV-MTH and three ASGV strains were grouped to a separate cluster in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting it has a closer relationship to ASGV than to CTLV. Therefore, it can be concluded roughly that CTLV may be not a distinct strains of ASGV. We proposed that Citrus tatter leaf virus should be renamed Apple stem grooving virus.

  11. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  12. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases

  13. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  14. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  15. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  16. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dossat Carole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most

  17. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agustí, Javier; Alós, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Götz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known

  18. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended to have the highest yield when grafted on 'Rangpur' lime rootstocks, and the 'Aquiri' orange when grafted on 'Carrizo' citrange. Compared to the other rootstocks used, the 'Rangpur' lime tended to induce the highest yield/canopy volume and highest mean fruit weight, and the lowest total soluble solids and total acidity. Sweet orange cultivars of the 'Baia' group ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' and 'Monte Parnaso' produced fruit with low juice content, therefore they are not recommended for planting in Rio Branco. Based on the results, the rootstocks 'Carrizo' citrange, 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Rangpur' lime are recommended for 'Aquiri' sweet orange, and the 'Rangpur' lime is recommended for 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars.

  19. Allelopathic effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L. peel essential oil Efeitos alelopáticos do óleo essencial da casca da laranja (Citrus sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop weeds are the main problem in agriculture, causing a worldwide annual loss of about US$95 billion. The principal method for control is the use of synthetic herbicides. The continued use of these products increases crop costs, reduces crop quality, and leaves toxic residues in the environment, which are a threat to human and livestock health. Therefore, there is a demand for environmentally friendly methods of weed control. The use of allelopathic compounds from crop residues is an alternative. Orange is one of the biggest crops in the world, and its cultivation generates large amounts of residues. There is strong evidence of bioactivity in orange peel essential oil. Therefore, the objective in this work was to verify the allelopathic proprieties of this oil. We extracted the oil from the peels of recently discarded oranges using water vapor flow with a Clevenger extractor, and tested it against the growth of Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell seedlings when placed in contact with the oil vapor. The results were both quantitative and qualitative in the inhibition of the seedlings.Plantas daninhas são o principal problema da agricultura no mundo, causando anualmente um prejuízo de U$95 bilhões. A principal forma de combate às plantas daninhas são os herbicidas sintéticos. Entretanto, o uso continuado desses produtos encarece a produção, reduz a qualidade dos alimentos, deixa resíduos tóxicos no ambiente e ameaça a saúde humana e animal. Existe assim, uma demanda por técnicas menos agressivas de controle. O uso de compostos alelopáticos de descartes de culturas para esse fim é uma alternativa. A laranja é uma das maiores culturas do mundo, e gera grandes quantidades de resíduos. Existem evidências da bioatividade no óleo essencial da casca da laranja. Nesse trabalho, nosso objetivo foi verificar a existência de propriedades alelopáticas desse óleo. Para isto, extraímos o óleo por arraste de vapor de água utilizando o aparelho de Clevenger, e colocamos os produtos volatilizáveis do óleo essencial em contato com plântulas de Euphorbia heterophylla L. e Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell. O resultado foi inibição tanto quantitativa quanto qualitativa das plântulas

  20. Allelopathic effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel essential oil Efeitos alelopáticos do óleo essencial da casca da laranja (Citrus sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro; Maria Inês Salgueiro Lima

    2012-01-01

    Crop weeds are the main problem in agriculture, causing a worldwide annual loss of about US$95 billion. The principal method for control is the use of synthetic herbicides. The continued use of these products increases crop costs, reduces crop quality, and leaves toxic residues in the environment, which are a threat to human and livestock health. Therefore, there is a demand for environmentally friendly methods of weed control. The use of allelopathic compounds from crop residues is an altern...

  1. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  2. High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Mu; Bai, Fengyan; Liu, Xingzhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. “Natural O. sinensis specimens” harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specim...

  3. High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Zhang; Shu Zhang; Mu Wang; Fengyan Bai; Xingzhong Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis speci...

  4. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  5. Illumina microRNA profiles reveal the involvement of miR397a in Citrus adaptation to long-term boron toxicity via modulating secondary cell-wall biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Hao Huang; Yi-Ping Qi; Shou-Xing Wen; Peng Guo; Xiao-Min Chen; Li-Song Chen

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying tolerance to B-toxicity in plants are still controversial. Our previous studies indicated that B-toxicity is mainly limited to leaves in Citrus and that alternations of cell-wall structure in vascular bundles are involved in tolerance to B-toxicity. Here, miRNAs and their expression patterns were first identified in B-treated Citrus sinensis (tolerant) and C. grandis (intolerant) leaves via high-throughput sequencing. Candidate miRNAs were then verified with molecula...

  6. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; Jihui Wang; Wei Wang; Hanyue Zhang; Xuelan Zhang; Chunchao Han

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding ph...

  7. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  8. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  9. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

  10. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waewruedee Waewthongrak

    Full Text Available Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU, chitinase (CHI, peroxidase (POX and lipoxygenase (LOX in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  11. Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS–S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in “Valencia” fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

  12. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI HuaLin; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaThirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross between Yiben No,4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. x2(Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However,these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA,skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribution was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  13. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross be- tween Yiben No.4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. χ2 (Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However, these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA, skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribu- tion was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  14. Mutagenesis of hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction is an alternative method to create more variation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Radiosensitivity test was carried out to determine the effective doses for irradiation of stem cuttings. Stem cuttings of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were irradiated at 10, 20, 30 and 60 Gy using a gamma cell with a Co-60 source at a dose rate of 1.66 Gys-1. Irradiated stem cuttings were planted in sand-beds and data on the number of growing shoots were taken. Increasing gamma ray doses resulted in a reduction of growing shoots on the irradiated stem cuttings. It was shown that the LD50 for the stem cuttings was 36.2 Gy and at 75% growth was 17.15 Gy. Based on these results, 20 to 30 Gy were chosen for irradiation of the stem cuttings to induce mutation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Irradiated stem cuttings were then planted into sand-beds for rooting. After one month, the rooted stems were transferred into polybags and allowed to grow under 70% shade provided by plastic netting and the variants were subsequently observed. Three variants with variation in flower shapes and colours were obtained. (Author)

  15. Effect of land management on soil properties in flood irrigated citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, A.; García-Orenes, F.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land management greatly affects soil properties. Microbial soil communities are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of perturbations in land use and soil enzyme activities are sensitive biological indicators of the effects of soil management practices. Citrus orchards frequently have degraded soils and this paper evaluates how land management in citrus orchards can improve soil quality. A field experiment was performed in an orchard of orange trees (Citrus Sinensis) in the Alcoleja Experimental Station (Eastern Spain) with clay-loam agricultural soils to assess the long-term effects of herbicides with inorganic fertilizers (H), intensive ploughing and inorganic fertilizers (P) and organic farming (O) on the soil microbial properties, and to study the relationship between them. Nine soil samples were taken from each agricultural management plot. In all the samples the basal soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, aggregate stability, cation exchange capacity, pH, texture, macronutrients (Na, Ca and Mg), micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu), calcium carbonate equivalent, calcium carbonate content of limestone and enzimatic activities (urease, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) were determined. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial properties, which were highly associated with soil organic matter content. The management practices including herbicides and intensive ploughing had similar results on microbial soil properties. O management contributed to an increase in the soil biology quality, aggregate stability and organic matter content.

  16. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Omani lime (Citrus aurantiifolia and comparative analysis within the rosids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Jiun Su

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C. aurantiifolia. The complete C. aurantiifolia chloroplast genome is 159,893 bp in length; the organization and gene content are similar to most of the rosids lineages characterized to date. Through comparison with the sweet orange (C. sinensis chloroplast genome, we identified three intergenic regions and 94 simple sequence repeats (SSRs that are potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. These markers can be utilized to better understand the origin of cultivated Citrus. A comparison among 72 species belonging to 10 families of representative rosids lineages also provides new insights into their chloroplast genome evolution.

  17. Citrus Canker and Citrus Huanglongbing, Two Exotic Bacterial Diseases Threatening the Citrus Industries of the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic Asian bacterial diseases of citrus are currently plaguing citrus industries in the Western Hemisphere. The two largest citrus producing areas in the Americas, located in Florida and the state of São Paulo Brazil, are presently battling these devastating diseases. The presence of these d...

  18. CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

  19. Stability of Citrus tristeza virus protective isolates in field conditions Estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Tenório Costa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to monitor the maintenance of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV protective isolates stability in selected clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, preimmunized or naturally infected by the virus, after successive clonal propagations. The work was carried out in field conditions in the north of Paraná State, Brazil. Coat protein gene (CPG analysis of 33 isolates collected from 16 clones of 'Pêra' sweet orange was performed using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP. Initially, the isolates were characterized by symptoms of stem pitting observed in clones. Then viral genome was extracted and used as template for the amplification of CPG by reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (RTPCR. RTPCR products electrophoretic profiles were analyzed using the Jaccard coefficient and the UPGMA method. The majority of the clones had weak to moderate stem pitting symptoms and its CTV isolates showed alterations in the SSCP profiles. However, the stability of the protective complex has been maintained, except for isolates from two analised clones. Low genetic variability was observed within the isolates during the studied years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a manutenção da estabilidade de isolados protetores contra Citrus tristeza virus (CTV em clones selecionados de laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis pré-imunizados ou infectados naturalmente pelo vírus, após sucessivas propagações clonais. O trabalho foi realizado em condições de campo, no norte do Estado do Paraná. A análise do gene da capa protéica (GPC de 33 isolados, coletados de 16 clones de laranjeira 'Pêra', foi realizada com o uso da técnica polimorfismo conformacional da fita simples (SSCP. Inicialmente, os isolados foram caracterizados por meio de sintomas de caneluras observados nos clones. Em seguida, o genoma viral foi extraído e utilizado como molde para a amplificação do GCP com uso da transcrição reversa da rea

  20. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  1. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

  2. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  3. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, William O.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Satyanarayana eTatineni; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Scott J Harper; S eGowda

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  4. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional br...

  5. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  6. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  7. Enantiomeric distribution of key volatile components in Citrus essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bonaccorsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric excesses of numerous samples of different Citrus species: C. deliciosa Ten., C. limon (L. Burm., C. bergamia, C. aurantifolia (Christm. Swing., C. latifolia Tan., C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, and C. aurantium L. The enantiomeric distribution is determined by direct esGC and, depending on the complexity of the essential oil, by MDGC with a chiral column in the second dimension. The research is focused on the determination of fourteen chiral components which present specific distribution in the essential oils investigated. Particular attention is given to the trend of the enantiomeric distribution during the productive season, so to identify useful parameters for quality assessment also in consideration of the wide range of variability often reported in literature. The components investigated were the following: α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. The use of MDGC allowed the separation of the enantiomers of camphor and citronellal, otherwise not separated by conventional esGC; however for the separation of the enantiomers of α-pinene it was preferable to use conventional esGC. The MDGC system allowed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of camphene, α- and β-phellandrene in lime essential oil for the first time. The results are discussed in function of seasonal variation and, when possible, in

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _sinensis_S.png Citrus_sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NS ...

  9. Organogênese in vitro a partir de diferentes regiões do epicótilo de Citrus sp Citrus sp. organogenesis in vitro from different epicotyl's regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro é essencial para o uso de técnicas de transformação genética no melhoramento de citros. Visando à obtenção de um protocolo eficiente de regeneração in vitro para laranja-azeda (Citrus aurantium, laranjas 'Natal' e 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, limão 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana e citrange 'Carrizo' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, avaliou-se a resposta morfogênica de diferentes regiões do epicótilo (basal, mediana e apical em relação a distância do nó cotiledonar, na presença (1,0 mg/L-1 ou ausência de 6-BAP, em meio de cultura MT. Após 60 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de explantes responsivos e o número de gemas adventícias por explante. A resposta morfogênica em função da região do epicótilo e da presença ou ausência da citocinina (6-BAP foi influenciada pelo genótipo. A presença de 6-BAP no meio de cultura promoveu aumento na porcentagem de explantes responsivos para citrange 'Carrizo'. A suplementação do meio de cultura com a citocinina 6-BAP proporcionou aumento no número de brotos por explante para citrange 'Carrizo', laranja 'Natal' e limão 'Volkameriano'.The establishment of an in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for the use of genetic transformation techniques in Citrus breeding programs. Aiming to obtain an efficient protocol of in vitro regeneration for sour orange (Citrus aurantium, sweet oranges 'Natal' and 'Pêra' (C. sinensis, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana and 'Carrizo' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, the morphogenetic response was evaluated for different epicotyl's regions (basal, medium and apical regarding the distance from the cotyledonary node, in presence (1,0 mg/L-1 or absence of 6-BAP in MT medium. After 60 days, the percentage of responsive explants and number of shoots per explants were evaluated. The morphogenetic response related to the epicotyl's region and the presence or absence

  10. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP, evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin. Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low fat and high dietary fiber contents. The soluble and insoluble dietary fiber fractions were balanced, which is of importance for the health beneficial effects of fiber sources. DFROBP-containing muffins showed the same rapidly digestible starch content as the reference muffin, whilst the slowly digestible starch level increased with the addition of DFROBP. However, the resistant starch content decreased when DFROBP increased in the muffin. The addition of DFROBP to muffin decreased the predicted glyceamic index, but no difference was found between the muffins prepared with the two DFROBP levels. The sensory score did not show difference between control muffin and that added with 10% of DFROBP. The addition of DFROBP to bakery products can be an alternative for people requiring low glyceamic response.

  11. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor; Perla Osorio-Diaz; Luis A. Bello-Perez; Juscelino Tovar; Maria R. Romero-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low...

  12. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  13. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  14. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Rendemen Dan Kualitas Minyak Atsiri Kulit Jeruk Manis (Citrus sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Natalia Br

    2011-01-01

    Determination the influence of storage time on Sweet orange peel essential oil quality is conceived. The variation of storage time was 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. Essential oil obtained by distillation for 6 hours, oil and water separated by the addition of anhydrous Na2SO4 then weighed and calculated rendement. Oil from peel stored at 1, 2 and 3 days blended into one (short storage) as well as in the oil stored at 4, 5 and 6 days (long storage). Then determined the quality of essential oils ...

  15. Effect of second cooling on the chemical components of essential oils from orange peel (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Fu, Manqing; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2014-09-01

    A second cooling was added to the oil collectors of an improved Clevenger-type apparatus (ICT) to investigate the thermal reaction of essential oils from orange peel compared to a traditional Clevenger-type apparatus (CT). The results demonstrated the yield rate of essential oil from ICT was significantly higher (p essential oils consisted of monoterpenes, such as d-limonene, β-myrcene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, α-pinene. Interestingly, ICT prevented the thermal reaction-the transformation of β-myrcene to β-thujene-and reduced the oxidation on α-pinene and β-pinene of the essential oil in comparison to CT. In addition, the yield rate of γ-terpinene can also be improved via ICT compared to CT. Thus, ICT is an effective improvement to traditional CT. PMID:24945493

  16. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  17. Two new flavonoid diglycosides from Cephalotaxus sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new acetylated flavonoid diglycosides, scutellarein-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-6-O-acetylglucopyranoside](1), apigenin-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-β-D-3,6-di-O-acetylglucopyranoside] (2), were isolated from the leaves of Cephalotaxus sinensis. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods including HR-FAB-MS,1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments.(C) 2007 Yu Hong Yu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A new hydrochalcone from Miliusa sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Tran Thi Thanh; Quan, Tran Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Van Sung, Tran

    2011-08-01

    A new dihydrochalcone 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',3',4-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) along with nine known compounds, pashanone (2), dihydropashanone (3), pinostrobin (4), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (5), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (7), 24-methylencycloartane-3β,21-diol (8), liriodenine (9) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (10), were isolated from the extracts, exhibiting cytotoxic activity (n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts) of Miliusa sinensis. The structure of (1) was elucidated by the analysis of spectral data (IR, HR-MS, EI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:21859261

  19. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I.; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E.; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial an...

  20. 广东曲江区柑橘园天敌瓢虫种类调查及食性观察(鞘翅目:瓢虫科)%Survey and preys of lady beetles (Coccinellidae) in citrus groves in Qujiang, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝武; 虞国跃

    2013-01-01

    对广东曲江区4个柑橘园4种橘类植物(甜橙Citrus sinensis(Linn.)Osbeck,沙田柚Citrus grandis(Linn.)Osbeck var.shatinyu Hort,温州蜜橘Citrus unshiu Marcovitch和沙糖桔Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Shiyue Ju)上的瓢虫进行种类调查和食性观察,共采集320头瓢虫标本,鉴定结果为24属51种,多数为蚜虫的捕食性天敌,其中龟纹瓢虫、六斑月瓢虫、红肩瓢虫、黄斑盘瓢虫、台湾隐势瓢虫、后斑小瓢虫和细缘唇瓢虫为优势种.对大多数种类的食性作了观察或进行室内饲养,基本明确了它们在橘类上的猎物.%Survey and preys of lady beetle species in citrus groves were carried out in Qujiang District, Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province between January 2010 to July 2012. The surveyed 4 Citrus plants are Citrus sinensis (Linn. ) Osbeck, C. grandis (Linn. ) Osbeck var. shatinyu Hort, C. unshiu Marcovitch and C. reticulata Blanco cv. Shiyue Ju. A total of 320 lady beetle specimens (excluding plant -eating ones) were collected and identified. They belonged to 51 species of 24 genera. Most of them are predator of citrus aphids, and Propylea japonica (Thunberg, 1781), Cheilomems sexmaculata (Fabricius, 1781), Harmonia dimidiata ( Fabricius, 1755), Lemnia saucia ( Mulsant, 1850), Cryptogonus horishanus (Ohta, 1929), Scymnus (Pullus) posticalis Sicard, 1912 and Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyhhenhal, 1808) were dominant species. Most of them are provided with the observed preys in field or the feeding preys indoor.

  1. Cytoplasmic Genome Analysis of Asymmetric Somatic Hybrids in Citrus%柑橘非对称体细胞杂种的胞质基因组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小勇; 刘继红

    2008-01-01

    采用CAPS(cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence)分子标记对通过非对称原生质体融合获得的2个组合体细胞杂种植株进行了胞质遗传分析.结果表明,在伏令夏甜橙(Citrus sinensis)十默科特橘橙(C.reticulata ×C.sinensis )组合中,分析的2棵植株胞质DNA都来自伏令夏甜橙(供体);在丹西红橘(C.retic-ulata)十佩琦橘柚(C.reticulata×C.paradisi)组合中,分析的3棵植株胞质DNA都来自来源于佩琦橘柚(受体).

  2. Genome-wide identification, classification and analysis of HD-ZIP gene family in citrus, and its potential roles in somatic embryogenesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chai, Li-Jun; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2015-12-10

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors, which belong to a class of Homeobox proteins, has been reported to be involved in different biological processes of plants, including growth and development, photomorphogenesis, flowering, fruit ripening and adaptation responses to environmental stresses. In this study, 27 HD-Zip genes (CsHBs) were identified in Citrus. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and characteristics of individual gene or protein, the HD-Zip gene family in Citrus can be classified into 4 subfamilies, i.e. HD-Zip I, HD-Zip II, HD-Zip III, and HD-Zip IV containing 16, 2, 4, and 5 members respectively. The digital expression patterns of 27 HD-Zip genes were analyzed in the callus, flower, leaf and fruit of Citrus sinensis. The qRT-PCR and RT-PCR analyses of six selected HD-Zip genes were performed in six citrus cultivars with different embryogenic competence and in the embryo induction stages, which revealed that these genes were differentially expressed and might be involved in citrus somatic embryogenesis (SE). The results exhibited that the expression of CsHB1 was up-regulated in somatic embryo induction process, and its expression was higher in citrus cultivars with high embryogenic capacity than in cultivars recalcitrant to form somatic embryos. Moreover, a microsatellite site of three nucleotide repeats was found in CsHB1 gene among eighteen citrus genotypes, indicating the possible association of CsHB1 gene to the capacity of callus induction. PMID:26232336

  3. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  4. Illumina microRNA profiles reveal the involvement of miR397a in Citrus adaptation to long-term boron toxicity via modulating secondary cell-wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Hao; Qi, Yi-Ping; Wen, Shou-Xing; Guo, Peng; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying tolerance to B-toxicity in plants are still controversial. Our previous studies indicated that B-toxicity is mainly limited to leaves in Citrus and that alternations of cell-wall structure in vascular bundles are involved in tolerance to B-toxicity. Here, miRNAs and their expression patterns were first identified in B-treated Citrus sinensis (tolerant) and C. grandis (intolerant) leaves via high-throughput sequencing. Candidate miRNAs were then verified with molecular and anatomical approaches. The results showed that 51 miRNAs in C. grandis and 20 miRNAs in C. sinensis were differentially expressed after B-toxic treatment. MiR395a and miR397a were the most significantly up-regulated miRNAs in B-toxic C. grandis leaves, but both were down-regulated in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves. Four auxin response factor genes and two laccase (LAC) genes were confirmed through 5'-RACE to be real targets of miR160a and miR397a, respectively. Up-regulation of LAC4 resulted in secondary deposition of cell-wall polysaccharides in vessel elements of C. sinensis, whereas down-regulation of both LAC17 and LAC4, led to poorly developed vessel elements in C. grandis. Our findings demonstrated that miR397a plays a pivotal role in woody Citrus tolerance to B-toxicity by targeting LAC17 and LAC4, both of which are responsible for secondary cell-wall synthesis. PMID:26962011

  5. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoussi Hager

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the

  6. The biology and fecundity of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) at different temperatures under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    KASAP, İsmail

    2009-01-01

    The developmental time and fecundity of Panonychus citri (McGregor 1916) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Washington navel sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) leaves were determined at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH, and a 16:8-h (L:D) photoperiod under laboratory conditions. Total development time of P. citri females was 37.2, 16.6, 12.2, 9.8, and 9.0 days at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C, respectively. Total and daily egg production levels of P. citri were highest at 25 °C (25.6 an...

  7. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella spp., Into the Continental United States AGENCY.... australis. \\2\\...

  8. Small RNA Profiling Reveals Phosphorus Deficiency as a Contributing Factor in Symptom Expression for Citrus Huanglongbing Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Zhao; Ruobai Sun; Ute Albrecht; Chellappan Padmanabhan; Airong Wang; Michael D.Coffey; Thomas Girke

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease that is associated with bacteria of the genus "Candidatus Liberibacter' (Ca.L.).Powerful diagnostic tools and management strategies are desired to control HLB.Host small RNAs (sRNA) play a vital role in regulating host responses to pathogen infection and are used as early diagnostic markers for many human diseases,including cancers.To determine whether citrus sRNAs regulate host responses to HLB,sRNAs were profiled from Citrus sinensis 10 and 14 weeks post grafting with Ca.L.asiaticus (Las)-positive or healthy tissue.Ten new microRNAs (miRNAs),76 conserved miRNAs,and many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were discovered.Several miRNAs and siRNAs were highly induced by Las infection,and can be potentially developed into early diagnosis markers of HLB.miR399,which is induced by phosphorus starvation in other plant species,was induced specifically by infection of Las but not Spiroplasma citri that causes citrus stubborn--a disease with symptoms similar to HLB.We found a 35% reduction of phosphorus in Las-positive citrus trees compared to healthy trees.Applying phosphorus oxyanion solutions to HLB-positive sweet orange trees reduced HLB symptom severity and significantly improved fruit production during a 3-year field trial in south-west Florida.Our molecular,physiological,and field data suggest that phosphorus deficiency is linked to HLB disease symptomology.

  9. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  11. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26912165

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Tribendimidine Against Clonorchis sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Men-Bao; Yap, Peiling; Yang, Yi-Chao; Liang, Hai; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Li, Wei; Tan, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Keiser, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this randomized open-label trial, tribendimidine was shown to have an efficacy comparable to praziquantel for the treatment of Clonorchis sinensis infection. Patients treated with praziquantel experienced significantly more adverse events than tribendimidine recipients.

  14. Extrações de óleos de sementes de citros e suas atividades sobre a formiga cortadeira Atta sexdens e seu fungo simbionte Citrus seed oils extractions and their activity against leaf cutting ant Atta sexdens and its symbiotic fungus

    OpenAIRE

    João B Fernandes; Valmir David; Patrícia H. Facchini; M. Fátima das G. F. da Silva; Edson Rodrigues Filho; Paulo C. Vieira; Mário S. Galhiane; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; Odair C. Bueno; M. José Hebling; Sandra R. Victor; Ana Maria Rodrigues dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Seeds Citrus oils (C. sinensis, C. limon and C. reticulata) extraction with hexane in a soxhlet apparatus and through supercritical fluid (CO2) were done. Besides triglycerides, the oils obtained with hexane comprised volatile compounds such as terpenes and fatty alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. However, the oils obtained by extraction with supercritical fluid presented only triglycerides. These results indicate that the extraction using supercritical fluid presents better selectivity. The ac...

  15. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Liang Wang; Yi-Jian Yao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis ) is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with Oph...

  16. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Panda; Kailash Chandra Swain

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis ) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps ...

  17. Developmental transcriptomic features of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gi Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development

  18. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... 22, 2007 and effective on March 16, 2007 (72 FR 13423-13428, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0032) that....aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml . We believe that the procedures set... effective on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34322-34336, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0015).\\4\\ Several commenters on...

  19. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 305 RIN 0579-AC85 Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... African citrus psyllid is not present in the United States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  20. Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

  1. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with O. sinensis is briefly reviewed and an extensive literature survey is presented. Ninety-one insect names, spanning 13 genera, related to host insects of O. sinensis are investigated. The relationships between the reported insect species and O. sinensis are analyzed. Fifty-seven of these are considered as recognizable potential host species of the fungus distributed throughout the Tibetan Plateau, whilst eight are considered as indeterminate hosts and 26 as non-hosts. Among the names of recognizable potential host insects, three are invalid (nomen nudum and require further study. This work provides basic information for management of the insect resources and for the conservation and sustainable use of O. sinensis.

  2. Potential cytoplasmic inheritance in Wisteria sinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2005-07-01

    We examined pollen cells of Wisteria sinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae) to determine a possible mode for cytoplasmic inheritance in these species. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed distinct mature generative cells. Mature generative cells of W. sinensis were associated with large numbers of punctuated fluorescent signals corresponding to cytoplasmic DNA aggregates, but no fluorescent signals were observed in the generative cells of R. pseudoacacia. Closer examination showed that the punctate fluorescent signals corresponded to plastid but not mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest a strong potential for paternal transmission of the plastid genome in W. sinensis. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of plastids in the generative cells of W. sinensis and the absence of plastids in R. pseudoacacia cells due to an unequal distribution of plastids during the first pollen mitosis. Mitochondria were present and intact in the mature generative cells of both species. The lack of fluoresced mitochondrial DNA suggests a very low level of mitochondrial DNA in the cells. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the labeling of mitochondrial DNA in these cells was reduced by nearly 90% during pollen development. Such a dramatic reduction suggests an active degradation of paternal mitochondrial DNA, which may contribute greatly to the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. In short, we found that W. sinensis exhibits a strong potential for paternal transmission of plastids and that both W. sinensis and R. pseudoacacia appear to share the same mechanism for maternal mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:15843369

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. PMID:25882968

  4. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  5. Recent advances in Citrus psorosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Achachi, Asmae; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Ibriz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Psorosis is a globally devastating disease of citrus caused by an infectious filamentous ophiovirus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which causes annual losses of about 5 % and a progressive decline of trees by affecting the conductive tissues. The disease can be harboured asymptomatically in many citrus species. In the field, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease in adult trees are bark scaling in the trunk and main branches and also internal staining in the underlying wood. The viru...

  6. Antimicrobial Compounds to Combat Citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with the fastidious bacterium,Candidatus Liberibacter, (Las) that is transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect (Citrus Psyllid). An ideal solution to combat citrus HLB is to completely eliminate the bacteria after a single course of the chemotherapy, either active directly on the bacteria or indirectly through induction of host defense compounds. Twenty-seven antimicrobial compounds were screened to test for in vivo activities against HLB bacterium while ...

  7. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Cercos Manuel; Talon Manuel; Soler Guillermo; Terol Javier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrat...

  8. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  9. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. PMID:26432407

  10. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (PCordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  11. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K. P.; H S Meena; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P

  12. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed. PMID:26617045

  13. LSW-177 and LSW-194: Red-fleshed watermelon lines with low-total soluble solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing fruit total soluble solids (TSS) content has been a priority of many breeding programs, and the TSS content of modern watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai)] cultivars is considerably higher than their heirloom counterparts (12-14% TSS compared to ~10% TSS re...

  14. Tissue- Specific Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in White- and Red-Fleshed Grape Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Xie; Changzheng Song; Xingjie Wang; Meiying Liu; Zhenwen Zhang; Zhumei Xi

    2015-01-01

    Yan73, a teinturier (dyer) grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73) or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg) based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes ...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  16. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  17. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  19. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  20. Evaluation of the protective capacity of new mild Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates selected for a preimmunization program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Zanutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of tolerant rootstocks and preimmunization has satisfactorily controlled losses associated with the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. Several researchers have shown that CTV mild isolates that are selected in the same region where they are used are superior to isolates obtained from other areas. Thus, budwoods of 20 outstanding citrus trees were collected in north and northwestern Paraná state (Brazil citrus-producing areas and established to be used in a preimmunization program. These budwoods were tested to evaluate the potential protection of the inherently present viral complex. Based on biological indexing and molecular characterization of the capsid protein gene by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism, which indicated that the plants were infected with mild isolates of CTV, some of the selected plants could be used in a preimmunization program. These potentially mild and protective isolates were challenged with severe 'Rolândia' isolate inoculations by grafting and by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy vector, which was faster in transmitting the virus. Some isolates had a better protective value than others, particularly when challenged with the severe CTV isolate. The SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism molecular analysis was an excellent complementary tool for monitoring the performance of the experiments and the stability of the viral complex present in the plants. Isolate number 1, collected in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul (CS-1, was the most promising for protecting commercial Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis L. orchards in northern and northwestern Paraná. The Rolândia severe CTV isolate was stable and had a high genetic divergence among the severe isolates used as a control (Capão Bonito and Barão B and all of the isolates tested.

  1. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Deng-Bo; Ye, Jia; Li, Chang-Ling; Wang, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Jiong; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2009-01-01

    This experiment studied the effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract (CSE) on mice aged by d-galactose and castrated rats to analyse its antiaging effect. Water maze and step-down type avoidance tests were used to examine the effect of CSE on learning and memory. CSE shortened escape latency, prolonged step-down latency and decreased the number of errors in mice aged by d-galactose. The effect of CSE on the sexual function of castrated rats was evaluated by measuring the penis erection latency, mount latency and ejaculation latency. CSE appeared to shorten penis erection latency and mount latency in castrated rats. The study also measured the effect of CSE on the activity of age-related enzymes. The results showed that CSE improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase activity in the aged mice. The study demonstrated that CSE can improve the brain function and antioxidative enzyme activity in mice with d-galactose-induced senescence and promote sexual function in castrated rats. All of these findings suggest that CSE has an antiaging effect. PMID:18803231

  2. HPLC estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour. Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°. The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia .

  3. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, G V; Unnikrishnan, K P; Rema Shree, A B; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia. PMID:20390090

  4. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  5. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  6. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, G. V.; Unnikrishnan, K. P.; Rema Shree, A B; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:wat...

  7. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  8. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  9. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg...

  10. The use of Citrus tissue culture for mutation breeding. Effects of plant growth substances and gamma irradiation on embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An embryogenic callus subcultured from unfertilized ovules of the 'Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis) was established and is used for mutation-breeding. The callus is habituated and lines of differing embryogenic potential were established. The effect of growth substances and of gamma-irradiation on embryogenesis were studied. Auxins and cytokinins inhibited embryogenesis while inhibitors of auxin synthesis and a cytokinin antagonist significantly stimulate embryogenesis in an embryogenic line. A non-embryogenic callus line did not respond to these treatments. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when callus but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture and irradiation intensities modify irradiation induced embryogenesis by changing optimal dose range and radiosensitivity of the callus. Addition of IAA to unirradiated medium resulted in increased embryogenesis and greatly stimulated plantlet development in certain combinations of irradiation dose and IAA concentration. (author)

  11. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri. PMID:27338332

  12. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the p...

  13. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa), and Pomelo (Citrus maxima) Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert Adrianto; Subagyo Yotopranoto; Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, ...

  14. Three phenylethanoid glucosides of unusual structure from Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damtoft, S; Jensen, S R

    1994-09-01

    From Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae) was isolated six phenylethanoid glucosides, namely the previously known positional isomers plantainoside A, calceolarioside A and calceolarioside B together with three new compounds named chiritoside A, B and C. It was proved by analysis of the NMR data that the chiritosides were the 4"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-derivatives of the first three compounds. PMID:7765624

  15. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  16. Comportamento sazonal da clorose variegada dos citros em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo Seasonal behaviour of citrus variegated chlorosis in three regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco F. Laranjeira; Armando Bergamin Filho; Lilian Amorim; João Roberto S. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Caracterizou-se a evolução de variáveis relacionadas à clorose variegada dos citros em plantas de três regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Noroeste, Centro e Sul), visando determinar diferenças no padrão sazonal do patógeno, dos vetores, do hospedeiro e da doença. Foram avaliadas mensalmente 20 plantas sintomáticas em talhões de laranja (Citrus sinensis) 'Pêra' enxertada em limão (Citrus limonia) 'Cravo', em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo, no período de dezembro de 1998 a dezembro de 2000, u...

  17. Substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuka; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. One of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (Rha) after serial glycosylation steps. The linkage type of Rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. Such Rha residues are attached by either an α1,2- or an α1,6-rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT or 1,6RhaT). Although the genes encoding these RhaTs from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have been functionally characterized, the details of the biochemical characterization, including the substrate preference, remain elusive due to the lack of availability of the UDP-Rha required as substrate. In this study, an efficient UDP-Rha in vivo production system using the engineered fission yeast expressing Arabidopsis thaliana rhamnose synthase 2 (AtRHM2) gene was constructed. The in vitro RhaT assay using the constructed UDP-Rha revealed that recombinant RhaT proteins (Cm1,2RhaT; Cs1,6RhaT; or Cm1,6RhaT), which were heterologously produced in fission yeast, catalyzed the rhamnosyl transfer to naringenin-7-O-glucoside as an acceptor. The substrate preference analysis showed that Cm1,2RhaT had glycosyl transfer activity toward UDP-xylose as well as UDP-Rha. On the other hand, Cs1,6RhaT and Cm1,6RhaT showed rhamnosyltransfer activity toward quercetin-3-O-glucoside in addition to naringenin-7-O-glucoside, indicating weak specificity toward acceptor substrates. Finally, naringin and narirutin from naringenin-7-O-glucoside were produced using the engineered fission yeast expressing the AtRHM2 and the Cm1,2RhaT or the Cs1,6RhaT genes as a whole-cell-biocatalyst. PMID:26433966

  18. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  19. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insectici...

  20. Silver Nano Scaffold Formation by Flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Shabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscusrosa sinensis grows for their showy flowers and are used as landscape shrubs. Hibiscusrosa sinensis also has too many medicinal properties. Flowers are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Inourstudy the flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis has been used for the synthesis of silver nano scaffold formation and its reduction by the flowers. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles occurred under the exposure of the flower extract to 1mM (AgNO3, Silver nitrate aqueous solution. During this process the complete reduction of nanoparticles was observed nearly 48hours of reaction at 30°C under vigorous shaking conditions. The colour change is noted in the reaction mixture and observed during the process of incubation period, it may be due to the formation of the silver nanoparticles which are able to produce the colour in the reaction mixture may be due to their specific properties of surface Plasmon resonance. The colour change was made confirmed by visualization and the characterization by FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Thus we conclude that the reduction process and capping may be having occurred due to the presence of many flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, some aminoacids and proteins. In conclusion, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract appears capable of forming silver nanoparticles. It can be concluded that, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract was able to form the silver nano scaffold and may be probably due to its antioxidants potential, some flavonoids, terpenes etc. This study is a preliminary effort and requires further investigation at different levels.

  1. Analytical Strategy Coupled with Response Surface Methodology To Maximize the Extraction of Antioxidants from Ternary Mixtures of Green, Yellow, and Red Teas (Camillia sinensis var. Sinensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Grevink, R.; Zielinski, R.; Nunes, D.S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extractio

  2. Escalas diagramáticas para avaliação da severidade do cancro cítrico Diagrammatic scales for citrus canker severity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Belasque Júnior

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Escalas diagramáticas são importantes ferramentas na avaliação da severidade de doenças. Objetivando padronizar a estimativa da severidade do cancro cítrico em folhas de citros (Citrus sinensis causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, foram elaboradas quatro escalas diagramáticas, considerando a ocorrência de lesões isoladas pequenas (LP, médias (LM e grandes (LG e de lesões associadas com o ataque da larva minadora dos citros (LMC. Cada escala possui oito níveis de porcentagens da área foliar lesionada: 0,2 a 16% para LP; 0,6 a 25% para LM; 1,8 a 30% para LG e 0,5 a 30% para LMC. Inicialmente, seis avaliadores estimaram a severidade de 447 imagens digitalizadas de folhas sintomáticas com o auxílio das quatro escalas. Após treinamento, foram avaliadas mais 115 imagens. Regressões lineares entre as severidades real e estimada foram calculadas para cada avaliador. As escalas foram validadas conjuntamente considerando acurácia, precisão e reprodutibilidade das avaliações, revelando-se adequadas para quantificação da severidade do cancro cítrico nas folhas.Diagrammatic scales are important tools for disease severity assessment. Four diagrammatic scales for isolated small (SL, medium (ML, and large (LL lesions and for symptoms associated with the leaf miner injuries (LM, were developed to standardize the severity assessments of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on leaves of citrus (Citrus sinensis. Each scale has eight levels of disease severity (percentage of diseased leaf area: 0.2 to 16% for SL; 0.6 to 25% for ML; 1.8 to 30% for LL and 0.5 to 30% for LM. Initially, six persons evaluated the severity of 447 digitalized images of symptomatic leaves using the four scales. Training was carried out and later on, disease severity was assessed in 115 new images. Linear regressions between actual and estimated disease severity were calculated by each person. All the scales were validated together

  3. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  4. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  5. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  6. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  7. Identification of reciprocal hybrids in citrus by the broadness of the leaf petiole wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M.L. Ballve

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadness of leaf petiole wing (WB was investigated as a morphological marker for screening hybrids of the very narrow-winged species Citrus limonia and C. sunki with broad-winged species C. aurantium and C. sinensis. Controlled polinizations produced over 500 reciprocal hybrids with potential in the ongoing rootstock breeding program identified by the Pgi-1 and Prxa-1 isozyme loci. Measurement ratios WB/leaf length, WB/leaf broadness and WB/petiole length identified 86 to 91% of the reciprocal hybrids produced. However, visual classification of WB was an equally efficient but much easier and faster method. It can be very useful in breeding programs when large number of plants have to be screened or when isozyme, RFLP or RAPD laboratories are not available.Investigou-se a largura da asa do pecíolo da folha (WB como um marcador morfológico para identificar híbridos recíprocos de Citrus limonia e C. sunki, que possuem a asa do pecíolo bastante reduzida, com C. aurantium e C. sinensis, cujas asas dos pecíolos são bem desenvolvidas. Polinizações controladas produziram mais de 500 híbridos identificados pelos loci isoenzímicos Pgi-1 e Prxa-1. WB e a razão desta pelo comprimento da folha, pela largura da folha e pelo comprimento do pecíolo identificaram, em média, 86 a 91% dos híbridos recíprocos produzidos. A simples observação subjetiva da WB é, entretanto, um processo igualmente eficiente porém muito mais fácil e rápido. Este poderá ser bastante útil e econômico em programas de melhoramento nos casos em que se necessite a seleção de grande número de plantas ou quando não se dispõe de laboratórios de eletroforese de isoenzimas RFLP ou RAPD. Os híbridos produzidos e identificados têm sido avaliados quanto ao seu potencial como porta-enxertos de citros no Brasil.

  8. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  9. Resistance to Citrus Canker in Key/Mexican Lime Induced by β-Aminobutyric Acid and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Beheshti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far used chemicals to control this pathogen are either not effective or have harmful effects on the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia plants inoculated with Xcc were treated with β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamin (vitamin B1, green tea (Camellia sinensis, copper oxychloride and distilled water. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated twenty days after treatment. The results showed that BABA and green tea had inhibitory effects on disease development. None of the agents used for plant treatment had direct antimicrobial activity on Xcc, except copper oxychloride. This indicated that the inhibitory effects of BABA and green tea resulted from strengthening the defense capacities of the plant. To support this claim, partial coding sequences of Pathogenesis-Related (PR genes from lime were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of PR gene expression showed increased mRNA levels of β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, during disease development. Reduction in lesion size and lack of antimicrobial activity indicate that BABA and green tea might be useful treatments against Xcc infection.

  10. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, L.; Priolo, A.; L. Biondi; Lanza, M.; Bognanno, M.; Gravador, R.; Luciano, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrateswith high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates inwhich 24% and 35% dried citrus pulpwere included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and satu...

  11. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  12. Análisis espacio-temporal de aislamientos del Citrus tristeza virus de Yucatán y Tamaulipas Spatio-temporal analysis of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from Yucatán and Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rivas-Valencia

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron huertas comerciales de cítricos (Citrus sinensis L., ubicadas en las principales regiones productoras de Yucatán de 2003 a 2006 y en Tamaulipas en 2004. En Yucatán se realizó un estudio espacio-temporal de la dispersión de la tristeza de los cítricos, ocasionada por el Citrus tristeza virus, en presencia de Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. La incidencia inicial (X0 fue de 4.41% y la final (Xf de 39.33%. Los índices de agregación de Morisita y Lloyd dependientes del tamaño óptimo de cuadrante, mostraron un patrón agregado con valores entre 1.41 y 2.39. Además, se caracterizaron molecularmente aislamientos del Citrus tristeza virus, para examinar la diversidad del virus presente. Se analizaron aislamientos del virus con single-strand conformation polymorphism, observándose hasta dos haplotipos por aislamiento y tres tipos de patrones en Yucatán. En Tamaulipas, con la caracterización molecular, se identificaron tres haplotipos por aislamiento y siete patrones. El coeficiente de similaridad calculado para estas dos poblaciones de aislamientos fue de 0.7, asumiéndose un origen común de ambas poblaciones. El análisis de varianza molecular, indicó mayor variabilidad dentro de las poblaciones (69% y entre ellas (31%, comprobando que ambas regiones citrícolas, comparten variantes caracterizadas como de tipo moderado, mismo que puede justificar la ausencia de sintomatología atribuible a tristeza. Los análisis realizados para identificar el patrón de dispersión de los aislamientos en campo no evidenciaron la dispersión entre árboles e hileras.Citric (Citrus sinensis L. commercial vegetable gardens were studied, located in the main producing regions of Yucatán from 2003 to 2006 and in Tamaulipas in 2004. In Yucatán it was carried out a space-time study of dispersion of citric tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus, in presence of Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. The initial incidence (X0 was of 4.41% and the final (Xf

  13. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e

  14. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24707872

  15. Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

  16. Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

  17. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  18. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  19. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  20. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  1. Thirty years of citrus tristeza virus observations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian citrus industry was devastated by epidemics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) decline (CTV-D) on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965 and CTV stem pitting (SP) between 1965 and 1985. CTV-SP debilitates citrus and fruit production regardless of rootstock. Control of CTV-SP by mild st...

  2. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.

  3. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  4. Does citrus leaf miner impair hydraulics and fitness of citrus host plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo

    2013-12-01

    Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus  ×  paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here. PMID:24319027

  5. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  6. Investigation of major phenolic antioxidants from Camellia sinensis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study unveils major phenolic antioxidant compounds from Camellia sinensis fruits, followed by their investigation, purification and characterization using HPLC, ESI-MS and NMR studies. The spectrophotometric estimation results have clearly demonstrated that C. sinensis (tea fruits contain up to 14% of total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalent and 7% of flavonoids (as quercetin equivalent on dry weight basis. Differential solvent-mediated extractions have been performed for quantitative assessment of major phytoconstituents by RP-HPLC analysis. And the results have revealed that these fruits contain adequate amount of tea catechins (4% along with caffeine (1% and theanine (0.4% on dry weight basis. Moreover, purification and characterization of major phytoconstituents such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate along with caffeine have been accomplished. Thus, it is clearly demonstrated that tea fruits could act as a possible and reliable source for obtaining major phenolic antioxidants.

  7. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Pseudolaubuca sinensis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijuan; Wang, Dengqiang; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Pseudolaubuca sinensis was determined using PCR amplificationand DNA sequencing, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,617 bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The codon usage followed the typical vertebrate mitochondrial pattern (ATG or GTG for start codon and TAA or TAG for stop codon). There are 6 regions of gene share totaling 22 bp and 14 intergenic spacer regions totaling 66 bp. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of Pseudolaubuca sinensis. PMID:25714142

  9. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption. PMID:27323046

  10. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Y. C. Lam; Gallant K. L. Chan; Gui-Zhong Xin; Hong Xu; Chuen-Fai Ku; Jian-Ping Chen; Ping Yao; Huang-Quan Lin; Dong, Tina T. X.; TSIM, KARL W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously ...

  11. 柑橘木虱对柑橘不同品种的趋性%Diaphorina citri's Gost Preference on Thirteen Citrus Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建利; 阮传清; 刘波; 范国成; 段永平; D.HALL

    2011-01-01

    用2种方法测定了柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuw.成虫对13个柑橘品种离体嫩梢的选择性.结果表明,对不同品种进行两两组合的选择性试验,柑橘木虱停靠在处理组合早金和四季斑叶橘的虫量占总虫量的23%和1%,停靠在处理组合台湾玫瑰橙和纽荷尔脐橙上的虫量分别占总虫量的33%和20%,停靠在处理组合日辉和佩奇甜橙上虫量分别占总虫量的38%和15%,两两之间差异显著.将13个品种组合在一起进行选择性试验,结果表明柑橘木虱停靠在纽荷尔、福橘和佩奇甜橙上的成虫数量为每梢3.2~6.6只·d-1,显著高于木虱在其余10个品种枝梢上的停靠数量.福橘是柑橘黄龙病高发品种的原因是其对柑橘木虱的吸引力较强.%Under laboratory conditions, preference of adult Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuw, for infestation among 13 citrus varieties was determined with two experimentations. Experiment A applied every 2 detached shoots of different citrus varieties and put together for choice. Experiment B used the detached shoots of all tested citrus varieties and put together for choice. The results of Experiment A revealed that the percentage of ACP adults on each shoot of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Earlygold and C. medurensis (C. mitis) cv. Varigated Calamondin were 23 % and 1 %, respectively, which was significantly different from each other. The percentage on C. sinensis Osbeck cv. Taiwanmeiguicheng (33%) and cv. Newhall Navel Orange (20%) were also significantly different from each other. Significant different percentages of ACP adults were also observed between C. reticulata C. paradisi cv. Rihui (38%) and C. reticulata C. grandis cv. Page (15%). In Experiment B, the number of ACP on the shoots of C. sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall Navel Orange, C. tangerina Tanaka cv. Fuju and C. reticulata Citrusgrandis cv. Page was 3.2-6.6 adults · shoot-day-1 , which were significantly higher than that

  12. Danos da morte súbita dos citros sobre a produção de laranja Citrus sudden death damages on sweet orange yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B Bassanezi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A Morte Súbita dos Citros (MSC afeta laranjeiras doces (Citrus sinensis e algumas tangerineiras (Citrus reticulata enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia no norte do Estado de São Paulo e sul do Triângulo Mineiro. O progresso da doença nos pomares têm causado grande preocupação para o agronegócio citrícola. Para caracterizar e quantificar os danos causados pela MSC, a produção de frutos (peso total e número de frutos por planta e tamanho dos frutos foi avaliada em quatro talhões para cada combinação variedade ('Hamlin', 'Pêra', 'Natal' e 'Valência' / classe de idade (três a cinco anos, seis a dez anos e 11 a 15 anos. Em cada talhão, as plantas foram classificadas de acordo com a severidade de MSC (0 = sadia, 1 = sintomas iniciais e 2 = sintomas severos. Para cada nível de severidade foram colhidas dez plantas escolhidas ao acaso. Os danos foram caracterizados pela redução do peso total de frutos por planta (28% e 50% para o nível 1 e 2, respectivamente, do número total de frutos por planta (12% e 26% para o nível 1 e 2, respectivamente e do tamanho do fruto (22% e 41% para nível 1 e 2, respectivamente. As variedades de laranja não diferiram em relação à porcentagem de redução para todas as variáveis de produção avaliadas. As plantas mais jovens tiveram a maior redução no número total de frutos por planta e as plantas com mais de cinco anos de idade tiveram as maiores reduções no tamanho dos frutos. As classes de idade não diferiram na porcentagem de redução do peso total de frutos por planta.Citrus Sudden Death (CSD affects sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis and some mandarins (Citrus reticulata grafted on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia in the northern region of the State of São Paulo and south of the Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil. The progress of the disease in these groves is of great concern to citrus agribusiness. To characterize and quantify the damage caused by CSD, fruit yield (total weight and

  13. Índice de qualidade em um latossolo amarelo coeso cultivado com citros Quality index in a cohesive yellow latosol cultivated with citrus

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    José Fernandes de Melo Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de citros e exportador de suco concentrado de laranja. Na região Nordeste, a citricultura tem grande importância social, onde é cultivada predominantemente por produtores com áreas menores do que 10 hectares, em solos como caráter coeso. Na Bahia, a citricultura é explorada sobre diversas condições tecnológicas, e especialmente nos Tabuleiros Costeiros os pomares têm baixa longevidade e produtividade em função das limitações dos solos coesos à produção agrícola. Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a qualidade física e química de um Latossolo Amarelo Coeso cultivado com citros. O estudo foi realizado na região do Recôncavo Baiano, em um pomar comercial de laranja "Pera" (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. sob porta-enxerto de limão-cravo (Citrus limonia L. Osb.. Para a determinação do índice de qualidade do solo (IQS, utilizou-se o método proposto por Karlen & Stott (1994, e amostras foram coletadas em duas camadas: 0,00 - 0,20 m e 0,20 - 0,40 m. Os resultados mostraram que o Latossolo Amarelo Coeso sob manejo tradicional para a cultura de citros apresentou índice de qualidade regular, com limitações determinadas pela elevada resistência do solo à penetração, baixa permeabilidade à água e baixo teor de matéria orgânica, o que resulta em limitações para permitir o crescimento e o aprofundamento do sistema radicular e prover o fornecimento e a disponibilidade de água para as plantas cítricas.Brazil is the greatest citrus producer and exporter of concentrated orange juice in the world. In the Northeast, the citriculture has a large social importance for farming family, which is predominantly cultivated for small farmers. In Bahia state the citriculture has been exploited under several technology conditions and especially in the Costal table lands soil the orchards have low longevity and productivity based on the cohesive soil limitations for rural production. The purpose of

  14. Interleukin-13 is involved in the formation of liver fibrosis in Clonorchis sinensis-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Pei; Bian, Meng; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Jinsi; Shang, Mei; Qu, Hongling; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a chronic infection disease often accompanied by formation of liver fibrosis. Previous study has identified that Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) infection and CsRNASET2 (a member of CsESPs) immunization can drive Th2 immune response. IL-13, a multifunctional Th2 cytokine, has been widely confirmed to be profibrotic mediator. We want to determine whether IL-13 is involved in the generation of liver fibrosis during C. sinensis infection. A part of mice were infected with C. sinensis or immunized with CsRNASET2, respectively. Another part of mice were intravenously injected with rIL-13. Liver tissues of C. sinensis-infected mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, respectively. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of infected mice and rIL-13-treated mice were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, splenocytes of C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice were isolated, respectively. The levels of IL-13 in splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Our results displayed that the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice had serious chronic inflammation and collagen deposition. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice were obviously increased. Splenocytes from both C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice expressed high levels of IL-13. Moreover, rIL-13 treatment markedly promoted the transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1. These data implied that hepatic fibrosis was formed in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice, and IL-13 induced by C. sinensis infection and CsRNASET2 immunization might favor this progression. PMID:26993324

  15. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Trindade, Luisa M; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  16. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms. PMID:26835778

  17. Desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en condiciones de invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego Vegetative development of citrus seedlings cultivated at greenhouse conditions and submitted to two irrigations systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Schäfer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego. El experimento se realizó en la Estação Experimental Agronômica de la Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ubicada en Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre los meses de septiembre de 2003 y abril de 2004, totalizando 225 días de experimentación. El diseño experimental fue de parcelas subdivididas, en factorial 2 x 3, con 4 repeticiones de 22 contenedores cada. En las parcelas principales se evaluaron los sistemas de riego (microaspersión y capilaridad y en las subparcelas los patrones cítricos Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., citrangero 'C37' [P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra] y lima 'Rangpur' (C. limonia Osb.. En condiciones de invernadero los patrones cítricos presentan un desarrollo vegetativo más rápido bajo riego por capilaridad respecto a la microaspersión. Los patrones cítricos evaluados presentan desarrollos vegetativos distintos, donde el citrangero 'C37' supera a los demás.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the vegetative development of citrus rootstock seedlings cultivated under greenhouse conditions with two irrigation systems. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Agronômica , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from September 2003 to April 2004, totalizing 225 days of experimentation. The experimental design was a split-plot, in a 2x3 factorial, with 4 replications of 22 pots each. In the main plot the irrigation systems was evaluated (micro sprinkler and capillarity and in the split-plot the citrus rootstocks [Trifoliate orange - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C37' citrange - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra and 'Rangpur' lime - C. limonia Osb.] were evaluated. The main result showed in conditions of greenhouse citrus rootstock seedlings

  18. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  19. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  20. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity....

  1. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following: (1) Citrus I—Early and mid-season oranges; (2) Citrus II—Late oranges juice; (3) Citrus III—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on a juice basis; (4) Citrus IV—Tangelos...; or (2) The following juice content, if acceptable records are not furnished: (i) Citrus I—52...

  2. Comparative use of InDel and SSR markers in deciphering the interspecific structure of cultivated citrus genetic diversity: a perspective for genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lor, Andrés; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Genetic stratification associated with domestication history is a key parameter for estimating the pertinence of genetic association study within a gene pool. Previous molecular and phenotypic studies have shown that most of the diversity of cultivated citrus results from recombination between three main species: C. medica (citron), C. reticulata (mandarin) and C. maxima (pummelo). However, the precise contribution of each of these basic species to the genomes of secondary cultivated species, such as C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (sour orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit) and recent hybrids is unknown. Our study focused on: (1) the development of insertion-deletion (InDel) markers and their comparison with SSR markers for use in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies; (2) the analysis of the contributions of basic taxa to the genomes of secondary species and modern cultivars and (3) the description of the organisation of the Citrus gene pool, to evaluate how genetic association studies should be done at the cultivated Citrus gene pool level. InDel markers appear to be better phylogenetic markers for tracing the contributions of the three ancestral species, whereas SSR markers are more useful for intraspecific diversity analysis. Most of the genetic organisation of the Citrus gene pool is related to the differentiation between C. reticulata, C. maxima and C. medica. High and generalised LD was observed, probably due to the initial differentiation between the basic species and a limited number of interspecific recombinations. This structure precludes association genetic studies at the genus level without developing additional recombinant populations from interspecific hybrids. Association genetic studies should also be affordable at intraspecific level in a less structured pool such as C. reticulata. PMID:22160318

  3. Effect of prestorage curing on storage life, internal and external qualities of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Efeito da cura antes do armazenameto no prazo de conservação, qualidades internas e externas da laranja doce (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Titilola Aborisade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange fruits from two seasons, in April and August 2006 representing late 2005 and early 2006 harvests respectively were cured in hot air at 36-37(0C to 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% weight loss before storage at 28(0C and 86% relative humidity (RH. The fruits were observed for incidence of decay, further weight loss, juice content, firmness or softening of the peel, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, and colour during storage. Curing reduced the incidence of decay. All control fruits were rotten by day 21 in August harvest while 22.5% of the control was rotten by day 56 in the April harvest. Storage life was extended beyond 56 days in fruits cured with 1, 3, 5 and 7% in April harvest as there was no decay throughout, while decay incidence in August harvest was 88.9, 61.1, 22.2 and 31.3% in 1, 3, 5 and 7% respectively. Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora sp., Alternaria citri and Collectotrichum gloeosporioides were among decay causing moulds detected. Control fruits lost more weight during storage than cured fruits did. Fruit rind hardening was more noticed in the control and those cured to 1% weight loss, especially from the April harvest. It was insignificant in other treatments in both trials. Titratable acidity, pH, juice content and TSS were not affected by the treatment. Colour change to yellow was however retarded by curing. Curing to 5% weight loss was best for decay control and quality retention.Frutos de laranjas de duas safras, de Abril e de Agosto de 2006 representando colheitas do final de 2005 e começo de 2006 respectivamente foram curados em ar quente a 36-37(0C até a perda de peso de 1%, 3%, 5% e 7% antes do armazenamento a 28(0C e 86% de umidade relativa (UR. Os frutos foram observados quanto à incidência de apodrecimento, mais tarde perda de peso, conteúdo de suco, firmeza ou amolecimento da casca, sólidos solúveis totais (TSS, pH, acidez titúlavel, e coloração durante o armazenamento. A cura diminuiu a incidência do apodrecimento. Todos os frutos controles da colheita de Agosto estavam podres pelo dia 21 enquanto que 22.5% dos frutos controle da colheita de Abril estavam podres pelo dia 56. O prazo de conservação foi estendido para mais de 56 dias em frutos curados com 1, 3, 5 e 7 % na colheita de Abril, não havendo apodrecimento até então, enquanto a incidência de apodrecimento na colheita de Agosto foi de 88.9, 61.1, 22.2 e 31.3% em 1, 3, 5 e 7% respectivamente. Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora sp., Alternaria citri e Collectotrichum gloeosporioides foram detectados entre os fungos causadores de apodrecimento. Os frutos controle perderam mais peso durante o armazenamento do que os frutos curados. O endurecimento da casca do fruto foi mais notado no controle e naqueles curados com perda de peso de 1%, especialmente os da colheita de Abril. Foi insignificante nos demais tratamentos em ambos os ensaios. A acidez titúlavel, o pH, o conteúdo de suco e o TSS não foram afetados pelo tratamento.A mudança de cor para o amarelo foi contudo retardada pela cura. A cura com a perda de peso a 5% foi a melhor para o controle do apodrecimento e retenção da qualidade do fruto.

  4. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  5. Angelica sinensis induces hair regrowth via the inhibition of apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss is accompanied by keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen and prolonged telogen. Angelica sinensis was reported to promote hair growth in vitro. Based on previous studies, we explored the hair growth effect and the mechanism of A. sinensis related to keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen in mice. The 70% Ethanol extract of A. sinensis was applied topically at doses of 1 and 100 mg/mL to the dorsa of C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks. The A. sinensis-treated group showed noticeable hair regrowth. Treatment with A. sinensis restored the lengths of hair shafts and size of hair follicles. In addition, mice treated with A. sinensis showed notably decreased apoptotic cells, along with a significant change in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the ratio of a pair of apoptosis-associated proteins: Bcl-2 and Bax. Also, A. sinensis inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases, and the activation of c-Jun with decreased TNF-α. These findings reveal a role of A. sinensis as an alternative treatment for hair loss that acts through hair cycle pathways associated with apoptosis regression during catagen. PMID:25004889

  6. Screening of anti-oxidative effects in Camellia sinensis L. leaves treated with boric acid

    OpenAIRE

    İsmailoğlu, Işıl; COŞKUN, Zeynep Mine; Ersöz, Melike; Murat Ali TURAN

    2014-01-01

    Camellia sinensis L. (tea) is one of the most widely consumed drink in the World. The anti-oxidant role of boric acid has been reported. The present study was aimed to evaluate the alteration of anti-oxidative effects of C. sinensis L. leaves extract treated with boric acid.

  7. Effect of foliar applied (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) on sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.), blood red var., on farmer's orchard at Khanpur, district Haripur, NWFP, during 2002-03. Micronutrients were applied in foliar sprays over the canopy of each tree. The main effects and interactions of Zinc sulphate (Zn), iron sulphate (Fe), Copper Sulphate (Cu) and Manganese Sulphate (Mn) were studied in factorial combinations. A basal dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was applied at the rate 1.5, 1 and 1 kg tree/sup -1/. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were applied alone and in various combinations at the rate 0.115, 0.057, 0.05 and 0.13 kg in 100 liters of water. Application of micronutrients significantly increased Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves, compared with control. Zn treatments significantly increased the yield, number of fruit and total sugar. Manganese treatments significantly increased the total soluble solids and reduced the acidity of fruit juice. Other quality parameters, including fruit size, percent peel, percent pulp, sugar as well as total soluble solids, were improved with the application of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. (author)

  8. Identificação colorimétrica em citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Bacchi

    1943-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the susceptibility of the various stocks with regard to the new disease "tristeza" ("sadness", a quick and acurate identification of the stock is required. In orchards this cannot be done in most cases as stocks do not always exhibit sprouts and on account of erroneus information frequently given by owners. We have tested the colorimetric identification, already employed in other countries. This identification is based on the differences of color obtained in the watery extract cf the bark taken from the trunk or from the root, when treated by special reagents. The results obtained are somewhat different from those described by the authors of the method. This is perhaps due to variation in environmental conditions. Only the Almen and ferric chloride tests gave satisfactory results, making it possible to arrange the species and varieties examined into four groups : (1 C. aurantium L. ; (2 C. sinensis Osbeck; (3 C. limonia Osbeck ("gigante" variety and (4 all the others. Although deficient in certain respects the test is valuable, permiting us to identify the stocks of orange trees, azeda as well as caipira the most employed in the citrus orchards of the State of S. Paulo.

  9. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  11. Diversidade e dinâmica populacional de ácaros em pomar cítrico Diversity and population dynamics of mites in citrus orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Zatti da Silva; Mário Eidi Sato; Carlos Amadeu Leite de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    As plantas de citros hospedam diversas espécies de ácaros que causam sérios prejuízos à produção e qualidade de frutos no Brasil. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros e a dinâmica populacional das principais espécies de ácaros em pomar de citros, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, localizado no município de Descalvado, Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas 14 avaliações em um período de 12 meses, de fevereiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Em cada avaliação, foram coletadas...

  12. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIANA HOXHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

  13. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  14. Differences in secondary metabolites in leaves from orange trees (Citrus sinensis L.) affected with greening disease (Huanglongbing) (HLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary analyses by HPLC-MS of methanolic extracts of two sets of orange leaves that are symptomatic of the Greening Disease (HLB) have shown several consistent differences. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic leaves were monitored in the HPLC chromatograms at 330 nm, and signi...

  15. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  16. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de, E-mail: nmendes@terra.com.b, E-mail: bortoli@fcav.unesp.b [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Depto. de Fitossanidade; Doria, Hayda O.S., E-mail: hosd75@terra.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  17. Huanglongbing resistance and tolerance in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-i...

  18. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  19. Asian citrus psyllid - biology and seasonal ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal ecology of Diaphorina citri was investigated in a non-irrigated citrus grove of mature orange trees beginning January 2005 in east central Florida. No insecticides were applied during the study. Predators including lady beetles, lacewings and syrphid flies were observed during the stud...

  20. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  1. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  2. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  3. Extrações de óleos de sementes de citros e suas atividades sobre a formiga cortadeira Atta sexdens e seu fungo simbionte Citrus seed oils extractions and their activity against leaf cutting ant Atta sexdens and its symbiotic fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Fernandes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds Citrus oils (C. sinensis, C. limon and C. reticulata extraction with hexane in a soxhlet apparatus and through supercritical fluid (CO2 were done. Besides triglycerides, the oils obtained with hexane comprised volatile compounds such as terpenes and fatty alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. However, the oils obtained by extraction with supercritical fluid presented only triglycerides. These results indicate that the extraction using supercritical fluid presents better selectivity. The activity of the oils on the development of the ant symbiotic fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, showed week activity and the topic insecticide assay showed better activity for the tangerine seed oil.

  4. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadete Reis; Otto Carlos Koller; Sergio Francisco Schwarz; Sergiomar Theisen; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Fernanda Severo Nichele; Rafael Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2008-01-01

    Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2...

  5. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  6. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  7. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  8. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  9. Cordyceps sinensis, un hongo usado en la medicina tradicional china.

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. es un hongo ascomiceto perteneciente a la familia Clavicipitaceae del orden Hypocreales, parásito de artrópodos, que ha sido altamente valorado en la medicina tradicional china durante siglos. Según el Diccionario de Hongos [9], hay 100 especies conocidas de Cordyceps, y la base de datos del Index Fungorum del CABI tiene 506 entradas para este género. En China se conoce con los nombres de Hia tsao tong tchong o Dong Chong Xia Cao (chongcao) y en inglés como co...

  10. INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON CITRUS: A REVIEW PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN Al-Yassin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, effi cient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative infl uence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees’ growth and causes physiological disorders. Primarily salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and water potential of citrus tree leaves, in addition to accumulation of excessive concentration of Chloride or Sodium in leaves. A great deal of research indicates that citrus have the genetic potential to be salt-sensitive; however inheritance studies in citrus are scarce. In this paper the adverse of effects of salinity on physiological aspects of citrus are reviewed. The review summarizes the prevailing state of knowledge about the responses and tolerance of citrus trees to salinity.

  11. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau. PMID:26853966

  12. Progress on Dissecting and Controlling the Citrus Huanglongbing Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Zhang, Muqing; Benyon, Lesley; Armstrong-Vahling, Cheryl; Hoffman, Michele; Hao, Guixia; Zou, Huasong; Doud, Melissa; Ding, Fang; Morgan, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a century-old and emerging disease that impedes citrus production worldwide. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the globally prevalent species of HLB bacteria. Here we describe our molecular characterizations of Las, and our newly-developed control methods for citrus HLB. From a genomics standpoint, we revealed Las has a significantly reduced genome (1.26Mb) and unique features adapted to its intracellular life style.  Although the genome is small, Las ...

  13. Citrus Genetic Resources Grown on the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; ヤマモト, マサシ; 山本, 雅史

    2014-01-01

    The Ryukyu Islands are located southwest part of Japan. Various local citrus are grown in this subtropical region. Since there are large geographical and climatic differences between the Ryukyu Islands and the main islands (Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku) of Japan, there are unique local citrus genetic resources on the Ryukyu Islands. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa) is an indigenous mandarin species in this region. This species is clearly distinguished from the mandarin grown in China and India ba...

  14. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Benito F. García; Ascensión Torres; Francisco A. Macías

    2015-01-01

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compoun...

  15. Mechanisms of sexual polyploidization and inheritance in triploid citrus populations

    OpenAIRE

    CUENCA IBÁÑEZ, JOSÉ

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the main fruit crop in the world and Spain is the 6th producer and the major exporter for the fresh fruit market. Seedlessness is one of the most important fruit quality traits for this market since consumers do not accept seedy fruits. Recovery of triploid hybrids has become an important breeding strategy to develop new seedless citrus varieties and several of them have been already released from citrus breeding programs worldwide. Despite the undisputable importance of polyploidy ...

  16. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  17. Citrus blackfly in Florida: Eradication or bio-control?

    OpenAIRE

    Tefertiller, Kenneth R.; McKee, Vernon C.; Perry, Vernon G.

    1991-01-01

    The citrus blackfly (CBF) invaded south Florida in January 1976. It was considered by scientists to be a major threat to the Florida citrus industry located in the central part of the state. The CBF was successfully contained in a 1000 square mile tri-county quarantined area surrounding Ft. Lauderdale for several months before breaking out to an area near the commercial citrus production area. During this time federal and state research agencies were evaluating a bio-control approach involvin...

  18. Incidência de Dilobopterus costalimai Young e Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, em pomares cítricos no noroeste paranaense = Incidence of Dilobopterus costalimai Young and Acrogonia citrina Marucci & Cavichioli, in citrus orchards in Northwestern Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria Orbolato Gonçalves

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As cigarrinhas das famílias Cicadellidae e Cercopidae são vetores da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells, causadora da Clorose variegada dos citros. Esta doença traz sérios prejuízos à lavoura de citros no Noroeste Paranaense, e é estudada no Brasil desde 1987, quando foi descoberta pela primeira vez na região de Colina, São Paulo. Os vetores transmitem a X. fastidiosa quando se alimentam sugando a seiva do xilema, local onde a bactéria se instala, obstruindo a passagem da seiva. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar aocorrência das cigarrinhas vetoras Dilobopterus costalimai e Acrogonia citrina em pomar comercial de citros. O experimento foi realizado no sítio “Laranjeiras I”, município de Nova Esperança, região noroeste do Paraná, no período de julho de 2004 a agosto de 2006. Foram feitas amostragens mensais, por meio de armadilhas adesivas amarelas (Biocontrole®, nas variedades de laranjeiras [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] Folha Murcha, Valência, Pêra e Natal.Nas variedades Pêra e Valência, a cigarrinha mais capturada foi Dilobopterus costalimai. Os meses de maior ocorrência das espécies foram entre dezembro e maio de cada ano.The sharpshooters of the families Cicadellidae and Cercopidae are vectors of Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis. This disease causes severe damage to the Paraná citrus industry, and it has been studied in Brazil since 1987, when it was discovered for the first time in the area of Colina, SP. The vectors transmit X. fastidiosa when they feed on the xylem sap, where the bacteria settles, obstructing the passage of the sap. This workhad the objective of evaluating the occurrence of the vector sharpshooter Dilobopterus costalimai and Acrogonia citrina in a commercial citrus orchard during the period between July 2004 and August 2006. The experiment was accomplished in the Laranjeiras I farm, in the city of Nova Esperança, northwestern Paraná. The collections

  19. Use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) versus ACEI/ARB alone in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Yang, Shi-kun; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Ming; Tang, Dan; Liu, Fu-you; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Li

    2015-05-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis; syn. Cordyceps sinensis) has been used in clinical therapy for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) for more than 15 years. O. sinensis is a household name in china and it is available even in supermarket. However, the precise role of O. sinensis has not been fully elucidated with meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the effectiveness of O. sinensis for the treatment of DKD. We identified 60 trials involving 4288 participants. Overall, O. sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB had a better effect when compared to ACEI/ARB alone on 24 h UP (MD = -0.23 g/d, 95% CI: - 0.28 to -0.19, p sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB may have a more beneficial effect on the proteinuria, inflammatory, dyslipidemia status as compared to ACEI/ARB alone in DKD III-IV stage patients, while there is no evidence that O. sinensis could improve the hyperglycemia status. However, with regard to low-quality and significant heterogeneity of included trials, to further verify the current results from this meta-analysis, long-term and well-designed RCTs with high-quality study are warranted to ascertain the long-term efficacy of O. sinensis. PMID:25682973

  20. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515

  1. Study of Thermotherapy against Citrus Huanglongbing in Fujian Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guocheng; Liu, Bo; Lie, Xiongjie; Cai, Zijian; Hu, Hanqing; Wang, Xianda; Ruan, Chuanqing; Lu, Lianming; Sequeira, Ronald; Xia, Yulu

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a major threat to world citrus production. In this study, we investigated using a heat treatment technique for managing HLB-affected citrus trees in the field. A total of 72 5-to-8-year old mandarin citrus, Citrus reticulata Blanco, trees were used for the study. Nine trees were regarded as a replicate or a block with four replicates per treatment. A randomized complete block design was used for field experimental design. The treated trees were covered by using plastic ...

  2. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents. PMID:27146015

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reazai; Issa Mohammadpourfard; Shahrokh Nazmara; Mahdi Jahanbakhsh; Leila Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also o...

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates of Wild Type Citrus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Long; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from Chinese wild type citrus were analyzed by comparing the sequences of nine genomic regions (p23, p20, p13, p18, p25, p27, POL, HEL and k17) with the CTV isolates of cultivated citrus from different countries. The results showed that the divergence pattern of genomic RNA of the CTV isolates from wild type citrus was similar to that of other isolates from cultivated citrus, the 3´ proximal region was relatively conserved, and the 5´ proximal region had greater variability. The nine genomic regions of CTV isolates analyzed were found to have been under purifying selection in the evolution process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven Chinese wild CTV isolates were located at different clades and did not relfect their geographical origins, suggesting genetic diversity among the Chinese wild CTV populations. These results will aid in the understanding of molecular evolution of the Chinese CTV populations.

  5. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pengkai Wu; Zhi Tao; Huafeng Liu; Guixiang Jiang; Changhua Ma; Chunmei Wang; Di Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of extending the storage time of wild Cordyceps sinensis adversely affect the nutritive and medicinal value of the product. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of heat treatment, a relatively safe storage extension method, on the biological activity of wild C. sinensis. Methods: Samples were heated to 60, 80, or 100°C for 15, 30, or 60 minutes. SOD activity in wild C. sinensis before and after heating was assayed using a standard colorimetri...

  6. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The res...

  7. Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Yesuf

    2013-01-01

    Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of c...

  8. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg-1) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg-1, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg-1. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot-1, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  9. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 {mu}g pot{sup -1}, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  10. A transcriptome analysis of mitten crab testes (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr protein and nucleotide (nt database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs - six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1, two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins, and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology.

  11. Analysis of MINT hibiscus rosa-sinensis mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is an alternative method to create new cultivars of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Malaysia. Increasing gamma ray doses resulted in a reduction of growing shoots on the irradiated stem cuttings. The LD50 for the stem cuttings was 36.2 Gy and at 75% growth was 17.15 Gy. Based on these results, 20 to 30 Gy were chosen for irradiation of the stem cuttings to induce mutation in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Irradiated stem cuttings were then planted into sand-beds for rooting. After one month, the rooted stems were transferred into polybags and allowed to grow under 70% shade provided by plastic netting and the variants were subsequently observed. Three new cultivars with variations in flower size and colours were obtained. The plants were propagated for five generations to achieve the stable mutants. Anthocyanins analysis is being carried out to measure the amount of anthocyanins in each cultivar. Pelargonidin chloride, Cyanidin chloride and Delphinidin chloride are used as standards for the analysis. (Author)

  12. [Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustolin, Teresinha A; Lopes, João R S; Querino, Ranyse B; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Zanol, Kety; Azevedo Filho, Wilson S; Mendes, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management. PMID:20098931

  13. Citrus phytophthora diseases: Management challenges and successes

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J; Feichtenberger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora spp. are present in nearly all citrus groves in Florida and Brazil and phytophthora-induced diseases, especially foot and root rot, have the potential to cause economically important crop losses. Disease-related losses due to root rot are difficult to estimate because fibrous root damage and yield loss are not always directly proportional. Challenges from phytophthora diseases have been addressed in both countries by enacting phytosanitary requirements for production of pathogen-...

  14. Huanglongbing Resistance and Tolerance in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stover, E; McCollum, G.; Driggers, R.; Duan, Y.; Shatters, Jr., R. G.; Ritenour, M.; Hall, D.G.; J. Chaparro

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-incidence. ‘Temple’ had the lowest HLB symptoms and Liberibacter (Las) titer, while ‘Murcott’ and ‘Minneola’ had the highest. The USDA Ft. Pierce, FL farm is managed to reveal genotype responses to ...

  15. Comparison of evapotranspiration rates for flatwoods and ridge citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.

  16. Diversidade e dinâmica populacional de ácaros em pomar cítrico Diversity and population dynamics of mites in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de citros hospedam diversas espécies de ácaros que causam sérios prejuízos à produção e qualidade de frutos no Brasil. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros e a dinâmica populacional das principais espécies de ácaros em pomar de citros, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, localizado no município de Descalvado, Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas 14 avaliações em um período de 12 meses, de fevereiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Em cada avaliação, foram coletadas dez folhas e cinco frutos na parte interna de cada uma das 40 plantas demarcadas no pomar. Foram encontradas 34 espécies de ácaros, distribuídas em 17 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes foram: Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmed (Eriophyidae, Panonychus citri (McGregor (Tetranychidae, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Fungitarsonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae. Entre os ácaros predadores, a família Phytoseiidae foi a de maior riqueza (oito espécies e abundância (1.072 indivíduos. A espécie predominante foi Euseius concordis (Chant, correspondendo a 98,3% dos ácaros desta família. Foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais de E. concordis e dos ácaros fitófagos P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora. Também foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais desses ácaros e fatores meteorológicos como temperatura e precipitação pluvial. Os resultados indicam que E. concordis atua como inimigo natural de P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora no pomar cítrico estudado.The citrus plants are hosts of several species of mites, which cause severe damage to production and quality of fruits in Brazil. The objective of this research was to study the diversity of mites and population dynamics of the main mite species in a citrus orchard, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, in Descalvado County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fourteen evaluations were conducted over a period of 12

  17. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise. PMID:26863737

  18. Enhancement of neuromuscular activity by natural specimens and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps Sinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05 enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  19. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg and the Evolution Analysis within the Malvalesorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A.sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A.sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A.sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A.sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A.sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A.sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional

  20. Fita plástica e fita degradável na enxertia de citros Plastic and degradable tape on citrus budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fitas plástica e degradável no pegamento e no desenvolvimento de enxertos de citros, em viveiro telado. Borbulhas certificadas de 6-8 mm das cultivares de laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerineira 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco e do híbrido 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] foram enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, com 10 meses de idade, em fevereiro de 2003. A fixação das borbulhas nos porta-enxertos foi feita com fitas de dois tipos: fita plástica de polietileno transparente e fita degradável de parafilme. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (3 cultivares x 2 tipos de fita, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais constituídas por dez plantas. A média geral de pegamento dos enxertos foi elevada (99,6%, em razão das condições propícias à enxertia fornecidas no viveiro telado. Não houve efeito do tipo de fita no pegamento dos enxertos nem das cultivares no pegamento e desenvolvimento dos enxertos. No entanto, o desenvolvimento dos enxertos foi sensivelmente maior quando a enxertia foi realizada com fita degradável em relação à fita plástica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the plastic and degradable tape on budding efficiency and scion development of citrus in nursery under screenhouse. Certificated 6-8 mm buds of the cultivars navel orange 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, mandarin 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco and the hybrid 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] were budded on 10 months rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck, in February 2003. The buds were attached to the rootstocks using either one of two types of tape: plastic polyethylene transparent tape and parafilm degradable tape. The experimental design was a factorial entirely randomized with 3 cultivars, 2 tape types and four

  1. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de laranjas 'Champagne' (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis minimamente processadas em diferentes embala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a influência do nível de processamento mínimo e atmosfera modificada na qualidade de laranja 'Champagne' minimamente processada armazenada sob refrigeração. Laranjas submetidas aos seguintes processos: a remoção do albedo; b remoção do albedo e flavedo; c segmentada em gomos, foram acondicionadas em embalagem sem revestimento (controle, com filme de polietileno, com filme de PVC, com revestimento comestível de gelatina a 3% e em pote plástico com tampa de poliestireno. O armazenamento dos frutos foi realizado a 5 ± 1 °C por oito dias, sendo submetidos a análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas a cada dois dias. A maior perda de massa ocorreu em frutos sem flavedo e segmentados, sem revestimento e com película de gelatina. À medida que avançou o período de armazenamento, observou-se ligeira elevação no teor de SST para os tratamentos com maior perda de massa e redução da acidez e ácido ascórbico, sem efeito da embalagem. As contagens microbianas não ultrapassaram os limites preconizados em nenhum tratamento, entretanto, maiores contagens foram verificadas no final do armazenamento. As frutas minimamente processadas embaladas em potes de poliestireno com tampa, filmes de polietileno e PVC mantiveram boa aparência com poucas modificações nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas até o 8° dia de armazenamento.

  3. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs: orange (Citrus sinensis L., lemon (Citrus limonum L. and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37% for orange essential oil (EO; linalyl acetate (37.28%, linalool (23.36%, for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%, β-pinene (17.04% and γ-terpinene (13.46% for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  4. HPLC estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan G; Unnikrishnan K; Rema Shree A; Balachandran Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of a...

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of taurocyamine kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: a candidate chemotherapeutic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ying Xiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: [corrected] A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. CONCLUSION: CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart

  6. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and t...

  7. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Teng Huang; Hsin-Chih Lai; Yun-Fei Ko; Ojcius, David M; Ying-Wei Lan; Jan Martel; Young, John D.; Kowit-Yu Chong

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1β and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment wit...

  8. High diversity of the fungal community structure in naturally-occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis, which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "Natural O. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specimens has not been investigated in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the technique of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP, the mycobiota of three different sections (stromata, sclerotia, and mycelial cortices from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. For the culture-dependent method, 572 fungal strains were isolated, and 92 putative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified from 226 sequenced strains with the threshold of 97%. For the culture-independent method, 490 fungal clones were identified from about 3000 clones of ITS fragments from the whole-community DNA; based on PCR-SSCP analyses, 266 of these clones were selected to be sequenced, and 118 putative OTUs were detected. The overwhelming majority of isolates/clones and OTUs were detected from mycelial cortices; only a few were detected from stromata and sclerotia. The most common OTUs detected with both methods belonged to Ascomycota; however, only 13 OTUs were detected simultaneously by both methods. Potential novel lineages were detected by each of the two methods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A great number of fungal species present in the mycobiota of naturally-occurring O. sinensis specimens were detected, and many of them may represent undescribed lineages. That only a few of the same OTUs were detected by both methods indicated that different methods should be used. This study increased our

  9. Optimization of induction, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and the medicinal position is its root. This perennial herb grows vigorously only in specific areas and the environment. Tissue culture induction of callus and plant regeneration is an important and effective way to obtain large scale cultures of A. sinensis. Objective: The objective was to optimize the inductive, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of A. sinensis. Materials and Methods: Tissue culture conditions for A. sinensis were optimized using leaves and petioles (types I and II as explants source. Murashige and Skoog (MS and H media supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 7.5 g/L agar, and varying concentrations of plant growth regulators were used for callus induction. In addition, four different basal media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4 D, 0.2 mg/L 6 benzyladenine (BA and 30 g/L sucrose were optimized for callus subculture. Finally, growth kinetics of A. sinensis cultured on different subculture media was investigated based on callus properties, including fresh weight, dry weight, medium pH, callus relative fresh weight growth, callus relative growth rate (CRGR, and sucrose content. Results: MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L BA, 0.7 mg/L 2,4 D, 30 g/L sucrose and 7.5 g/L agar resulted in optimal callus induction in A. sinensis while petiole I was found as the best plant organ for callus induction. The B5 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4 D, 0.2 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose displayed the best results in A. sinensis callus subculture assays. Conclusion: The optimized conditions could be one of the most potent methods for large scale tissue culture of A. sinensis.

  10. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  11. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may...

  12. First steps towards rescuing Las-infected citrus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is having significant impact on the USDA citrus breeding program as it has shown up in a number of trees which exist only in a virtually irreplaceable collection of diverse citrus types. It is critical that we rescue HLB-free budwood from elite germplasm that is HLB-patho...

  13. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  14. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued...

  16. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  17. Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

  18. Microwave extraction of citrus peel to release pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...

  19. Determination of methodology to obtain resistance to citrus canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri) through nuclear techniques combined with in vitro culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the serious problems of sweet orange cultivation in Brazil is the occurrence of citrus canker. As a result, it is most important to obtain cultivars that are tolerant or resistant to this bacterial disease. Many citrus cultivars are potentially polyembryonic: a nucellar tissue can produce several embryos genetically identical to the mother plant. Considering that these embryos are of unicellular origin, the application of mutagenic agents to nucellar tissues is an interesting method for obtaining non-chimeric mutants. On the other hand, in vitro techniques have become an important tool in mutation breeding, since the nucellus can be totipotent even after mutagen treatment, and these techniques permit the screening of mutants for disease tolerance or resistance at earlier, even in vitro, stages of growth. Nucellar tissues of young fruits of the cultivar Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osb.) were extracted from ovules 12 weeks after pollination and put on basic medium, consisting of macro- and micronutrients of Murashige and Skoog medium combined with (in mg/L) meso-inositol (100); pyridoxine HCl (1); nicotinic acid (1); thiamine (0.2); saccharose (50 g/L); malt extract (500); bacto-agar (8 g/L). The nucellar tissues were gamma irradiated at various doses to determine their radiosensitivity on inoculation one week, two weeks and three weeks after inoculation. The percentage of nucellar cultures producing embryoids was inversely proportional to the radiation dose. There was no significant difference between the control (60%) and 0.5 kR (55%). The dose of 12 kR was practically lethal. The average number of embryoids per nucellar culture, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kR, was significantly reduced, as compared with the control (6.4), yielding the almost similar values of 3.4, 3.0 and 4.5, respectively. (author)

  20. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  1. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam. PMID:26740358

  2. [Cloning and tissue expression of 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene in Angelica sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sui-chao; Wang, Yin-quan; Luo, Jun; Xia, Qi; Fan, Qin; Li, Shu-nan; Wang, Zhen-heng

    2015-12-01

    4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in higher plant and may regulate the biosynthesis of ferulic acid in Angelica sinensis. In this study, the homology-based cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique were used to clone a full length cDNA encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL), and then qRT-PCR was taken for analyzing 4CL gene expression levels in the root, stem and root tissue at different growth stages of seedlings of A. sinensis. The results showed that a full-length 4CL cDNA (1,815 bp) was obtained (GenBank accession number: KT880508) which shares an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 632 bp, encodes 544 amino acid polypeptides. We found 4CL gene was expressed in all tissues including leaf, stem and root of seedlings of A. sinensis. The expressions in the leave and stem were increased significantly with the growth of seedlings of A. sinensis (P space pattern of 4CL gene expression in seedlings of A. sinensis. These findings will be useful for establishing an experiment basis for studying the structure and function of 4CL gene and elucidating mechanism of ferulic acid biosynthesis and space-time regulation in A. sinensis. PMID:27245029

  3. Relationship Between Leaf Vein Splitting and Mineral Nutrition of Citrus%柑橘叶脉开裂症与矿质营养的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 谢钟琛; 谢文龙; 吴兴明; 施清

    2011-01-01

    柑橘叶脉开裂症属于多病因的病症,缺Mg或缺B均可导致发病,对'纽荷尔'脐橙[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck'Newhall']的缺Mg叶脉开裂症病株,在生长季4月采用1.0%硝酸镁叶面喷施矫治2~3次,可有效降低病叶发生.通过福建柑橘产区普查,由缺Mg引起叶脉开裂症占86.2%,其次为B与Mg共同缺乏,缺B仅占2.3%.不同品种缺Mg叶脉开裂的感病顺序为:纽荷尔脐橙>琯溪蜜柚,其它发病品种还有金柑、早熟温州蜜柑、瓯柑.采用易感品种纽荷尔脐橙与抗性品种椪柑互为中间砧高接比对发现,纽荷尔脐橙对Mg和B的吸收能力低于椪柑,对K的吸收高于椪柑,这可能是纽荷尔脐橙易患叶脉开裂症的原因.缺Mg和缺B病症的最显著的区别为,缺Mg叶脉开裂多位于叶片项部"∧"形黄化部位;缺B叶脉开裂症病叶呈绿色不黄化;Mg、B缺乏症的病叶主脉和侧脉明显开裂与全叶黄化,或叶脉开裂达基部"∧"形绿色区域.%This study confirmed that leaf vein splitting of citrus was multi-pathogeny caused by both Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency. Spraying 1.0% Mg(NO3)2· 6H2O had significant effect on remedying leaf vein splitting of‘ Newhall’ [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] caused by Mg-deficiency in April. According to the investigation in Fujian citrus orchards, 86.2% of leaf vein splitting was suffered from Mg-deficiency, 11.5% from Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency, only 2.3% from B-deficiency. Infection rates of leaf vein splitting caused by Mg-deficiency ranked in descending order was as follow: Newhall navel orange, ‘Guanxi-miyou' [C. grandis (L.) Osbeck]. Other infected varieties included ‘Kumquat’(Fortunella crassifolia Swingle), Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc. ‘Early variety’ ) and ‘Ougan’(C. suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). Leaf vein splitting susceptible variety Newhall [C. sinensis(L. )Osbeck]and resistant varieties Ponkan ( C. reticulate Blanco) were used as intermediate stocks in graft

  4. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    mass transfer in the phloem but had no influence on fruit growth. These observations demonstrate that the transport capacity in the phloem of the pedicel does not limit fruit growth and, within the limits of our experiments, an increase in demand by the fruit appeared to be matched by an increase in SMT. The dependence of late xylem formation (after the period of fruitlet abscission) on fruitlet growth was demonstrated in Salustiana orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by means of controlling fruit growth through the manipulation of leaf area. Fruit growth at this time was more closely related to leaf area than to carbohydrate levels, suggesting that it may be limited by current photosynthesis. PMID:12451031

  5. Coccinellid predators do not track populations of the Asian citrus phyllid (Diaphorina citri) in citrus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow sticky cards were used to survey populations of Diaphorina citri, the vector of Huanglongbing, the most devastating bacterial disease of citrus worldwide. The numbers of coccinellids, potential predators of Diaphorina citri, were also surveyed. Citrus surveyed included a variety of species (V...

  6. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  7. A comparison of traps and stem tap sampling for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted at two different field sites to compare yellow sticky card traps, blue sticky card traps, Multi-Lure traps, and CC traps (red, blue, black, white, yellow, and green) for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama,in citrus. The Multi-Lure trap is useful f...

  8. Incidence of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease “huanglongbing” or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston, was imported fro...

  9. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers. PMID:26470097

  10. Comparison of FTIR spectra between huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease Huanglongbing(HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant ...

  11. Attenuation of Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Oral Administration of Extracts and Fractions of Cephalotaxus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Muhammad K.; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

    2007-01-01

    Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control ...

  12. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1 Uso do método de dissipação de calor para a medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.O fluxo de seiva poderia ser utilizado como parâmetro fisiológico para fomentar a irrigação de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido pela estimação do consumo contínuo de água. Neste trabalho, reportam-se os primeiros resultados, indicando o uso potencial e as limitações iniciais do método de dissipação de calor para medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas em recipientes. Mudas de laranjeira-doce 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck foram avaliadas por 30 dias, durante o verão. Sondas de dissipação de calor e sensores do tipo termopar foram construídos a partir de materiais prontamente disponíveis e de baixo custo para favorecer o acesso ao método por viveiristas. O fluxo de seiva apresentou alta correlação com a temperatura do ar dentro da estufa telada. Contudo, erros inerentes ao gradiente térmico natural e a injúrias nos tecidos do caule afetaram a

  13. Screening of citrus and its close relatives for tolerance to huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadugu, C.; Keremane, M.; Stover, E; Halbert, S.; Duan, Y. P.; Lee, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus, has become a serious problem for the citrus industries in Brazil and Florida, and both the disease and its psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri continue to spread to other citrus growing regions. Host resistance or tolerance to the pathogen would be extremely valuable to the citrus industry. A field trial was established in Fort Pierce, Florida where HLB has become endemic to assess the HLB tolerance level of different cultivars of citrus and ...

  14. Detection of a new medium for budwood culture in vitro of citrus

    OpenAIRE

    SERTKAYA, Gülşen ŞAŞ; ÇINAR, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of new and quality citrus species and cultivars from one country or growing area to another may lead to the introduction of new pests and diseases. Therefore the import and direct production of citrus budwood without adequate control measures has a high risk. The citrus virus and virus-like disease agents can be successfully eliminated using the shoot-tip grafting (STG) technique which is routinely used to obtain virus-free plants in citrus improvement programs in major citrus...

  15. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. PMID:25491482

  16. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil—Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir dos Santos Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z-β-ocimene and (E-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  17. Sistema radicular dos citros em Neossolo Quartzarênico dos Tabuleiros Costeiros sob irrigação e sequeiro Citrus root system in Coastal Tablelands on Typic Quartzipsamment under irrigation and rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Duarte Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema radicular da laranjeira 'Pêra' Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., enxertada em limoeiro 'Rugoso' Citrus jambhiri Lush., plantada no espaçamento 6x4 m, sob sistema irrigado com microaspersores e sob sequeiro. O solo da área experimental, localizada em Itapicuru, BA, é um Neossolo Quartzarênico, com horizonte subsuperficial coeso. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, e foram avaliadas cinco plantas em cada sistema. Amostras de raiz foram coletadas a cada 0,5 m de distância do caule, em seis profundidades, em quatro locais, na linha de plantas e seis nas entrelinhas. A distribuição das raízes foi avaliada em três classes de diâmetro (1 mm. A comparação entre os locais, em relação à planta, nos sistemas irrigado e sequeiro, tanto na linha de plantas quanto na entrelinha, apresentou diferenças na distribuição de raízes apenas à profundidade de 0-0,20 m. As 36 combinações dos três diâmetros de raiz e das seis profundidades, entre os sistemas irrigado e sequeiro, mostraram diferenças na distribuição de raízes apenas no diâmetro 0,5 e The aim of this work was to evaluate the root system of 'Pera' orange tree Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. grafted on 'Rugoso' lemon tree Citrus jambhiri Lush., cultivated with spacing within and between rows of 4 and 6 m, respectively, under rainfed conditions and under irrigation. The experimental area was established in Itapicuru, BA, Brazil, in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil with a subsuperficial cohesive layer. The experimental was a completely randomized design with five plants evaluated at each system. Root samples were collected in six positions between rows and four positions within rows, spaced of 0.5 m from tree's stem. At each position, the roots were sampled in six depths. Root distribution was evaluated using three ranges of root diameters (1 mm. Comparing the positions from the plants, within and between rows in both systems

  18. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Jian-An; Li, Guan-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Ning LI; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as reparative, antioxidant, and apoptosis inhibitory effects. Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of sepsis. We aimed to explore the effect of C. sinensis on the gut barrier and evaluate its efficacy in sepsis. Methods: A murine model of gut barrier dysfunction was created by intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin. C. sinensis or salin...

  19. Parasitóides de lepidópteros minadores presentes em plantas de crescimento espontâneo em pomar orgânicos de citrus montenegro - RS Parasitoids of leafmining lepidoptera in spontaneous growth plants in an organic citrus orchard in montenegro, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar se Phyllocnistis citrella ataca plantas de crescimento espontâneo, presentes em pomar de citros orgânicos, identificar nestas plantas outros lepidópteros minadores e seus parasitóides, e verificar se estes parasitóides são os mesmos relatados para P. citrella. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Montenegro-RS, em um pomar orgânico do híbrido 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata. Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004, coletando-se, em cada ocasião, todas as folhas com minas contidas na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m², que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. O material coletado foi levado ao laboratório para triagem. Durante o estudo, foram registradas 11 espécies de lepidópteros minadores e 12 espécies de microimenópteros parasitóides. Alguns gêneros identificados neste estudo já haviam sido relatados em várias regiões do mundo com espécies parasitando P. citrella, tais como Chrysocharis, Closterocerus, Sympiesis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e Bracon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.This work aimed to check if Phyllocnistis citrella attacks spontaneous growth plants present in an organic citrus orchard, to identify in these plants other leafmining Lepidoptera and its parasitoids, and to verify if the parasitoids species are the same ones reported for P. citrella. The work was conducted in Montenegro, RS, in an organic orchard of the hybrid 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata. Samplings were taken every other week, from May 2003 to May 2004, with a ring of 0.28 m² being randomly thrown in the lines and interlines of 30 trees. All the plants with mines inside of the ring were collected. The screening of the material was made in laboratory. Eleven species of leafmining Lepidoptera and 12 species of microhymenopteran parasitoids were found. Some genera identified that this study had been already reported in

  20. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  1. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  2. Uso de mutagênese "in vitro" no melhoramento de citros: I. Sensibilidade a raios gama de explantes do cultivar pêra "In vitro" mutagenesis in citrus breeding: gamma rays sensitivity of cultivar pêra explants

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Tulmann Neto; Mariangela Cristofani; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Akihiko Ando

    1994-01-01

    Para futuros trabalhos com indução de mutação "in vitro", determinou-se a sensibilidade de diferentes explantes do cultivar de laranja Pêra (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) a raios gama visando a escolha das doses a utilizar. Para isso, após a irradiação, avaliou-se o número de explantes responsivos, de embrióides e de brotações adventícias, a massa do calo e a formação de enraizamento. Resultados diferentes foram obtidos de acordo com o tecido empregado. Assim, para a irradiação de nucelos, recomend...

  3. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  4. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Barrero, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with...

  5. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

  6. CONTRIBUTION TO THE WOOD ANATOMY OF TINOSPORA SINENSIS (LOUR) MERRILL IN RELATION WITH T.CORDIFOLIA MIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, S.D.; Upaehye, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Morphologically Tincspora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is differentiated from T. cordifolia Miers. Only by the tomentose leaves. The present anatomical study aids in differentiating pieces of woods of T. sinensis from those of T. cordifolia which is often mixed as adulterant or substitute for T. cordifolia in several Ayurvedic compound preparations.

  7. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity. PMID:23114150

  8. Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel heteroglycan from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu-xia; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Pei-xin; Peng, Nan; Zhu, Hai; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2014-08-01

    A novel heteroglycan, Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide 1 (molecular weight 1 17 × 10(5) Da), was isolated and purified from mycelia of the fungus C. sinensis obtained by solid-state culture. Structural characterization by chemical analysis, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy showed that C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 was mainly composed of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Glc and α-D-Gal, with minor β-(1 → 4)-D-Xyl and β-(1 → 4)-D-Man residues probably located in the side chains with a trace amount of α-(1 → 3)-L-Rha residue. In biological assays, C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies will elucidate the antitumor mechanism of C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 and promote its utilization for the development of novel, effective anticancer drugs. PMID:25127022

  9. Effect of beneficial bacterial isolates from citrus roots in Florida on citrus Huanglongbing disease development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Trivedi, P.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus in Florida. HLB is caused by the phloem-inhabiting bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), which is transmitted by psyllid vector Diaphorina citri. The current management strategies of HLB are to control psyllids and eradicate infected plants. However, these management practices have not been able to stop the spreading of HLB (Duan et al. 2009). Alternative approaches are needed to control HLB. In previous studies we i...

  10. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides for Control of Asian citrus psyllid in Newly Planted Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Stansly, Phil; Kostyk, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Orchard renewal is a special challenge where HLB is endemic.  Young trees are especially susceptible to the disease and continuously attractive to the psyllid vector due to frequent flushing.  Heavy reliance is placed on systemic insecticides to protect young trees.  However, all presently labeled for citrus are neonicotinoids (IRAC Group 4a) making resistance likely and the long term viability of this strategy questionable.  Rotation partners are needed to forestall selection for resistance....

  11. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah Almeida Coelho; Zambrana, Jéssica Rabelo Mina; Iorio, Fernanda Bispo Reis Di; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on multispecies biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL) and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10): C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride NaCl)]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. , the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7%) was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases. PMID:25000605

  12. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Almeida Coelho Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10: C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05. C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7% was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

  13. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2002-01-01

    fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with......Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  14. Analysis of Microsatellites in Citrus Unigenes%柑橘EST-SSR分子标记分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江东; 钟广炎; 洪棋斌

    2006-01-01

    对来源于甜橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)、枳壳(Poncirus trifoliata Raf.)和其他柑橘非冗余EST数据库的38 124条单一基因(Unigene)序列进行了简单重复序列SSRs(Simple Sequence Repeat)搜索,所分析的柑橘非冗余核酸序列总长23.29Mb,从中获得了8 218条SSR,其中包括单碱基重复4 913条(59.8%),2碱基重复1 419条(17.3%),3碱基重复1 709条(20.8%),4碱基重复114条(1.39%),5碱基重复23条(0.28%),6碱基重复40条(0.49%).大约每2.8kb长度的单一基因序列中即存在1个SSR,即平均4.6个单一基因中存在1个SSR.随碱基重复单元(motif)的不同,SSR的最大长度在40-105之间,全部重复序列的平均长度为20.9 bp.各种SSR(1-,2-,3-,4-,5-,6-核苷酸重复)的发生频率在甜橙和枳壳间非常接近.其中单碱基重复序列是最丰富的重复单元,其次为3碱基重复.在所得的SSR的重复单元中,富含A碱基的重复单元的分布占据优势地位,出现的频率与密度均较高,而富含CG碱基的重复单元出现频率和密度较低.用25对EST-SSR引物对6个柑橘品种的多样性进行了PCR检测,结果表明,所有25对引物在6个柑橘品种间均扩增到多样性条带,证实通过柑橘EST数据库的发掘能够高效地筛选到基因水平的SSR标记.%Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were investigated in the unigene sequences from expressed sequence tags (EST) of sweet orange (Citrussinensis osbeck), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf) and other citrus species and cultivars. A total of 37 802 citrus unigene sequences corresponding to 23.29 Mb were searched, resulting in the identification of 8 218 SSRs. Among them there were 4 913 (59.8%) mono-, 1 419 (17.3%) di-, 1 709 (20.8%) tri-, 114 (1.39%) tetra-, 23 (0.28%) penta- and 40(0.49%) hexa-nucleotide SSRs. The estimated frequency of SSRs was approximately 1/2.8 kb, which could be extrapolated to 1SSR-containing unigene in 4.6 unigenes. The maximum length of the SSR ranged from 40 to 105 bp

  15. Effect of NaCl on citrus cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cámara-Zapata, José; García-Sánchez, F.; Martinez, V.; Nieves, M. (Marcos); Cerdá, A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity stress-relief on the growth and mineral composition (leaf and root) of one-year-old seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium [L]). Salinization reduced plant dry weight more in Sour orange than in Cleopatra mandarin plants, although there was no correlation between Cl and Na concentration in leaves and shoot fresh weight reduction. We observed that regulation of Na+ and Cl- uptake and transport from ro...

  16. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Marcos A; Mariângela Cristofani-Yaly; Marinês Bastianel

    2011-01-01

    Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possi...

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hazrat Bilal; Waseem Akram; Soaib Ali-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars test...

  18. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  19. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  20. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...