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Sample records for citrus rootstock development

  1. In Vitro Propagation of Citrus Rootstocks

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    Suneel SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was conducted to standardize a protocol for in-vitro propagation of citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Pectinifera and Troyer citrange. The shoot tip explant was found better for callus induction of these rootstocks than the nodal segment. Maximum callus formation (40.0% and 23.3% of shoot tip explants was obtained in Cleopatra mandarin, Pectinifera, and Rough lemon and Troyer citrange, respectively in treatment MS basal media + 0.5mg/l Kin, 2.0mg/l NAA, and 2.0mg/l 2, 4-D. Furthermore, the maximum number of shoots per explant was obtained through the callus in Pectinifera, Rough lemon and Cleopatra mandarin in MS basal media + BAP 1mg/l. Maximum rooting of shoots (1.11% was noted in rootstock Rough lemon followed by Cleopatra mandarin for the � MS media supplemented with 10mg/l IBA. Although the callus development and bud proliferation was recorded in rootstock Troyer citrange however, shoot and root formation did not occur. The potting media consisting of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume was better with maximum survival rate of hardened plants six weeks after transferring to the pots under greenhouse for Rough lemon followed by Pectinifera and Cleopatra mandarin rootstock.

  2. Characterization of Citrus Rootstock Responses to Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb)

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    Kaplan, David T.

    1981-01-01

    Citrus rootstocks which significantly limited the reproduction of Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb) "Citrus" and "Poncirus" biotypes responded to infection by producing a hypersensitive-type response in the root hypodermis, wound periderm and/or cavities in the root cortex, and/or abnormal vacuoles in nurse cell cytoplasm. Rootstocks which limited nematode reproduction also had significantly fewer nematodes in the rhizoplane within 8 d of inoculation than did rootstocks which did not limit rep...

  3. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

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    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  4. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

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    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  5. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  6. The genetics of tolerance to tristeza disease in citrus rootstocks

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    Rita Bordignon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled pollinations between four elite citrus rootstocks, Citrus limonia - 'Limeira' rangpur lime (Cravo, C. sunki - 'Sunki' mandarin (Sunki, C. aurantium - 'São Paulo' sour orange (Azeda and Poncirus trifoliata - 'Davis A' trifoliate orange (Trifoliata, resulted in 1614 nucelar and 1938 hybrid plants identified by the isozyme loci Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Aps-1, Me-1, Prxa-1 and or by the morphological markers broadness of leaf petiole wing or trifoliolate leaves. Tolerance to the citrus tristeza virus (CTV was evaluated under nursery and field conditions for several years by the reaction of Valencia orange infected with a severe strain of CTV and grafted onto the hybrids and nucellar clones. Genetic analyses indicated that tolerance was controlled by at least two loci designated here as Az and t interacting in dominant-recessive epistasis. Genotypes Az__ __ __ and __ __ tt were tolerant while azaz T__ was intolerant. The intolerant Azeda was azaz TT, the tolerant rootstocks Sunki and Cravo were Azaz tt and the Trifoliata was Azaz TT. The different degrees of intolerance seen in some hybrids may reflect the inability of segregating modifiers from parental clones to overcome the epistatic interaction that controls the major tolerance reaction.

  7. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  8. 柑桔砧木育种研究进展%Advances in Citrus Rootstock Breeding

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    朱世平; 江东; 洪棋斌; 龚桂芝; 刘小丰; 赵晓春

    2013-01-01

    柑桔主要通过嫁接进行繁殖.柑桔砧木对接穗生长势、产量、果实大小、品质和抗性等都有直接的影响.砧木遗传改良是保持柑桔产业具有较强竞争力和较高生产力的重要步骤,世界各国都在致力于柑桔优良砧木的培育.本文就近几十年来柑桔砧木育种进展进行简要综述.%Citrus is mainly propagated by grafting. The rootstock directly affects the growth vigor, production, fruit size and quality, and stress-responsiveness of the scion. The health and productivity of citrus industry is greatly dependent on the performance of the rootstocks. The genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks has become a vital step towards the industry being more productive and competitive. In most of citrus growing countries, selecting and creating superior rootstock is one of the most important practices in citrus breeding. In this paper, the progresses in citrus root-stock breeding in the past decades will be briefly reviewed.

  9. Colonization of Seeds of Citrus Rootstock Varieties by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

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    Hilf, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease of citrus associated with a systemic infection by the α-proteobacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’.  Infection of an individual tree can occur via psyllids (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) carrying the bacterium or if the tree is propagated from infected budwood.  Seed transmission is another possible mode of dissemination of the pathogen.  Rootstock varieties are propagated from seed so we assessed the seed transmission among eighteen rootstock varieties ...

  10. Rootstock-scion interaction affecting citrus response to CTV infection: a proteomic view.

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    Laino, Paolo; Russo, Maria P; Guardo, Maria; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi; Moliterni, Vita M C

    2016-04-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of various diseases with dramatic effects on citrus crops worldwide. Most Citrus species, grown on their own roots, are symptomless hosts for many CTV isolates. However, depending on different scion-rootstock combination, CTV infection should result in distinct syndromes, being 'tristeza' the more severe one, leading to a complete decline of the susceptible plants in a few weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed several genes involved either in defense response, or systemic acquired resistance, as well as transcription factors and components of the phosphorylation cascades, to be differentially regulated during CTV infection in Citrus aurantifolia species. To date little is known about the molecular mechanism of this host-pathogen interaction, and about the rootstock effect on citrus response to CTV infection. In this work, the response to CTV infection has been investigated in tolerant and susceptible scion-rootstock combinations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 125 protein spots have been found to be differently accumulated and/or phosphorylated between the two rootstock combinations. Downregulation in tolerant plants upon CTV infection was detected for proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and defense response, suggesting a probable acclimation response able to minimize the systemic effects of virus infection. Some of these proteins resulted to be modulated also in absence of virus infection, revealing a rootstock effect on scion proteome modulation. Moreover, the phospho-modulation of proteins involved in ROS scavenging and defense response, further supports their involvement either in scion-rootstock crosstalk or in the establishment of tolerance/susceptibility to CTV infection. PMID:26459956

  11. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

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    Snoussi Hager

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the

  12. GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF CITRUS ROOTSTOCK VARIETIES UNDER SALT STRESS

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    MARCOS ERIC BARBOSA BRITO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High salt concentration in water are common in Brazilian semirad region, being important to research alternatives for use this waters on crop, like use of tolerant genotypes to salinity. Thus, in order to evaluate the saline stress perception of citrus rootstocks varieties crop from gas exchange and fluorescence analysis, an experiment was realized in greenhouse at the Center for Science and Technology Agrifood, CCTA, of Federal University of Campina Grande, UFCG, Pombal, PB, Brazil. It was studied in a randomized block design with factorial scheme (2x4, two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dSm-1 and four varieties of citrus rootstocks [1 -common Sunki mandarin (TSKC, 2 - Florida Rough lemon (LRF, 3 -Santa Cruz Rangpur lime (LCRSTC and 4-Volkamer lemon (LVK], with three replications. The citrus rootstocks varieties grown on hydroponic system and at 90 days after sowing the plants were evaluated by gas exchange and PSII fluorescence at 0, 24 and 48 hours after application of treatments to determine the times for the physiological establishment of salt stress. The first 48h under saline conditions promoted changes in gas exchange and PSII fluorescence in varieties TSKC, LRF and LCRSTC indicating the begin of physiological stress; the common ‘Sunki’ mandarin and the ‘Florida Rough’ lemon are the more sensitive genotypes to saline stress, in order hand the ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime and ‘Volkamer’ lemon are the genotypes more tolerant.

  13. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

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    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  14. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  15. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

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    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  16. The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks

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    Thavorat, S.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

  17. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix) and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf.) Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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    Le Thi Khoe; Tran Van Mi

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf.) rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck), seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck), Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour.) and...

  18. Early Evaluation of Compatibility between Commercial Citrus Varieties and Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo Citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. Rootstocks at Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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    Le Thi Khoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation on early evaluation of compatibility between commercial citrus varieties, and Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis Osb. x P. trifoliata L. Raf. rootstocks, at Mekong Delta Vietnam, during four successive years from 2010 to 2013, reported that out of the tested combinations of the recent commercial citrus varieties, included Da xanh pumelo (C. grandis Osbeck, seedless Mat orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck, Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. and Duong mandarin  (C. reticulata, budded on Kaffir lime and Carrizo citrange, in the 3rd and 4th  year after planting under the trial fields at Mekong Delta Vietnam, the trees of Sanh orange (C. nobilis Lour. budded on Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix were supperior with precocity, producing high number of fruits (16.67 fruits per tree , and very good fruit quality of larger fruit size (334.6 g and 11.16 cm, fruit weight and diameter, respectively, higher total soluble solids (12.5 brix, better orange-yellow juice color development, and excellent flavor and aroma of juice, as compared to the typical characteristics; meanwhile these were followed by trees of seedless Mat orange budded on Kaffir lime, which produced the highest number of fruits (47.33 fruits per tree, with little inferior quality of seedy fruit (1-3 seeds per fruit, lower total soluble solids (7.33%, and no good flavor and aroma, as somewhat differed from the typical fruit traits.

  19. Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podazza, Griselda [Instituto de Ecologia, Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 251, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Arias, Marta [Catedra de Anatomia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Prado, Fernando E., E-mail: prad@arnet.com.ar [Catedra de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd induces oxidative stress, increasing the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SOD, G-POD, CAT activities are enhanced by Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-POD activity participates in Cd-induced lignin synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd mainly accumulates in exodermis and vascular cylinder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd is mostly immobilized in roots, limiting its transport to aerial parts. - Abstract: In order to assess implications of Cd-induced oxidative stress in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo, seedlings were hydroponically exposed to two relatively realistic Cd concentrations during 7 days. Our results showed that increasing Cd concentrations in external solution were associated with higher Cd accumulations in roots. At 5 {mu}M Cd the accumulation of Cd in roots was over 70-f higher than in aerial part (stem + leaves). Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and lipoxygenase activity (LOX) increased in Cd-exposed roots, suggesting a metal-induced oxidative stress. The Cd treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-type peroxidase (G-POD), as well as the content of secondary metabolites i.e. soluble phenolics (SPs) and lignin. Histochemical analyses of roots showed that Cd, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), lignin and G-POD displayed a similar location pattern. Almost all analyzed parameters showed a similar dynamic tendency with increases under 5 {mu}M Cd followed by decreases under 10 {mu}M Cd, suggesting that a complex coordinated Cd-defensive mechanism is operating in Citrumelo roots exposed to environmental realistic Cd concentrations.

  20. Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd induces oxidative stress, increasing the H2O2 and O2·− generation. ► SOD, G-POD, CAT activities are enhanced by Cd. ► G-POD activity participates in Cd-induced lignin synthesis. ► Cd mainly accumulates in exodermis and vascular cylinder. ► Cd is mostly immobilized in roots, limiting its transport to aerial parts. - Abstract: In order to assess implications of Cd-induced oxidative stress in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo, seedlings were hydroponically exposed to two relatively realistic Cd concentrations during 7 days. Our results showed that increasing Cd concentrations in external solution were associated with higher Cd accumulations in roots. At 5 μM Cd the accumulation of Cd in roots was over 70-f higher than in aerial part (stem + leaves). Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O2·−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipoxygenase activity (LOX) increased in Cd-exposed roots, suggesting a metal-induced oxidative stress. The Cd treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-type peroxidase (G-POD), as well as the content of secondary metabolites i.e. soluble phenolics (SPs) and lignin. Histochemical analyses of roots showed that Cd, H2O2, (O2·−), lignin and G-POD displayed a similar location pattern. Almost all analyzed parameters showed a similar dynamic tendency with increases under 5 μM Cd followed by decreases under 10 μM Cd, suggesting that a complex coordinated Cd-defensive mechanism is operating in Citrumelo roots exposed to environmental realistic Cd concentrations.

  1. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2004-01-01

    The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'C-13' citrange...

  2. The scion/rootstock genotypes and habitats affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colon

  3. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  4. Early Performance of Duong Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco on Three Rootstock under Acid Sulfate Soil Fields at Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoe Thi Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 1.6 billion hectare area of acid sulfate soils is at Mekong Delta of Vietnam, and Duong mandarin fruits are valued for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties; thereby, the investigation on early performance of Duong mandarin on three rootstock under acid sulfate soil fields (pH below 4 at Mekong Delta of Vietnam was undertaken from 2009 to 2012 for determination of the most promising scion stock combination of Duong mandarin, which introduced to growers for expanding citrus production to increase in income of farmers, and helping to use the sustainable and efficient land resource at acid sulfate soil region of Mekong Delta. Primary results showed that Duong mandarin grafted on Mat orange, Tau lemon and Carrizo citrange were significant differenence in vegetative parameters, fruit yield and quality. It proved that Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were better growth and development on acid sulfate soil fields with below 4 pH in soil and water suspension of 1:2.5 ratio as compared to those grafted on Mat orange and Carrizo citrange rootstocks; whereby, that induced trees with 171.48 cm height, 6.65 m3 canopy volume and 51.84 mm trunk diameter, 1.08 scion/ stock ratio in third year after growing. Moreover, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were with spreading growth performance. In regarding to fruit yield and quality, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon produced highest fruit yield of 9.21 kg per tree per year in third year after planting, and fruit with 115.30g weight, 8.85 brix juice, thinner and somewhat easy peel rind. 

  5. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  6. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  7. Isolamento e cultivo de protoplastos de porta-enxertos de citros Isolation and growth of citrus rootstock protoplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. de Oliveira

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o isolamento e cultivo de protolastos de porta-enxertos de citros das variedades limoeiro Cravo e tangerina Cleópatra. Utilizou-se solução enzimática para a digestão da parede celular de células em suspensão (7 a 10 subcultivos em meio de cultura MT e procedeu-se a purificação criteriosa. O plaqueamento dos protoplastos foi realizado em meio de cultivo KM8p e na molaridade de 0.6 M, sob condições de escuro a 28 ± 1°C, após ajuste para a densidade de 2 x 10s ppts/mL A redução da pressão osmótica do meio de cultivo foi realizada a cada 10 dias na seguinte proporção de meio de cultura KM8p 0.6 M e KM8 (2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:3. Com relação aos resultados, obteve-se em média o isolamento de 0.7 x 10(6 ppts / ml de suspensões celulares de tangerina Cleópatra e 0.5 x 1O6 ppts / ml de suspensões de limoeiro Cravo, com uma porcentagem de viabilidade de 86 a 92% para a variedade Cleópatra e de 73 a 80% para o limoeiro Cravo. As divisões celulares começaram a ocorrer por volta do 8° dia após o plaqueamento, sendo obtida uma eficiência inicial de plaqueamento de 9% para a variedade Cleópatra e de 5% para o limoeiro Cravo. Aos 50 dias de cultivo, as colônias foram transferidas para meio semi-sólido MT, onde apresentaram ritmo acelerado de crescimento formando calos.Protoplast isolation and growth of Citrus rootstock v. Cravo lime and Cleópatra mandarin were carried out Enzyme mixture was used to digest cell suspensions 7-10 times, following criterious purification. Protoplast culture was carried out in doplets of semi-solid (agarose 0.6% p/v KM8p medium, in the dark, at 28 ± 1°C following density adjustment to 2 x 10(5 ppts/ml. Osmotic pressure reduction was acomplished for each growth every 10 days with a mixture in equal volumes of KM8p and KM8 medium in ratios of 2:1; 1:1; 1:2 e 0:3. Isolation produced 0.7 x 10(6 ppts/ml for Cleópatra mandarin and 0.5 x 10(6 ppts/ml for Cravo lime, with a viability between 86

  8. Reproductive characteristics of citrus rootstocks grown under greenhouse and field environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of environmental factors on meiosis, meiotic index, pollenviability and in vitro germination of pollen from stock plants of the rootstocks Trifoliate, ‘Swingle’, ‘Troyer’, ‘Fepagro C13’, ‘FepagroC37’ and ‘Fepagro C41’ grown in a protected environment in comparison with stock plants grown in the field. The results showed thatvalues for the characteristics analyzed in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were always higher in the field than in the greenhouse conditions. Inthe field, the average of normal meiotic cells was 60.05%, 44.44% and 60.12%, respectively, and in the greenhouse, 52.75%, 30.95%and 52.82%, respectively. Mean pollen viability in the field was 90.28%, 56.23% and 74.74%, and, in the greenhouse, 64.25%, 41.41%and 66.71%, respectively. As temperature oscillations were higher in the greenhouse than in the field, we suggest that this negativelyaffects the reproductive characteristics analyzed.

  9. Effects of Different Rootstocks on Yield and Frutt Quality of Valencia and Shamouti Orange Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    TUZCU, Önder

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some important citrus rootstocks such as local sour orange (Citrus aurantium L. var. "Yerli"), Brazilian sour orange (Citrus aurantiam L. var. "Brasilian"), Taiwanica (Citrus taiwanica Tan. and Shim.), Volcameriana (Citrus volkameriana Tan. and Pasq.), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.), Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex. Ten.), Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Tan.), Benecke trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata Raf var. "Benecke"), Citrumelo...

  10. Crescimento de híbridos e variedades porta-enxerto de citros sob salinidade = Growth of hybrids and rootstock varieties of citrus under salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dantas Fernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade da água e do solo afeta o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção de espécies frutíferas, dentre as quais os citros. O uso de porta-enxertos tolerantes pode garantir a sustentabilidade do agronegócio citrícola em tais condições. Assim, estudou-se a sensibilidade à salinidade durante a fase de formação de portaenxertoscompreendendo variedades e híbridos selecionados. O experimento foirealizado em casa-de-vegetação, considerando cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação [testemunha, irrigação com água de abastecimento local, condutividade elétrica da água (CEa de 0,41 dS m-1 e água com CEa de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1] e sete genótipos, utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetiçõesem esquema fatorial e quatro plantas úteis por parcela, durante o período de 150 dias. Avaliaram-se variáveis de crescimento e fisiológicas. A redução mais expressiva foi observada na fitomassa seca total da parte aérea com aumento unitário da CEa. Observou-se redução linear no crescimento com aumento da salinidade nos híbridosLVK x LVA-009 e TSK x TRENG-256. Dentre os genótipos avaliados, o limoeiro ‘Volkameriano’ foi o menos sensível ao estresse salino.Water and soil salinity affects the growth, development and production of fructiferous species, such as citrus. The use of tolerant rootstocks can guarantee the agribusiness of citrus under such conditions. Thus, the sensibility to salinity during the phase of rootstock formation of varieties and selected hybrids was studied. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with five levels of irrigation water salinity [control, tap water with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.41 dS m-1, and water with ECw of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1] and seven genotypes, in a randomized block designand five replications each consisting of four plants, during 150 day period. Growth and physiologic variables were evaluated. Significant effects

  11. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka) and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort...

  12. Poliembrionia e atributos morfológicos de sementes de porta-enxertos de citros Polyembryony and morphological seed traits in citrus rootstocks

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    Fernanda Emilia Vital de Oliveira Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A poliembrionia é um caráter fundamental no melhoramento genético e na multiplicação comercial de porta-enxertos de citros. Este trabalho avaliou as relações entre poliembrionia e diferentes atributos morfológicos de sementes de 12 genótipos de citros selecionados como porta-enxertos. Foram analisadas 50 sementes por genótipo, quanto a massa, altura, largura, número de embriões, taxa de poliembrionia, grau de dificuldade de extração da testa, coloração da semente, estimada por um matiz das duas notas de cores predominantes, e razão de cor, calculada pela divisão entre a menor e a maior nota do matiz. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, comparando-se as médias pelo teste de Scott-Knott e determinando-se os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre as variáveis (P Seed polyembryony is an important trait for breeding and commercial multiplication of citrus rootstocks. This study evaluated relationships of polyembryony with different morphological seed traits of 12 citrus genotypes selected as rootstocks. The following traits were evaluated individually on 50 seeds per genotype: seed mass, height, width and embryo number, polyembryony level, difficulty for seed coat extraction, and seed color, which was estimated by a two-grade scale representing predominant colors on the endosperm. Data was submitted to variance analyses and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott Test (P < 0.05. Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were determined among all variables for all genotypes and individually. Citrus rootstocks had significantly distinct seed traits and could be classified in three polyembryony groups, with three Rangpur lime selections presenting polyembryony lower than 50% and the citrandarins as totally polyembryonic. Other trifoliate hybrids showed low to intermediate polyembryony. Seed coat extraction was more difficult in smaller seeds. For majority of genotypes, the number of embryos in the seed had

  13. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

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    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  14. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  15. Porta-enxertos para laranjeiras-doces (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., em Rio Branco, Acre Rootstocks for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de laranjeiras- doces: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' e 'Aquiri', sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: limão 'Cravo', tangerinas 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' e citrange 'Carrizo', nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. O delineamento experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas, com as cultivares nas parcelas, os porta-enxertos nas subparcelas e os quatro anos de avaliação como repetições. As laranjeiras 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27' apresentaram tendências de maior produção quando enxertadas sobre o limão 'Cravo', e a laranja 'Aquiri' quando enxertada sobre citrange 'Carrizo'. Em relação aos demais porta-enxertos, o limão 'Cravo' mostrou tendências de induzir maior produção/volume de copa e peso médio do fruto, e menor teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total. As laranjas do grupo Baia ('Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79' e 'Monte Parnaso' produziram frutos com baixa percentagem de suco; não são recomendadas para plantio em Rio Branco, AC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se os porta-enxertos citrange 'Carrizo', tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo' para a laranja 'Aquiri', e o porta-enxerto limão 'Cravo' para as laranjas 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' e 'Valência 27'.The objective of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of seven sweet orange cultivars: 'Baia 101', 'Baianinha IAC 79', 'Monte Parnaso', 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112', 'Valência 27' and 'Aquiri' grafted on different rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime, 'Cleópatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins, and 'Carrizo' citrange, in the environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot, with the sweet orange cultivars as the main plots, the rootstocks as the sub-plots, and the four years of evaluation as replications. The 'Pêra D6', 'Natal 112' and 'Valência 27' sweet orange cultivars tended

  16. Nitrogênio e cobre na produção de mudas de citros em diferentes porta-enxertos Nitrogen and copper for citrus nursery production on two different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Mattos Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A citricultura brasileira é uma atividade de destaque na pauta econômica do País. O seu crescimento e manutenção requerem a produção de 15-20 milhões de mudas anualmente. Em vista das características dos viveiros e das variedades porta-enxertos e copas, há a necessidade de se estabelecer um manejo nutricional adequado dessas plantas. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o suprimento de N e Cu e o desenvolvimento e estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira 'Pêra', sobre porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' e tangerineira 'Sunki'. Foram aplicados dois níveis de N = 120 e 240 mg L-1, e quatro de Cu = 0, 5, 10 e 20 mg L-1 (Cu-EDTA via fertirrigação, entre o transplantio de porta-enxertos e a finalização da muda. O porta-enxerto de 'Cravo' possui maior vigor comparado à 'Sunki' com base na produção de massa seca e tamanho das plantas. O maior desenvolvimento das mudas foi obtido com a solução de fertirrigação com 240 mg L-1 de N e 5 a 10 mg L-1 de Cu. Houve efeito depressivo na concentração de 20 mg L-1 de Cu, associado a teores de Cu das folhas de 20 mg kg-1 e das raízes de 50 mg kg-1. Esse prejuízo foi menor com o maior fornecimento de N. Da mesma forma, o pegamento de borbulhas da laranjeira 'Pêra' foi ótimo nas doses intermediárias de Cu. A demanda de Cu foi maior para mudas sobre 'Sunki' na maior dose de N e o excesso desse micronutriente reduziu a absorção de Mn. Os teores de Cu foram maiores nas raízes da porção superior do recipiente de produção das muda, o que coincidiu com a maior adsorção do elemento no substrato, com máximo acima de 300 mg kg-1 de Cu.The citrus industry is an important economical activity in Brazil. The increase and maintenance of citrus groves require the production of 15-20 million nursery plants yearly. Due to the type of nurseries and horticultural characteristics of rootstocks and scions the development of guidelines for best nutrient management of these plants is requiered. This

  17. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

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    Svetlana Y Folimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  18. Thirty years of citrus tristeza virus observations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian citrus industry was devastated by epidemics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) decline (CTV-D) on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965 and CTV stem pitting (SP) between 1965 and 1985. CTV-SP debilitates citrus and fruit production regardless of rootstock. Control of CTV-SP by mild st...

  19. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  20. Resposta de porta-enxertos de citros ao déficit hídrico Response of citrus rootstocks to water deficit

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    Elaine Costa Cerqueira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas - BA, e objetivou-se à identificação de porta-enxertos de citros melhor adaptados ao ecossistema de Tabuleiros Costeiros, quanto a tolerância à seca. Foram estudados os limoeiros 'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', laranjeira 'Azeda' e os híbridos trifoliados HTR - 051, TSK x CTTR - 002 e TSK x CTTR - 017. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 õ 9, com seis genótipos e nove tempos de avaliação. As avaliações foram realizadas na sequência: irrigação, déficit hídrico e irrigação, quando plantas possuíam de 3 a 4 pares de folhas. Foram analisadas as variáveis massas secas da raiz e da parte aérea, o potencial hídrico da planta e a transpiração da folha. Quanto à massa seca da parte aérea, os genótipos limoeiro Volkameriano e laranjeira 'Azeda' apresentaram decréscimos no período de déficit hídrico, sendo que os demais não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Na ausência de irrigação, todos os genótipos apresentaram decréscimos nos seus potenciais hídricos, enquanto apenas os híbridos apresentaram recuperação, mantendo a transpiração. Os híbridos HTR - 051 e TSK x CTTR - 017 apresentaram os melhores desempenhos para todas as variáveis estudadas, mostrando-se mais promissores como porta-enxertos de citros em condições de déficit hídrico.This work was carried out under green house condition at the Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops, Cruz das Almas - Bahia- Brazil, aiming to identify citrus rootstocks better adapted to Coastal Table Land ecosystem as for their drought tolerance. It was studied the Rangpur lime, Volkamer lemon, Sour orange and the trifoliated hybrids HTR - 051, TSK x CTTR - 002, and TSK x CTTR - 017, the last three from the breeding program of the Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits Crops. The experimental design was completely randomized under

  1. Substratos na emergência de plântulas e expressão da poliembrionia em porta-enxertos de citros Substrates on seedling emergency and polyembryony of citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Schäfer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou testar a influência de substratos sobre a velocidade de emergência de plântulas e a poliembrionia de porta-enxertos cítricos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação utilizando-se sementes de quatro porta-enxertos cítricos (Trifoliata, Citrange ‘Troyer’, Citrumelo ‘Swingle’ e Limoeiro ‘Cravo’ semeadas em 20 tubetes cônicos de 50 cm³. Nas sub-parcelas foram testados três substratos comerciais (Substratos MogimaxÒ, Plug MixÒ e Cruz AltaÒ e um substrato misto (casca de arroz carbonizada, esterco bovino curtido e solo Podzólico vermelho escuro, na proporção de 3:1:1 - v:v:v. Os resultados demonstram que os substratos não afetaram a velocidade de emergência nem o percentual de emergência final das sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos, o mesmo acontecendo com o percentual de poliembrionia e o número médio de plântulas por semente. A velocidade de emergência de porta-enxertos cítricos é positivamente correlacionada com a temperatura.This work intended to characterize the influence of substrates on seedling emergency velocity and polyembryony of citrus rootstocks. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse using four citric rootstocks (Trifoliate orange, ‘Troyer’ Citrange, ‘Swingle’ Citrumelo and ‘Rangpur’ lime, three commercial substrates (MogimaxÒ, Plug MixÒ and Cruz AltaÒ and a mixed substrate (carbonized rice hulls, cattle manure and soil, in the proportion of 3:1:1. Seeds were sown in conical tubes (50 cm³, with a seed in each tube. The different substrates neither affect emergency or percentage of final emergency of rootstocks seeds nor polyembryony and average number of seedling per seed. Seedling emergency velocity of citrus rootstocks is positively correlated with temperature.

  2. Desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en condiciones de invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego Vegetative development of citrus seedlings cultivated at greenhouse conditions and submitted to two irrigations systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Schäfer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego. El experimento se realizó en la Estação Experimental Agronômica de la Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ubicada en Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre los meses de septiembre de 2003 y abril de 2004, totalizando 225 días de experimentación. El diseño experimental fue de parcelas subdivididas, en factorial 2 x 3, con 4 repeticiones de 22 contenedores cada. En las parcelas principales se evaluaron los sistemas de riego (microaspersión y capilaridad y en las subparcelas los patrones cítricos Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., citrangero 'C37' [P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra] y lima 'Rangpur' (C. limonia Osb.. En condiciones de invernadero los patrones cítricos presentan un desarrollo vegetativo más rápido bajo riego por capilaridad respecto a la microaspersión. Los patrones cítricos evaluados presentan desarrollos vegetativos distintos, donde el citrangero 'C37' supera a los demás.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the vegetative development of citrus rootstock seedlings cultivated under greenhouse conditions with two irrigation systems. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Agronômica , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from September 2003 to April 2004, totalizing 225 days of experimentation. The experimental design was a split-plot, in a 2x3 factorial, with 4 replications of 22 pots each. In the main plot the irrigation systems was evaluated (micro sprinkler and capillarity and in the split-plot the citrus rootstocks [Trifoliate orange - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C37' citrange - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra and 'Rangpur' lime - C. limonia Osb.] were evaluated. The main result showed in conditions of greenhouse citrus rootstock seedlings

  3. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including droughty or calcareous soils and root-knot nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant reductions in pruning and th...

  4. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks for apricot and plums offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soil borne diseases, waterlogging, calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling and cl...

  5. The Rootstock Influences Growth and Development Of ‘Deveci’ Pear

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Ahmet; OZTURK, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    The vegetative and reproductive performance of the ‘Deveci’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) grown on three rootstocks [Quince BA 29, EMC (Cydonia oblonga) and a seedling of P. communis] were compared between 2012 and 2013. Vegetative growth characteristics such as the rootstock and trunk diameter, leaf lamina width, leaf lamina length, leaf area, leaf petiole length and thickness, plant height and canopy volume were examined. Phenological characteristics such as the time of first flowering, full flo...

  6. Influences of Rootstocks on Fruit Quality of ‘Henderson’ Grapefruit

    OpenAIRE

    Yeşiloğlu, Turgut; Yılmaz, Bilge; ÇIMEN, Berken; İncesu, Meral

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some important citrus rootstocks such as local sour orange (Citrus aurantium L. var. “Yerli”), Carrizo and Troyer citranges (Citrus sinensis Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata Raf. var. “Troyer” and “Carrizo”), Swingle citrumelo (Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata Raf.), Volkameriana (Citrus volkameriana Tan. and Pasq.) on fruit quality of Henderson grapefruit were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 2013 at the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of A...

  7. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr) con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle) y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle) como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo C. Orlando; Salazar C. Raúl; Torres M. Rodrigo

    1987-01-01

    At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmi...

  8. Rootstocks: Diversity, Domestication, and Impacts on Shoot Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschefsky, Emily J; Klein, Laura L; Frank, Margaret H; Chitwood, Daniel H; Londo, Jason P; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Miller, Allison J

    2016-05-01

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot (scion) of another. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops to indirectly manipulate scion phenotype. While recent research has focused on scions, here we investigate rootstocks, the lesser-known half of the perennial crop equation. We review natural grafting, grafting in agriculture, rootstock diversity and domestication, and developing areas of rootstock research, including molecular interactions and rootstock microbiomes. With growing interest in perennial crops as valuable components of sustainable agriculture, rootstocks provide one mechanism by which to improve and expand woody perennial cultivation in a range of environmental conditions. PMID:26698413

  9. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Schoubroeck, van, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doubling of t...

  10. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  11. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of

  12. A escarificação química e o desenvolvimento inicial de porta-enxertos cítricos Chemical scarification and initial development of citric rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Lima Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o desenvolvimento vegetativo de diferentes porta-enxertos cítricos provenientes de sementes escarificadas quimicamente. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (escarificação x porta-enxertos, com três blocos, e cada parcela constituída por 20 tubetes. O tratamento químico realizado nas sementes constituiu-se de uma solução composta por 0,5 L de hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO a 12%, 3 mL de ácido clorídrico (HCl e 20 g de hidróxido de sódio comercial (NaOH, dissolvidos em 1L de água. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram o 'Trifoliata' (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf., o citrangeiro 'C37' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck.], o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [P. trifoliata x (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.] e a tangerineira 'Sunki' (C. sunki hort. ex Tan.. Os porta-enxertos 'C37' e 'Trifoliata' beneficiaram-se da escarificação química do tegumento, apresentando maior velocidade e taxa de emergência das plântulas e maior taxa de emergência, aos 45 dias após a semeadura (DAS. Por outro lado, os porta-enxertos 'Swingle' e 'Sunki' apresentaram uma redução da emergência das plântulas, quando suas sementes foram submetidas à escarificação química do tegumento. As plantas de 'C37' e 'Trifoliata', oriundas de sementes escarificadas, apresentaram diâmetro ao nível do colo e acúmulo de massa seca significativamente superiores aos 150 DAS, em relação às plantas oriundas de sementes com o tegumento intacto.The aim of this study was to evaluate emergence and vegetative development of different citric rootstocks derived from chemically scarified seeds. A randomized block design was used in a 2x4 factorial (scarification x rootstocks with three blocks. Each plot had 20 plastic tubes. The seed chemical treatment was a solution composed by 0.5 L of 12 % sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, 3 mL of chloridric acid (HCl and 20g of

  13. Development of Phytophthora root rot-resistant avocado rootstocks for the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophtora root rot (PRR), caused by Phytopthora cinnamoni Rands, poses the greatest limitation to avocado production worldwide. Through a collaborative effort between researchers at the USDA-ARS facility in Miami and the University of Florida in Homestead, PRR-resistant avocado rootstocks are bein...

  14. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  15. Oxidative stress associated with rootstock-scion interactions in pear/quince combinations during early stages of graft development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisarri, Patricia; Binczycki, Piotr; Errea, Pilar; Martens, Helle Juel; Pina, Ana

    2015-03-15

    Exposing a plant to stress situations, such as grafting, generally triggers antioxidant defense systems. In fruit tree grafting, quince (Cydonia oblonga) is widely used as a rootstock for pear (Pyrus communis L.), but several economically important pear cultivars are incompatible with available quince rootstocks. In this study, grafts were established using an in vitro callus graft system mimicking the events taking place in fruit trees. In vitro grown callus from pear [P. communis L. cv. 'Conference' (Co) and cv. 'William' (Wi)] and quince (C. oblonga Mill. clone 'BA29') was used to establish the compatible homografts 'Co/Co', 'Wi/Wi' and 'BA29/BA29', the compatible heterograft 'Co/BA29' and the incompatible heterograft 'Wi/BA29'. The main objective was to determine whether specific isoforms of genes involved in oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)] are differentially expressed at the graft interface from compatible and incompatible unions throughout 3 weeks after grafting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and programmed cell death were also evaluated in the course of graft development. Genes differentially expressed between compatible and incompatible heterografts were identified. Transcript levels of six antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD3, APX3, APX6, CAT1 and CAT3) were down-regulated 10 days after grafting (DAG) in the incompatible heterograft in comparison to the compatible one. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activities were significantly higher at 1 and 10 days after wounding in the compatible cultivar 'Co' than in the incompatible one 'Wi'. These findings, together with live cell imaging of ROS-specific probes, ultrastructural mitochondrial changes and DNA fragmentation related to apoptotic processes, give indications that within incompatible rootstock/scion interfaces, either the level of ROS is increased or there is a less efficient detoxification system. PMID:25543953

  16. Progress in tree fruit nursery and rootstock research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Hrotkó

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In tree fruit nursery besides the improvement of propagation technology, introduction of micro-propagation, large progress has been made by using healthy, virus free nuclear stock, as well as by improved tree quality. Modern intensive orchards require well branched trees, which are able turn to bearing early. Tree quality improvement can be achieved by new raising technologies, practices and application of bio-regulators. Considering the large number of new rootstocks and candidates a huge progress has been made, but the rootstock usage hardly changed. At apple, predominant rootstock is the M.9 and in the dwarf vigour group the ideal rootstock (e.g. easily propagated, dwarf, precocious, resistant to fire blight, scab, collar rot and woolly aphid is still missing, albeit some promising new rootstocks are in introduction. For pear several dwarf Pyrus series are in testing stage, but by now none of them resulted in a breakthrough in pear rootstockusage. Rootstock research for stone fruits over the last decade has been focused more on rootstock evaluation than on breeding of new rootstocks. There are only few new breeding projects and new rootstocks successfully introduced but a large number of rootstocks is in the evaluation stage. However, the knowledge on rootstock/scion interactions, mechanism of rootstock effect on growth and crop development is not enough and the progress in this field is also not satisfying. The rootstock breeding activity achieved a complete scale of growth vigour for cherry, and more or less for plum, apricot and peach, which was the dream of growers from 30-40 years ago. Though the usage of dwarfing rootstock is spreading, there is still little knowledge and only few research projects on growth control mechanism in cherry rootstock/scion composite trees. The interactions between rootstock vigour, precocity, fruiting wood development, renewal capacity and crop load are more specific, but essential for an appropriate

  17. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  18. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  19. Genetic relationships of some Citrus genotypes based on the candidate iron chlorosis genes

    OpenAIRE

    KAÇAR, Yıldız AKA; Özhan ŞİMŞEK; DÖNMEZ, Dicle; BONCUK, Melda; YEŞİLOĞLU, Turgut; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Iron is one of the most important elements in plant mineral nutrition. Fe deficiency is a critical abiotic stress factor for Mediterranean citriculture; the development of marker-assisted selection for this trait would greatly enhance rootstock breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were performed to determine the allelic diversity of genes associated with tolerance to iron chlorosis in citrus. Two candidate iron chlorosis toleran...

  20. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-Infected Plants Among Citrandarins as Rootstock and Scion Under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boava, Leonardo Pires; Sagawa, Cíntia Helena Duarte; Cristofani-Yaly, Mariângela; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp., is currently one of the most serious diseases of citrus plants and has caused substantial economic losses. Thus far, there is no source of genetic resistance to HLB in the genus Citrus or its relatives. However, several studies have reported Poncirus trifoliata and some of its hybrids to be more tolerant to the disease. The main objective of this study was to report differences in the incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection in citrandarin plants, hybrids from Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki (Hayata) hort. ex Tanaka), and trifoliate orange Rubidoux (P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.)), after conducting an extensive survey under field conditions. These hybrid plants were established for approximately 7 years in an area with a high incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants. We selected two experimental areas (area A and area B), located approximately 10 m apart. Area A consists of Pera sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osb.) grafted onto 56 different citrandarin rootstocks. Area B consists of citrandarin scions grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb.) rootstock. Bacteria in the leaves and roots were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants was 92% in area A and 14% in area B. Because infected plants occurred in both areas, we examined whether the P. trifoliata hybrid rootstock influenced HLB development and also determined the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Citrus tree tissues. Although this survey does not present evidence regarding the resistance of P. trifoliata and its hybrids in relation to bacteria or psyllids, future investigation, mainly using the most promising hybrids for response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', will help us to understand the probable mechanism of defense or identifying compounds in P. trifoliata and its hybrids that are very important as strategy to combat HLB. Details of these results are

  1. 缺镁、铁、硼胁迫对4个柑橘砧木生长及养分吸收的影响%Effects of Magnesium, Iron, Boron Deficiency on the Growth and Nutrition Absorption of Four Major Citrus Rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩佳; 周高峰; 李峤虹; 刘永忠; 彭抒昂

    2012-01-01

    通过水培方式分别研究了缺镁、铁、硼处理对枳、香橙、红橘、崇义野橘4种柑橘砧木植株和根系生长及养分吸收的影响。结果表明:缺镁处理下,红橘在株高、叶片数、叶绿素含量、总根长、总根表面积及镁吸收速率等变化中表现出较强的抗缺镁特性,崇义野橘次之,枳、香橙较差;缺铁处理下,香橙在株高、叶片数、植株干样质量、总根体积、总根表面积和铁吸收速率等变化中表现出较强的抗缺铁特性,红橘次之,枳、崇义野橘较差;缺硼处理下,红橘在总根数、总根表面积、总根体积及硼吸收速率的变化中表现出较强的抗缺硼能力,而崇义野橘的地上部较耐缺硼,香橙、枳则表现出不耐缺硼。%The effects of magnesium(Mg),iron(Fe)and boron(B)deficiency on growth and physiological characteristics in shoots and roots of four citrus rootstocks{Trifoliate orange[Poncirus trifoliate(L.)Raf.],Fragrant citrus(Citrus junos Sieb.ex Tanaka),Red tangerine(Citrus reticulate Blanco)and Congyi wild mandarin(Citrus reticulata)} were investigated by using hydroponic culture. Results indicated that the plant height,total leaves,chlorophyll content,total roots length,total roots surface and Mg specific absorption rate were better in red tangerine than those in other rootstocks under the treatment of Mg deficiency. In the treatment of Fe deficiency,the plant high,total leaves,dry weight of plant,total roots volume,total roots surface and Fe specific absorption rate were better in fragrant citrus than those in other rootstocks. In B deficiency treatment,the roots number of tips,total roots surface,total roots volume and B specific absorption rate in Red tangerine and the plant high,total leaves and dry weight of shoot in Congyi wild mandarin were better than those in other rootstocks,respectively.

  2. Efeito do ácido giberélico sobre a germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos Effect of the giberellic acid on germination of citrus rootstock seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO UMBELINO DE SOUSA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito do ácido giberélico sobre a germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos, um experimento foi instalado no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos a partir do fatorial 5 x 4 (porta-enxertos: Limoeiro-'Cravo', Tangerineira-'Sunki', Tangerineira-'Cleópatra', 'UFLAD-4' e 'UFLAD-5'; ácido giberélico: 0; 60; 120 e 180 mg L-1 . A parcela experimental foi constituída por 25 tubos de ensaio com uma semente/tubo, empregando-se a água + ágar a 7 mg L-1 como meio de cultura, sendo usadas sementes intactas. Após a inoculação, os tubos foram armazenados em sala sob temperatura de 25 ºC e 80 % de umidade relativa, com fotoperíodo de 16 horas. O experimento foi avaliado a partir da determinação da percentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e número de plântulas por semente (NPS. O limoeiro-'Cravo' apresentou maior taxa de germinação e IVG, enquanto o híbrido 'UFLAD-5' apresentou maior NPS, não havendo efeito da aplicação do ácido giberélico sobre as características avaliadas.With the aim to evaluate the effect of the giberellic acid on germination of seeds of citrus rootstocks an experiment was carried out at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Universidade Federal de Lavras. A randomized block design was used with factorial scheme 5 x 4, with four replications adopting: lemon tree 'Cravo', mandarin tree 'Sunki', mandarin tree 'Cleópatra', hybrids 'UFLAD- 4' and 'UFLAD-5' as rootstocks; 0, 60, 120 and 180 mg L-1 as the giberellic acid concentrations. The experimental plot was made up of 25 test tubes with one intact seed per tube inoculated at culture medium employing water + agar at 7 mg L-1. After inoculation, the tubes were stored in growth room at 25ºC and 80% of relative humidity, with a photoperiod of 16 hours. The following variables were evaluated

  3. Níveis de alumínio e acúmulo de macronutrientes em porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico Aluminum levels and macronutrient accumulation in citrus rootstocks in hydroponic solution

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    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio no acúmulo de macronutrientes pelos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle, sob cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos utilizados em condições de casa de vegetação seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0, 7,5, 15, 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3.6 H2O. Determinaram-se o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e do Al da matéria seca vegetal, relacionando-os com os pesos da matéria seca da parte aérea (folhas e caule e raízes durante o período de 84 dias, com coletas de plantas a cada 14 dias. Conclui-se que, com adição a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 de alumínio em solução nutritiva ocorreram alterações fisiológicas e reduções significativas no acúmulo de macronutrientes associado à redução nos pesos da matéria seca das folhas, caule e raízes das plantas de citrumelo Swingle.The aim of this research was to study the influence of different levels of aluminum on macronutrient contents of citrus rootstocks of the `Rangpur' lime and the `Swingle' citrumelo, in hydroponic solution. The treatments, established under greenhouse conditions, followed a completely randomized experimental design, with 3 replications, distributed in split-plots. The levels of aluminum were: 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30 mg L-1, applied as AlCl3.6 H2O. The evaluated chemical plant parameters were the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al and dry weight of leaves, stem and root system. The results showed that with adition of 7.5 mg L-1 of Al to the nutrient solution there was a significant decrese of nutrient contents and a decrese in leave, stem and root system dry weight of `Swingle' citrumelo.

  4. Apple and pear rootstock research in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kviklys, Darius

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents ongoing apple and pear rootstock trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Rootstock research projects are established in following directions: rootstock and location interaction (Baltic fruit rootstock studies where Byelorussian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish research institutions are involved); budding high effect on rootstock performance; interstock trials; rootstock effect on fruit quality, ripening time and fruit storage; rootstock and tree trainin...

  5. Comportamento de catorze porta-enxertos para o limão eureka km 47 na região de Araraquara-SP Behaviour of fourteen rootstocks for eureka lemon [Citrus limon (L Burm. F. ] cv. km 47, in Araraquara, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orlando de Figueiredo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de 14 porta-enxertos para o limão 'Eureka km 47' [Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.], clone nucelar, em experimento instalado em 1991, na Fazenda Fittipaldi, Araraquara-SP. Os porta-enxertos foram: tangelos 'Orlando' e 'Seminole' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macfad., tangerinas 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka e 'Sunki' [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka], limões 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Rugoso da África' (C. jambhiri Lush. e 'Volkameriano Catania 2' (C. volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq., laranja 'Caipira DAC' [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], laranja 'Azeda Doble Cálice' (C. aurantium L., trifoliatas 'EEL'e 'Kryder 8-5' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], citrange 'Morton' [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], C. karna Raf. e C. pennivesiculata (Lush. Tanaka. As produções foram avaliadas no período de 1998 a 2002. As maiores produções médias em peso de frutos estiveram relacionadas aos porta-enxertos C. pennivesiculata e tangerina 'Cleópatra' (>220 kg/planta. Entre os porta-enxertos que induziram as mais baixas produções, estão C. karna, os dois tangelos, os dois trifoliatas e a 'Caipira DAC' (Fourteen rootstocks were compared in a trial started in 1991, for Eureka lemon cv. km 47, nucellar clone, in Araraquara, Brazil. The rootstocks tested were Orlando and Seminole tangelos (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macfad., Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, Sunki mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka], Rangpur Lime (C. limonia Osbeck, Rough Lemon cv. African (C. jambhiri Lush., and Volkamerican cv Catania 2 (C. volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq., sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck] cv. Caipira DAC, sour orange (C. aurantium L., Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. EEL, P. trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. Kryder 8-5, Morton citrange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], C. karna Raf. and C. pennivesiculata (Lush. Tanaka. Yield was measured by weight of fruits per tree, for a period of

  6. Organic Acid Content, Microbial Quantity and Enzyme Activity in Rhizosphere Soil of Four Citrus Rootstocks Under Different Phosphorus Levels%不同施磷水平下4种柑橘砧木的根际土壤有机酸、微生物及酶活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗燕; 樊卫国

    2014-01-01

    酸含量显著增多,土壤生物活性增强;在酸性黄壤上,宜昌橙能较好地适应低磷土壤环境。%[Objective] The effects of different phosphorus (P) levels on the composition and content of organic acids, the population and quantity of microbe and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of different citrus rootstocks were explored for providing a scientific basis of enriching the theory about phosphorus nutrition and ecology of citrus and discovering the citrus rootstock with specific nutrient characteristics.[Method]A pot experiment was adopted to study the ability to phosphorus stress, the composition and content of organic acids, the population and quantity of microbe and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of Citrus ichangensis Swing., C.aurantium L., C.limonia Osbeck and Poncirus trifoliata Raf. under different P levels, and their correlation was analyzed.[Result]The dry matter accumulation of C.aurantium L., C.limonia Osbeck and P. trifoliata Raf. significantly increased with the rised P levels. There was no obvious effect of different P levels on the biomass of C. ichangensis Swing.. The tolerance to low-P stress was in the order of C. ichangensis Swing.>C.limonia Osbeck>C.aurantium L.>P. trifoliata Raf. The composition and content of organic acids in rhizosphere soil of different citrus rootstocks were significantly different, and the oxalic acid, succinic acid and acetic acid were the main organic acids.The total content of organic acids and the content of oxalic acid, malonic acid in rhizosphere soil of different citrus rootstocks and the content of succinic acid in rhizosphere soil of C.ichangensis Swing. and C.aurantium L. significantly increased with the reduced P levels. Under phosphate starvation, the amount of organic acid in rhizosphere soil of C.ichangensis Swing. was significantly higher than other citrus rootstocks. Bacteria were dominant, followed by actinomycetes, and fungi were the least. The quantity of bacteria

  7. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  8. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

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    Zhukov A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't have the merits of existing rootstocks. The short description of the grapes rootstocks which were created in the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking such as AZOS-1, AZOS-2, AZOS-3, AZOS-4, AZOS-5 and AZOS-6 is given in the article. It is indicated that these rootstocks have a high resistance to a leaf form of phylloxera, to chlorosis and to some other diseases of a grapes bush. They have the short period of vegetation, high quantity of standard cutting from hectare and other useful properties. In the article the description of a new formation of rootstocks grapes bushes of "AOS- 1" and "AOS-2" with a free trail shoots is given. This construction of grapes bush is developed by the Anapa's Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking. We have also given all the advantages of this forming in comparison with other designs of grapes bushes. It is especially noted that use of this forming of bushes increases the productivity per men in the process of bushes scrap and preparation of cutting; the expenditures on the struggle against diseases and wreckers on the vineyards are reduced; the quantity standard of grapes cutting increases by 27-33%

  9. Effect of beneficial bacterial isolates from citrus roots in Florida on citrus Huanglongbing disease development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Trivedi, P.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus in Florida. HLB is caused by the phloem-inhabiting bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), which is transmitted by psyllid vector Diaphorina citri. The current management strategies of HLB are to control psyllids and eradicate infected plants. However, these management practices have not been able to stop the spreading of HLB (Duan et al. 2009). Alternative approaches are needed to control HLB. In previous studies we i...

  10. DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FIRE BLIGHT IN COMMERCIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPLE ROOTSTOCK CULTIVARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva rootstock breeding program has developed several new rootstocks that exhibit disease resistance to Erwinia amylovora. Utilization of disease resistant apple rootstocks increases the survivability of young trees infected by fire blight. The goal of this experiment was to further investigat...

  11. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

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    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  12. Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ollitrault Patrick; Talon Manuel; Wincker Patrick; Allario Thierry; Argout Xavier; Terol Javier; Costantino Gilles; Luro François L; Morillon Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide) or...

  13. Efeito de sistemas de produção e doses de adubo de liberação lenta no estado nutricional de porta-enxerto cítrico The effect of production systems and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the nutritional status of citrus rootstock

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    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de produção do porta-enxerto, antes da repicagem, pode modificar o sistema radicular das plântulas e a resposta destas à adubação. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de três sistemas de produção do limoeiro 'Cravo' e de cinco doses de um adubo de liberação lenta, aplicados após a repicagem, sobre o estado nutricional do limoeiro 'Cravo' no ponto de enxertia. O experimento foi conduzido, sob viveiro telado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5, com sete repetições e uma planta por parcela. Os sistemas de produção do porta-enxerto foram: 1- produção em tubetes e citrovasos preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; 2- produção em tubetes e citrovasos preenchidos com substrato composto por bagaço de cana-de-açúcar + torta de filtro (3:2; v:v, e 3- produção em blocos prensados e citrovasos constituídos pela prensagem do substrato utilizado no sistema 2. As doses de adubo de liberação lenta, fórmula NPK 14-14-14, foram: 5; 10; 15; 20 e 25 g/planta. O sistema de produção do porta-enxerto, antes da repicagem, influenciou na resposta do limoeiro 'Cravo' à adubação após a repicagem. No ponto de enxertia, as plantas cultivadas no sistema de blocos prensados apresentaram menores teores foliares de P, K e Fe em relação às plantas provenientes de tubetes, mas apresentaram maiores médias de crescimento (peso seco do sistema radicular, peso seco de folhas, peso seco de caules e diâmetro do caule. Plantas cultivadas no sistema 1 apresentaram sintomas foliares de deficiência de Fe, enquanto as plantas dos outros dois sistemas apresentaram sintomas foliares de deficiência de Mg.The production system of citrus rootstock before the transplanting can modify the seedlings root system and the response of these to fertilization. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of three production systems of 'Rangpur' lime tree and five doses of a controlled

  14. Label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolite analysis reveal a significant metabolic shift during citrus fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Ehud; Boo, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Label-free LC-MS/MS-based shot-gun proteomics was used to quantify the differential protein synthesis and metabolite profiling in order to assess metabolic changes during the development of citrus fruits. Our results suggested the occurrence of a metabolic change during citrus fruit maturation, where the organic acid and amino acid accumulation seen during the early stages of development shifted into sugar synthesis during the later stage of citrus fruit development. The expression of inverta...

  15. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

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    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  16. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  17. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  18. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cytolytic Toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  19. Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

  20. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  1. Callus Induction and Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Different Explants of Rootstocks GF-677 (Prunus amygdalus x P. persica)

    OpenAIRE

    ELEKTRA SPAHIU; PETRIT RAMA; BARI HODAJ

    2015-01-01

    GF-677 is one of the most suitable rootstocks for almond and peach used in calcareous soils to overcome lime induced chlorosis. The objective of this study is the in vitro cultivation of the peach rootstock GF-677, in determining the protocol for inoculation and for micropropagation in the medium, influencing the development and the outgrowth of the rootstock. The present study focused on the effect of different explants of this rootstock on regenerative potential tissue culture techniques. T...

  2. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Dawei; Fass Joseph N; Phinney Brett S; Eigenheer Richard A; Fon Mario; Katz Ehud; Sadka Avi; Blumwald Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-fr...

  3. Germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos de citros após o armazenamento em ambiente refrigerado Seed germination of citrus rootstocks after cooling conditions storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o período de viabilidade das sementes dos porta-enxertos limoeiros-'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', tangerineira-'Cleópatra' e citrumeleiro-'Swingle' armazenadas em embalagem permeável sob temperatura controlada de 5-7ºC por 150 dias. A cada 30 dias, foram avaliadas a germinação em laboratório e a emergência das plântulas em casa de vegetação. Determinou-se o grau de umidade das sementes em cada época de testes. O armazenamento nas condições citadas induziu menor velocidade de germinação nas sementes de 'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', as quais não tiveram a germinação prejudicada quando apresentavam umidade próxima a 5%. Houve correlação altamente significativa entre teor de água e germinação nas sementes de 'Cleópatra' e 'Swingle'. Para a manutenção da viabilidade das sementes destes porta-enxertos, deve-se procurar manter o seu grau de umidade em torno de 20%. As sementes dos limoeiros-'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano' apresentaram maior velocidade de germinação e emergência que os demais porta-enxertos, enquanto as da tangerineira-'Cleópatra' apresentaram menor velocidade de emergência. Sementes de citrumeleiro- 'Swingle' e tangerineira-'Cleópatra' não germinaram após armazenamento por 60 e 90 dias, respectivamente.The present work was carried out in order to verify the viability period of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkameriano' lemon, 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Swingle' citrumelo seeds stored in permeable package at 5-7ºC for 150 days. The Germination in laboratory, seedling emergence in greenhouse and seed moisture content were performed each 30 days. Seed storage in that conditions reduced the speed of emergence index in the 'Rangpur' and 'Volkameriano' seeds. The germination of these rootstocks seeds weren't reduced when the seed moisture content was near 5%. There was highly significative correlation between seed water content and germination porcentage of 'Cleópatra' and

  4. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

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    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  5. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for the rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus, Citrus psorosis virus, and Citrus leaf blotch virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Fatima; Hodzic, Emir; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Wang, Jinbo; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2015-08-01

    A single real-time multiplex reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), and Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) was developed and validated using three different fluorescently labeled minor groove binding qPCR probes. To increase the detection reliability, coat protein (CP) genes from large number of different isolates of CTV, CPsV and CLBV were sequenced and a multiple sequence alignment was generated with corresponding CP sequences from the GenBank and a robust multiplex RT-qPCR assay was designed. The capacity of the multiplex RT-qPCR assay in detecting the viruses was compared to singleplex RT-qPCR designed specifically for each virus and was assessed using multiple virus isolates from diverse geographical regions and citrus species as well as graft-inoculated citrus plants infected with various combination of the three viruses. No significant difference in detection limits was found and specificity was not affected by the inclusion of the three assays in a multiplex RT-qPCR reaction. Comparison of the viral load for each virus using singleplex and multiplex RT-qPCR assays, revealed no significant differences between the two assays in virus detection. No significant difference in Cq values was detected when using one-step and two-step multiplex RT-qPCR detection formats. Optimizing the RNA extraction technique for citrus tissues and testing the quality of the extracted RNA using RT-qPCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase citrus gene as an RNA specific internal control proved to generate better diagnostic assays. Results showed that the developed multiplex RT-qPCR can streamline viruses testing of citrus nursery stock by replacing three separate singleplex assays, thus reducing time and labor while retaining the same sensitivity and specificity. The three targeted RNA viruses are regulated pathogens for California's mandatory "Section 3701

  6. Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping

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    Ollitrault Patrick

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide or their position in the coding sequences. Results Among 11000 unigenes from a Clementine EST library, we have found at least one microsatellite sequence (repeated units size ranged from 2 to 6 nucleotides in 1500 unigenes (13.6%. More than 95% of these SSRs were di or trinucleotides. If trinucleotide microsatellites were encountered trough all part of EST sequences, dinucleotide microsatellites were preferentially (50% concentrated in the 5' 100th nucleotides. We assessed the polymorphism of 41 EST-SSR, by PCR amplification droved with flanking primers among ten Citrus species plus 3 from other genera. More than 90% of EST-SSR markers were polymorphic. Furthermore, dinucleotide microsatellite markers were more polymorphic than trinucleotide ones, probably related to their distribution that was more often located in the 5' UnTranslated Region (UTR. We obtained a good agreement of diversity relationships between the citrus species and relatives assessed with EST-SSR markers with the established taxonomy and phylogeny. To end, the heterozygosity of each genotype and all dual combinations were studied to evaluate the percentage of mappable markers. Higher values (> 45% were observed for putative Citrus inter-specific hybrids (lime lemon, or sour orange than for Citrus basic true species (mandarin, pummelo and citron (70% with a significant proportion suitable for synteny analysis. Conclusion Fourty one new EST-SSR markers were produced and were available for

  7. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

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    Dossat Carole

    2007-01-01

    important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays.

  8. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agustí, Javier; Alós, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Götz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays. PMID:17254327

  9. Development of nursery for producing diseased free citrus propagation materials

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    Kirirat, P.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of nursery house (5×8×3.80 m was established for producing disease free citrus propagation materials. The frame of prototype nursery house was made of galvanized pipe and it was covered with UV-resistance nylon net (32 mesh. Optimum temperature and relative humidity in the prototype nursery house were automatically controlled. It was compared with a commercial nethouse (6×9×4.40 m and a shade house (4×6×2.50 m. The capacity of the prototype nursery house, commercial nethouse and shade house was assessed by growth determination of plants grown inside for 3 months. The plant materials used for testing were Troyer seedlings, Shogun mandarin mother plants and Neck orange nursery trees. It was found that the plants grown in the prototype nursery house and commercial nethouse exhibited significantly higher growth than those plants in the shade house. Differences of temperature and relative humidity in the prototype nursery house, commercial nethouse and shade house were evaluated. It was prominent that the temperature and relative humidity during the experimental period in the commercial nethouse were highest, while they were lowest in the shade house. An occurrence of canker diseases markedly increased in the commercial nethouse because of high humidity and temperature. Leaf destruction by main insect pests wasa serious problem in the shade house. From the results, it is suggested that the prototype nursery house is suitable for producing disease free citrus propagation materials in southern Thailand.

  10. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions. PMID:23179695

  11. Transcriptome analysis of root response to citrus blight based on the newly assembled Swingle citrumelo draft genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Barthe, Gary; Grosser, Jude W.; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Background Citrus blight is a citrus tree overall decline disease and causes serious losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Although it was described more than one hundred years ago, its causal agent remains unknown and its pathophysiology is not well determined, which hampers our understanding of the disease and design of suitable disease management. Results In this study, we sequenced and assembled the draft genome for Swingle citrumelo, one important citrus rootstock. The draft genome is...

  12. HLB/ACP Resistance or Tolerance in Non-transgenic Citrus Scion Varieties: Potential Commercial Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncirus trifoliata hybrids grown in the USHRL variety block on Sun Chu Sha (a unifoliate mandarin rootstock similar to Cleopatra) were tested for CLas 16S rDNA and Citrus dehydrin (as an internal standard to permit expression of data in CLas genomes/citrus genomes) by qPCR, assessing random quadran...

  13. Unravelling rootstock×scion interactions to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Martínez-Pérez, Ascensión; Thompson, Andrew J; Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    While much recent science has focused on understanding and exploiting root traits as new opportunities for crop improvement, the use of rootstocks has enhanced productivity of woody perennial crops for centuries. Grafting of vegetable crops has developed very quickly in the last 50 years, mainly to induce shoot vigour and to overcome soil-borne diseases in solanaceous and cucurbitaceous crops. In most cases, such progress has largely been due to empirical interactions between farmers, gardeners, and botanists, with limited insights into the underlying physiological mechanisms. Only during the last 20 years has science realized the potential of this old activity and studied the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in rootstock×scion interactions, thereby not only explaining old phenomena but also developing new tools for crop improvement. Rootstocks can contribute to food security by: (i) increasing the yield potential of elite varieties; (ii) closing the yield gap under suboptimal growing conditions; (iii) decreasing the amount of chemical (pesticides and fertilizers) contaminants in the soil; (iv) increasing the efficiency of use of natural (water and soil) resources; (v) generating new useful genotypic variability (via epigenetics); and (vi) creating new products with improved quality. The potential of grafting is as broad as the genetic variability able to cross a potential incompatibility barrier between the rootstock and the scion. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variability resulting from rootstock×scion×environment interactions will certainly contribute to developing and exploiting rootstocks for food security. PMID:25754404

  14. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  15. Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Hajeri, Subhas; El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the...

  16. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described. PMID:23179693

  17. Tolerância de híbridos e de clones de porta-enxertos de citros à infecção de raízes por Phytophthora nicotianae Tolerance of hybrids and rootstock clones of citrus to root rot infection caused by Phytophthora nicotianae

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    Herculano P. Medina Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se clones de porta-enxertos de citros (Citrus spp., híbridos e genitores quanto à tolerância das raízes a Phytophthora nicotianae através de inoculações em substrato de argila expandida. Investigaram-se progênies nucelares dos clones Poncirus trifoliata 'Rich 16-6', citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliolata , tangerinas 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni e 'Suen Kat' (C. sunki, limão'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana, dos genitores tangerina 'Sunki' (C. sunki (S, limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia (C, laranja 'Azeda' (C. aurantium ((A, Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (T, e progênies nucelares de híbridos entre eles, totalizando 2303 plântulas. Avaliou-se a taxa de sobrevivência, redução de raízes e partes aéreas, peso de raízes e de partes aéreas, diâmetro do caule e altura, comparando-se plântulas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Atribuíram-se também notas subjetivas para volume de raízes, enfolhamento, coloração das folhas e altura. Desenvolveu-se um índice total de redução (ITR baseado na taxa de sobrevivência e nos parâmetros mencionados. Mostraram-se altamente tolerantes os trifoliatas 'Davis A' e 'Rich 16-6', o citrumelo 'Swingle', três híbridos TxS, dois SxT e dois SxA, com ITR 80%. A metodologia de inoculação e avaliação discriminou com precisão progênies nucelares dos clones e dos híbridos, evidenciando o potencial de seleção principalmente dos híbridos SxT e recíprocos.Clones of citrus rootstocks, hybrids and their parents were evaluated for tolerance to root rot incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. It were evaluated 'Rich 16-6' Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliolata, 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni and 'Suen Kat' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana, the parents 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki (S, Rangpur lime (C. limonia (C, Sour orange (C. aurantium (A and 'Davis A' Trifoliate orange (T, and the nucellar progenies of hybrids between

  18. [Development of prediction models for determining N content in citrus leaves based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Meng; Ye, Xu-Jun; Wang, Qiao-Nan; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The present study presents prediction models for determining the N content in citrus leaves by using hyperspectral imaging technology combined with several chemometrics methods. The steps followed in this study are: hyperspectral image scanning, extracting average spectra curves, pretreatment of raw spectra data, extracting characteristic wavelengths with successive projection algorithm and developing prediction models for determining N content in citrus leaves. The authors obtained three optimal pretreatment methods through comparing eleven different pretreatment methods including Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative (1-Der) and so on. These selected pretreatment methods are SG smoothing, detrending and SG smoothing-detrending. Based on these three pretreatment methods, the authros first extracted the characteristic wavelengths respectively with successive projection algorithm, and then used the spectral reflectance of the extracted characteristic wavelengths as input variables of partial least squares regression (PLS), multiple linear regression (MLR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) modeling. Hence, the authors developed three prediction models with each pretreatment method, and obtained nine models in total. Among all the nine prediction models, the two models based on the methods of SG smoothing-detrending-SPA-BPNN (R(p): 0.8513, RMSEP: 0.1881) and detrending-SPABPNN (R(p): 0.8609, RMSEP: 0.1595) were found to have achieved the best prediction results. The final results show that using hyperspectra data to determine N content in citrus leaves is feasible. This would provide a theoretical basis for real-time and accurate monitoring of N content in citrus leaves as well as rational N fertilizer application during the plant's growth. PMID:24783563

  19. Desenvolvimento de plantas de maracujazeiro-amarelo produzidas por enxertia hipocotiledonar em cinco porta-enxertos de passifloras silvestres Development of yellow passion fruit plant produced by hypocotyledonary grafting on five rootstocks of wild passiflora in Araguari-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em área de pequeno produtor fornecedor da Maguari (Kraft Foods do Brasil em Araguari - MG, e teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de maracujazeiro-amarelo propagado por enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre cinco porta-enxertos de passifloráceas nativas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram cinco porta-enxertos: P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea, P. alata, P. gibertii e P. cincinnata, e o maracujazeiro-amarelo de pé-franco como controle, totalizando seis tratamentos. Para todos os tratamentos, a variedade-copa utilizada foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo Cv. FB 200. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela foi constituída de uma fileira de 20 metros de comprimento contendo quatro plantas. A condução foi realizada conforme os tratos culturais recomendados para a cultura. As características avaliadas foram: altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro da região da enxertia, diâmetro do enxerto, diâmetro do porta-enxerto, relação enxerto/porta-enxerto. As plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea e pé-franco apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Já as plantas sobre o porta-enxerto P. alata não desenvolveram bem. Embora as plantas de pé-franco tenham superado numericamente o desenvolvimento das enxertadas sobre P. cincinnata e P. gibertii, não houve diferenças significativas entre eles. O porta-enxerto P. alata influenciou negativamente na altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro da região da enxertia, diâmetro do enxerto, diâmetro do porta-enxerto e na relação enxerto/porta-enxerto.The experiment was carried out in an area of a small producer supplier of Maguari (Kraft Foods of Brazil in Araguari-MG, and aimed to assess the development of yellow passion fruit plant grafted on five rootstocks of native passifloraceas using the hypocotyledonary grafting method. The treatments used as rootstocks were P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea

  20. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  1. Desenvolvimento de 31 cultivares de marmeleiro enxertadas no porta-enxerto 'Japonês' Development of 31 cultivars of quince grafted in the japanese rootstock

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    Rafael Pio

    2008-06-01

    a rootstock for the quinces. Beacuse of lack of information, this experiment was developed with the aim of verifying the development of different rootstock cultivars. The 'Japanese' quinces, 'MC', 'Adams', 'Van Deman', 'Provence', 'Cheldow', 'Smyrna', 'Rea's Mamouth', 'De Patras', 'De Vranja', 'Lajeado', 'Champion', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Alongado', 'Meech Prolific', 'Bereckzy', 'Alaranjado', 'Kiakami', 'Du Lot', 'Radaelli', 'CTS 207', 'D'Angers', 'Zuquerinetta', 'BA 29', 'Constantinopla', 'Marmelo Pêra', 'Apple', 'Portugal', 'Füller', 'Meliforme' and 'Pineapple' were grafted by means of clevis process in 'Japanese' seedlings, by the full slit method. Clevis with three gems were used, collected from parent plants. The seedlings were kept in greenhouse, and the percentage of sprout clevis was evaluated after 60 days. The length and medium diameter of the graft were evaluated in the 60; 90; 120 e 150 days after the grafting. It was concluded that the quinces presented good affinity. with the 'Japanese' rootstock. The cultivars 'Van Deman', 'Japonês', 'Smyrna', 'De Vranja', 'Lajeado', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Alongado', 'Meech Prolific', 'Meliforme', 'Cheldow', 'Champion', 'Bereckzy' and 'De Patras'were the ones that had the highest vigor in the greenhouse phase.

  2. Crescimento e desenvolvimento de pessegueiros ‘Chimarrita’ e ‘Maciel’ sobre diferentes porta-enxertos e locais de cultivo Growth and development of ‘Chimarrita’ and ‘Maciel’ peach trees on different rootstocks and cultivating areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Padilha Galarça

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a influência dos porta-enxertos no que se refere ao crescimento vegetativo e desenvolvimento dos pessegueiro 'Chimarrita' e 'Maciel' em três locais de cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em três locais de cultivo: 1 (Embrapa Uva e Vinho, 2 (EEA UFRGS e 3 (CAP UFPel, em três anos. As cultivares de pessegueiro utilizadas foram: 'Chimarrita' e 'Maciel' enxertadas sobre seis porta-enxertos ('Aldrighi', 'Capdeboscq', 'Flordaguard', 'Nemaguard', 'Okinawa' e Umezeiro, no espaçamento 1,5 X 5,0m e conduzidas no sistema em "V". Foram avaliados: volume de copa, diâmetro de tronco, massa fresca da poda, produção por planta acumulada, comprimento, espessura, gemas floríferas e densidade florífera do ramo produtivo. Também foi avaliado de forma visual o ponto de enxertia. O porta-enxerto Umezeiro induziu menor vigor nos três locais de cultivo estudados e na média dos três anos. Ele pode ser indicado para utilização sob 'Maciel' nas condições edafoclimáticas do local 3. No local 1 o porta-enxerto, 'Nemaguard' possui alto vigor e maior produção acumulada, sendo o mais indicado. Já para o local 2, os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'Okinawa' e 'Flordaguard' são os mais indicados. Os porta-enxertos afetam as características de crescimento e desenvolvimento das cultivares 'Chimarrita' e 'Maciel', o vigor destas é menor sobre o porta-enxerto Umezeiro nos três locais de cultivo. Todos os porta-enxertos podem ser indicados para os três locais de cultivo, com exceção do Umezeiro, que somente pode ser indicado em combinação com a cultivar 'Maciel' no local 3.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks in relation to vegetative growth and development of 'Chimarrita' and 'Maciel' peach trees in three places of cultivation. The experiment was conducted in three cultivating areas: first (Embrapa Grape and Wine, second (EEA UFRGS and third (CAP UFPel, in three years

  3. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

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    Lin Dawei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-free shotgun methodologies. Two alternative methods, differential mass-spectrometry (dMS and spectral counting (SC were used to analyze protein changes occurring during earlier and late stages of fruit development. Both methods were compared in order to develop a proteomics workflow that could be used in a non-model plant lacking a sequenced genome. In order to resolve the bioinformatics limitations of EST databases from species that lack a full sequenced genome, we established iCitrus. iCitrus is a comprehensive sequence database created by merging three major sources of sequences (HarvEST:citrus, NCBI/citrus/unigenes, NCBI/citrus/proteins and improving the annotation of existing unigenes. iCitrus provided a useful bioinformatics tool for the high-throughput identification of citrus proteins. We have identified approximately 1500 citrus proteins expressed in fruit juice sac cells and quantified the changes of their expression during fruit development. Our results showed that both dMS and SC provided significant information on protein changes, with dMS providing a higher accuracy. Conclusion Our data supports the notion of the complementary use of dMS and SC for label-free comparative proteomics, broadening the identification spectrum and strengthening the identification of trends in protein expression changes during the particular processes being compared.

  4. HLB resistance and tolerance in citrus scion development at the US Horticultural Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus and threatening industries in the rest of the US. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected trees. Fruit size and quality often diminish as the disease advances. The USDA citrus scion breeding program is charged with producing improved citrus...

  5. Development of genomic resources for Citrus clementina: Characterization of three deep-coverage BAC libraries and analysis of 46,000 BAC end sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Talon Manuel; Ollitrault Patrick; Naranjo M Angel; Terol Javier

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus species constitute one of the major tree fruit crops of the subtropical regions with great economic importance. However, their peculiar reproductive characteristics, low genetic diversity and the long-term nature of tree breeding mostly impair citrus variety improvement. In woody plants, genomic science holds promise of improvements and in the Citrus genera the development of genomic tools may be crucial for further crop improvements. In this work we report the char...

  6. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov A. I.; Mikhaylovskiy S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't ...

  7. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  8. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  9. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros Genetic evaluation of selections and hybrids of rangpur lime, volkamer and rough lemons rootstocks for Valência orange trees in the presence of the citrus sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    genótipos Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 3810 (1648, Rangpur- Lime x Trifoliata 5320 (1644, Limão- Cravo x Citrange- Carrizo (1524, Citrus pennivesiculata (880, Limão- Cravo x Trifoliata- Swingle A (1707, Rangpur- Rose- Lemon 124684 (864, Rangpur- Red -Lime D33.47 (867 e Limão- Cravo -Ipanema (1522. Dentre os 10 melhores genótipos para produção de frutos e para eficiência produtiva, apenas três são coincidentes: Rangpur- Rose -Lime (868, Citrus pennivesiculata (880 e Limão- Cravo-Ipanema (1522.This study aimed to perform the genetic evaluation of fruit production, productive efficiency and growth of Valência orange (Citrus sinensis trees scions grafted on selections and hybrids of Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Volkamer (C. volkameriana and Rough (C. jambhiri lemons rootstocks grown in the presence of the Citrus Sudden Death (CSD. In an affected endemic area for CSD 36 genotypes of these rootstocks were evaluated, represented by five plants each one, measured in five harvests from the third to seventh years after planting. Seven of them showed symptoms of CSD: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Rough lemon 58329 (1655 and Limão Cravo x Swingle B (1695. For selection and breeding purposes, genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated and individual genotypic values were predicted for all traits by the REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure. The analysis of fruit production in five harvests showed selective accuracy of 84.59% revealing that a greater number of harvests is unnecessary. Selection of the best seven genotypes led to a genetic gain of 11.5% for fruit production while the selection of the very best genotype provided an estimated genetic gain of 16.3%. The higher predicted genetic means (>70.0 kg.pl-1 for fruit production were obtained for the genotypes Ipanema Rangpur Lime (1522, Santa Bárbara Red Lime (884

  10. Evaluation sous serre de la tolérance à la salinité de quelques porte-greffes d'agrumes : Citrus aurantium et deux hybrides de Poncirus trifoliata (Poncirus x Citrus sinensis et Poncirus x Mandarinier sunki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus rootstocks response to salinity. To determine the effects of salinity on the intensity of chlorosis, growth and uptake of Na+ and Cl-, we grew three Citrus rootstocks (sour orange Citrus aurantium (C.a and two new hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata [P.t. x Citrus sinensis (PXC and P.t. x Mandarinier sunki (PXM] in nutrient solutions containing 0, 35 or 70 mM NaCl during 30 or 60 days. Foliar damages increase with time for all treatments and rootstocks. The intensity and the frequency of the chlorosis caused after 30 days of saline stress reveal the sensitivity of PXC and the tolerance of PXM. Moreover, if apical growth of the C.a is not affected by 35 mM NaCl, it is stimulated on the other hand for PXM and is inhibited for PXC. The concentration 70 mM NaCl affects the vigour of rootstocks more severely and shows the tolerance of PXM and the sensitivity of PXC. The biomass decreases with time for all treatments and rootstocks. However, it appears that the concentration 35 mM NaCl is insufficient for the discrimination between rootstocks against salt stress. But, at 70 mM NaCl, the reduction of the biomass confirms the sensitivity of PXC and proves the tolerance of PXM. Furthermore, the content of leaves in Cl- and Na+ is affected meaningfully by salinity, time of stress and rootstocks (PXM appears to be efficient excluding of Cl-. Contents in Na+ and Cl- are correlated with foliar toxicity symptoms. This content is also correlated with biomass reduction of PXC. Therefore, in addition to inhibitory effects of high concentrations of Cl- and Na+, an imbalance of essential nutrients may also contribute to the reduction in growth of this rootstocks under saline conditions.

  11. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长发育及产量的影响%Effects of Different Rootstock on the Yield and Development of Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常高正; 张慎璞; 杨红丽; 赵卫星; 徐小利; 李晓慧; 张四普; 杨帆

    2009-01-01

    研究了豫园砧木王(Citrullus lanatus var.citroides cv.Yuyuanzhenmu)、超丰F1(Lagenaria siceraria cv.Chaofeng F1)、新土佐(Cucurbita maxima xC.moschata,Sintozwa)3个西瓜砧木嫁接对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus)生长发育、根系的分布及产量的影响.结果表明,3种不同砧木西瓜嫁接苗与自根苗相比,根系发达,茎叶生长旺盛,且有增产作用.其中豫园砧木王和新土佐砧木的嫁接效果最好,其能明显增强嫁接苗的长势,可分别使西瓜增产21.4%和25.0%.因此,建议选择豫园砧木王和新土佐嫁接西瓜为好,以达到丰产的目的.%Effects of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides cv. Yuyuanzhenmu,Lagenaria siceraria cv. Chaofeng Fl and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) on the development,distinction of the roots and the yield of C. lanatus var. lanatus were studied. The results showed that,compared with non-grafted seedling,the roots and shoots of the grafted seedlings with three rootstocks developed faster,and the yield increased. Of the three rootstocks,the grafting effect of C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) was better. The growth vigor and yields of grafted seedlings increased by 21.4% and 25.0% respectively. So,to grain high production,C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) were recommended to be used as rootstocks of C. lanatus var. lanatus.

  12. Biological control of Phytophthora nicotianae and organic media standardization in citrus nurseries.

    OpenAIRE

    SALEM, Assem

    2005-01-01

    Investigations were carried out for the biological control of Phytophthora nicotianae (citrus root rot) on two citrus rootstocks (Sour orange and Troyer citrange) transplanted in organic and conventional substrates, treated with the semi-commercial product Clonotri (Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea) and Metalaxyl-M as a chemical control. Clonotri was more efficient than the chemical treatment increasing plant high and weight. Organic products (Chitosan, Quillaia, Equiseto and Clon...

  13. Parentage Analysis of Freedom Rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rootstock Freedom has been widely deployed for nematode resistance in California vineyards. As the offspring of two open-pollinated parents, its risk of V. vinifera-derived phylloxera susceptibility is unknown. In order to determine the progenitors of Freedom, genetic profiles of candidate paren...

  14. Effects of Different Common Cucurbitaceae Grafting Rootstock on Growth, Development and Quality of Melon(Cucumis melo L.)%常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜其品质差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 于高波; 盛云燕; 王洋洋; 廖佳宁

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze growth, development and quality of melon after grafting using common Cucurbitaceae grafting rootstock. [Method] The self-root seedling of Dongtian 02 was used as control. And pumpkin( Cucurbita moschata), big gourd[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. gourda Ser. ] , ground melon[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. clavata Ser. ], zucchini(Luffa cylin-drica) , and luffa[Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ) Cogn. var. chieh-qua How] were used for grafting to melon Dongtian 02. The experiment studied different rootstocks on the grafting survival rate, growth rate and fruit characteristics. [ Result] The results indicated that using luffa and zucchini as grafting rootstock were not suitable for the improvement of melon quality whereas gourd melon and pumpkin had the positive influence on performance. As grafting rootstock, big gourd has advantages and disadvantages. [ Conclusion] The study provides a theoretical basis for melon grafting cultivation development.%[目的]分析常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)后甜瓜的生长发育及果实品质.[方法]以东甜02自根苗作为对照,进行以南瓜(Cucuita moschata)、大葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.gourda Ser.]、瓠子[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.clavata Ser.]、丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)、节瓜[Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.var.chieh-qua How]为砧木、东甜02为接穗的嫁接栽培比较试验,研究不同砧穗组合的嫁接成活率、植株生长速率和果实性状.[结果]以节瓜、丝瓜为砧木,不利于东甜02果实优良性状的表现,而以瓠子、南瓜为砧木,对东甜02有积极的影响,而以大葫芦为砧木,则利弊参半.[结论]该研究可为甜瓜嫁接栽培的发展提供理论依据.

  15. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  16. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs in citrus by genome-wide analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Rui Liu

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in plant genetics and breeding. In this study, we identified citrus SSRs in the genome of Clementine mandarin and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. A total of 80,708 SSRs were detected in the genome with an overall density of 268 SSRs/Mb. While di-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, tetra-nucleotides, which had more repeat units than any other SSR types, had the highest cumulative sequence length. We identified 6,834 transcripts as containing 8,989 SSRs in 33,929 Clementine mandarin transcripts, among which, tri-nucleotide motifs (36.0% were the most common, followed by di-nucleotide (26.9% and hexa-nucleotide motifs (15.1%. The motif AG (16.7% was most abundant among these SSRs, while motifs AAG (6.6%, AAT (5.0%, and TAG (2.2% were most common among tri-nucleotides. Functional categorization of transcripts containing SSRs revealed that 5,879 (86.0% of such transcripts had homology with known proteins, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that transcripts containing SSRs were those implicated in diverse biological processes in plants, including binding, development, transcription, and protein degradation. When 27 genomic and 78 randomly selected SSRs were tested on Clementine mandarin, 95 SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 95 SSRs were further deployed on 18 genotypes of the three generas of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, genomic SSRs generally show low transferability in comparison to SSRs developed from expressed sequences. These transcript-markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in citrus, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, molecular breeding, comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.

  17. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  18. Architectural development and dry matter production in a multisite trial on single and multiaxis apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) grafted on different rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Lezzer, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    In two Italian sites, multiaxis trees slightly reduced primary axis length and secondary axis length of newly grafted trees, and increased the number of secondary shoots. The total length, node production, and total dry matter gain were proportional to the number of axis. Growth of both primary and secondary shoots, and dry matter accumulation, have been found to be also well related to rootstock vigour. A great variability in axillary shoot production was recorded among different environm...

  19. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  20. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  1. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  2. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medena, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Condo-Ruiz, Rebecca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernandez-Fernandez, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two qua...

  3. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  4. Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp. de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp. of potential use as rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araujo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki.The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp., and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus

  5. Budagovsky 9 rootstock: uncovering a novel resistance to fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock, displayed a high level of susceptibility (similar to M.9 rootstock) to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) when leaves of non-grafted B.9 plants were inoculated. However, when older B.9 rootstock tissue was inoculated directly with E. amylovora, rootstock tis...

  6. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  7. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  8. Community Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata Based on SSU rDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation sh...

  9. Community Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata Based on SSU rDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10, all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards.

  10. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  11. Citrus Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter, Fred G.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  12. Controle químico do cancro cítrico em plantas jovens sob manejo convencional e orgânico Quemical control of citrus canker in young plants managed in conventional and organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Carlos Koller

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de Poncirus trifoliata Raf. e de enxertos de laranjeira "Valência" (Citrus sinensis Osb., os índices de ataque de cancro cítrico, causado pela bactéria Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, artificialmente inoculada, e o controle dessa moléstia, com pulverizações cúpricas em sistemas de cultivo, convencional e orgânico, no Centro de Formação da EMATER, situado no município de Montenegro, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram testadas pulverizações cúpricas a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias, com concentrações de 0,15 e 0,30% de cobre metálico, utilizando calda bordalesa no sistema orgânico e oxicloreto de cobre no sistema convencional. Foram avaliados o crescimento do diâmetro do caule das plantas, a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea dos porta-enxertos, o número de folhas com lesões de cancro cítrico e o número de lesões presentes por folha atacada. Verificou-se que em ambos os sistemas de cultivo, no convencional e no orgânico, o desenvolvimento dos porta-enxertos foi semelhante, mas os enxertos cresceram mais no sistema convencional. Com elevada presença de fontes de inóculo, os tratamentos cúpricos não controlaram o cancro cítrico nos porta-enxertos. Já nos enxertos, com baixa presença de fontes de inóculo, tanto a calda bordalesa como o oxicloreto de cobre controlaram a doença, com melhor resposta na concentração de 0,3% de cobre metálico, aplicada em intervalos de 14 dias. Para melhorar o controle do cancro cítrico, com calda bordalesa, em sistemas orgânicos de cultivo, devem ser desenvolvidas medidas eficazes de controle da larva-minadora.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the development of the citrus rootstock Poncirus trifoliata, severity of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and the control of this disease with copper sprays, in conventional and organic management systems, at the Centro de Formação da

  13. Comportamento da laranjera 'Folha Murcha' em sete porta-enxertos no noroeste do Paraná Performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange on seven rootstocks in northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou por um período de 14 anos, em Paranavaí-PR, o comportamento de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertadas nos porta-enxertos: limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, 'Rugoso da África' (Citrus jambhiri e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana, citrangeiro 'C-13' (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata, tangerineiras 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki e 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (porta-enxertos e quatro repetições, com três plantas por parcela. Os volumes das copas de plantas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' foram significativamente maiores. Plantas em limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentaram a menor diferença entre os diâmetros dos troncos do porta-enxerto e da copa. A produção acumulada foi superior nas plantas em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e menor em plantas sobre o trifoliata. A alternância da produção não foi acentuada nas plantas sobre os porta-enxertos avaliados. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi significativamente superior nos frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas em trifoliata e menor em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África'. A qualidade do suco apresentou-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para variedades-copa de laranjeiras. A tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e o limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' são porta-enxertos promissores para a laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' nas condições avaliadas.This work evaluated for 14 years, in Paranavaí, PR, Brazil, the performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on the following rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri, 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana, 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni. The experimental design was in blocks, with seven treatments

  14. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

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    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  15. Development of genomic resources for Citrus clementina: Characterization of three deep-coverage BAC libraries and analysis of 46,000 BAC end sequences

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    Talon Manuel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus species constitute one of the major tree fruit crops of the subtropical regions with great economic importance. However, their peculiar reproductive characteristics, low genetic diversity and the long-term nature of tree breeding mostly impair citrus variety improvement. In woody plants, genomic science holds promise of improvements and in the Citrus genera the development of genomic tools may be crucial for further crop improvements. In this work we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from Clementine (Citrus clementina, one of the most relevant citrus fresh fruit market cultivars, and the analyses of 46.000 BAC end sequences. Clementine is a diploid plant with an estimated haploid genome size of 367 Mb and 2n = 18 chromosomes, which makes feasible the use of genomics tools to boost genetic improvement. Results Three genomic BAC libraries of Citrus clementina were constructed through EcoRI, MboI and HindIII digestions and 56,000 clones, representing an estimated genomic coverage of 19.5 haploid genome-equivalents, were picked. BAC end sequencing (BES of 28,000 clones produced 28.1 Mb of genomic sequence that allowed the identification of the repetitive fraction (12.5% of the genome and estimation of gene content (31,000 genes of this species. BES analyses identified 3,800 SSRs and 6,617 putative SNPs. Comparative genomic studies showed that citrus gene homology and microsyntheny with Populus trichocarpa was rather higher than with Arabidopsis thaliana, a species phylogenetically closer to citrus. Conclusion In this work, we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from C. clementina, and a new set of genomic resources that may be useful for isolation of genes underlying economically important traits, physical mapping and eventually crop improvement in Citrus species. In addition, BAC end sequencing has provided a first insight on the basic structure and organization of the citrus genome and has

  16. Brooks and Olmo List 45, Prunus Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  17. Brooks and olmo list 46, Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  18. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  19. Experiências de cavalos para citrus II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Brieger

    1945-01-01

    Full Text Available The English resumé is given in a different form from the Portuguese "conclusões". In the former we gave mainly the results which may be of general interest, explaining the tables (quadros and the procedure of statistical analysis, while in the other the properties of the different rootstocks are discussed in detail since they are of immediate local interest. 1. In a previous publication, Moreira (19 explained the layout and the first results of an experiment, under way since 1936 in the Limeira Exp. Sta., on the influence of twelve different types of Citrus rootstocks on three scion varieties : the oranges "Baianinha" and "Pera" and the grape-fruit "Marsh Seedless". We report here three main results obtained during the first six years of the experiment: a all plants budded on sour and bitter-sweet oranges (C. aurantium, showed definite signs of the new disease "tristeza" ; b other rootstocks such as citron (C. medica, ponderosa lemon (C. lemon had such disadvantageous effect that they could be eliminated as suitable stocks ; c the data of the first four crops permit to determine certain particularities of some rootstocks varieties used in the experiment. The present paper deals with the complete

  20. THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS DERIVED FROM SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS PLANTLET AND SCION STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Friyanti Devy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE of callus culture in vitro is one of citrus propagation ways for producing free virus and genetically true-to-type plantlets. To induce growing of plantlets derived from this technology, they should be grafted ex vitro onto a citrus rootstock. The research aimed to evaluate the growth performance of citrus plants cv. Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis L. that used both plantlets and scions as their stocks. The research was conducted at Tlekung Research Station, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from June 2011 to December 2012. The treatments were done at nursery house by grafting a plantlet and budding a scion onto an eight-month-old Japanese Citroon (JC rootstock plant. The grafted and budded plants of one-year old were maintained at nursery house then transplanted into the field. In the field, the research was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and used 15 plants as unit samples. The results showed that the vegetative growth of Siam Kintamani seedling derived from SE or grafted plant was faster than that of budded plant started from 10 to 12 months after treatment in the nersery house. In the field, the growth of SE grafted plant was only significantly different up to 6 months after transplanting. Plantlets produced from SE in vitro propagation can be used as a good alternative stock material for producing healthy citrus plants. Therefore, a further research is required especially on varieties used, reproductive growth and massive planlets production.

  1. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

  2. Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

  3. Silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Shesheny

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP, the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application of dsRNA to 5(th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP.

  4. Differential Reaction of Citrus Species in Malaysia to Huanglongbing (HLB Disease using Grafting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB is a phloem limited disease in citrus caused by a fastidious bacterium called Candidatus Liberibacter found in Africa, Asia and United States of America (USA. HLB can severely reduce vigor and yield or kill all citrus trees within 5 years. There is a need to screen and identify suitable rootstock for propagation of clean plan materials for citrus in the tropics. This study was conducted to detect the presence of HLB on 18 selected citrus species and to categorize the level of infection and susceptibility of citrus species to HLB. Approach: Eighteen citrus species were assessed for susceptibility to HLB by graft transmission from source infection (Citrus reticulata. Results: HLB was detected in 15 species 6 months after grafting using PCR test. Conclusion: The species could be categorized in five groups: Severe group (72-58% severity which includes C. reticulata, C. sinensis, C. reshni cv. cleopatra, moderate group (50- 41% severity includes Fortunella sp. cv. Kasturi Chinai, C. macrophylla, C. microcarpa, mild group (25-17% severity which included C. medica, C. aurantifolia, Citrus sp. (natural biotype, C. jambhiri. The tolerant group which did not show any HLB symptoms but tested positive by PCR test includes C. aurantium and C. aurantifolia. The resistant groups which include C. grandis cv. Limau Bali, C. hysterix and Citrus sp. cv. Limau Tembikai showed no symptoms and were tested negative for HLB.

  5. Seasonal Patterns of Carbohydrates in Mandarin cvs. ‘Fremont’, ‘Nova’ and ‘Robinson’ on Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan YILDIZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the experimental farm of Mustafa Kemal University, Dörtyol, Turkey during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ‘Troyer’ and ‘Carrizo’ citranges (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. × Citrus sinensis Osb. var. ‘Troyer’ and ‘Carrizo’, and common sour orange (Citrus aurantium L. var. common, rootstocks on the seasonal variation of carbohydrate content in the leaves of cvs. ‘Fremont’, ‘Nova’, and ‘Robinson’ mandarin. The seasonal variation of carbohydrate content of the three cultivars budded on different rootstocks was nearly same. Soluble carbohydrate concentration showed a continuous decrease from January to mid or late-summer, and then slowly began to increase after early autumn till winter. The sucrose was the dominant soluble carbohydrate in leaves. The seasonal evolution of starch content in leaves increased initially during January to March, and then decreased in April. The starch concentration showed a continuous decrease slowly until the mid-autumn, and then accumulation began during late-autumn and winter. The total carbohydrate content differences among the rootstocks were significant, but the content was changed among the cultivars and according to the season. The change in the total carbohydrate content of leaf tissues showed a strong similarity in cultivars budded on different rootstocks throughout the year. The total carbohydrate content reached their lowest levels in July for cv. ‘Robinson’, in August for cv. ‘Fremont’ and cv. ‘Nova’. The total carbohydrate content in leaves increased from the mid- or late-summer to winter. It is suggested that the seasonal variation of carbohydrate content in plant tissues can be considered during fertilization program in mandarin trees.

  6. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  7. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Cercos Manuel; Talon Manuel; Soler Guillermo; Terol Javier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrat...

  8. Deep sequencing of viral small-RNAs of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reveals genomic differences between two Italian isolates of CTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) epidemic of quick decline (QD) killed many sweet orange trees grafted on sour orange rootstock in Sicily but left some asymptomatic trees in the same field. Recent reports indicated cross-protection involves exclusion of a severe CTV strain by a mild strain of th...

  9. Phenotypic plasticity and water flux rates of Citrus root orders under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Rewald, Boris; Raveh, Eran; Gendler, Tanya; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the root system structure and the uptake efficiency of root orders is critical to understand the adaptive plasticity of plants towards salt stress. Thus, this study describes the phenological and physiological plasticity of Citrus volkameriana rootstocks under severe NaCl stress on the level of root orders. Phenotypic root traits known to influence uptake processes, for example frequency of root orders, specific root area, cortical thickness, and xylem traits, did not change h...

  10. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blocos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v; e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v. Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada.Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Rangpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate

  11. Cryopreservation of citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Gayle M; Bonnart, Remi; Krueger, Robert; Lee, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and citrus wild species within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have identified a cryopreservation method by which Citrus genetic resources that are not maintained in vitro can be successfully conserved. Shoot tips were excised from actively growing vegetative flushes of protected trees. Surface-disinfected shoot tips were precultured overnight in 0.3 M sucrose, loaded with a loading solution for 20 min and treated with PVS2 for 30 or 60 min at 0 degree C, prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Rewarmed shoot tips post-cultured overnight on survival medium were then micrografted on 'Carrizo' seedling rootstocks to produce whole plants. Micrografted shoot tips recovered quickly and rooted plants could be transferred to the greenhouse within months. Regrowth of whole plants after micrografting averaged 53 percent for cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivars representing eight Citrus and Fortunella species. This method has several advantages: it uses screenhouse or greenhouse plants as source materials, it is not dependent upon cultivar-specific recovery media, and it avoids seedling juvenility. PMID:23250401

  12. Porta-enxertos para a tangerineira 'Michal' no Rio Grande do Sul Rootstocks for 'Michal' tangerine in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Brugnara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A tangerineira 'Michal' (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina poderá ser uma boa alternativa ao Rio Grande do Sul como cultivar copa para produção de frutos em época precoce. No entanto, há falta de informações sobre seu comportamento em cultivo nas condições ambientais desse Estado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção e a qualidade dos frutos da tangerineira 'Michal' enxertada sobre cinco porta-enxertos: citrangeiro 'Troyer', citrumeleiro 'Swingle', limoeiro 'Cravo', tangerineira 'Sunki' e trifoliata 'Flying Dragon', na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: a altura das plantas, a circunferência do tronco, a área de projeção da copa (APC, o número e a massa (MF de frutos produzidos, a relação MF/APC (IP, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT do suco, além do tamanho dos frutos e do rendimento de suco. O citrumeleiro 'Swingle' promoveu bom vigor, boa produção, bom IP, bons níveis de SST e de ATT da 'Michal', enquanto o limoeiro 'Cravo' conferiu bom vigor, boa produção, bom IP e bom tamanho dos frutos, ambos podendo ser indicados como porta-enxertos em pomares de tangerineira 'Michal'.'Michal' tangerine (Citrus clementina x C. tangerina can be a good choice as canopy for early maturing fruit production in Rio Grande do Sul. The limitation is the lack of information about its performance and management. The aim of this research was to evaluate the development, production and fruit quality of 'Michal' tangerine grafted on five rootstocks: 'Troyer' citrange, 'Swingle' citrumelo, 'Cravo' lemon, 'Sunki' tangerine and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliate orange, in the Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul. The following variables were evaluated: plant height; trunk circumference; canopy projection area (APC; produced fruit number and weight (MF; MF/APC relation (IP; juice total soluble solids

  13. THE NATURE OF RESISTANCE OF THE 'B.9' APPLE ROOTSTOCK TO FIRE BLIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising production costs, associated with replacement of high-density plantings, along with lack of efficient control, especially where streptomycin resistant Erwinia amylovora strains have developed, make the identification of resistant apple rootstocks a high priority in the battle to control fire ...

  14. Greenhouse Screening of Grape Rootstock Populations to Determine Inheritance of Resistance to Phylloxera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylloxera has been an important pest in California since their discovery in 1880 within Sonoma and Napa Counties. Phylloxera resistant rootstocks and germplasm were selected from American grape species native to the eastern United States. Breeding programs to develop improved phylloxera resistant...

  15. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  16. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG ...

  17. Geographic Distribution of Habitat, Development, and Population Growth Rates of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J.; Robles-García, Pedro L.; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses...

  18. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  19. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  20. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadete Reis; Otto Carlos Koller; Sergio Francisco Schwarz; Sergiomar Theisen; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Fernanda Severo Nichele; Rafael Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2008-01-01

    Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2...

  1. Emergência e desenvolvimento de plântulas de cultivares de marmeleiro para uso como porta-enxertos Emergency and plant development of quince cultivars to be used as rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tee como objetivo estudar a emergência e o desenvolvimento de plantas de marmeleiro, com potencial para serem utilizadas como porta-enxertos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Centro APTA Frutas/IAC, de maio/05 a janeiro/06. Sementes dos marmeleiros 'Mendoza INTA-37', 'Provence', 'Portugal' e 'Japonês' foram extraídas de frutos maduros, lavadas em água corrente, secas à sombra por 48 h e estratificadas a frio por 20 dias. Em seguida, foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno (72 células, capacidade de 120 cm³/célula contendo a vermiculita como substrato. Foi feito contagem da porcentagem de emergência após 30 dias da semeadura, a cada 10 dias, em um total de quatro coletas. Em seguida, foi retirada uma amostra de 10 plântulas por repetição e avaliados a altura média da parte aérea, nº de folhas, massa seca média da parte aérea e das raízes. Foram ainda separados 10 plântulas uniformes e representativos de cada repetição e transplantados para sacos plásticos (capacidade de 3 L contendo como substrato solo + esterco de curral curtido + areia (1:1:1 v/v. As plântulas permaneceram em viveiro telado (sombrite 50%, sendo irrigadas periodicamente. A cada 30 dias, foram mensurados a altura e o diâmetro das plântulas até o final da sexta avaliação (após 180 dias do transplantio. Concluiu-se que o marmeleiro 'Japonês' apresenta maior porcentagem de emergência (70%, altura das plântulas (111,83 cm e diâmetro (0,7 cm, possuindo maior performance e uma excelente alternativa como porta-enxerto para marmeleiros.The present work has as objective to study the emergency and development of quince seedlings with potential to be used as rootstock. The work was developed in the APTA Center Fruits/IAC, from May/05 to January/06. Seeds of 'Mendoza INTA-37', 'Provence', 'Portugal' and 'Japonês' quince were collected from mature fruits, washed in water, dried under shade for 48 h, and stratified in cold for 20 days

  2. Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Jian Liang; Hong Wu; Xuan Lun; Dong-Wen Lu

    2006-01-01

    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle.The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.

  3. Effects of Organic Acids and Salts on the Development of Penicillium italicum: The Causal Agent of Citrus Blue Mold

    OpenAIRE

    Boudyach El Hassane; Serghini Mohammed Amine; Boubaker Hassan; Talibi Idriss; Askarne Latifa; Ait Ben Aoumar Abdellah

    2011-01-01

    Control of Citrus blue mold, caused by Penicillium italicum, has been accomplished by postharvest application of synthetic fungicides. However, the development of resistant fungal strains and increasing public concern over food safety and the environment are driving a search for alternative disease control strategies. In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of several organic acid and salt compounds on mycelial growth, sporulation, spore germination and germ tube elongation of P...

  4. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  5. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses. PMID:26300904

  6. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%, P2O5 (9%, K2O (12%, Mg (1%, S (2.3%, B (0.02%, Cu (0.05%, Fe (1%, Mn (0.06%, Mo (0.02% and Zn (0.05%. A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-release fertilizer was added to Rendimax Floreira® substrate at doses of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g per liter, and rootstocks were produced in plastic containers with a capacity of two liters of substrate. Three seeds of clone GT 1 were scattered in each container and thinning was performed on day 60, leaving the most vigorous plant only. After the fourth leaf shot from each rootstock, the containers of each treatment were topped, due to compaction, with 300 mL of the relevant fertilizer and substrate mixture. The rootstocks were evaluated at eight months of age as to height, stem diameter (DC 5 cm above root collar, total dry matter, shoot and root dry matter, leaf nutrient levels and percentage of plants suitable for grafting (DC≥1.0 cm. Results revealed that adequate development and nutrition of rootstocks was achieved by using 6 g of controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate.

  7. Desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de umbuzeiro em resposta à adubação com nitrogênio e fósforo ‘Umbuzeiro’ rootstocks development as a answer for fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Soares de Melo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação, notadamente com nitrogênio e fósforo, é fundamental no estádio de desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de frutíferas. Porém, existem poucas informações científicas com respeito do umbuzeiro. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio e fósforo no desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Câm.. O experimento foi conduzido sob telado, na Universidade Federal de Sergipe, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo quatro níveis de nitrogênio e quatro de fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 150kg ha-1 de N e P2O5, respectivamente na forma de uréia e superfosfato simples, em quatro repetições. O maior ganho em altura (12,52cm foi obtido com as doses de 97,58kg ha-1 de N, enquanto o maior incremento no diâmetro do colo (2,18mm foi obtido com as doses de 150kg ha-1 de N e 150kg ha-1 de P2O5. O maior número de folhas foi observado na presença de 126,03kg ha-1 de N e 150kg ha-1 de P2O5. A maior produção de massa seca da parte aérea total foi constatada na dose de 98,71kg ha-1 de N e 150kg ha-1 de P2O5. A área foliar cresceu linearmente para ambos fatores As adubações estudadas contribuem de forma positiva para a formação de mudas de umbuzeiro, podendo antecipar a formação de porta-enxertos para algumas fruteiras do gênero Spondias. Doses de fósforo a partir de 150kg ha-1 não são recomendadas quando se pretende produzir picles, a partir do xilopódio do umbuzeiro.The fertilization, notable with nitrogen and phosphorous, is fundamental on initial development stadium on fruits nursery trees. However, there is little scientific information about ‘umbuzeiro’. This work had as objective to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and phosphorous’ doses on ‘umbuzeiro’ rootstocks (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Câm.. The experiment was carried out under nursery at ‘Universidade Federal de Sergipe’ being used experimental design of randomized blocks in factorial

  8. Deep sequencing discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huaping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated identification of species-specific or lowly expressed as well as conserved or highly expressed miRNAs in plants. Results In this research, we used Solexa sequencing to discover new microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata which is an important rootstock of citrus. A total of 13,106,753 reads representing 4,876,395 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNA extracted from C. trifoliata flower and fruit tissues. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, we found that 156,639 reads representing 63 sequences from 42 highly conserved miRNA families, have perfect matches to known miRNAs. We also identified 10 novel miRNA candidates whose precursors were all potentially generated from citrus ESTs. In addition, five miRNA* sequences were also sequenced. These sequences had not been earlier described in other plant species and accumulation of the 10 novel miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Potential target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. Moreover, four target genes including one encoding IRX12 copper ion binding/oxidoreductase and three genes encoding NB-LRR disease resistance protein have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in C. trifoliata. Conclusion Deep sequencing of short RNAs from C. trifoliata flowers and fruits identified 10 new potential miRNAs and 42 highly conserved miRNA families, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in C. trifoliata. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important trifoliate orange

  9. Evaluation of Pyrus and quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Frank

    2006-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards. In the Netherlands there are no breeding programs for fruit tree rootstocks. Rootstock research is limited to and focussed on testing rootstocks selected in other countries. For the Dutch pear growers the main selection criteria for new rootstocks are: 1) control of tree size; 2) produ...

  10. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the p...

  11. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  12. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  13. Self-pollination and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of self-incompatible Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Reig, Carmina; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine if self-pollination is needed to trigger facultative parthenocarpy in self-incompatible Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). 'Marisol' and 'Clemenules' mandarins were selected, and self-pollinated and un-pollinated flowers from both cultivars were used for comparison. These mandarins are always seedless after self-pollination and show high and low ability to develop substantial parthenocarpic fruits, respectively. The time-course for pollen grain germination, tube growth and ovule abortion was analyzed as well as that for carbohydrates, active gibberellins (GA1 and GA4 ), auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) content in the ovary. 'Clemenules' showed higher pollen grain germination, but pollen tube development was arrested in the upper style 9 days after pollination in both cultivars. Self-pollination did not stimulate parthenocarpy, whereas both un-pollinated and self-pollinated ovaries set fruit regardless of the cultivar. On the other hand, 'Marisol' un-pollinated flowers showed greater parthenocarpic ovary growth than 'Clemenules' un-pollinated flowers, i.e. higher ovule abortion rate (+21%), higher fruit set (+44%) and higher fruit weight (+50%). Further, the greater parthenocarpic ability of 'Marisol' paralleled higher levels of GA1 in the ovary (+34% at anthesis). 'Marisol' ovary also showed higher hexoses and starch mobilization, but lower ABA levels (-64% at anthesis). Self-pollination did not modify carbohydrates or GA content in the ovary compared to un-pollination. Results indicate that parthenocarpy in the Clementine mandarin is pollination-independent with its ability to set depending on the ovary hormone levels. These findings suggest that parthenocarpy in fertile self-incompatible mandarins is constitutively regulated. PMID:23002897

  14. Development of citrus reticulata cv.suavissima fruit wine%瓯柑南瓜果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦坡; 徐静; 王青波; 施成伟; 唐希泽

    2012-01-01

    以瓯柑、南瓜为原料,开发果酒产品.研究酶解时间、温度及酶用量对果汁果胶酶解程度的影响,酵母添加量、初始糖度、发酵时间和发酵温度对果酒发酵的影响,确定果酒酿造的最佳工艺参数.结果表明:果胶酶添加量0.015%,酶解时间2.5h,酶解温度45℃,酵母菌接种量0.265‰,发酵液初始糖度21.0%,发酵温度32.1℃,发酵时间4d,酿制的瓯柑果酒香气浓郁,具有特有的苦味,营养丰富.%Taking Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima and pumpkin as raw materials, a mixed fruit wine was developed. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis time, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature and enzyme dosage on mixed juice and the effect of sugar content, fermentation time and temperature were researched, the optimal fermented parameters were obtained. The result is pectmast usage 0.025%, hydrolysis time 2. 5 h, hydrolysis temperature 45 ℃ , inoculum of dry yeast 0. 265%, initial sugar content 21%, fermented temperature 25 ℃ and fermentation time 4 d, the mixed fruit wine shows good flavor and bitter, The fruit wine was rich nutrition.

  15. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Legua; Jorge Pinochet; María Ángeles Moreno; Juan José Martínez; Francisca Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01) on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found...

  16. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  17. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses ...

  18. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obta...

  19. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insectici...

  20. Resistance of Some Vitis Rootstocks to Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-eight grapevine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks were screened in pots for resistance to the dagger nematode, Xiphinema index, from 1979 to 1981. Resistance ratings were based on visible root symptoms and on changes in the nematode populations over 16 months. Nineteen of the 23 Californian hybrid rootstocks tested were resistant, as were 'Harmony',' 'Freedom,' 'Schwarzmann,' and '3309.' Two hybrids of V. rufotomentosa, '171-52' and '176-9,' were possibly immune to X. index. The rootstocks 'ARG 1,' ' 110 R,' '1202,' and '1616,' which are used commercially for phylloxera resistance were susceptible. PMID:19295825

  1. Optimizing culture media for in vitro proliferation and rooting of Tetra (Prunus empyrean 3 rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The enormous demand for new rootstock genotypes in Prunus spp. makes us to use micropropagation as an unavoidable propagation method. Therefore, the study on micropropagation of a new semi-dwarf vegetative rootstock namely Tetra (Prunus empyrean 3 was carried out to develop an optimized protocol. Culture establishment using nodal segments was enhanced using WPM (woody plant medium medium lacking growth regulators. From various shoot multiplication treatments, the highest number of shoots per explant (30.4 was found on ME (Media created specifically medium supplemented with 0.8 mg l−1 BAP and 0.05 mg l−1 IBA. 100% in vitro rooting was achieved on ½ strength MS medium with 0.5 mg l−1 IBA, 1.6 mg l−1 thiamine and 150 mg l−1 iron sequestrene.

  2. Comparison of different diagnostic methods for detection of Hop stunt viroid and Citrus exocortis viroid in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Escobar Ponce de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroids such as Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd are important pathogens in citrus plants. A comparative assay was performed to evaluate the viroid diagnostic techniques currently available at the Citrus Sanitation Center of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres. We compared the results obtained in the diagnosis of HSVd and CEVd in citrus using two molecular techniques: s-PAGE and RT-PCR and biological indexing. Biological indexing was performed in a greenhouse under controlled temperature, using Etrog citron Arizona 861-S1 grafted on rough lemon rootstock as the indicator plant. Tissue samples for s-PAGE were obtained from inoculated citrons used in the biological indexing tests, and DNA extraction was performed following published procedures. HSVd and CEVd specific primers were used for RT-PCR, and samples were taken directly from field plants and inoculated citrons. Two nucleic acid extraction methods were compared. A total of 12 viroid isolates collected from orange, citron, grapefruit, citrumelo and lime trees, mostly from North Western Argentina, were used in these assays. The three diagnostic methods compared gave similar results in 11 of 12 samples assayed. Several viroids were detected by s-PAGE and most of them were found as mixtures. HSVd and CEVd were identified by RT-PCR and no differences were found between the two extraction methods assayed. Sample R-407 was positive for exocortis with biological diagnosis and s-PAGE, but it was negative with RT-PCR. This was probably due to inefficient cDNA synthesis or to the presence of inhibitors that could interfere with the reaction. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the three techniques assayed are complementary and useful tools for diagnosis and identification of HSVd and CEVd in citrus.

  3. Progress on Dissecting and Controlling the Citrus Huanglongbing Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Zhang, Muqing; Benyon, Lesley; Armstrong-Vahling, Cheryl; Hoffman, Michele; Hao, Guixia; Zou, Huasong; Doud, Melissa; Ding, Fang; Morgan, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a century-old and emerging disease that impedes citrus production worldwide. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the globally prevalent species of HLB bacteria. Here we describe our molecular characterizations of Las, and our newly-developed control methods for citrus HLB. From a genomics standpoint, we revealed Las has a significantly reduced genome (1.26Mb) and unique features adapted to its intracellular life style.  Although the genome is small, Las ...

  4. Mechanisms of sexual polyploidization and inheritance in triploid citrus populations

    OpenAIRE

    CUENCA IBÁÑEZ, JOSÉ

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the main fruit crop in the world and Spain is the 6th producer and the major exporter for the fresh fruit market. Seedlessness is one of the most important fruit quality traits for this market since consumers do not accept seedy fruits. Recovery of triploid hybrids has become an important breeding strategy to develop new seedless citrus varieties and several of them have been already released from citrus breeding programs worldwide. Despite the undisputable importance of polyploidy ...

  5. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  6. Development of a High Throughput Assay for Rapid and Accurate 10-Plex Detection of Citrus Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need to reliably detect and identify multiple plant pathogens simultaneously, especially in woody perennial hosts, has led to development of new molecular diagnostic approaches. In this study, a Luminex-based system was developed that provided a robust and sensitive test for simultaneous detect...

  7. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  8. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The res...

  9. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Andre LA; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Abe, Valeria Y; de Oliveira, Maria LP; Domingues, Mariane N; Silva, Jaqueline C; Cernadas, Raul A; Benedetti, Celso E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TA...

  10. Odorants for Surveillance and Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Forster, Lisa; Guda, Tom; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-01-01

    Background The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. Results In this stud...

  11. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  12. Crescimento vegetativo de plantas cítricas no norte e noroeste do Paraná Vegetative growth of citrus trees in north an northwest of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em Paranavaí e Londrina-PR, os fluxos de crescimento vegetativo dos ramos de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertada sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb., limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Ten. e Pasq., tangerineira 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e laranjeira 'Pêra' sobre o porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo'. Ocorreram seis fluxos de crescimento em Paranavaí e sete em Londrina, no inverno, primavera, verão e outono, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. O comprimento final dos ramos (121,2 mm a 151,6 mm não foi influenciado pelas combinações copa/porta-enxerto em Londrina, mas em Paranavaí a combinação 'Pêra'/limoeiro 'Cravo' produziu ramos mais longos que as demais. O período de crescimento dos ramos variou de 25,5 a 37,8 dias e foi menor em Paranavaí do que em Londrina, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. Os resultados são discutidos em relação às características edafoclimáticas dos dois locais.This work evaluated in Paranavaí and Londrina, PR, Brazil, the vegetative growth fluxes of branches of 'Folha Murcha' orange on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq., 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and 'Pêra' orange on 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. Six growth flushes were observed in Paranavaí, and seven were observed in Londrina, in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The final length of the branches (121.2 mm to 151.6 mm was not influenced by the scion/rootstock combinations in Londrina; in Paranavaí, however, the 'Pêra'/'Rangpur' lime combination produced longer branches than the others. The growth period of branches ranged from 25.5 to 37.8 days and was shorter in Paranavaí than in Londrina, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The results are discussed

  13. 沙田柚活性成分的提取及其生理功能的研究进展%Development of Extraction and Physiological Activities of Active Substance from Citrus Graudis Osbeck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王标诗; 吴艺华; 杜建中; 江敏; 金蓓; 胡小军; 彭元怀

    2014-01-01

    论述了沙田柚活性成分(如精油、果胶、甙类物质、生物碱和水溶性多糖等)的提取方法及其活性成分的生理功能(抗菌、抗氧化、降血脂等作用),并对其发展前景进行展望,以期为沙田柚的高值化综合开发利用提供参考。%This review focused on extraction of active ingredients (such as essential oils, pectin, glycosides, alkaloids and water-soluble polysaccharides) from Citrus Graudis Osbeck and their physiological function (antibacterial activity,antioxidant activity and hypolipidemic)and the developing prospects of Citrus Graudis Osbeck were also discussed in the future, which is helpful to comprehensive development and utilization of Citrus Graudis Osbeck.

  14. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Vyas

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB. The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt, classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/. Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas

  15. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Meenal; Fisher, Tonja W; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A; Crow, John A; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R; Brown, Judith K

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission. PMID

  16. 缺硼条件下两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙矿质元素含量变化的比较%Changes in mineral element contents of 'Newhall' navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb.)grafted on two different rootstocks under boron deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂东; 姜存仓; 王运华; 彭抒昂; 钟八莲; 曾庆銮; 袁水秀

    2011-01-01

    采用溶液培养试验,研究了缺硼对两种不同砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙硼、锌、钙、镁和钾元素含量变化.结果表明,缺硼显著降低了枳壳砧木"纽荷尔"脐橙体内硼含量而对锌含量影响不大;相反,缺硼对枳橙砧木脐橙体内硼含量的影响不是很大,而显著降低了其叶片中锌的含量.这可能足缺硼条件下枳壳砧木脐橙容易出现缺硼症状,而枳橙砧木脐橙容易出现缺锌症状的原因之一.与对照相比,缺硼处理的枳壳砧木脐橙叶的钙含量明显增加;而根的钾含量明显高于枳橙砧木橙根.这些结果与枳壳砧木脐橙对硼更敏感有一定的关系.缺硼对镁含量的影响两种砧木间基本没有差异.%The hydroponic method was used to study the changes in boron (B), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) concentrations of ‘ Newhall’ navel orange ( Citrus sinensis Osb. ) grafted on citrange [ C. sinensis ( L. ) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliate ( L. ) Raf. ] or trifoliate orange [ Poncirus trifoliata ( L. )Raf. ] under B deficiency. The results show that under the B deficiency, B concentrations of trifoliate orange-grafted plants and Zn concentrations of citrange-grafted plants are significantly decreased, which may be one of the reasons why trifoliate orange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of B deficiency and citrange-grafted plants are easy to appear symptom of Zn deficiency under the B deficiency. Compared to the normal B treatment, Ca concentration in leaves of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is increased obviously under the B deficiency, and K concentration in root of trifoliate orange-grafted plants is much higher than that of citrange-grafted plants. These results indicate trifoliate orange-grafted plants are more sensitive to the B deficiency. There are not significantly differences in Mg concentrations between trifoliate orange-grafted and citrange-grafted plants under the B deficiency.

  17. Improving agronomic water use efficiency in tomato by rootstock-mediated hormonal regulation of leaf biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Water availability is the most important factor limiting food production, thus developing new scientific strategies to allow crops to more efficiently use water could be crucial in a world with a growing population. Tomato is a highly water consuming crop and improving its water use efficiency (WUE) implies positive economic and environmental effects. This work aimed to study and exploit root-derived hormonal traits to improve WUE in tomato by grafting on selected rootstocks. Firstly, root-related hormonal parameters associated to WUE were identified in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that some hormonal traits were associated with productivity (plant biomass and photosynthesis) and WUE in the RIL population. Leaf ABA concentration was associated to the first component (PC1) of the PCA, which explained a 60% of the variance in WUE, while the ethylene precursor ACC and the ratio ACC/ABA were also associated to PC1 but in the opposite direction. Secondly, we selected RILs according to their extreme biomass (high, B, low, b) and water use (high, W, low, w), and studied the differential effect of shoot and root on WUE by reciprocal grafting. In absence of any imposed stress, there were no rootstock effects on vegetative shoot growth and water relations. Finally, we exploited the previously identified root-related hormonal traits by grafting a commercial tomato variety onto the selected RILs to improve WUE. Interestingly, rootstocks that induced low biomass and water use, 'bw', improved fruit yield and WUE (defined as fruit yield/water use) by up to 40% compared to self-grafted plants. Although other hormonal factors appear implicated in this response, xylem ACC concentration seems an important root-derived trait that inhibits leaf growth but does not limit fruit yield. Thus tomato WUE can be improved exploiting rootstock-derived hormonal signals

  18. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year s...

  19. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dušica DORIĆ; Vladislav OGNJANOV; Mirjana LJUBOJEVIĆ; Barać, Goran; Jovana DULIĆ; Pranjić, Ankica; Dugalić, Krunoslav

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant ...

  20. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  1. Development of EST-SSR Markers in (Citrus aurantium L.)%积壳EST-SSR标记的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 温强; 叶金山; 朱培林

    2011-01-01

    The big collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Citrus aurantium L. is available in public database, and offers an opportunity to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) in ESTs by data mining. These sequences may provide an estimate of diversity in the expressed portion of the genome and may be useful for comparative mapping, for tagging important traits of interest, and for additional map-based cloning of important genes.We analyzed fiontal 11 029 Unigene sequences fi.om C. aurantium database using online SSR identified software SSRIT. Totally, 327 ESTs with 348 SSRs were identified, and accounted for 2.96% of the total number of EST sequences. Trinucleotide repeats (a total of 161) were the most abundant repeat class, and accounted for 46.26% of all found SSRs. According to these EST sequences containing SSR, 58 primer pairs were designed using Primer 3.0. of these, 36 primer pairs amplified DNA fragments and 6 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism, account for 62.07% and 10.34% of the total designed 58 pairs. The development of new EST-SSR markers from C. aurantium has potential important implication for genetic analysis and exploitation of genetic resources of C. aurantium and would provide a more direct estimate of functional diversity.%GenBank上己公布的积壳EST序列为开发新的SSR标记提供了宝贵的数据资源.本研究利用在线SSR鉴定软件SSRIT分析来自积壳EST数据库的11029条Unigene序列.分析结果共发现327条EST序列含有348个SSR位点,占总数的2.96%.其中,三核苷酸重复的SSR类型最多,共有161个,占检索总数的46.26%. Primer 3.0设计合成58对EST-SSR引物,其中36对能扩增出产物,6对引物产生多态性分离,分别占所设计引物总数的62.07%和10.34%.本文研究成果为今后积壳遗传多样性分析、遗传图谱构建及比较基因组等研究方面奠定了基础.

  2. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  3. Graft Compatibility Evaluation of Different Rootstock-scion Combinations of Honey Pomelo at Seedling Stage%蜜柚不同砧穗组合苗期嫁接亲和性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚艳箐; 祁有恒; 伏晓科; 杨芮; 陈涛; 汤浩茹; 王小蓉

    2016-01-01

    为评价蜜柚砧穗的嫁接亲和性,以红绵蜜柚(Citrus grandis ‘Hongmianmiyou’)、三红蜜柚(‘Sanhongmiyou’)、红肉蜜柚(‘Hongroumiyou’)、黄金蜜柚(‘Huangjinmiyou’)和琯溪蜜柚(‘Guanximiyou’)作接穗,枳(Poncirus trifoliata)、香橙(Citrus junos)、酸柚(Citrus grandis)作砧木,田间调查15个砧穗组合苗期生长指标,测定嫁接愈合期叶片多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性、可溶性蛋白和可溶性糖含量,采用主成分分析和聚类分析方法对蜜柚砧穗组合嫁接亲和性进行评价。结果表明,以柚作砧木的砧穗组合保存率高、生长势旺盛、抽梢能力强,以枳和香橙作砧木的砧穗组合部分指标存在差异,其中红绵蜜柚和黄金蜜柚以枳作砧木时表现出不亲和现象。不同砧穗组合嫁接愈合时期 PPO、POD、可溶性蛋白和可溶性糖变化趋势基本一致。主成分分析结果表明,4个主成分基本反映了15个指标91.33%的数据信息。聚类分析将15个砧穗组合分为4类,与主成分分析结果基本一致。因此,琯溪蜜柚、红肉蜜柚和三红蜜柚嫁接可采用枳和柚作砧木,红绵蜜柚和黄金蜜柚嫁接可采用柚作砧木,红绵蜜柚和黄金蜜柚嫁接不可采用枳作砧木。%In order to evaluate graft compatibility of different honey pomelo (Citrus grandis) rootstock-scion combinations at seedling stage, five cultivars of honey pomelo, such as ‘Hongmianmiyou’, ‘Sanhongmiyou’,‘Hongroumiyou’, ‘Huangjinmiyou’ and ‘Guanximiyou’ were used as scions, and Citrus grandis, C. junos, Poncirus trifoliate as rootstocks, some physiological and biochemical indexes of 15 rootstock-scion combinations at seedling stage were determined. Their graft compatibility was evaluated by using principal component and cluster analysis. The results showed that there were significant differences in seedling growth among different rootstock

  4. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents. PMID:27146015

  5. Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing by Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening disease) was discovered in Florida in 2005 and is spreading rapidly amongst the citrus growing regions of the state. Detection via visual symptoms of the disease is not a long term viable option. New techniques are being developed to test fo...

  6. A New America Grape Rootstock 9365-43 Resisting to Nematodes%美国抗线虫葡萄砧木新品种9365-43

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海山; 蔡海燕; 谭鑫; 韩斌

    2014-01-01

    Rootstock 9365-43 is a cross of L514-10 [ Vitis rufotomentosa × ( V.champinii Dog Ridge ×V.riparia Riparia Gloire)] ×V.champinii c9038.It is a new and distinct variety of grape rootstock with resistance to a broad array of soil-borne nematodes including root-knot, dagger, lesion and citrus nematodes.The rootstock is susceptible to ring nematode, but has strong resistance to grape phylloxera.9365-43 was excellent rootstock with high abilities of rooting and grafting of cuttings and with flowers which were illate with small clusters and small black berries.9365-43 was acquired the patent of Unit States in 2009, the number was US PP20051 P2, which has a broad application prospect.%葡萄砧木新品种9365-43是由L514-10与V.champinii c9038杂交获得,对根结线虫、剑线虫、柑桔根线虫和根腐线虫具有良好的抗性,同时具有抗葡萄根瘤蚜的特性,生根能力强,嫁接亲和力高,雌能花,是一个非常优良的砧木新品种,2009年获得美国专利(专利编号: US PP20051 P2),具有广阔的应用前景。

  7. Effect of dwarfing rootstock on carbohydrate transportation and distribution of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14CO2 was used to trace carbon assimilate transportation and distribution in different organs of different apple rootstocks and grafted trees. The results showed that dry matter in above ground for dwarfing rootstock and its grafted tree were 14% and 9.4% higher than those of normal rootstock and its grafted tree, respectively, and 14C-assimilate were 19.2% and 15.7% higher, respectively. 14C specific activity in shoots of dwarfing rootstock and inter rootstock were 1.78 and 3 times stronger than those in normal rootstock, respectively. However, there is no accumulation of carbon assimilate in grafted area of inter rootstock and top truck above that. Therefore, the effect of dwarfing inter rootstock on carbon distribution was not because it simply blocked carbon transportation

  8. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  9. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Meenal; Tonja W. Fisher; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Joseph M. Cicero; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; Greg A. May; John A. Crow; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.; Brown, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence prote...

  10. Evaluation of Pyrus and Quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005). In the Netherlands, rootstock research is limited to and focussed on testing rootstocks selected abroad. For the Dutch pear growers the main selection criteria for new rootstocks are: 1) control of tree size; 2) production; 3) fruit size; 4) fruit quality; 5) ...

  11. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  12. SELECTION OF VARIETY-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATIONS OF PLUM FOR THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushkov D. N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of integrated assessment of variety-rootstock combinations of plum on clonal rootstocks and different schemes of landing. We have defined the basic biometric parameters of trees, and specific indicators of productivity, allowing to identify the most optimal variety-stable rootstock combination for the conditions of the Krasnodar region

  13. Effect of rootstock and canopy management on peach fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit quality was evaluated on peach as affected by rootstock, Summer pruning and solar radiation profile inside the canopy. Trials were performed in 2004, at the experimental farms of the DCDSL of Pisa University (Italy), on a peach orchard, cv Flavorcrest, planted in February 1998 and grafted onto GF 677, Barrier 1, Mr.S. 2/5 and Ishtara-Ferciana. Two Summer pruning intensity treatments were applied: half of the trees were not pruned, while in the second treatment a Summer pruning was performed every 15 days. Solar radiation intercepted by the selected branches was measured daily and seasonally. Starting from the end of June, four fruit samples were collected at weekly intervals on the selected branches and some fruit quality parameters were measured (i.e. weight, diameter, SSC and flesh firmness). All considered factors showed to be important for fruit quality. Particularly, medium vigour rootstocks and a good light availability induced a better fruit quality. On medium vigour rootstocks, that shift a high percentage of nutrients to the growing fruits, fruit quality was positively affected and they induced also a slightly earlier ripening time. The best quality was obtained from fruits on well illuminated fruiting shoots, independently from rootstock; consequently, Summer pruning strongly affected fruit characteristics. Between the tested rootstocks, Ishtara and Barrier 1 appear to be very interesting. The first one for its positive effect on soluble solid content and size of the fruit. The second one induced a delay in growth and ripening time of the fruit (6-8 days) but, at maturity stage, fruits on this rootstocks showed the highest SSC and size values with a good flesh firmness (5.2 kg); on the contrary, the other tested rootstocks showed the best fruit quality when the flesh firmness was at very low level (1.3-3.0 kg)

  14. Investigações sôbre a tristeza dos Citrus: II - Conceitos e dados sôbre a reação das plantas cítricas à tristeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The writers review previous concepts concerning the reaction of citrus plants to the tristeza disease. It is recognized that environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light can influence plant reaction, but these are considered of relatively minor importance. Characteristics of the plant itself govern its reaction to the disease and among those, resistance to infection, ability to permit virus increase and tolerance or non-tolerance of tissues are considered most important. Tests using viruliferous oriental citrus aphids for inoculation of various citrus types budded over sour orange rootstocks (table 1 and 2 showed a correlation between susceptibility to infection and severity of symptoms. The sweet oranges proved to be the most susceptible to infection and showed severe disease symptoms. The Barão sweet orange appeared to be more susceptible than Valencia. The mandarins tended to show some resistance to infection, but when infected, severe symptoms developed. The tolerant tangelos (7 behaved similarly to sweet oranges : They were very susceptible to infection and showed severe symptoms. The non-tolerant tangelos, susceptible citranges (7 and grapefruits behaved more or less alike, and showed medium susceptibility to infection and moderately severe disease symptoms. Among the grapefruits, Leonardy was. observed to be relatively more susceptible and showed more severe symptoms than Duncan. The pummelos, shaddocks and sour oranges were comparatively very resistant to infection and showed only moderate symptoms when infected. It has been found that the sour oranges can be more easily infected by tissue union than by the aphid vector. Poncirus trifoliata, citrumelos and resistant citranges showed no symptoms and no virus could be recovered from the inoculated plants even after three inoculations. The nature of injury caused by tristeza in the non-tolerant graft and intergraft combinations is discussed. The observation of symptoms

  15. Application of architectural analysis and AMAPmod methodology to study dwarfing phenomenon: the branch structure of 'Royal Gala' apple grafted on dwarfing and non-dwarfing rootstock/interstock combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznyova, A N; Thorp, T G; White, M; Tustin, S; Costes, E

    2003-05-01

    Architectural analysis was applied to study branch development of 'Royal Gala' apple trees grafted with dwarfing and non-dwarfing rootstock/interstock combinations, which had been chosen to produce trees with a wide range of vigour. Using AMAPmod methodology, the structure of 3-year-old branches was described at four levels of representation: branch; annual shoot; growth unit; and node. Three types of growth units were distinguished: extension growth unit (vegetative unit with internode extension); vegetative spur with minimal internode extension; and fruiting spur or bourse. The aim of the analysis was to describe exactly how the rootstock/interstock combinations affected the structure building process. The number of extension growth units, vegetative spurs and fruiting spurs per annual shoot changed over the years, but this was not affected by rootstock/interstock combination. Compared with MM.106 rootstock, M.9 rootstock reduced the number of nodes per extension growth unit. In most cases, rootstock/interstock combination had no effect on the linear relationship between extension growth unit length and node number (R(2) = 0.88). Average internode length depended on unit node number, with internodes being shorter for units with fewer nodes. Thus the difference in apple branch size induced by the rootstock/interstock combinations was mainly due to a reduction in the length and number of neoformed nodes produced on extension growth units. As percentage budbreak of axillary buds on extension growth units was not affected by rootstock/interstock combination, differences in numbers of axillary annual shoots per branch were entirely due to differences in the total numbers of nodes extended during the previous year. PMID:12714365

  16. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  17. Determination of callusing performance and vine sapling characteristics on different rootstocks of ‘Merzifon Karası’ grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent KÖSE; ÇELIK, Hüseyin; Karabulut, Besim

    2015-01-01

    Grafted vines are the only option while establishing vineyards over the sites contaminated with phylloxera. Furthermore, grafted vines used to establish new vineyards should be well-developed, healthy and compatible with the scions. In this research, we aimed to find out the most suitable rootstock for ‘Merzifon Karası’ using ten rootstocks (140 Ruggeri, 110 R, 99 R, 41B, 5C, 5BB, SO4, 1103 Paulsen 140 Ruggeri and Rupestris du Lot) in 2010 and 2011. The effects on the callusing performance, g...

  18. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  20. Effects of Different Sweet Cherry Rootstocks and Drought Stress on

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜKYUMUK, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Relation between drought stress, genotypic differences and nutrients are important in plant growth. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different sweet cherry rootstocks grown in 50-liter pots and drought stress on nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Cu) concentrations of leaves. In this study 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on five different rootstocks (P. mahaleb, Mazzard, Gisela-6, MaxMa 14, CAB 6) were used. Four irrigation treatments (control or 100%, 75%, 50...

  1. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products. PMID:20857432

  2. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo; Elainy Botelho Carvalho Pereira; Ailton Vitor Pereira; Nelson Venturin; Antonio Nilson Zamunér Filho

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL) on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%), P2O5 (9%), K2O (12%), Mg (1%), S (2.3%), B (0.02%), Cu (0.05%), Fe (1%), Mn (0.06%), Mo (0.02%) and Zn (0.05%). A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-r...

  3. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obtained from a long-term grape growing. In addition, they have to be supported by histological and biochemical analyses.

  4. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD29 Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening... published an interim rule \\1\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048) that....usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml and on Regulations.gov (see footnote 1...

  5. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus... of nursery stock to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family... are also requiring propagative seed of these genera imported from all other countries to...

  6. Rootstock breeding program for apricot through interspecific crosses of Myrobalan x apricot: Significant effect of accidental pollinations

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Daorden Álvarez, María Elena; García Martín, Elena; Andreu Puyal, Pilar; Wünsch, Ana; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rootstock breeding programme for apricot is being developed through interspecific crosses of the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and the 'Moniqui' and 'Moniqui Borde' (P. armeniaca L.) apricot cultivars. In this work, the incidence of accidental pollinations on these low-setting hybridisations was assessed. The progeny originated through hand-pollination of emasculated flowers of three Myrobalan clones, in three consecutive years. Fruit set was low and variable among years (1.8-8.0...

  7. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  8. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification gen...

  9. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease, caused by Spiroplasma Citri, has occured in California for more than 90 years, however, detection methods for estimating disease incidence have not been well developed. Two 8 ha plots in Kern Co. CA were established and sampled in July and August, 2006. Different tissues o...

  10. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  11. PPV susceptibility of commonly used peach rootstock-scion combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ádám, J; Borsos, Á; Balla, I; Ittzés, A; Palkovics, L

    2015-12-01

    Sharka disease is one of the most devastating plant epidemics of Prunus species, caused by plum pox virus (PPV). The viral infection affects the fruits by weight-loss and degradation of quality properties. Breeding of resistant rootstocks and cultivars is one of the most effective disease control methods. PPV determines the peach production all over the world. On the world's fruit production list peach is in the sixth, in the Mediterranean region in the fourth place. In this study new data were shown about PPV susceptibility of commonly used rootstock-scion combinations from Hungary. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was conducted on the samples from a commercial orchard; the results were evaluated by chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Four rootstock ('GF677', 'PeMa', 'Cadaman' and almond seedlings) and three scion cultivars (Prunus persicae 'Michelini', 'Babygold 6' and 'Cresthaven') were included in this experiment. The rootstocks did not show any significant differences in regard to the resistance of the virus infection (40-50%), but in case of scions, strong significant relations were observed. In case of the combinations there were results in both directions; tolerant and susceptible combinations were observed as well. PMID:26666193

  12. 'Sharpe', a new Armillaria resistant rootstock for peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe clonal rootstock for peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA) and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Sharpe, previously tested as FLA1-1, was discovered in the wild and appears to be a hybrid of Chickasa...

  13. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  14. Incremento no desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto de pessegueiro "Aldrighi" por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones Development increase of 'Aldrighi' peach rootstocks by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis da Silva Nunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a influência de três espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA isolados de pomares de pessegueiro sobre o crescimento vegetativo, nutrição mineral e substâncias de reserva em plantas do porta-enxerto de pessegueiro cv. Aldrighi [Prunus persica (L. Batsch]. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com dez plantas por parcela e quatro repetições. As plantas inoculadas com Glomus etunicatum apresentaram maior altura, diâmetro, área foliar, biomassa fresca e seca, nutrição mineral e substâncias de reserva da parte aérea, enquanto as inoculadas com Glomus clarum induziram um crescimento intermediário, superior àquelas inoculadas com Gigaspora margarita, que apresentaram resultados semelhantes às plantas não inoculadas. O desempenho foi relacionado com as taxas de colonização que nas plantas inoculadas com Glomus etunicatum e Glomus clarum foram de 92% e 77% respectivamente, enquanto Gigaspora margarita colonizou somente 30% das raízes.This work aimed to evaluate the influence of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species on the vegetative growth, mineral nutrition and carbohidrate contents on peach rootstocks cv. Aldrighi [Prunus persica (L. Batsch]. The experimental desing was the one of randomized blocks, with ten plants per plots and four repetitions. Plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum presented larger stem height, stem diameter, foliar area, fresh and dry shoot biomass, leaf mineral nutrition and carbohidrate contents, while those inoculated with Glomus clarum induced an intermediate growth, higher to those inoculated with Gigaspora margarita that presented results similar to the non inoculated plants. Plant growth performance was related to colonization taxes, which were, respectively, 92%, 77% and 30% to Glomus etunicatum, Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita inoculated plants.

  15. Rizobactérias e promoção do crescimento de plantas cítricas Rhizobacteria and growth promotion of citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se três experimentos em casa de vegetação para verificar a possibilidade de as rizobactérias atuarem como promotoras do crescimento de plantas cítricas. Ao todo, testaram-se 10 isolados de Pseudomonas do grupo fluorescente, 13 de Bacillus e sete de outras bactérias rizosféricas em porta-enxertos utilizados na citricultura: tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni, limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia e limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana. Dependendo do porta-enxerto, sete isolados de Pseudomonas, um de Bacillus e um de outra bactéria rizosférica tiveram efeito benéfico sobre a matéria seca de raízes ou de parte aérea, indicando uma alta proporção de promotores de crescimento entre as bactérias do primeiro grupo. Procedeu-se também à contagem de bactérias fluorescentes do gênero Pseudomonas e de bactérias não-fluorescentes em raízes de tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e de limoeiro 'Cravo', procedentes de viveiro de mudas e do campo. Ambos os grupos bacterianos tiveram sua multiplicação favorecida na rizosfera de tangerineira 'Cleópatra', em condições de viveiro.Three greenhouse trials were carried out to verify if rhizobacteria can promote citrus plant growth. Ten isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonads, thirteen of Bacillus spp. and seven of other rhizospheric bacteria were tested in three rootstocks seedlings: 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni, rangpure lime (Citrus limonia and Volkamerian lemon (Citrus volkameriana. Depending on the rootstock, seven Pseudomonads, one isolate of Bacillus and one of other rhizospheric bacteria increased the root or shoot dry weight, indicating a high proportion of growth promoters among the fluorescent Pseudomonads. Also, fluorescent Pseudomonads and non fluorescent bacteria were counted in the roots of nursery seedlings and field plants of Citrus reshni and Citrus limonia. The growth of both bacterial groups was favored in the Citrus reshni rhizosphere under nursery

  16. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Luis; Ollitrault Patrick; Pina José A; Hernández María; Juárez José; Aleza Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a h...

  17. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless

  18. Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

  19. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  20. Growth and Photosynthetic Response of Two Persimmon Rootstocks (Diospyros kaki and D. virginiana under Different Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral INCESU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity continues to be a major factor in reduced crop productivity and profit in many arid and semiarid regions. Seedlings of Diospyros kaki Thunb. and D. virginiana L. are commonly used as rootstock in persimmon cultivation. In this study we have evaluated the effects of different salinity levels on photosynthetic capacity and plant development of D. kaki and D. virginiana. Salinity was provided by adding 50 mM, 75 mM and 100 mM NaCl to nutrient solution. In order to determine the effects of different salinity levels on plant growth, leaf number, plant height, shoot and root dry mass were recorded. Besides leaf Na, Cl, K and Ca concentrations were determined. Also leaf chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’ and leaf gas exchange parameters including leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, leaf transpiration rate (E, and CO2 substomatal concentration (Ci were investigated. Significant decrease of leaf number, shoot length and plant dry mass by increasing salinity levels was observed in both rootstocks. D. virginiana was less affected in terms of plant growth under salinity stress. Leaf chlorophyll concentration reduction was higher in the leaves of D. kaki in comparison to D. virginiana in 100 mM NaCl treatment. By increasing salinity levels PN, gS and E markedly decreased in both rootstocks and D. kaki was more affected from salinity in terms of leaf gas exchange parameters. In addition there was no significant difference but slight decreases were recorded in leaf chlorophyll fluorescences of both rootstocks.

  1. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tami Turner; Burri, Betty J.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

  2. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  3. The vigour of glasshouse roses. Scion rootstock relationships, effects of phenotypic & genotypic variation.

    OpenAIRE

    De, Vries

    1993-01-01

    Glasshouse roses commonly are combination plants, consisting of a scion variety and a rootstock of different genotypes. In this study, various environmental and genotypic factors have been investigated that influence the vigour of rootstocks and scion varieties, separately and in graft combination.In a field crop of Edelcanina (selections of R.canina L.) rootstock plants, significant phenotypic variation occurred for all plant characters investigated. Nurserymen partly disguise variation by g...

  4. English walnut rootstocks help avoid blackline disease, but produce less than ‘Paradox’ hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Grant; McGranahan, Gale H.

    2005-01-01

    While ‘Paradox’ hybrid seedlings are often the rootstocks of choice for California walnut orchards, there is a resurgence of interest in using English walnut seedlings because walnut blackline disease, which is endemic in many California walnut production districts, does not affect them. We compared the growth and productivity of walnuts on English rootstocks from a variety of sources to those on Paradox rootstock. The growth and productivity of ‘Chandler’ walnut trees were similar among tree...

  5. Grafting with rootstocks induces extensive transcriptional re-programming in the shoot apical meristem of grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, Sarah; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Background Grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops; rootstocks are known to confer differences in scion biomass in addition to improving other traits of agricultural interest. However, little is known about the effect of rootstocks on scion gene expression. The objective of this study was to determine whether hetero-grafting the grapevine variety Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon N’ with two different rootstocks alters gene expression in the shoot apex in compar...

  6. Rooting behaviour, polyphenol oxidase activity, and biochemical changes in grape rootstocks at different growth stages

    OpenAIRE

    SOMKUWAR, Ramhari G.; BONDAGE, Devanand D.; SURANGE, Manisha S.; Ramteke, Sahadeo D.

    2011-01-01

    Four grape rootstocks belonging to different Vitis species were planted in September. Rooting behaviour, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) activity and biochemical parameters were studied at different growth stages after planting the cuttings in polythene bags. Significant differences were recorded for rooting success among the different rootstocks, with the maximum sprouting percentage determined in the Freedom rootstock. The highest variation in PPO activity was also recorded in Freedo...

  7. Comportamento de cultivares comerciais de pessegueiro como porta-enxerto Peach rootstock study

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Ojima; Orlando Rigitano; Sebastião Alves; Fernando Antonio Campo Dall'Orto; Antonio Fernando Caetano Tombolato

    1982-01-01

    A peach rootstock study was initiated at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, in 1964, to evaluate the behavior of four peach cultivars: 'Talismã', 'Ouromel', 'Rei da Conserva' and 'Campinas-1', grafted on respectively 19, 9, 9 and 7 peach rootstocks. The rootstocks were seedlings of the main commercial peach cultivars planted in São Paulo and of several local peach selections. The results covering the period of 1967/71 did not show any significant difference of performance influenced by the rootstocks s...

  8. The effect of rootstock on growth and fruitage of sweet cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewska, Zofia; Nychnerewicz, Bartosz

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 2003-2005 aimed at examining the effect of rootstocks Prunus avium, Colt, PHL A and Gisela 5 on growth and fruitage of the following cultivars of cherry trees: ‘Burlat’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Regina’ and ‘Van’. Dwarf rootstocks PHL A and Gisela 5 reduced tree growth by about 40–45% as compared with rootstocks Colt and Prunus avium. The yielding of sweet cherry trees on these rootstocks was much better. The best yielding was observed in case of cultivar ‘Van’. During the ex...

  9. Structure–function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)—an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure–function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner—every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness—and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation. (paper)

  10. Fita plástica e fita degradável na enxertia de citros Plastic and degradable tape on citrus budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fitas plástica e degradável no pegamento e no desenvolvimento de enxertos de citros, em viveiro telado. Borbulhas certificadas de 6-8 mm das cultivares de laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerineira 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco e do híbrido 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] foram enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, com 10 meses de idade, em fevereiro de 2003. A fixação das borbulhas nos porta-enxertos foi feita com fitas de dois tipos: fita plástica de polietileno transparente e fita degradável de parafilme. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (3 cultivares x 2 tipos de fita, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais constituídas por dez plantas. A média geral de pegamento dos enxertos foi elevada (99,6%, em razão das condições propícias à enxertia fornecidas no viveiro telado. Não houve efeito do tipo de fita no pegamento dos enxertos nem das cultivares no pegamento e desenvolvimento dos enxertos. No entanto, o desenvolvimento dos enxertos foi sensivelmente maior quando a enxertia foi realizada com fita degradável em relação à fita plástica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the plastic and degradable tape on budding efficiency and scion development of citrus in nursery under screenhouse. Certificated 6-8 mm buds of the cultivars navel orange 'Navelina' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, mandarin 'Marisol' (C. reticulata Blanco and the hybrid 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina ] were budded on 10 months rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck, in February 2003. The buds were attached to the rootstocks using either one of two types of tape: plastic polyethylene transparent tape and parafilm degradable tape. The experimental design was a factorial entirely randomized with 3 cultivars, 2 tape types and four

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hazrat Bilal; Waseem Akram; Soaib Ali-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars test...

  12. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-04-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf 'M.27' to the semi-invigorating rootstock 'M.116'. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  13. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  14. Portable Chemical Sensors for Monitoring Infection-Specific Volatiles in Asymptomatic Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, R.L.; A. A. Aksenov; Thuesen, L.H.; Pasamontes, A.; Cheung, W.H.K.; Peirano, D.J.; Davis, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from all plants, and there is mounting evidence these VOCs reflect internal health status and change in response to pathogen infection and other cues. Our group has developed a portable chemical sensing platform that can monitor for VOC emission changes that result from citrus bacterial and viral infections. To date, our VOC library includes putative signal fingerprints for Huanglongbing (HLB), citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and citrus variegated chl...

  15. Characterization and biological properties of Citrus industrial derivatives and waste products for the formulation of nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Polyphenols are natural chemical compounds, common in higher plants as and particularly known and appreciated for their health properties. We focused attention on Citrus bergamia, Citrus sinensis, Mela annurca and Vitis Vinifera. Citrus is one of larges species among plant; it consists of 40 species which are distributed in all continents and its fruits. We have developed a fast HPLC with ion-trap TOF-MS method for the analysis of flavonoids in these juices. With respect to the...

  16. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  17. Embriogénesis somática de Citrus macrophylla Wester con el empleo del Pectimorf® y análogos de brasinoesteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Bao Fundora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Somatic embryogenesis of Citrus macrophylla Wester using Pectimorf® and analogues of brassinosteroids Resumen Los cítricos son frutales muy utilizados como patrones de injerto. Para incrementar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones citrícolas, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro como la embriogénesis somática, que requiere medios de cultivos artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es el uso de biorreguladores del crecimiento de producción nacional como: los análogos de brasinoesteroides: 25(R 2α, 3α, dihidroxi 5α espirostan- 6-ona (Biobras-6 y C: 25(R 2α, 3α, 5α, trihidroxiespirostan-6-ona (MH-5 y una mezcla de oligogalacturónido de grado de polimerización entre 10-14 (Pectimorf®.  Estos biorreguladores son efectivos en los procesos morfogenéticos como sustitutos o complemento de las auxinas y citoquininas. El presente trabajo estuvo dirigido a determinar el efecto del Pectimorf® y los brasinoesteroides como sustitutos de las fitohormonas tradicionales en el desarrollo de la embriogénesis somática y en la obtención de una línea celular embriogénica de Citrus macrophylla Wester. Se utilizó el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS (1962, suplementado con los biorreguladores del crecimiento MH-5, Biobras-6 y Pectimorf®. Mediante la embriogénesis somática se obtuvieron embriones, raíces y plántulas, en todos los tratamientos. En la formación de plántulas estos biorreguladores fueron muy efectivos. Palabras clave: cultivo in vitro; Citrus; biorreguladores del crecimiento. Abstract Citrus fruits are widely used as rootstock. To increase the amount of these crops in plantations, in vitro propagation techniques such as somatic embryogenesis can be used, which requires artificial culture media and plant hormones. Due to the high cost of the plant hormone, a Cuban alternative is the use of cuban bioregulators growth

  18. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  19. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  20. Construction and Evaluation of the Theoretical Model of Citrus Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the general overview of cooperative economic organizations of citrus industry at home and abroad,theoretical model of the modernization,industrialization and marketization of Citrus Cooperative Organization is established.After selecting the indices,such as the scale of production,the scale of management,the rate of encouraged farmers,and the market competitiveness,quantitative evaluation index system for modernization,industrialization and marketization is established.Then,Citrus Cooperative Organization is divided into three stages,such as primary stage,intermediate stage and senior stage.After evaluating the modernization,industrialization and marketization of citrus industry in the United States,Spain and South Africa,it is pointed out that the Citrus Cooperative Organization in China at present is at the primary stage.Finally,policy direction of the development of Citrus Cooperative Organization in China is pointed out.

  1. Rootstock scion somatogenetic interactions in perennial composite plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The ancient plant production practice of grafting which instantly imparts new physiological properties to the desirable scion still remains shrouded in mystery. Yet, grafting remains a widely used technique in the production of several horticultural species. In a composite grafted plant, rootstocks control many aspects of scion growth and physiology including yield and quality attributes as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Broadly, physical, physiological, biochemical and molecula...

  2. An overview of almond cultivars and rootstocks: Challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Socias i Company, Rafel; Rubio Cabetas, María José; Alonso Segura, José Manuel; Kodad, Ossama; Gómez Aparisi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Almond growing in the Mediterranean area has been enduring sharp changes in the last decades. Whereas in some countries production has substantially decreased, in others a renewal of the concept of almond growing is taking place. In such a situation, new cultivars and rootstock are essential tools to achieve a success. Whereas in California 'Nonpareil' has been, and continues to be, the essential cultivar, and the new releases only represent a small percentage of the new plantings, the Medite...

  3. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  4. Mudas de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos e sob diferentes manejos de adubação 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees on two rootstocks under different fertilizer managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação é uma das principais práticas culturais para a produção de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido. Avaliou-se o efeito de seis tipos de manejo das adubações comercialmente recomendadas na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertada sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. As avaliações foram conduzidas a partir da transplantação dos porta-enxertos até 180 dias após a enxertia, em viveiro empresarial, em Conchal-SP. Os manejos corresponderam a duas soluções de fertilizantes solúveis aplicadas isoladamente, soluções de fertilizante solúveis associadas a fertilizante de liberação controlada e aplicação exclusiva de fertilizante de liberação controlada. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o fatorial 2 x 6 (porta-enxerto x manejo da adubação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 12 mudas na parcela. O limoeiro 'Cravo' induziu maior crescimento ao enxerto. O crescimento vegetativo das mudas foi similar após o uso de fertilizantes solúveis ou de liberação controlada, apesar da grande variação de quantidades totais de nutrientes fornecidas às plantas. Desta forma, o viveirista poderá optar pelo manejo mais econômico ou prático, conforme as condições locais.The fertilizer program is a major practice for screened citrus nursery tree production. The effect of six fertilizer programs commercially recommended was evaluated on the production of 'Valência' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] nursery trees budded on rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. Experimental work was carried out from rootstock transplant until 180 days after budding, in a citrus nursery in Conchal, SP, Brazil. Fertilizer managements consisted of two soluble fertilizers

  5. Evaluation of pyrus and quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005). In the Netherlands, rootstock research is limited to and focuss

  6. The vigour of glasshouse roses. Scion rootstock relationships, effects of phenotypic & genotypic variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Glasshouse roses commonly are combination plants, consisting of a scion variety and a rootstock of different genotypes. In this study, various environmental and genotypic factors have been investigated that influence the vigour of rootstocks and scion varieties, separately and in graft combination.I

  7. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  8. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  9. Genomics meets induced mutations in citrus: identification of deleted genes through comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world while Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the Citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development

  10. Genomics Meets Induced Mutations in Citrus: Identification of Deleted Genes Through Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world and Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development

  11. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  12. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las, resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm and Amp solution (2.83 mm alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  13. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  14. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. ‘Santa Maria’ in semi-arid conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communis and Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal) and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal) have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific...

  15. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  16. Qualidade industrial e maturação de frutos de laranjeira "valência" sobre seis porta-enxertos Industrial quality and maturation of fruits of 'valência' sweet orange trees on six rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de seis porta-enxertos sobre a maturação e as características físico-químicas de frutos de laranjeira 'Valência', instalou-se um experimento em janeiro de 1994, no município de Nova Esperança-PR. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, três plantas úteis por parcela e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos porta-enxertos: limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni e 'Sunki' (C. sunki, citrangeiro 'Troyer' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, tangeleiro 'orlando' (C. tangerina x C. paradisi e laranjeira 'Caipira'(C. sinensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos frutos em sete safras e a curva de maturação foi estimada para os anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os porta-enxertos proporcionaram qualidade aceitável aos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', com destaque para o citrangeiro 'Troyer' que superou o limoeiro 'Cravo' em rendimento industrial. Em um ano considerado com padrão climático normal, a evolução do índice tecnológico ajustou-se a uma equação de regressão quadrática, proporcionando melhor rendimento industrial quando os frutos foram colhidos no início de novembro, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado.In order to evaluate the influence of six rootstocks on the maturation and the physical characteristics and chemical composition of 'Valência' fruits, a research was conducted in a field established in 1994, in Nova Esperança city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications, three evaluated trees per plot and six treatments, constituted by the rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni and 'Sunki' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, 'orlando' tangelo (C. tangerina x C. paradisi and 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis. Fruit quality was evaluated along seven harvesting seasons and the maturation curve was

  17. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Highlights Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange Carrizo Expression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidies B tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplication The rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess. PMID:27252717

  18. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or this section) which is attributable to the planting, cultivation, maintenance, or development of... regard to section 278 or this section) attributable to the planting, cultivation, maintenance, or... species Prunus amygdalus. (iii) An amount attributable to the cultivation, maintenance, or development...

  19. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety Helwani, was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  20. Micropropagation of Pear Rootstock (Pyrus Communis) by using tissue culture technique and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New growing shoots from healthy pear rootstock (Pyrus communis) trees were taken and sterilized 3 times in dipping water. Explants were subjected to antioxidant treatment, different media, different additives and different BAP and NAA concentrations. The obtained results showed that Murashig-Skoog (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/l BA was better than Gamborg medium. Adding antioxidant solution and adenine sulphate to the culture medium was preferred for maximizing explants development. Exposing the explants to gamma irradiation at different doses decreased tissue culture parameters with increasing gamma doses. However, the low dose of gamma rays (1 Krad) significantly increased the number of shoots than other gamma treatments. Adding of BAP at 2 mg/l to the culture medium increased number and length of shoots. However, addition of 1 mg/l NAA to the rooting medium led to increase the root formation

  1. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  2. Alteração na atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis em microtangerinas (Citrus spp. infectadas por Phytophthora parasitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to characterize and evaluate species and varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka’s group (Citrus spp. with potential use as rootstocks, in relation to infection to the Phytophthora parasitica, by means of foliar determination of peroxidase activity and total phenolics content. It was used the following species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan., C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Ochese, C. aurantium L, C. reticulata Blanco and C. limonia Osb. The Center of Citrus Germoplasm of Botucatu and Cordeirópolis provide all plant material. Four resistant varieties to the stem rot and root rot infections: Pectinifera, Crenatifolia, Sun Chu Shu (clone Kat 1004 and Cleopatra (clone 1 were evaluated. Susceptible plants infected by P. parasitica presented higher activity of peroxidase, while phenolics contents were lower in susceptible group.

  3. Effective Antibiotics against ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

  4. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Mallick; Rafeeq Alam Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypo...

  5. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica DORIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant buds were the favored source, due to enabling rosette initiation in more than 58% cases. In P. cerasus L. selections, 100% contamination was noted when shoot tips were used as an explant source. Significant influence of the double-phase medium on the number and height of multiplied shoots was observed in the standard cherry rootstock, ‘Gisela 6’. For P. fruticosa Pall., selection ‘SV1’ and ‘SV2’, and P. cerasus ‘D6’ selection, the double-phase medium also had a significant effect on the height of multiplied shoots, when compared to solid DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium. Genetic variability of selections within the investigated species resulted in variable plant rooting success. Adding Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine di-2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate ferric in the 200 mg l-1 concentration to the rooting medium significantly enhanced the percentage of rooted plants. The highest rooting percentage was noted for ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘D6’ genotype at 1 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, while 0.8 mg l-1 was the optimum concentration for P. mahaleb L. ‘M1’ selection. P. fruticosa genotypes required significantly higher IBA concentration for rooting (2.5 and 3.5 mg l-1.

  6. Role of abscisic acid (aba) in modulating the responses of two apple rootstocks to drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100 mol/L and 50 mol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress. (author)

  7. The Stomata Density of Pistachio Cultivars on Different Pistacia Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAĞLAR, Semih

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the stomata density of some pistachio cultivars such as Uzun, Kırmızı, Halebi, Siirt and Ohadi on P. vera, P. atlantica and P. khinjuk rootstocks were determined. Stomata density of leaves from the north side were higher than those of the south sides of trees. The stomata numbers per unit area on the abaxial side of leaves ranged from 114 to 151, and on the adaxial side of leaves from 171 to 221. The stomata densities of both side of leaves were affected by cultivars and rootst...

  8. The performance of Adara as a cherry rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Sánchez, María Ángeles; Montañés Millán, Luis; Tabuenca Abadía, María de la Concepción; Cambra Ruiz de Velasco, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The field performance of Adara (Prunus cerasifera L.), SL 64 (Prunus mahaleb) and Colt (Prunus avium X Prunus pseudocerasus) rootstocks grafted with two sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L. cvs. ‘Van’ and ‘Tardif de Vignola’), were tested for 12 years on a calcareous clay-loam soil which was flood irrigated. No tree grafted on Adara died during the experiment. The percentage of dead trees of ‘Tardif de Vignola’ on SL 64 and Colt reached 63% and 19%, respectively. The percentage of dead tre...

  9. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  10. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  11. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Garcia, Mauro S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Yamamoto, Pedro T. [Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura (Fundecitrus), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Vilela, Evaldo F. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Leal, Walter S. [University of California, Davis, CA (Brazil). Dept. of Entomology

    2004-12-15

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  12. Influence of Rootstocks on Changing the Pattern of Phenolic Compounds in Thompson Seedless Grapes and Its Relationship to the Incidence of Powdery Mildew

    OpenAIRE

    SATISHA, Jogaiah; Doshi, Pooja; ADSULE, Pandurang Gundappa

    2008-01-01

    The total phenolic content and individual groups of phenols, such as flavonones, flavonoids, and flavon-3-ols, were estimated in the leaves and berries of Thompson Seedless grapes grafted onto different rootstocks and own-rooted vines during 3 stages of berry development. The leaves at all the stages of sampling contained more total phenol and individual phenolic groups than berries. The reduction in phenolic content was gradual in leaves from the first to third stage of sampling, but it was ...

  13. A Novel Study of Interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana With Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous When Transmitted by psyllid Bactericera cockerelli to Develop a Chemical Genomics Based Approach That can aid in Development of Control Strategies for Huanglongbing Disease in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Zadgaonkar, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial disease associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, and Candidatus Liberibacter africanus. These bacterial species are transmitted by hemipteran psyllids. For many years, this disease has caused substantial damage to citrus around the world and in recent years, it has significantly impacted citrus production in the U.S.A. The lack of effective control and curative measures against psyllids and the pathogen ar...

  14. The Citrus Sanitation Center of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucumán, Argentina El Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres de Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Stein

    Full Text Available In October 2004, the Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (Tucumán, Argentina founded its Citrus Sanitation Center. The goal of this center is to establish and keep a group of the most important citrus varieties and rootstocks true to type and free of graft-transmissible pathogens. These will be used as primary sources of propagating material for citrus growers and researchers in northwestern Argentina. Mother trees of the main commercial citrus varieties were selected from the germplasm bank of the experiment station and were recovered through the standard procedure of shoot tip grafting (STG. Healthy plants are carefully and periodically indexed by biological, serological and molecular methods for tristeza, psorosis, exocortis, cachexia, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker and huanglongbing. The Citrus Sanitation Center will maintain a supply of healthy propagation material and will continue a program initiated in 1966, consting in introducing, producing and releasing nucellar clones.La Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC creó en el año 2004 el Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus (CSC para la ejecución de tareas de limpieza y diagnóstico de virus en cítricos. El objetivo de este centro es establecer y mantener un plantel de plantas madres cítricas, de variedades copa y portainjertos, de alta calidad genética y libre de plagas y enfermedades transmisibles por injerto. Este grupo de plantas se constituye como fuente primaria de material de propagación para productores, viveristas e investigadores del noroeste argentino. Las plantas madres de las principales variedades comerciales de cítricos se seleccionaron del banco de germoplasma de la EEAOC y se recuperaron por la técnica de microinjerto de ápices caulinares, procedimiento estándar utilizado en la limpieza de plantas cítricas. Periódicamente se verifica su sanidad por métodos biológicos, serológicos y moleculares para las

  15. Determinação de metodologia para oisolamento de protoplastos de tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. Methodology choice for protoplast isolation in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. de Oliveira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação somática via fusão de protoplastos vem sendo utilizada no melhoramento de porta-enxertos de citros em diversos países. Nos Estados Unidos, vários estudos demonstram a eficiência de procedimentos no isolamento e cultivo de protoplastos dessa frutífera. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do meio de cultivo de calos embriogênicos do porta-enxerto tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. sobre o isolamento de protoplastos, bem como sugerir alterações de procedimento. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade do isolamento de 1.4 x 10(6 a 4.7 x 10(6 protoplastos por grama de calos da espécie estudada. Verificou-se que, o subcultivo dos calos de tangerina Cleópatra em meio de cultura, sem reguladores 1 hora, sob condições de escuro a 120 rpm, proporcionou maior eficiência de isolamento de protoplastos (4.7 x 10(6 protoplastos/g de calo.Somatic hybridization has been used for citrus rootstock breeding in many countries. In USA, many reports had proved the efficiency of procedures for the isolation and culture of citrus protoplasts. This research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of procedures of protoplast isolation using embryogenic callus of the Cleópatra mandarin rootstock. Alterations were proposed to increase protoplast isolation and culture method. Results show the possibility of a protoplast yield of 1.4 to 4.7 x 10(6 pps/g.f.w. for Cleópatra tangerine rootstock callus. Protoplast yield can be raised to 4.7 x 10(6 pps/g.f.w. if the embryogenic callus are grown in a medium supplemented only with 4% sucrose and pre-treated with 1% w/v macerozyme for 1 hour, at 120 rpm, in dark, is applied before protoplast isolation.

  16. Cytoplasmic inheritance of somatic hybrids and development of primers for cpSSR in Citrus%柑橘体细胞胞质遗传及叶绿体SSR引物开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江

    2011-01-01

    以38个组合的柑橘体细胞杂种(或胞质杂种)为试验材料,综合应用RFLP、CAPS和cpSSR分子标记技术,对这些杂种的线粒体和叶绿体遗传组成进行了分析;同时对试验技术体系进行了完善与拓展,开发了柑橘叶绿体SSR标记;并对柑橘愈伤组织长期继代保存过程中胞质基因组遗传变异进行了分析,主要结果如下.%In the present study,cytoplasmic inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids and cybrids from 38 interge-neric and interspecific fusion combinations was analyzed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers. The experimental procedures were modified and optimized. A novel marker, cpSSR, was developed in Citrus and other tropical fruit crops. Meanwhile,genetic variations of organelle from 23 Citrus calli were analyzed. The main results were as follows:1. A simple and efficient method for genomic DNA extraction from woody fruit crops containing high level of polysaccharides was developed. This method involves a modified CTAB or SDS procedure employing a purification step to remove polysaccharides by using water saturated ether at the presence of 1. 25-1. 30 mol/L NaCl. The quality of DNA samples extracted with this method was suitable for PCR and RFLPs analysis and for long-term storage. In addition, this procedure was successfully applied in DNA isolation from the freezed or withered or senile leaves of Citrus and more than 20 kinds of tropical and subtropical fruit crops.2. Five universal pairs of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primer and 3 universal pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) primers amplified monomorphic fragments among 4 intergeneric hybrids and 3 inter-spefic fusion combinations. After digested by restriction endonuclease, polymorphic mitochondrial CAPS markers were displayed in the 4 intergeneric combinations, while polymorphic chloroplast CAPS markers were found in 3

  17. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-04-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties. PMID:27057814

  18. Graft incompatibility in plants: Metabolic changes during formation and establishment of the rootstock/scion union with emphasis on Prunus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fruit trees are usually formed by the combination of a rootstock and a scion to broaden the adaptability of scion cultivars to soil and climatic conditions, facilitate agricultural management, and/or increase productivity. In the different cultivated species of the genus Prunus, rootstocks having a wide range of uses are scarce, because of rootstock/ scion graft incompatibilities that prevent the establishment of a strong and lasting functional union. Graft incompatibility is a problem in cherry, almond, and apricot than in peach or plum. In general, closely related cultivars and species tend to be compatible, but taxonomically distant plants often manifest incompatibility. This review will focus on the knowledge currently available on the metabolic response during the formation and establishment of the stock/scion graft union in order to help the effort for identify future metabolic markers to be used in breeding programs. The physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms that cause incompatibility remain unclear and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it, mostly based on herbaceous species. Few studies are available to explain incompatibility in woody plants. Various phenolic compounds are known to affect cell division, development and differentiation at the graft union. Flavonol (catechins and proanthocyanidins concentrations increase shortly after grafting and, as a result of the stress induced during the healing response, vacuolar membrane disruption occurs resulting in the escape of phenols from the vacuole into the cytoplasmic matrix, causing dysfunctions in the growth of certain tissues (xylem and phloem, interference with the synthesis of lignin or inducing hormonal imbalances. All these abnormalities result in mechanical weakening of the union, which may manifest during the first year after grafting (translocated incompatibility or may appear several years later (localized incompatibility, leading to major

  19. Citrus Canker and Citrus Huanglongbing, Two Exotic Bacterial Diseases Threatening the Citrus Industries of the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic Asian bacterial diseases of citrus are currently plaguing citrus industries in the Western Hemisphere. The two largest citrus producing areas in the Americas, located in Florida and the state of São Paulo Brazil, are presently battling these devastating diseases. The presence of these d...

  20. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Cheng LU; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived...

  1. CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

  2. Molecular and physiological changes in response to salt stress in Citrus macrophylla W plants overexpressing Arabidopsis CBF3/DREB1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gerding, Ximena; Espinoza, Carmen; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2015-07-01

    Plant stress induced by high salinity has leading to an important reduction in crop yields. Due to their tropical origin, citrus fruits are highly sensitive to salts. Rootstocks are the root system of fruit trees, regulating ion uptake and transport to the canopy. Therefore, increasing their salt tolerance could improve the salt tolerance of the fruit tree. For this, we genetically-transformed an important rootstock for lemon, Citrus macrophylla W, to constitutively express the CBF3/DREB1A gene from Arabidopsis, a well-studied salinity tolerance transcription factor. Transgenic lines showed normal size, with no dwarfism. Under salt stress, some transgenic lines showed greater growth, similar accumulation of chloride and sodium in the leaves and better stomatal conductance, in comparison to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time analyses showed a similar expression of several CBF3/DREB1A target genes, such as COR15A, LEA 4/5, INV, SIP1, P5CS, GOLS, ADC2 and LKR/SDH, in transgenic lines and wild type plants, with the exception of INV that shows increased expression in line 4C15. Under salt stress, all measured transcript increased in both wild type and transgenics lines, with the exception of INV. Altogether, these results suggest a higher salt tolerance of transgenic C. macrophylla plants induced by the overexpression of AtCBF3/DREB1A. PMID:25914135

  3. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries were queried and all bona fide and putative photoreceptor gene families were found in citrus species. We have identified 53 orthologs for several families of transcriptional regulators and cytoplasmic proteins mediating photoreceptor-induced responses although some important Arabidopsis phytochrome- and cryptochrome-signaling components are absent from citrus sequence databases. The main gene families responsible for phototropin-mediated signal transduction were present in citrus transcriptome, including general regulatory factors (14-3-3 proteins, scaffolding elements and auxin-responsive transcription factors and transporters. A working model of light perception, signal transduction and response-eliciting in citrus is proposed based on the identified key components. These results demonstrate the power of comparative genomics between model systems and economically important crop species to elucidate several aspects of plant physiology and metabolism.

  4. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, William O.; Garnsey, Stephen M.; Satyanarayana eTatineni; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Scott J Harper; S eGowda

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  5. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional br...

  6. Efeito da baixa temperatura noturna e do porta-enxerto na variação diurna das trocas gasosas e na atividade fotoquímica de laranjeira 'Val��ncia' Effects of low night temperature and rootstocks on diurnal variation of leaf gas exchange rates and photochemical activity of 'Valência' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Favero São Pedro Machado

    2010-06-01

    limitações difusivas e metabólicas. Embora, Fv/Fm e Fq'/Fm' em laranjeira 'Valência' sobre 'Cravo' tenham sido mais afetados pelo resfriamento em comparação às laranjeiras sobre 'Swingle', esses não contribuíram para a redução da assimilação de CO² (A. Porém, o frio noturno causou aumento da atividade dos drenos alternativos de elétrons (aumento da relação entre o transporte aparente de elétrons e a assimilação de CO², reduzindo a eficiência aparente de carboxilação de forma mais significante em 'Valência' sobre 'Cravo' do que sobre 'Swingle'. Estes resultados confirmam a hipótese de que a ocorrência de frio noturno afeta a fotossíntese de laranjeira 'Valência' sendo os efeitos do resfriamento dependentes do porta-enxerto.Decreases in photosynthesis during winter season are probably caused by low night temperature, even under non-limiting environmental conditions during the diurnal period. Citrus orchards are formed by grafted plants, being the 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock recommended in areas with occurrence of low temperatures. However, the physiological mechanisms related to larger growth and crop yield in those plants are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of low night temperature in photosynthesis of sweet orange plants is dependent on the rootstock species, with 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradise x Poncirus trifoliata inducing higher tolerance to overnight chilling when compared to 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia rootstock. Six-month old 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sweet orange plants grown in plastic bags (5 L were exposed overnight (12 h to temperatures of 20 and 8 ºC. The thermal treatment was carried out inside a growth chamber where only the upper plant shoots were exposed to temperature variation. Measurements of diurnal courses of leaf gas exchange and photochemical activity were taken under natural environmental conditions. Chilling night caused larger reduction on CO2

  7. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  8. Induction of seedlessness in kinow (citrus reticulata blanco) with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormant budwood of KINNOW mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were subjected to acute exposures of gamma radiations. Doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 and 120 Gy were applied at ambient temperature (25 -+ 2 deg. C) with air as the medium of irradiation. The irradiated and un-irradiated scions were grafted onto 2 years old Citrus jambhiri rootstock already established in the field using the side-graft technique. Based on the bud survival percentage, Ld-50 was found to be 18.5 Gy under field conditions. A sparsely seeded (2 - 8 seeds/fruit) mutant was detected in the mV/sub 1/ progeny of shoots from 20 Gy exposed buds. The induced sparse seedy character was retained by the mV/sub 2/ and mV/sub 3/ propagations. Parent Kinnow contained 18-28 seeds per fruit. The peel of mutant Kinnows was thicker which may protect the fruit during transit and may compensate for the slightly lower juice yield as compared to parent Kinnow. Sparsely seeded mutant Kinnow fruit and plant resembled with the parent kinnow in most of the morphological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. (author)

  9. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida de Paula Farias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of organically grown tomatoes in the Amazonian region of Brazil is difficult due to inherent phytosanitary issues. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the productivity of grafted tomato plants (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Santa Adélia grown organically in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, and to assess scion/rootstock compatibility under organic growth conditions. The Solanum species employed as rootstocks were S. gilo (jiló, S. lycocarpum (jurubebão, S. stramonifolium (jurubeba vermelha and S. viarum (joá, while the susceptible S.lycopersicum cultivar Santa Adélia was the scion. Ungrafted tomato plants and tomato grafted on tomato rootstock were employed as controls. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with six treatments and five repetitions of five plants each. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the significance of differences between treatments were determined using the Tukey test (P<0.05. All ungrafted tomato plants and those comprising tomato grafted on S.lycopersicum rootstock became infected by brown rot and perished. The total numbers of fruits, numbers of marketable fruits, mean masses of fruits, total productivities and productivities of marketable fruits associated with tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks were significantly higher (P<0.05 than the equivalent values obtained with tomato grafted on S. viarum rootstock. S. gilo exhibited the best compatibility index (1.11 of all rootstock/scion combinations studied. It is concluded that tomato grafted on S. gilo, S. lycocarpum and S. stramonifolium rootstocks represent viable alternatives for the production of organic tomatoes in the Amazon region.

  10. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur; Giuliano Elias Pereira; Juliana Alvarenga Alves; Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quanti...

  11. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. PMID:25256398

  12. Analysis of SSR in Citrus Sequences from EMBL Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hai-jun; CAO Qing-qin; HU Zhi-yong; LIU Gao-ping; CHENG Yun-jiang; DENG Xiu-xin

    2005-01-01

    Abundance of simple sequence repeat (SSR) in Citrus sequences from EMBL database was investigated by using computer program MISA (MIcroSAtellite), which aimed to provide useful information for the development of SSR markers.Among 32 896 sequences of Citrus, 4987 SSRs were found in 4167 sequences and the average distance between SSRs was approximately 3.5 kb. Mononucleotide repeats (50.6%) were the most abundant repeats. And di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats were 22.8, 25.2, 1, 0.08, and 0.36%, respectively. The most abundant motif was A/T followed in descending order by AG/CT, AC/GT, AT/TA. AAT/ATT, AAG/CTT, AGC/CGT, ACG/CTG and C/G. They comprised about90% of all microsatellites. Ten primer pairs were designed, and three of them produced clear visible bands among Citrus and its related genera.

  13. Effect of Water Stress on The Some Evegatif Growth Parameters of Cultivar Grafted on Different Rootstocks 0900 Ziraat Sweet Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK; Sarısu, Hasan Cumhur; Halit YILDIZ; KAÇAL, Emel; KOÇAL, Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry production areas have been increasing in last years and rootstocks which have different growing characteristic are being used. Therefore, responses of new and present rootstocks to water stress must be determined. For this purpose, one year old 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry variety grafted on Mahaleb (Prunus mahalep L.), Mazzard (Prunus avium L.), Ma x Ma 14 (Prunus mahalep L. x Prunus avium L.), CAB 6 (Prunus cerasus L.) ve Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x P. canescens L.) rootstocks were ...

  14. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    OpenAIRE

    GAMBETTA, G. A.; Manuck, C. M.; Drucker, S. T.; Shaghasi, T.; Fort, K.; Matthews, M A; Walker, M. A.; McElrone, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), % aquaporin contribution to Lp r , scion tr...

  15. Responses of ‘0900 Ziraat’ Sweet Cherry Variety Grafted on Different Rootstocks to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk KÜÇÜKYUMUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the responses of ‘0900 Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar grafted on mazzard (Prunus avium L. and mahaleb (P. mahaleb L. rootstocks, to different irrigation water salinity levels. One year old sweet cherry trees were planted in 50-liter pots at Eğirdir Fruit Research Station (Isparta, Turkey. Four different irrigation water salinity levels (S1=0.3 dS m-1, S2=2.0 dS m-1, S3=4.0 dS m-1 and S4=6 dS m-1 were used for both variety/rootstock combinations. The results showed that sweet cherry trees grafted on mahaleb rootstocks extracted more water under saline conditions than the ones grafted on mazzard. Water salinity levels caused more damage on 0900/mazzard than on 0900/mahaleb. Towards the end of the growing period, plant deaths were detected in S3 and S4 treatments. While leaf water potential (LWP ranged from -1.54 to -3.33 MPa, stomatal conductance ranged from 26.8 to 199.5 mmol m-2 s-1. It was determined that both parameters decreased towards the end of the growing period for all treatments. Sodium (Na uptake was excluded by 0900/mahaleb rootstocks, but chloride (Cl− uptake was excluded only for higher saline conditions. As a result, mahaleb (P. mahaleb L. rootstock could be recommended to be used as rootstock for sweet cherry culture under saline conditions.

  16. Anatomical and histological researches on rootstock and scion compatibility in early period after grafting in avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BAYRAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seedling rootstocks are used entirely due to easier and cheaper production in conditions of our country. However, a study on compatibility of scion and rootstock of varieties used as seedling rootstock, have not been produced in our country yet. Thus, seedlings of the 'Bacon', 'Fuerte', 'Hass' and 'Zutano' varieties produced as commercial varieties along with 'Topa Topa' and 'Mexicola' varieties used as a source of seedling rootstocks were studied under greenhouse conditions between the years 2009-2011. Determination of the scion and rootstock compatibility was purposed in the graft sections during certain periods after grafting of 'Hass' variety with these seedlings. As a result; graft union formations in samples of all combinations successfully realized in the anatomical and histological studies after 30 and 90 days from grafting and a negative finding regarding to incompatibility were not met. However, more studies should be made for determination of incompatibility that may arise in between rootstocks and scions in the later years.

  17. Untapped richness in Erik H. Erikson's rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivnick, Helen Q; Wells, Courtney K

    2014-02-01

    Erik H. Erikson published his groundbreaking theory of 8 stages of lifelong psychosocial development in 1950. His theory expanded psychoanalytic concepts of psychosexual development to include the importance of social dynamics; it transcended then-current thinking that psychological development culminated in early adulthood, acknowledging that systematic human development continues throughout the entire life cycle. The theory made Erikson a pioneer in developmental psychology. His last authored book, Vital Involvement in Old Age, rearticulated and elaborated 3 principles that, in different words, are rooted in his original theory of healthy life cycle development: (1) Dynamic Balance of Opposites; (2) Vital Involvement; and (3) Life in Time. Using a lens informed by knowledge gained over the past 30 years and by reflections of one of the original researchers on that project, the current manuscript seeks to spark new interest in Erikson's late-life contribution. It explains the principles in new detail, links them to relevant research, and suggests ways they could enable Erikson's ideas to further enrich gerontological practice and research. PMID:24136991

  18. Colheita de citros e obtenção de dados para mapeamento da produtividade Characterization of harvest systems and development yield mapping for citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Molin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A citricultura é de fundamental importância para a economia brasileira devido a sua expressiva participação na exportação e pela geração de empregos. A colheita manual é atualmente realizada na totalidade das propriedades citrícolas nacionais. A ausência de técnicas para a geração de mapas de produtividade em citros é uma das grandes dificuldades para a implantação da agricultura de precisão, o que justifica empreender técnicas e equipamentos para essa finalidade. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de ter o correto entendimento dos sistemas de colheita existentes, suas características úteis e limitações. A partir de então, desenvolveu-se e testou-se uma proposta de geração de dados para obtenção de mapas de produtividade sem interferir no processo vigente. Procedeu-se à pesagem de uma população de sacolões ("big bag" para aferir a informação de massa estimada pelo responsável pela colheita. Na seqüência, realizou-se o georreferenciamento de todos os sacolões de uma área. A partir da largura da faixa de colheita e do cálculo de distância entre os sacolões, obtiveram-se as áreas de contribuição de cada um, e com a massa estimada determinou-se a produtividade dos pontos. Esses dados foram interpolados gerando o mapa de produtividade. A estimativa de massa dos sacolões mostrou-se aceitável e o método válido para a coleta de dados e a geração do mapa de produtividade.Citriculture activity is important for the Brazilian economy due to its expressive participation on exporting and for the generation of a number of job positions. Manual harvesting is currently predominant. Routine generation of yield mapping for citrus is necessary for implementing precision agriculture practices, what justifies efforts for developing techniques for data collection. The objective of this research was to promote the correct understanding of the variations on harvesting systems, their useful characteristics and

  19. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manosh Kumar Biswas

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02% are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21% polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  20. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNA-interference (RNAi) vector and its potential in combating citrus Huanglongbing (HLB)

    OpenAIRE

    Hajeri, Shubash; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O.; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a plus-sense ssRNA virus, is member of the genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae. RNA viruses are inducers as-well-as targets of gene silencing defense mechanism of host plants and this has been exploited as a tool in functional genomics. CTV was developed into virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) or RNA-interference (RNAi) vector, which interferes with expression of endogenous genes in citrus or GFP-transgene in Nicotiana benthamiana (16c) in a sequence spec...

  1. Development of SSR Markers from Citrus BAC End Sequences and Their Integration into Linkage Map%柑桔BES-SSR标记开发及连锁图延伸和加密

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马喜军; 龚桂芝; 彭祝春; 韩学智; 洪棋斌

    2012-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) were surveyed in citrus BAC-End sequence (BES) for the development of new SSR markers to extend and saturate existing genetic map. 22 403 SSRs with 1~6 bp motif were identified in 46 339 citrus BESs retrieved from NCBI. The estimated frequency of SSRs was approximately 1/1. 25 kb, nearly twice the frequency found in Citrus Expressed Sequence Tags. 323 primers were selected in the present mapping study,of which 40 were mono-nucleotide repeats, 184 di-nucleotide repeats, 99 tri-nucleotide or above repeats. Polymorphism tests showed that 316 primer-pairs (98%) could be amplified successfully and 173 pairs (55%) were polymorphic. Among the polymorphic primers, 15 pairs were of mono-nucleotide repeats, 100 pairs of di-nucleotide repeats,58 pairs of tri-nucleotide or above repeats. A new linkage map was produced by combining the segregating data of new markers and markers in the previous map. When compared with the published map, the new map integrated 334 SSR markers, 9 linkage groups and covered 844. 2 cM of citrus genome with an average genetic distance standing at 2. 53 cM. The results demonstrated that citrus BES was good for SSR marker development and the developed markers were useful in extending and saturating the citrus genetic maps. So this will provide a reference for development of other species SSR markers and lay a good foundation for citrus gene mapping,map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.%为了系统性地开发和拓展柑桔SSR标记,通过对公布的柑桔BAC文库末端序列(BAC-End sequence,BES)进行SSR分析,选择1500个SSR位点设计合成并检测323对引物.结果表明:(1)从总长度为28.1 Mb的46 339条序列中共检测出22403个SSR位点,约每2条序列就会出现一个SSR位点,发生频率为48%,相当于平均1.25 kb的序列中就会出现1个SSR,频率约为柑桔EST的2倍,且不同核心重复序列的SSR发生特点与EST也不同.(2)所合成的323对引物中,有效扩增316

  2. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  3. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE LA LIMA ÁCIDA (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahití, EN SUELOS CON LIMITACIONES POR PROFUNDIDAD EFECTIVA, EN UN BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIME (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahiti, IN SOILS WITH LIMITATIONS BY EFFECTIVE DEPTH IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Ochoa Agudelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la evolución de la biomasa, la distribución diferencial de ésta entre los órganos y algunos parámetros del crecimiento y desarrollo, de la lima ácida (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahití, injertada sobre Carrizo y Kryder. El cultivo se estableció en suelos con limitaciones por profundidad efectiva (PE entre 10 y 20 cm; las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 24, 32 y 39 meses después del trasplante. Se debe tener presente que el crecimiento de las raíces está condicionado a los atributos edáficos en donde se establecen los cultivos, en especial los perennes, en cuyo caso existen requerimientos mínimos de PE para el adecuado desarrollo de los árboles; se establecieron diferencias entre la biomasa acumulada, como consecuencia de ésta limitación. Al comparar el crecimiento de las plantas con la PE se evidenció que los individuos que crecieron en suelos con PE de 20 cm, presentaron un desarrollo relativamente semejante a plantaciones sin limitaciones de este tipo; mientras que, en suelos con PE inferior a 10 cm, la respuesta fue 3 a 5 veces menor.Abstract. It was evaluated the evolution of biomass, its differential distribution among the organs and some parameters of growth and development of acid lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, cv. Tahiti, grafted on Carrizo and Kryder patterns. The plants were established in soils with limitations by its effective depth (ED, which ranged between 10 and 20 cm. Assessments were effectuated at 24, 32 and 39 months after transplantation. It is must to keep in mind that root growth is conditioned to the soil attributes of the site where the crops are established, especially in the case of perennials, which have requirements of minimum PE in order to achieve an adequate development. Differences were established between biomass accumulated as a result of the limitation in effective depth. When comparing the growth of plants with ED, we found that the individuals that grew up in soils with

  4. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I.; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E.; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial an...

  5. Porta-Enxertos para a cultura do pêssegueiro do terceiro milênio Rootstocks for culture of peaches of the third milleniun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Loreti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de porta-enxertos sempre responde a modernas exigências pedidas por uma fruticultura tecnicamente evoluída, iniciou-se na Itália e, em geral, na Europa, a partir dos anos 60, mas assumiu importância com o desenvolvimento da fruticultura industrial. Para algumas espécies, dentre as quais particularmente a macieira e a pereira, este processo iniciou-se antes e evidenciou-se com maior rapidez, tanto que, atualmente, vêm-se se usando exclusivamente porta-enxertos clonais. Para outras espécies, como o pessegueiro, o pedido de novos porta-enxertos é mais recente em conseqüência da difusão desta espécie ainda em zonas não de todo evocadas de um ponto de vista pedoclimático, o qual, a exemplo daquelas caracterizadas por terrenos úmidos, maciços/compactos, subcalcários, alcalinos ou afetados pelo cansaço (Loreti, 1988. A vasta gama de porta-enxertos, atualmente disponíveis no mercado de viveiristas internacionais, tornou indispensável o conhecimento das características bioagronômicas dos mesmos, de modo a auxiliar técnicos e fruticultores na tarefa de efetuar uma apropriada escolha deles. Portanto, mantém-se oportuno reportar a descrição dos porta-enxertos mais conhecidos ou, pelo menos, daqueles que, através da recente experimentação, forneceram os resultados mais interessantes, e o que abordaremos nesse artigo.The use of rootstock always responds to modern requirements requested by a technically developed Fruticulture, started up in Italy, and general, in Europe, from the 1960's, but had assumed an important hole with the development of the industrial fruticulture.For some species, among which particularly apple and pear, this process started before and showed up more quickly, that today it has been using exclusively cloned rootstocks. For other species such as peach, the demand of new rootstock is more recently in consequence of the diffusion of this species even in areas not mentioned at all from a pedoclimatic

  6. Mapeamento de QTLs associados à produção de frutos e sementes em híbridos de Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata QTL mapping linked to fruit set and seeds in Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

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    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O grupo dos citros apresenta acentuada juvenilidade manifestada pela incapacidade de florescimento, vigor e formação de espinhos. No caso da laranja 'valência', os híbridos de trifoliata, utilizados como porta-enxertos, induzem maior precocidade e produtividade. O número de sementes do fruto (NSF constitui importante característica da variedade candidata a porta-enxerto de citros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar QTLs associados às características número de frutos por planta (NF e número de sementes por fruto em uma progênie F1 derivada de um cruzamento entre Citrus sunki e Poncirus trifoliata 'Rubidoux'. Os grupos de ligação (GL dos parentais foram obtidos usando a estratégia 'pseudotestcross' e marcadores do tipo RAPD. A contagem do número de frutos por planta e o número médio de sementes por fruto foi realizada usando 80 indivíduos da progênie. A detecção dos QTLs foi realizada pelo método de mapeamento por intervalo composto utilizando o programa QTLCartographer. Foram detectados um QTL associado à frutificação e um QTL ligado ao número de sementes situados no GL 4 e GL 5 no mapa de P. trifoliata, respectivamente.Citrus group shows juvenility strong due incapacity to flowering, vigor and thorn formation. Trifoliata hybrids used as rootstocks to induce early production and better field for 'Valencia' orange scion. Seeds number per fruit is very important characteristic to citrus rootstocks candidate. The present study has as objective to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL associated to fruiting and seeds production in F1 progeny obtained of Citrus sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata cross. Linkage groups (LG of parents were built by pseudotestcross strategy using RAPD markers. Fruits/plant and seeds/fruit numbers were counting using 80 individuals of progeny. QTL detection was made with composite interval mapping using the QTL Cartographer. QTL linked to fruiting and seed production in LG 4 and LG 5 of the P

  7. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

  8. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

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    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  9. Improvement of grafted watermelon transplant survival as a result of size and starch increases over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty alcohol treatments can be used to eliminate the meristem of cucurbit (Family Cucurbitaceae) rootstocks which prevents regrowth when grafting, but the effects of the treatment on the rootstock have not been documented. Two rootstock types, ‘Emphasis’ bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and ‘Car...

  10. Comportamento agronômico inicial da cv. Chimarrita enxertada em cinco porta-enxertos de pessegueiro Agronomical behavior of cv. Chimarrita on five rootstocks of peach trees

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    Moacir da Silva Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a resposta agronômica da cv. Chimarrita enxertada em cinco porta-enxertos, nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de Pelotas-RS, no período de 2003 a 2005. Durante o período de execução do experimento, foram avaliados o diâmetro do tronco do porta-enxerto e da cultivar-copa, comprimento médio dos ramos principais, volume de copa, massa fresca e massa seca do material vegetal retirado nas podas verde e de inverno, índice de intensidade de poda, massa média dos frutos, produção por planta, eficiência produtiva, produção por hectare, sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza da polpa, diâmetro e coloração dos frutos. O porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' induziu o maior crescimento vegetativo na cv. Chimarrita durante os três anos de avaliação, seguido do porta-enxerto 'Okinawa'. Este, por sua vez, induziu o maior rendimento produtivo (1,65 t ha-1. A cv. Capdeboscq proporcionou a obtenção de frutos com maior massa. Os porta-enxertos 'GF 305' e 'Aldrighi' induziram menor desenvolvimento vegetativo e a mais baixa produtividade (0,52 t.ha-1 .The objective for this study was to evaluate the agronomical behavior of cv. Chimarrita on five rootstocks of peach trees in Pelotas- RS from 2003 to 2005. The variables evaluated were: trunk diameters of the rootstock and of the scion; length of the annual terminal growth; volume of the canopy; fresh and dry weight of the material taken by the summer and winter pruning; pruning intensity index; fruit weight; fruit production per tree; production efficiency; productivity per hectare; total soluble solids; pulp firmness; and fruit diameter and color. It was observed that the trees from: rootstock 'Capdeboscq' promoted higher vegetative growth and larger fruits, followed by the ones from the rootstock 'Okinawa' which promoted the highest yield (1, 65 t.ha-1; the rootstock 'GF 305' and 'Aldrighi' had the lowest vegetative development and yield (0, 52 t.ha-1.

  11. COMPORTAMIENTO DE ALGUNOS CÍTRICOS SOBRE DIFERENTES PORTAINJERTOS, EN SU TERCERA TEMPORADA DE CRECIMIENTO, QUILLÓN VIII REGIÓN, CHILE Behavior of some citric fruit on different rootstocks, in their third growing season, Quillón, VIII Region, Chile

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    Jean Paul Joublan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción y calidad de frutos de un cultivar de mandarino (Citrus reticulata Blanco, tres de naranjo (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck y dos de limonero (Citrus limon L. Burmann sobre diferentes portainjertos en una zona fría, Quillón, Chile, en su tercera temporada de crecimiento. Hubo una moderada influencia de los portainjertos sobre la calidad de fruto, pero no en producción. Así Troyer indujo una menor calidad en mandarino Clementina que Carrizo y Citrumelo, sin embargo, no fue significativo debido a la escasa producción por árbol en esta temporada. En naranjos Newhall, el patrón Rubidoux provocó una mayor producción que Troyer y Carrizo, este último indujo un mayor contenido de sólidos solubles. Salustiana sobre Carrizo alcanzó un mayor contenido de jugo y grosor de pericarpio, pero con menor producción que Troyer. Carrizo y Rubidoux no influyeron sobre la calidad en naranjo cv. Valencia. Citrumelo indujo una mayor producción que Flying Dragon en limonero cv. Limoneira 8A, esto debido a que este último patrón presenta un menor tamaño de árbol debido a su carácter enanizante. El cultivar de limonero Génova injertado sobre Macrophylla se vio seriamente afectado por heladas, siendo el único tratamiento con este problema.Fruit yield and quality were evaluated on one mandarin cultivar (Citrus reticulata Blanco, three orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cultivars and two lemon (Citrus limon L. Burmann cultivars on different rootstocks in a cold region (Quillón, Chile in their third season of growth. There was a moderate influence of rootstocks on fruit quality, but not on yield. Thus, Troyer induced lower fruit quality in mandarin cv. Clementina than Carrizo and Citrumelo, nevertheless, it was not significant due to the scarce production per tree in this season. In orange cv. Newhall, Rubidoux induced higher yield than Troyer and Carrizo, the latter induced a higher soluble solid content. Salustiana on Carrizo

  12. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

  13. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  14. Evaluation of the protective capacity of new mild Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates selected for a preimmunization program

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    Carlos Alexandre Zanutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of tolerant rootstocks and preimmunization has satisfactorily controlled losses associated with the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV. Several researchers have shown that CTV mild isolates that are selected in the same region where they are used are superior to isolates obtained from other areas. Thus, budwoods of 20 outstanding citrus trees were collected in north and northwestern Paraná state (Brazil citrus-producing areas and established to be used in a preimmunization program. These budwoods were tested to evaluate the potential protection of the inherently present viral complex. Based on biological indexing and molecular characterization of the capsid protein gene by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism, which indicated that the plants were infected with mild isolates of CTV, some of the selected plants could be used in a preimmunization program. These potentially mild and protective isolates were challenged with severe 'Rolândia' isolate inoculations by grafting and by the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy vector, which was faster in transmitting the virus. Some isolates had a better protective value than others, particularly when challenged with the severe CTV isolate. The SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism molecular analysis was an excellent complementary tool for monitoring the performance of the experiments and the stability of the viral complex present in the plants. Isolate number 1, collected in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul (CS-1, was the most promising for protecting commercial Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis L. orchards in northern and northwestern Paraná. The Rolândia severe CTV isolate was stable and had a high genetic divergence among the severe isolates used as a control (Capão Bonito and Barão B and all of the isolates tested.

  15. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

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    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  16. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira ‘Folha Murcha' sobre seis porta-enxertos no Norte do Paraná Vegetative growth, yield and quality fruits of the ‘Folha Murcha' orange on six rootstocks in North Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    variedades copa de laranja.This research evaluated, in Londrina, PR, Brazil, ‘Folha Murcha' orange trees on the rootstocks: ‘Caipira' orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., ‘Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., ‘Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., ‘Florida' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush., ‘Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and ‘Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.. The experimental design was used as randomized blocks with six rootstocks as treatments, five replications and three plants per plot. Height, diameter, and canopy volume were significantly higher in trees budded on ‘Caipira' orange, when compared with those budded on ‘Volkamer' lemon. The smallest difference between trunk diameters below/above the bud occurred in trees on ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Sunki' mandarin. Cumulative yield was superior for trees on ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Caipira' orange, without showing statistical difference between themselves, but were significantly different from those on ‘Cleopatra' mandarin and ‘Volkamer' lemon. Yield efficiency was not influenced by the studied rootstocks. Fruit weight was significantly higher for trees on ‘Sunki' mandarin, compared to those on ‘Rangpur' lime, ‘Florida' rough lemon, and ‘Volkamer' lemon. Total soluble solids (TSS showed high contents in fruits of ‘Folha Murcha' orange on ‘Volkamer' lemon and on ‘Rangpur' lime, without differences between themselves. Total titratable acidity (TTA, (TSS/TTA ratio, and juice color were not influenced by the rootstocks tested. ‘Rangpur' lime and ‘Volkamer' lemon provided significantly higher technological index values in relation to the other rootstocks. The juice quality parameters evaluated were within the acceptable standards for orange canopy varieties.

  17. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella spp., Into the Continental United States AGENCY.... australis. \\2\\...

  18. Teste de porta-enxertos intergenéricos para marmeleiros em condições de viveiro Tests of intergeneric rootstocks for quinces in nursery conditions

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    Rafael Pio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os marmeleiros sempre foram propagados comercialmente mediante o enraizamento de estacas. Devido ao baixo vigor das mudas, principalmente nos primeiros anos após o plantio, alguns trabalhos foram desenvolvidos no Brasil a fim de viabilizar a utilização do marmeleiro 'Japonês' (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne como porta-enxerto para marmelos. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, mas frente à falta de outras opções de porta-enxertos mais vigorosos para marmeleiros e devido a observações em viveiro e a campo do alto vigor dos porta-enxertos para pereira 'Taiwan Nashi-C' (Pyrus calleryana Decne e 'Taiwan Mamenashi' (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o crescimento de cultivares de marmeleiros ('Provence', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Portugal', 'Smyrna' e 'Japonês' enxertados sobre esses porta-enxertos, na fase de viveiro. Os marmeleiros foram enxertados pelo método de garfagem em mudas dos porta-enxertos 'Japonês', 'Taiwan Nashi-C' e 'Taiwan Mamenashi', mantidas em sacos plásticos (capacidade de 3 L de substrato, no período hibernal. Foram utilizados garfos com três gemas, coletadas de plantas-matrizes do Instituto Agronômico (IAC. O experimento foi realizado em viveiro telado (50% de luminosidade, sendo avaliados o comprimento e diâmetro do enxerto aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a realização da enxertia e a porcentagem de garfos brotados na última avaliação. Os porta-enxertos orientais de pereira apresentaram bons resultados na fase de viveiro, com 'Taiwan Nashi-C' destacando-se como porta-enxerto para os marmeleiros 'Smyrna' e 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Taiwan Mamenashi' para o marmeleiro 'Smyrna' e 'Japonês' para o mesmo.The quince tree has always been commercially propagated by cuttings. Due to the low vigor, mainly in the first years of the orchard, a series of works was developed in Brazil in order to enable the use of the Japanese quince tree (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne as a rootstock. The results were

  19. Rootstock effect on Conference pear vegetative and generative development

    OpenAIRE

    Kviklys, Darius

    2005-01-01

    1998-2004 m. Lietuvos sodininkystės ir daržininkystės institute tirti vegetatyviniai Cydonia oblonga poskiepiai kriaušėms Sv.A, Sv.C, S1 ir Sydo, sėkliniai Cydonia oblonga poskiepiai K11, K16 ir 1.2, išvesti LSDI, bei miškinės kriaušės (Pyrus communis) sėkliniai poskiepiai su Konferencinė kriaušėmis. Tyrimų tikslas ištirti kriaušių poskiepių įtaką vaismedžių augumui, derėjimui ir produktyvumui. Kriaušės labiausiai auga ir vėliausiai pradeda derėti su miškinės kriaušės sėkliniais poskiepiais. ...

  20. BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC EFFECT FROM CULTIVATION OF DENSITY-TREES IN APPLE ORCHARD ON SEEDLING ROOTSTOCKS

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    D. DOMOZETOV

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1998 - 2003 in a young apple orchard (1-6 year with trees of cultivars Florina and Freedom grafted on seedling rootstocks of Winter gold Pearmain and wild apple (standard, planted at 8 m x 7m were cultivated. Other trees called further density-trees from the same cultivars grafted on a clonal rootstock MM 106 (in the rows and M 9 (between the rows were grown. It was established that the trees from the two cultivars on seedling rootstocks during the third-fourth year entered almost at the same time into initial fruit bearing period with these trees on MM 106 and M 9. The combination Florina on MM 106 was with the biggest quantity of fruits. The quality of the fruits according to the Bulgarian quality standard was high at all the cultivar-rootstock combination. From the density-trees the yield was average 29250 kg/ha high quality fruits, total production of 17550 lv/ha (1 lv-1 Bulgaria Leva = 0.512 Euro, net income - 6529.5 lv/ha and rate of profitability - 59.29%. The amount of net income (margin of profit covered the loss of planting and growing of the main trees on seedling rootstocks and the value of the drip irrigation system.

  1. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters. PMID:27088562

  2. Desenvolvimento de cultivares e espécies de pereira enxertados em plântulas de Taiwan Nashi-C na fase de formação de mudas Development of cultivars and species of pear grafted on Taiwan Nashi-C rootstock

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    Wilson Barbosa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se, no Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em julho-dezembro de 1993, o desenvolvimento inicial da pereira 'Okussankichi' (Pyrus serotina Rehder, enxertada em plântulas de Taiwan Nashi-C (P. calleryana Decne. nos diâmetros de 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 mm. Pesquisou-se, ainda, o comportamento de outras oito pereiras em enxertia interespecífica em plântulas de doze meses. Pôde-se observar, por meio da enxertia por garfagem do tipo inglês simples, o adequado comportamento das mudas na fase de junção dos tecidos cambiais, sem que nenhum sintoma de incompatibilidade inicial fosse detectado. As espécies e cultivares estudados apresentaram cerca de 95% de pegamento dos enxertos, comprovado pelas brotações vigorosas emitidas após 45 dias da enxertia. Os porta-enxertos com diâmetros de 10 e 12 mm proporcionaram os maiores índices de crescimento vegetativo: transcorridos quatro meses, os enxertos de 'Okussankichi' já apresentavam excelente padrão de desenvolvimento; com mais de 100 cm de altura, diâmetro próximo a 9 mm e mais de 30 folhas, as mudas estavam aptas a ser plantadas no campo. Nos porta-enxertos com diâmetros de 4 e 6 mm, ocorreu baixo desenvolvimento das mudas, bem inferior ao padrão mínimo desejável. O desenvolvimento dessas pereiras, em campo, está sob contínua investigação; em três anos de cultivo, não se verificaram sinais de incompatibilidade de enxertia.The stock-scion compatibility of nine pear cultivars and species grafted on seedlings stocks of Taiwan Nashi-C (Pyrus calleryana Decne. and the 'Okussankichi' (P. serotina Rehder behavior of five stem diameters were evaluated at the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pear cultivars and species did not vary in compatibility on Taiwan Nashi-C rootstock by visual observation, showing an excellent grade of graft union, with mean survival of about 95%. The roostocks with 10 and 12 mm of stem diameters presented significantly a higher scion

  3. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... 22, 2007 and effective on March 16, 2007 (72 FR 13423-13428, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0032) that....aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/citrus/index.shtml . We believe that the procedures set... effective on June 17, 2010 (75 FR 34322-34336, Docket No. APHIS- 2008-0015).\\4\\ Several commenters on...

  4. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 305 RIN 0579-AC85 Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... African citrus psyllid is not present in the United States. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  5. Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

  6. Candidate gene markers for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao; Mike Irey; Stephen M Garnsey; Siddarame Gowda

    2013-06-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across `Ca. Liberibacter africanus’ and `Ca. Liberibacter americanus’ were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed.

  7. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  9. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  10. Reação de híbridos somáticos de citros à infecção por Phytophthora nicotianae Reaction of citrus somatic hybrids to the infection by Phytophthora nicotianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Menezes Bassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a resistência à infecção de tronco e de raízes por Phytophthora nicotianae em híbridos somáticos de citros com potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos. Os híbridos somáticos avaliados foram laranja 'Hamlin' (Citrus sinensis + toranja 'Indian Red' (Citrus grandis (plantas 1 e 2 e laranja 'Hamlin' (C. sinensis + toranja 'Singapura' (C. grandis. Plantas de limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, laranja 'Caipira' (C. sinensis, laranja-azeda (C. aurantium e Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata foram utilizadas como plantas-controle devido à reação conhecida à infecção pelo patógeno. Avaliações realizadas entre 30 e 60 dias após as inoculações com o patógeno incluíram o comprimento das lesões no tronco e a massa seca do sistema radicular nas plantas avaliadas. O híbrido somático laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' (planta 1 mostrou-se tolerante a P. nicotianae, indicando potencial para continuidade nas suas avaliações como porta-enxerto para citros.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance to trunk and root infection by Phytophthora nicotianae in citrus somatic hybrids with potential to be utilized as rootstocks. The somatic hybrids evaluated were 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis + 'Indian Red' pummelo (Citrus grandis (plants 1 and 2, and 'Hamlin' sweet orange (C. sinensis + 'Singapura' pummelo (C. grandis. Plants of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis, sour orange (C. aurantium, and Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata were used as control due to their known reaction to the pathogen. Evaluations performed between 30 and 60 days after pathogen inoculation included the length of trunk lesions, and root dry mass of the root system of evaluated plants. The somatic hybrid 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo (plant 1 was tolerant to P. nicotianae, indicating potential to be further evaluated as a rootstock.

  11. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  12. Recent advances in Citrus psorosis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Achachi, Asmae; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Ibriz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Psorosis is a globally devastating disease of citrus caused by an infectious filamentous ophiovirus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which causes annual losses of about 5 % and a progressive decline of trees by affecting the conductive tissues. The disease can be harboured asymptomatically in many citrus species. In the field, the most characteristic symptoms of the disease in adult trees are bark scaling in the trunk and main branches and also internal staining in the underlying wood. The viru...

  13. Antimicrobial Compounds to Combat Citrus Huanglongbing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with the fastidious bacterium,Candidatus Liberibacter, (Las) that is transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect (Citrus Psyllid). An ideal solution to combat citrus HLB is to completely eliminate the bacteria after a single course of the chemotherapy, either active directly on the bacteria or indirectly through induction of host defense compounds. Twenty-seven antimicrobial compounds were screened to test for in vivo activities against HLB bacterium while ...

  14. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Canales, Eduardo; Coll, Yamilet; Hernández, Ingrid; Portieles, Roxana; Rodríguez García, Mayra; López, Yunior; Aranguren, Miguel; Alonso, Eugenio; Delgado, Roger; Luis, Maritza; Batista, Lochy; Paredes, Camilo; Rodríguez, Meilyn; Pujol, Merardo; Ochagavia, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatme...

  15. Visible Light Image-Based Method for Sugar Content Classification of Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected i...

  16. Structural Basis of the Rind Disorder Oleocellosis in Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    OpenAIRE

    KNIGHT, TOBY G.; KLIEBER, ANDREAS; Sedgley, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Oleocellosis, a physiological rind disorder of citrus fruit, is an unattractive surface blemish caused by phytotoxic effects of released rind oils. The development of oleocellosis in Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was examined by following a time sequence of surface symptoms and microscopic rind changes. The two natural causes of oleocellosis were simulated: mechanical damage to the fruit and transfer of rind oil between fruit. Mechanical fruit injury resulted in rupture ...

  17. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Omani Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and Comparative Analysis within the Rosids

    OpenAIRE

    Huei-Jiun Su; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Chih-Horng Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C....

  18. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance. PMID:26302171

  19. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  20. Confirmation of the presence of citrus viroids in citrus orchards in Northwestern Argentina Confirmación de la presencia de viroides de citrus en quintas cítricas en el Noroeste Argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    Full Text Available Citrus viroids cause two well known diseases: exocortis and cachexia. In the citrus area of Northwestern Argentina, the presence of viroids was reported in the 1960's and diagnosis was based only on visual symptoms on susceptible rootstocks. From 2004 onwards, budwood samples from citrus trees showing viroid symptoms have been collected in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces. Biological indexing has been performed using Etrog citron Arizona 861-S1 grafted on rough lemon seedlings as the indicator plant. Since 2006, molecular diagnosis has also been performed using sequential polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sPAGE. The presence of viroids has been confirmed for the first time in northwestern region, using both techniques. Symptoms obtained in inoculated Etrog citron vary from mild to very severe. sPAGE utilization showed that most infections consisted of mixtures of two or more viroids. All viroid isolates are kept in the virus bank at the Citrus Sanitation Center of EEAOC in Tucumán. Currently, 22 isolates from Northwestern Argentina are stored and further characterization of these viroids will be done using PCR.Los viroides de los citrus causan dos enfermedades bien conocidas en las regiones citrícolas del mundo: exocortis y caquexia. Las citas de viroides en fincas cítricas del Noroeste Argentino (NOA se remontan a 1960 y el correspondiente diagnóstico se basaba sólo en observaciones de síntomas en portainjertos susceptibles. En 2004, se comenzó con la recolección de muestras de árboles con síntomas de viroides en las provincias de Tucumán, Salta y Jujuy. Se realizó el diagnóstico biológico, usando como planta indicadora el cidro Etrog Arizona 861- S1 inoculado sobre limón rugoso. En 2006 se comenzó también con el diagnóstico molecular usando la técnica de electroforesis secuencial en geles de poliacrilamida (sPAGE, siendo esta la primera vez que se confirmó la presencia de viroides en el NOA utilizando ambas t

  1. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced. PMID:26705419

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Hasabi; Hossein Askari; Seyed Mehdi Alavi; Masood Soltani Najafabadi

    2014-01-01

    Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest ba...

  3. Crescimento inicial e estado nutricional da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre porta-enxertos múltiplos de limoeiro 'Cravo' e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' Growth and nutritional status of non-bearing 'Valencia' sweet orange on single and multiple rootstocks of 'Rangpur Lime' and 'Swingle' citrumelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daves Willian Setin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A subenxertia com porta-enxerto tolerante à morte súbita dos citros (MSC, como o citrumeleiro 'Swingle', é atualmente a única indicação para o controle da doença em pomares já instalados. Assim, o plantio de mudas subenxertadas para a formação de novos pomares pode ser uma estratégia interessante onde a doença ainda não se instalou, minimizando a obrigatoriedade de irrigação suplementar demandada com o uso do 'Swingle'. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e o estado nutricional da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre porta-enxertos múltiplos e simples de 'Cravo' e 'Swingle', em fase de formação. Um pomar experimental foi instalado em espaçamento 7,0 m x 4,0 m, em Cordeirópolis (SP, em outubro de 2005 em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se cinco tratamentos: (1 porta-enxertos simples de 'Cravo' e (2 de 'Swingle'; (3 porta-enxerto duplo com subenxertia no porta-enxerto principal ou (4 na copa, e (5 porta-enxerto quádruplo. Determinaram-se o diâmetro do caule dos porta-enxertos e da copa, número e comprimento dos ramos em diferentes quadrantes, diâmetro, altura e volume de copa aos 8 e 14 meses após o plantio. Ainda, foram avaliados os teores de nutrientes nas folhas nos quadrantes norte e sul da copa aos 14 meses. As plantas de 'Valência' sobre porta-enxertos duplos cresceram mais do que aquelas sobre porta-enxertos simples de 'Swingle', sendo essas diferenças mais marcantes no período de maior deficiência hídrica. O uso de mais de um porta-enxerto alterou também o estado nutricional da laranjeira 'Valência' que revelou teores foliares mais elevados de P, K, Cu e Zn, do que as sobre porta-enxertos simples de 'Cravo' e 'Swingle'.Control of citrus sudden death (CSD has been only achieved by inarching affected trees in the field with tolerant rootstocks such as the 'Swingle' citrumelo. Therefore, the use of nursery trees inarched before planting appears as an

  4. Yield, compatibility and phenology of sweet pepper on different rootstocks in organic crop

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Cruz Costa; Regina Lúcia Félix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins; Caroliny Izabel Araújo Freitas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different rootstocks on yield, compatibility and phenology of sweet pepper in organic crop. The experiment was conducted at the ecological farm Seridó in Rio Branco - Acre. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and 15 replications. As rootstock was used three kinds of peppers (Doce comprida, Cheiro Luna and Cayenne dedo de moça), and sweet pepper Casca dura Ikeda cultivar. In this study, the fixation of s...

  5. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  6. Grafting of quince 'Portugal' on Cydonia and Chaenomeles rootstocks Enxertia do marmeleiro 'Portugal' em porta-enxertos Cydonia e Chaenomeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the specific case of the quince trees, there is lack of information about the emergency of their seedlings, development and time of production of rootstocks to reach the point of the grafting, as well as development of the grafts. Therefore, the objective of the present research was to study the Cydonia and Chaenomeles genera, as well as the development of the grafts during the nursery phase. Seeds of the quince tree cultivars 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Provence', ' Portugal' and 'Japonês' were obtained from ripe fruits and submitted to cold stratification during 20 days. Soon after, the seeds were sowed in 72-cell polystyrene trays (120 cm³ of capacity/cell containing vermiculite as substrate. After 60 days, the seedlings were put in plastic bags (3 liters of capacity filled with a substrate containing soil: sand: manure (1:1:1 v/v. The seedlings were kept in a 50% of shadow nursery and periodically irrigated. After 180 days, the seedlings were grafted by the cleft grafting method, during the winter, using scion sticks from quince 'Portugal'. After 60 days, the percentage of alive and sprouted grafts was evaluated. The length and diameter of the grafts were measured every 30 days, a total of four times. The quince 'Japonês' showed the best performance among all the rootstocks in this experiment, being an excellent alternative as rootstock for quince trees. 'Japonês' and 'Mendoza Inta-37' were also the rootstocks that promoted the best development of the grafts.Com relação ao marmeleiro, há carência de informações sobre a emergência das plântulas, desenvolvimento e tempo de produção dos porta-enxertos, assim como o desenvolvimento do enxerto. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de marmeleiros do gênero Cydonia e Chaenomeles em relação ao desenvolvimento dos enxertos, em condições de viveiro. Sementes do marmeleiro 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Provence', 'Portugal' e 'Japonês', foram extraídas de frutos maduros e

  7. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  8. Produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' clone IAC em 16 porta-enxertos na região de Bebedouro-SP Yield and fruit quality of 'Pêra' sweet orange clone IAC on 16 rootstocks in Bebedouro region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de 16 porta-enxertos na produtividade, nas características físicas e químicas (sólidos solúveis totais-°Brix; acidez; ratio; porcentagem de suco; índice tecnológico e tamanho dos frutos dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] e na incidência e severidade da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC. O plantio do experimento foi realizado em julho de 1993, com espaçamento de 6,0 m entre linhas e 3,5 m entre plantas (476 plantas/ha. O experimento foi conduzido sem irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, duas plantas por parcela, três repetições e 16 tratamentos, constituídos pelas seguintes cultivares porta-enxertos: tangerineira 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, tangerineira 'Pectinífera' (C. reticulata, 'Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, tangerineira 'Pectinífera/Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, tangerineira 'Batangas' (C. reticulata, tangerineira 'Oneco' (C. reticulata, citrangor [citrange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x C. sinensis x C. sinensis], citrandarin [C.sunki hort. Ex Tanaka x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. English, tangerineira 'Sunki' (C. sunki, tangerineira 'Suen-Kat' (C. sunki, tangerineira 'Nasnaran' (C. amblycarpa Ochse, tangerineira 'Venezuela' (C. reticulata, tangerineira Heen Naran (C. lycopersicaeformis hort. ex Tan. , limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck x tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort ex Tanaka, limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia, tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni. A intensidade da clorose variegada dos citros variou em função dos porta-enxertos e não se relacionou com a produção de frutos até a quarta safra. Os porta-enxertos estudados, com exceção da tangerineira Nasnaran, proporcionaram qualidade e produções iniciais de frutos similares aos do limoeiro 'Cravo'.An experiment was set up in July 1993, at Bebedouro city, São Paulo state, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the rootstock influence on the yield and several physical

  9. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzani, Simona M.; Leonardo Schena; Antonio Ippolito

    2014-01-01

    Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated w...

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Citrus R2R3MYB Genes and Their Spatiotemporal Expression under Stresses and Hormone Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Rangjin; Li, Yongjie; He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided in...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  12. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão para a diagnose de doenças, pragas e distúrbios abióticos dos citros Development of a decision support system for the diagnosis of citrus diseases, pests, and abiotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleilson do Nascimento Uchôa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a diagnose dos problemas que afetam as plantas cítricas proporcionou ao longo dos anos o acúmulo de conhecimento, que precisava ser organizado e divulgado de forma eficiente e rápida. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com esse trabalho construir uma base de conhecimentos para diagnóstico de doenças bióticas e abióticas dos citros, desenvolver e implementar o sistema de apoio à decisão (SAD e avaliar o sistema. O SAD foi construído utilizando a ferramenta 'Borland Delphi' versão 5. Foram formuladas 562 perguntas, 322 regras e anexadas fotografias para facilitar o diagnóstico de 34 doenças, 40 pragas e 34 distúrbios abióticos dos citros. A avaliação do SAD foi dividida em verificação e validação. Na verificação, o SAD foi submetido a uma análise por meio de questionário a 5 especialistas em citros. A validação do programa foi realizada com quatro grupos, de diferentes níveis de conhecimento (10 pessoas/grupo, tentando diagnosticar corretamente. Obteve-se um acerto de 45,6% dos usuários e 93,6% do SAD. O sistema foi denominado Dr. Citrus (protótipo com registro no INPI n° 014070009188.The concern about the diagnosis of problems affecting citrus led to an accumulation of knowledge over the years. However, such accumulated knowledge needed to be organized and efficiently disseminated. Thus, the aims of this work were to build a knowledge basis for the diagnosis of abiotic and biotic citrus diseases to develop and implement a Decision Support System (DSS and to test and evaluate this system. DSS was built by using the tool 'Borland Delphi' version 5. A total of 562 questions were formulated, including 322 rules, besides photographs to help in the diagnosis of 34 diseases, 40 pests and 34 abiotics disturbances in citrus. DSS evolution was divided into verification and validation. In the verification phase, DSS was analyzed by means of a questionnaire applied to citrus specialists. The program validation phase

  13. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  14. Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Robin B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR = 0.67 and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79. After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51 risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC.

  15. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

  16. Effects of Seedling and GF-31 Rootstocks on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Table Apricot Cultivars Grown in Mersin

    OpenAIRE

    SON, Levent

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in Mut-Mersin between 1997 and 2001 to determine the effects of seedling and GF-31 rootstocks on the yield and quality of fruits of Tokaloğlu, Precoce De Tyrinthe, Joubert Foulon, Canino, Sakıt 6, Beliana, Priana and Early Kishnevski table apricot cultivars. Fruit yields were highest on apricot seedling rootstocks for all cultivars. Yields (kg tree-1) ranged between 14.66 kg (Tokaloğlu) and 63.06 kg (Priana) on apricot seedling rootstocks and between 13.6 kg (Sak...

  17. Dikegulac-Sodium Effect on Micropropagation and Biochemical Parameters in the Cherry Rootstocks CAB-6P and Gisela 6

    OpenAIRE

    SARROPOULOU, VIRGINIA; DIMASSITHERIOU, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dikegulac-sodium (DS) alone and in combination with benzyladenine (BA) οn the morphogenetic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (Prunus cerasus x Prunus canescens) were investigated. In the CAB-6P rootstock, DS did not promote shoot proliferation whereas its application at 40, 120 and 150 μΜ suppressed shoot length. In the Gisela 6 rootstock, the number of shoots per explant and shoot proliferation rate were greater with 80...

  18. Comparative Studies of Various Phytonutrients in Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current piece of research was undertaken to investigate the phytochemicals constituents such as carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, anthraquinone, glycosides, Saponin, glycosides, steroid, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phlobotannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, etc in the species of citrus genus (Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulate Blanco, Citrus aurantium L. All these plants were collected locally. Qualitative analysis of these phytochemicals was performed. All three types of citrus are rich with phytochemicals. Quantitative screenings is in progress in our lab.

  19. Rootstock-scion interactions in the cucumber: implications for cultivation and breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Grafting cucumbers onto low temperature tolerant rootstocks Cucurbita ficifolia and Sicyos angulatus promoted vegetative growth and early fruit production at suboptimal temperatures in winter. The positive effect of grafting. onto C. ficifolia on length growth and leaf initiation depended on the gen

  20. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  1. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  2. Effect of phytophthora capsici crown rot on watermelon rootstocks and grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera is also gaining acceptance in our l...

  3. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-06-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper. PMID:19262798

  4. Thermal requirement and phenology of different cultivars of Vitis labrusca on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bertoletti Barros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of phenological stages and thermal requirement are important in vineyard management because provides information for production and quality of the grapes. This study had the objective to evaluate phenology and thermal demand of the grape cultivars Bordô, Concord, and BRS Carmem on rootstocks Paulsen 1103, IAC 766, and VR 043-43. The experiment was conducted in a family owned vineyard in Campo Largo, Paraná State, Brazil. The vineyard was carried out on ridges with semi-trellis in ‘T’ systems conducting (Geneva Double Curtain trellis. The evaluations were assessed during the production cycles of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The phenology was evaluated with a scale of 13 phenological stages. The thermal demand was defined by calculating the degree-days accumulation (DD from bud swelling until harvest stage. The cultivar BRS Carmem had the longest cycle, being influenced by the rootstock, IAC 766 e Paulsen 1103 showed opposite results for cycle time. The cultivar Concord was more stable; there was no influence of rootstock on the cycle or of the thermal demand on the two harvests. The duration of the phenological cycle in 2012/2013 was lower than on the first harvest. Thermal requirement of ‘BRS Carmem’ was influenced by tree different rootstocks, ‘Concord’ was not influenced, and the results to ‘Bordô’ were not consistent.

  5. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  6. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Muniz Pedrosa

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72 of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs. Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further

  7. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  8. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST) were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries...

  9. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  10. Advances made in in vitro mutation breeding in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced calli of citrus cultured in vitro were exposed to gamma rays and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS). An increased frequency of mutation (300 times higher than that in nature) was observed. Two computerized models were established. A high frequency somatic embryogenesis system was developed using glycerol (1-5%), lactose (3-8%) or glactose (7%) as the sole carbon source in MT medium. The habituated embryogenic calli of four citrus cultivars were selected from nucellar calli. Protoplasts with a viability of 91.2% were isolated from the habituated calli after being treated with 0.3% callulase and 0.3% pectinase for 16 hours. The protoplasts began to regenerate into plantlets after 2-3 months. No chromosome variation was found. Two salt resistant mutants were obtained after exposing the calli to gamma rays (5-8 krad) and EMS (0.3-0.5%) and screening with sodium chloride in vitro. Protoplast fusion is also discussed. (author). 4 figs

  11. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  12. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg...

  13. Effects of Different Rootstocks on Growth, Yield and Quality of Greenhouse Watermelon%不同砧木嫁接对日光温室西瓜生长、品质及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林; 赵霞; 李建设; 张光弟; 景宇晨

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, in order to screen out the optimal roostock for greenhouse watermelon, we studied the effects of four rootstocks, Meilijian, Jiadejin, Jingang, Kangbingjinzuan, on the growth and development of greenhouse watermelon, by taking Hualing own-rooted seedlings as the control treatment. The results showed that Jiadejin had best comprehensive performance among the four rootstocks, both the aboveground part and belowground part of the grafted seedlings grew vigorously, and the fruit quality of grafted watermelon had no significant difference with that of the control treatment. In addition, taking Jiadejin as rootstock, the grafted watermelon had heaviest single fruit weight and with the highest yield of 51 442 kg/hm2, thus the rootstock Jiadejin could be widely used in the greenhouse watermelon production.%以华铃自根苗为对照(CK),研究4个砧木美利坚、嫁得金、金刚、抗病金钻和嫁接对日光温室西瓜生长发育的影响,以筛选出最优日光温室西瓜嫁接砧木。试验结果表明,供试的嫁接砧木中嫁得金综合表现最好,嫁接苗地上部和地下部生长势最强,嫁接后的西瓜品质与对照自根苗西瓜无显著差异,且其西瓜单瓜质量最大,产量最高,达51442 kg/hm2,可在日光温室西瓜生产中应用推广。

  14. Nutrição e produção da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" em porta-enxertos e plantas de cobertura permanente na entrelinha Nutrition and yield of the 'Folha Murcha' orange in rootstocks and groundcover management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estado nutricional e a produção de citros não são conhecidos para as diferentes combinações copa/porta-enxertos e plantas de coberturas permanente na entrelinha. O estudo foi instalado em um experimento de laranjeira "Folha Murcha" [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] com oito anos de idade, conduzido entre 1997 a 2002, no município de Paranavaí, região Noroeste do Paraná. O solo corresponde a um Argissolo Vermelho distr��fico típico textura areia/franco arenoso. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por sete porta-enxertos: limoeiro "Cravo", limoeiro "Rugoso da África", limoeiro "Volcameriano", tangerineira "Cleópatra", tangerineira "Sunki", citrangeiro "C-13" e Trifoliata, com três plantas em cada parcela experimental. As repetições foram constituídas por três blocos com a cobertura Paspalum notatum e por um bloco com Arachis pintoi. Foram avaliados os teores dos nutrientes foliares e a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha". O manejo das entrelinhas com a leguminosa elevou os teores de N à faixa excessiva nas folhas do porta-enxerto limoeiro "Cravo", e reduziu a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" em relação à gramínea. Nas entrelinhas com gramínea, a produção de frutos da laranjeira "Folha Murcha" foi dependente das safras agrícolas e dos teores foliares de Ca, Mg e Zn. A absorção máxima de Ca pelas folhas de laranjeira "Folha Murcha" precede a de Mg e Zn. Nestas condições, os porta-enxertos tangerineira "Cleópatra" e limoeiro "Rugoso da África" apresentaram maior produção de frutos de laranjeira "Folha Murcha".The nutritional status and yield of citrus are not known for different canopy/rootstocks and soil groundcover management systems. The study was set up in a 8-year-old 'Folha Murcha' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] orange experiment, and was carried out from 1997 to 2002 in Paranavai, in the northwest region of the state of Parana

  15. Total Protein Content and SDS-PAGE in Pear Scions Grafted on Quince A and Pear Seedling Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLEN*, Hatice

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various rootstocks on the total soluble protein content of pear scions, and to detect a polypeptide as a marker that would be associated with pear/quince compatibility/incompatibility. Bark samples were collected from 5 year-old pear scions grafted on QA and pear seedling rootstocks (PS). Total soluble protein contents of bark tissues of 4 pear scions, Passa Crassana (PC), Beurre Hardy (BH), Beurre Bosc (BB) and Bartlett (BT), were determ...

  16. Rootstock Potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria Germplasm for Watermelon: Plant Growth, Graft Compatibility, and Resistance to Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    YETİŞİR, Halit; Şener KURT; Sari, Nebahat; TOK, Fatih M.

    2007-01-01

    The rootstock potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria germplasm for watermelon was evaluated. Among 210 accessions, 72 genotypes were selected based on morphological characteristics. Two commercial hybrid rootstocks were also used for comparison. Crimson Tide watermelon cultivar was used as a scion. Emergence rate, hypocotyl morphology, survival rate, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) were investigated. Grafted plants were grown for 3 weeks in order to investigate the ...

  17. EVALUATION OF PAL ACTIVITY, PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS IN THREE PISTACHIO ( PISTACIA VERA L.) CULTIVARS GRAFTED ONTO THREE DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Nadernejad; Ahmadimoghadam, A.; J. Hossyinifard; S. Poorseyedi

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" ...

  18. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Bolat; Murat Dikilitas; Sezai Ercisli; Ali Ikinci; Tahsin Tonkaz

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weight...

  19. A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia eAmbrós; Susana eRuiz-Ruiz; Leandro ePeña; Pedro eMoreno

    2013-01-01

    In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system base...

  20. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  1. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices. PMID:17472944

  2. Proteomic study participating the enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Wang, Liping; Tian, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin; He, Lizhong; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    An insertion grafting technique to do research on salt tolerance was applied using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf. cv. Xiuli) as a scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. cv. Chaofeng Kangshengwang) as a rootstock. Rootstock-grafting significantly relieved the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis induced by salt stress in watermelon plants. Proteomic analysis revealed 40 different expressed proteins in response to rootstock-grafting and/or salt stress. These proteins were involved in Calvin cycle, amino acids biosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS defense, hormonal biosynthesis and signal transduction. Most of these proteins were up-regulated by rootstock-grafting and/or susceptible to salt stress. The enhancement of the metabolic activities of Calvin cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, carotenoids and peroxisomes, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in rootstock-grafted seedlings under condition without salt. The accumulation of key enzymes included in these biological processes described above seems to play an important role in the enhancement of salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Furthermore, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase and phospholipase may be involved in transmitting the internal and external stimuli induced by grafting and/or salt stress. PMID:22771436

  3. Quince 'CPP': new dwarf rootstock for pear trees on organic and high density planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, pear production presents the same incipient situation over the last 15 years, due mostly to low production technology. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the development, growth and production of the pear tree cultivars Cascatense, Tenra and Hosui grafted on 'CPP' quince rootstock, using 'FT' pear as interstem. This trial was carried out in Guarapuava, State of Paraná, Southern region of Brazil, by five productive cycles. The pear trees were planted in September of 2004, spaced at 1.0 x 4.0 m (2,500 trees ha-1, trained to the modified central leader, on a Four-wire trellis, with drip irrigation and cultivated under organic production system. The following variables were evaluated: sprouting, anthesis, yield, fruit weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pulp firmness, canopy area per plant and per hectare and trunk diameter. The pear tree cv. Tenra was outstanding most of the years for fruit yield, and, consequently, showed the highest accumulated yield over the period (51.6 t ha-1, followed by the cultivars Cascatense (39.7 t ha-1 and Hosui (18.7 t ha-1. All pear cultivars presented suitable physical-chemical characteristics for commercial purposes, with minimal average soluble solids content of 11% at harvest. The maximum canopy area per hectare was attained for cv. Cascatense (3063.2 m², that was considered insufficient for a high yield. These results suggest the needs for studies with higher density planting and other training systems, searching optimize canopy volume. One of the most limiting factors in the organic pear orchard was the incidence of pear dieback caused by Botriosphaeria dothidea, severe more often in pear trees cv. Hosui.

  4. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  5. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa), and Pomelo (Citrus maxima) Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert Adrianto; Subagyo Yotopranoto; Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, ...

  6. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  7. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  10. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  11. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  12. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  13. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  14. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Paiwan Buachan; Linda Chularojmontri; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. T...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Seven Glutathione S-Transferase Genes from Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor)

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhang, Kun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Tian-Bo; Zhong, Rui; Xia, Wen-Kai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a global citrus pest, and has developed severe resistance to several types of acaricides. However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance in this mite remain unknown. In this study, seven full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes were identified and characterized in P. citri. The effects of pyridaben and fenpropathrin exposure on the expression of these genes were also investigated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed th...

  16. Analysis of Transcriptome Differences between Resistant and Susceptible Strains of the Citrus Red Mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Liu; Gaofei Jiang; Yunfei Zhang; Junli Li; Xiaojiao Li; Jiansu Yue; Fei Chen; Haoqiang Liu; Hongjun Li; Shiping Zhu; Jinjun Wang; Chun Ran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The citrus red mite is a worldwide citrus pest and a common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis. It has developed strong resistance to many registered acaricides, However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. we therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptomes between resistant strains and susceptible strains. RESULTS: We obtained 34,159, 30,466 and 32,217 unigenes by assembling the SS reads, RS reads and SS&RS...

  17. Citrus (Rutaceae) SNP Markers Based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; Transferability Across the Aurantioideae Subfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Garcia-Lor; Gema Ancillo; Luis Navarro; Patrick Ollitrault

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar) were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characteriza...

  18. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  19. Effects of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on rooting of grapevine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study. effects of topical applications of two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains and their combination (Bacillus BA16, OSU142 and BA16+OSU142 on the rooting of 41B and Rupestris du Lot rootstocks were investigated. The results showed that none of the bacterial strains have significant effects on success rate at 41B and Rupestris du Lot alone, but BA16+0SU142 combination significantly increased the rooting rate and rooting degree of 41B, and decreased the rooting rate and rooting degree of Rupestris du Lot compared with control. In addition, none of the applications had significant effects in number, length and weight of roots on cuttings of both 41B and Rupestris du Lot. Our results suggest that PGPR may have a great potential to stimulate the rooting of hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks, with low rooting capability.

  20. Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Method for the Rapid Identification of Citrus Limonoid Glucosides in Citrus Juices and Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method to screen citrus samples for limonoid glucosides and estimate their relative concentrations has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase, whereas previous methods have reli...

  1. Uso de câmara úmida em enxertia hipocotiledonar de maracujazeiro-amarelo sobre três porta-enxertos Use of humid chamber in hypocotyledonary grafting of yellow passion fruit on three rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência de plantas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertadas sobre três porta-enxertos com uso de câmara úmida, instalou-se este experimento em um viveiro de mudas no município de Adamantina - SP, no período de dezembro de 2005 a abril de 2006. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores avaliados foram três porta-enxertos (Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertii em dois ambientes (com e sem câmara úmida. Foi utilizada a enxertia hipocotiledonar pelo método de garfagem tipo fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto e do enxerto, o número de folhas, o comprimento do entrenó, a porcentagem de sobrevivência das plantas e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Observou-se que o método de enxertia utilizado foi bem-sucedido para as três espécies de porta-enxertos estudadas. P. gibertii e P. edulis proporcionaram melhores resultados como porta-enxertos. O porta-enxerto P. alata proporcionou menor altura de planta, menor diâmetro do enxerto e do porta-enxerto e menor índice de sobrevivência. O uso da câmara úmida não favoreceu nenhuma das variáveis estudadas.The experiment was installed in Adamantina, SP, Brazil, from December 2005 to April 2006, aiming to evaluate yellow passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims development and survival, when they were grafted on three rootstocks during the nursery phase. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 3 x 2, with four replications. The studied factors were three rootstocks (Passiflora edulis, P. alata and P. gibertii in two environments (with and without humid chamber. Seedlings were grafted by the cleft grafting method. The variables evaluated were: grafts height, rootstocks and grafts stem diameter, leaf number, internode length, survival percentage, aerial portion and

  2. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangjin Xie

    Full Text Available The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  3. Evaluation for salt stress tolerance of pepper genotypes to be used as rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Penella, C.; Nebauer, S.G.; Lopéz-Galarza, S.; SanBautista, A.; Gorbe, E.; Calatayud, A.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental constraint on crop productivity and grafting can be a sustainable strategy to enhance plant tolerance under adverse growth conditions. Screening different graft combinations under field conditions can be a slow and expensive processes. In this study, plants of 18 genotypes of Capsicum spp. were evaluated during 5 months to select salt tolerant plants to be used as rootstocks in greenhouse under controlled conditions. Their net photosynthetic rate was used as ...

  4. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OpenAIRE

    OKA, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as r...

  5. Use of in vitro propagation of `Obla?inska? sour cherry in rootstock breeding

    OpenAIRE

    DORIC, DUSICA; Vladislav OGNJANOV; Barac, Goran; LJUBOJEVIC, MIRJANA; PRANJIC, ANKICA; DUGALIC, KRUNOSLAV; ERCİŞLİ, SEZAİ

    2015-01-01

    Prunus cerasus L. `Obla?inska? sour cherry germplasm was established in vitrodirectly from in situ plants on different explant collection dates, enabling quick clonal multiplication and introduction to a rootstock breeding program. Rosette initiation of four investigated genotypes was possible from November to April on the medium containing Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) macroelements, Murashige and Skoog (MS) microelements, and vitamins supplemented with (in mg L?1) 6-benzyladenine (BA), 0.5; i...

  6. An analysis of the small RNA transcriptome of four developmental stages of the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Dou, W; Ding, T-B; Zhong, R; Liao, C-Y; Xia, W-K; Wang, J-J

    2014-04-01

    The citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) can feed on more than 112 plant species around the world. Endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have proved to be important components of gene regulation in many eukaryotes. Recently, many sRNAs have been shown to be involved in various biological processes, such as development in many animals, including insects; however, to date, no sRNAs have been reported in the citrus red mite. Using Illumina sequencing, several categories of sRNAs were identified, including 594 known microRNAs (miRNAs) grouped into 206 families and 31 novel miRNAs in the four developmental stages of citrus red mite. In addition, according to bioinformatics analysis and S-Poly(T) miRNA assays, the expression level of many miRNAs varied among the developmental stages. Furthermore, the prediction of miRNAs target genes and their functional annotation indicated that miRNAs are involved in the regulation of multiple pathways in the citrus red mite. As the first report of the sRNA world in citrus red mite, the present study furthers our understanding of the roles played by sRNAs in the development of citrus red mite and the data may help to develop methods of controlling the pests in the field. PMID:24330037

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Kinds of Fungicides in Citrus Fruits by Gas Chromatograghy/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hideo; Hirao, Akiho; Tokuda, Yuuki; Uruta, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    A simple and accurate procedure was developed for the determination of seven fungicides, azoxystrobin (AZO), diphenyl (DP), fludioxonil (FLUDI), imazalil (IMZ), o-phenylphenol (OPP), pyrimethanil (PYRI) and thiabendazole (TBZ), in citrus fruits. The citrus fruit sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up with a graphite carbon/aminopropyl silanized silica gel solid-phase extraction cartridge using acetonitrile-toluene (3 : 1, v/v) as the eluent. Triphenylene was used as an internal standard (I.S.) at the concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The sample solution was subjected to GC-MS utilizing the matrix-matched standard solution method. The recoveries of AZO, FLUDI, IMZ, OPP, PYRI and TBZ spiked in domestic citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarin) at the level of 0.01-10.0 μg/g were 72.8-104% and the limits of quantification were 0.01 μg/g. The recoveries of DP spiked in domestic citrus fruits at the level of 0.01-70.0 μg/g were 70.8-80.4% and the limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/g. The proposed method was applied to the determination of fungicides in citrus fruits purchased in various markets. PMID:27558228

  8. Comparative Analysis of SSR and SRAP Sequence Divergence in Citrus Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamdy Amar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we sought to determine whether one simple criterion, sequence divergence, can reasonably guide in phylogenetic across a broad scale in Citrus germplasm. Comparative investigation on the performance of the SSR and SRAP markers was conducted in phylogenetic analysis across sequence analysis of the PCR product in the genus Citrus and its relatives. The maximum composite likelihood model was used for pairwise distance calculation. To determine whether there is a difference depending on the method of choice. Somehow, phylogenetic trees were constructed using two algorithms Neighbor Joining (NJ and Maximum Parsimony (MP via MEGA 4 software. In contrast some differences in the positioning of some genotypes were observed in the phylogenetic trees created using the two models and the dendrogram from MP across SRAP sequence was the most congruent with Swingle and Reeces treatment of the subfamily Aurantioideae. The results of the present study suggest that evaluation of SRAP variation at the sequence level can be effective than SSR variation in exploring the evolutionary relationships among Citrus species. These results were the new information for future study on Citrus breeding programs such as germplasm characterization, screening of zygotic and nuclear seedlings and developing sequence divergence in Citrus and its relatives.

  9. Rigitano: nova cultivar de umezeiro para porta-enxerto de pessegueiro Rigitano: new mume cultivar to rootstock of peach tree

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    Fernando Mendes Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa brasileira não havia desenvolvido, até o presente momento, um porta-enxerto clonal para a cultura do pessegueiro com características agronômicas desejáveis, especialmente com relação à resistência a nematóides-de-galha, facilidade de propagação por estacas herbáceas e indução à melhoria da qualidade dos frutos da cultivar-copa. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar a cultivar Rigitano de umezeiro, selecionada e aprovada para constituir um novo porta-enxerto para a cultura do pessegueiro. Identificada inicialmente como 'Clone 10', a cultivar Rigitano é resultante de um amplo projeto de pesquisa, realizado a partir de 1998 em colaboração com material procedente do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal (SP. Os trabalhos de seleção e multiplicação para validação técnico-científica final iniciaram-se com experimentos de propagação por estacas herbáceas, cujos resultados indicaram viabilidade do método nas quatro estações do ano, nas condições climáticas de Jaboticabal (SP. A enxertia com o pessegueiro 'Aurora-1', borbulhia em escudo ou escudo modificado, demonstrou ser viável em porta-enxertos de maior diâmetro (± 10 mm. Em condições de campo, 'Rigitano' revelou-se o menos vigoroso dos clones de umezeiro testados. Além disso, 'Rigitano' é resistente a Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita, entretanto é suscetível a Mesocriconema xenoplax. Os resultados de campo, como porta-enxerto da cv. Aurora-1 de pessegueiro, revelam boa produtividade e frutos com boas qualidades pomológicas e tecnológicas. Os resultados de pesquisa obtidos revelam amplas possibilidades de sucesso da cv. Rigitano em sua validação como novo porta-enxerto de pessegueiro, bem como seu uso visando à redução do espaçamento de plantio e à produção de frutos de melhor qualidade.The Brazilian research had not developed until

  10. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO DE HASTES DE LARANJA CACAU (Citrus sinensis Osb NO "PEGAMENTO" DE BORBULHAS EFFECT OF THE STORAGE PERIOD OF “CACAU” ORANGE (Citrus sinensis OSB BUDWOODS ON THE QUALITY OF BUDS FOR GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Teixeira Lopes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da conservação de borbulhas de laranja “Cacau” (Citrus sinensis Osb embaladas em sacos plásticos, no pegamento de enxertos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram enxertia com borbulhas de hastes com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias de conservação. A percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente em função do período de conservação. À medida que aumentava a intensidade de descoloração das hastes, diminuía a percentagem de "pegamento" de enxertos. Para nossas condições as borbulhas de laranja "cacau" (Citrus sinensis Osb não devem ser conservadas em sacos plásticos, à temperatura ambiente, por mais de 5 dias, pois a percentagem de enxertos brotados decresceu linearmente com o período de conservação das hastes.

    This work was carried out at the Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da UFGO. This study was made to test the effect of the storage period of the “cacau” orange budwood on the quality of buds for grafting. Budwoods of the “Cacau” orange (Citrus sinensis  Osb were harvested, packed in polyethylene bags and maintained at environmental temperature. The buds were grafted on rootstocks of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osb at intervals of 6 days (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. It was noted that the loss of bud viability increased simultaneously with progressive change in budwood color from the natural green to an intense brown. The percentages of buds alive after 60 days of grafting were: 100% on the day budwoods were harvested; 70% after 5 days of storage; 36% after 10 days of storage and 00% after 15 days.

  11. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  12. Genetic Diversity among Iranian Local and Commercial Apple Rootstocks by Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

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    Reza Darvishzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic diversity among twelve apple rootstocks by using 14 simple sequence repeat primer pairs. Generally, 44 alleles were scored at SSR loci. The number of alleles (na per locus ranged from two to five alleles with an average of 3.14. The maximum effective number of alleles (ne, expected heterozygosity (He, and observed heterozygosity (Hobs were 2.3, 0.56 and 0.36, respectively. Results showed that the studied genotypes were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most of studied loci. The polymorphism information content (PIC varied from 0.5 to 0.86 which confirmed the effectiveness of SSR markers in determination of molecular polymorphism and characterization of the rootstocks genotypes. Cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm on the basis of Jaccard’s similarity coefficient classified the studied genotypes into three distinct groups. In this study, three Iranian local rootstocks were located in separate groups.

  13. Genetic Diversity among Iranian Local and Commercial Apple Rootstocks by Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Darvishzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic diversity among twelve apple rootstocks by using 14 simple sequence repeat primer pairs. Generally, 44 alleles were scored at SSR loci. The number of alleles (na per locus ranged from two to five alleles with an average of 3.14. The maximum effective number of alleles (ne, expected heterozygosity (He, and observed heterozygosity (Hobs were 2.3, 0.56 and 0.36, respectively. Results showed that the studied genotypes were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most of studied loci. The polymorphism information content (PIC varied from 0.5 to 0.86 which confirmed the effectiveness of SSR markers in determination of molecular polymorphism and characterization of the rootstocks genotypes. Cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm on the basis of Jaccard’s similarity coefficient classified the studied genotypes into three distinct groups. In this study, three Iranian local rootstocks were located in separate groups.

  14. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

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    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  15. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, L.; Priolo, A.; L. Biondi; Lanza, M.; Bognanno, M.; Gravador, R.; Luciano, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrateswith high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates inwhich 24% and 35% dried citrus pulpwere included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and satu...

  16. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  17. CALOGÊNESE EM ÓVULOS DE ESPÉCIES E VARIEDADES DE CITRUS CALLUS INDUCTION FROM CITRUS SPECIES AND VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO PEDROSO DE OLIVEIRA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura vem realizando ações de pesquisa visando à obtenção de híbridos somáticos de citros, particularmente porta-enxertos, melhor adaptados às condições tropicais de cultivo brasileiras que as variedades atualmente em uso. Como objetivo principal, busca-se a seleção de genótipos tolerantes à seca e ao alumínio, tolerantes/resistentes a gomose de Phytophthora e tristeza dos citros, além de adaptados a altas densidades populacionais. Como fontes de protoplastos, vêm sendo utilizadas as tangerinas-'Cleópatra', 'Sunki' e 'Swatow', limões-'Cravo Santa Cruz' e 'Santa Bárbara', 'Volkameriano' e 'Rugoso Mazoe', laranja 'Hamlin CNPMF 04' e 'CNPMF 20', laranjas-azedas 'Comum' e 'Narrow Leaf', citrange-'Troyer', Citrus amblycarpa e Microcitrus papuana. O estudo concentrou-se na etapa de obtenção e cultivo de calos embriogênicos. Foram utilizados óvulos extraídos de frutos imaturos, empregando-se como meio de cultura o MT, adicionando-se 50 g.L-1 de sacarose e 500 mg.L-1de extrato de malte e solidificando com 7 g.L-1 1de ágar. Em geral, a indução de calos nas variedades estudadas ocorreu entre a 6ª e a 8ª semana de cultivo, com maior precocidade na laranja-‘Hamlin’, sendo que, em limão-‘Cravo’, laranja-‘Hamlin’ , tangerinas-‘Cleópatra’ e ‘Swatow’ e citrange-‘Troyer’, a porcentagem de formação de calos foi igual ou superior a 50%, destacando-se a tangerina-‘Cleópatra’ com um porcentual próximo a 70% de calogênese.Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Research with citrus aim at obtaining somatic hybrids, particularly rootstocks, better adapted to the Brazilian tropical cultivation conditions than the varieties currently in use. The main objectives are the selection of genotypes tolerant to drought and aluminum toxicity, tolerant/resistant to Phytophthora foot rot and citrus tristeza virus, besides being well adapted to high planting densities. The following varieties have being

  18. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  19. Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

  20. Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

  1. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  2. Characterizing the citrus variety Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production is of global importance both in economic impact and significance to nutrition. The number of natural citrus species appears extremely limited. The genome size is small (haploid approximately 367 Mb), arranged on 18 chromosomes. The citrus variety Carrizo, generated by a ‘Washingt...

  3. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  4. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  5. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  6. Advanced Generation Peach-Almond Hybrids as Seedling Rootstocks for Almond: First Year Growth and Potential Pollenizers for Hybrid Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, seedling peaches have been used as the standard rootstock in California almond orchards. Vigorous, deep rooted trees are needed in almond orchards for maximum yields and to withstand the annual tree-shaking at harvest. Currently, researchers are actively evaluating rootstocks for almo...

  7. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

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    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  8. Evaluation of PAL activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Three Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Cultivars Grafted onto Three Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadernejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi" on three rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs. PAL activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured toward the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it is more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogen. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, and therefore it is concluded that pistachio rootstocks may affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels.

  9. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  10. Does citrus leaf miner impair hydraulics and fitness of citrus host plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo

    2013-12-01

    Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus  ×  paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here. PMID:24319027

  11. Portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Alessandro D.; Rossi, Giuliano; de Castro, Guilherme Cunha; Ortega, Tiago A.; de Castro N., Jarbas C.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the development of a portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection is presented. The equipment consists of an excitation blue LED light source, a commercial miniature spectrometer and embedded software. Measurements of healthy, HLB-symptomatic and HLB-asymptomatic citrus leafs were performed. Leafs were excited with the blue LED and their fluorescence spectra collected. Embedded electronics and software were responsible for the spectrum processing and classification via partial least squares regression. Global success rates above 80% and 100% distinction of healthy and HLB-symptomatic leafs were obtained.

  12. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  13. Determination of origin and sugars of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm, correspondence analysis and partial least square combined with fiber optic NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Jagdish C.; Dixit, Vivechana; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Malik, Kamal A.

    2008-12-01

    The capacity to confirm the variety or origin and the estimation of sucrose, glucose, fructose of the citrus fruits are major interests of citrus juice industry. A rapid classification and quantification technique was developed and validated for simultaneous and nondestructive quantifying the sugar constituent's concentrations and the origin of citrus fruits using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using genetic algorithm, Chemometrics and Correspondences Analysis (CA). To acquire good classification accuracy and to present a wide range of concentration of sucrose, glucose and fructose, we have collected 22 different varieties of citrus fruits from the market during the entire season of citruses. FT-NIR spectra were recorded in the NIR region from 1100 to 2500 nm using the fiber optic probe and three types of data analysis were performed. Chemometrics analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed in order to determine the concentration of individual sugars. Artificial Neural Network analysis was performed for classification, origin or variety identification of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm. Correspondence analysis was performed in order to visualize the relationship between the citrus fruits. To compute a PLS model based upon the reference values and to validate the developed method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Spectral range and the number of PLS factors were optimized for the lowest standard error of calibration (SEC), prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient ( R2). The calibration model developed was able to assess the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in unknown citrus fruit up to an R2 value of 0.996-0.998. Numbers of factors from F1 to F10 were optimized for correspondence analysis for relationship visualization of citrus fruits based on the output values of genetic algorithm. ANN and CA analysis showed excellent classification

  14. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms. PMID:26835778

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest bacterial growth inhibitory effect had direct antibacterial activity and strongly reduced the development of canker disease and bacterial population of lime plants.

  16. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  17. Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome in Huanglongbing-Affected Citrus Treated with Thermotherapy and Sulfonamide Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Fang, Jingping; Zhang, Muqing

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las), but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. In this study, combinations of heat (45°C or 40°C) and sulfonamide treatment (sulfathiazole sodium-STZ, or sulfadimethoxine sodium-SDX) were applied to HLB-affected citrus. The bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus following thermotherapy and/or chemotherapy was characterized by PhyloChipTMG3-based metagenomics. Our results showed that the combination of thermotherapy at 45°C and chemotherapy with STZ and SDX was more effective against HLB than thermotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or a combination of thermotherapy at 40°C and chemotherapy. The PhyloChipTMG3-based results indicated that 311 empirical Operational Taxonomic Units (eOTUs) were detected in 26 phyla. Cyanobacteria (18.01%) were dominant after thermo-chemotherapy. Thermotherapy at 45°C decreased eOTUs (64.43%) in leaf samples, compared with thermotherapy at 40°C (73.96%) or without thermotherapy (90.68%) and it also reduced bacterial family biodiversity. The eOTU in phylum Proteobacteria was reduced significantly and eOTU_28, representing "Candidatus Liberibacter," was not detected following thermotherapy at 45°C. Following antibiotic treatment with SDX and STZ, there was enhanced abundance of specific eOTUs belonging to the families Streptomycetaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Chitinophagaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, which may be implicated in increased resistance to plant pathogens. Our study further develops an integrated strategy for combating HLB, and also provides new insight into the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. PMID:27171468

  18. Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome in Huanglongbing-Affected Citrus Treated with Thermotherapy and Sulfonamide Antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las, but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. In this study, combinations of heat (45°C or 40°C and sulfonamide treatment (sulfathiazole sodium-STZ, or sulfadimethoxine sodium-SDX were applied to HLB-affected citrus. The bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus following thermotherapy and/or chemotherapy was characterized by PhyloChipTMG3-based metagenomics. Our results showed that the combination of thermotherapy at 45°C and chemotherapy with STZ and SDX was more effective against HLB than thermotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or a combination of thermotherapy at 40°C and chemotherapy. The PhyloChipTMG3-based results indicated that 311 empirical Operational Taxonomic Units (eOTUs were detected in 26 phyla. Cyanobacteria (18.01% were dominant after thermo-chemotherapy. Thermotherapy at 45°C decreased eOTUs (64.43% in leaf samples, compared with thermotherapy at 40°C (73.96% or without thermotherapy (90.68% and it also reduced bacterial family biodiversity. The eOTU in phylum Proteobacteria was reduced significantly and eOTU_28, representing "Candidatus Liberibacter," was not detected following thermotherapy at 45°C. Following antibiotic treatment with SDX and STZ, there was enhanced abundance of specific eOTUs belonging to the families Streptomycetaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Chitinophagaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, which may be implicated in increased resistance to plant pathogens. Our study further develops an integrated strategy for combating HLB, and also provides new insight into the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics.

  19. Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome in Huanglongbing-Affected Citrus Treated with Thermotherapy and Sulfonamide Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Fang, Jingping; Zhang, Muqing

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. In this study, combinations of heat (45°C or 40°C) and sulfonamide treatment (sulfathiazole sodium–STZ, or sulfadimethoxine sodium—SDX) were applied to HLB-affected citrus. The bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus following thermotherapy and/or chemotherapy was characterized by PhyloChipTMG3-based metagenomics. Our results showed that the combination of thermotherapy at 45°C and chemotherapy with STZ and SDX was more effective against HLB than thermotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or a combination of thermotherapy at 40°C and chemotherapy. The PhyloChipTMG3-based results indicated that 311 empirical Operational Taxonomic Units (eOTUs) were detected in 26 phyla. Cyanobacteria (18.01%) were dominant after thermo-chemotherapy. Thermotherapy at 45°C decreased eOTUs (64.43%) in leaf samples, compared with thermotherapy at 40°C (73.96%) or without thermotherapy (90.68%) and it also reduced bacterial family biodiversity. The eOTU in phylum Proteobacteria was reduced significantly and eOTU_28, representing “Candidatus Liberibacter,” was not detected following thermotherapy at 45°C. Following antibiotic treatment with SDX and STZ, there was enhanced abundance of specific eOTUs belonging to the families Streptomycetaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Chitinophagaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, which may be implicated in increased resistance to plant pathogens. Our study further develops an integrated strategy for combating HLB, and also provides new insight into the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. PMID:27171468

  20. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity....

  1. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following: (1) Citrus I—Early and mid-season oranges; (2) Citrus II—Late oranges juice; (3) Citrus III—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on a juice basis; (4) Citrus IV—Tangelos...; or (2) The following juice content, if acceptable records are not furnished: (i) Citrus I—52...

  2. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  3. Heterografting with nonself rootstocks induces genes involved in stress responses at the graft interface when compared with autografted controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Although grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops, little is known about graft union formation in particular when two different species are grafted together. It is fascinating that two different plant species brought together can develop harmoniously as one organism for many decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether grafting two different grapevine genotypes alters gene expression at the graft interface in comparison to the presumably wound-like gene expression changes induced in autografts. Gene expression at the graft interface was studied 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after grafting in hetero- and autografts of grapevine (Vitis spp.). Genes differentially expressed between the hetero- and autografts during graft union formation were identified. These genes were clustered according to their expression profile over the time course. MapMan and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed the coordinated upregulation of genes from numerous functional categories related to stress responses in the hetero- compared to the autografts. This indicates that heterografting with nonself rootstocks upregulates stress responses at the graft interface, potentially suggesting that the cells of the graft interface can detect the presence of a nonself grafting partner. PMID:24692649

  4. Citrus Quality Control: An NMR/MRI Problem-Based Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Sarah E.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment seated in an industrial context can provide an engaging framework and unique learning opportunity for an upper-division physical chemistry laboratory. An experiment that teaches NMR/MRI through a problem-based quality control of citrus products was developed. In this experiment, using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, students…

  5. Real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and differentiation of Citrus tristeza virus isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For universal detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains by real time RT-PCR, a protocol was developed based on a set of primers and a Cy5-labeled TaqMan probe. This test included primers and a TET-labeled TaqMan probe selected on the mitochondrial nad5 gene for the simultaneous detection of ...

  6. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  7. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) a...

  8. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

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    Navarro Luis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9, one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22 and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18 of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus.

  9. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  10. Odorants for Surveillance and Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Forster, Lisa; Guda, Tom; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-01-01

    Background The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. Results In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs). We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ∼230%. Conclusion These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect. PMID:25347318

  11. Odorants for surveillance and control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB, a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents. RESULTS: In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs. We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ∼230%. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect.

  12. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  13. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  14. Produção de porta-enxertos em tubetes e enxertia precoce da pinheira (Annona squamosa L. Production of rootstocks in tubettes and early grafting of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Eduardo Pinto de Lemos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo para a enxertia precoce de pinheira em porta-enxertos produzidos em tubetes como substituto do tradicional sistema de enxertia que utiliza porta-enxertos de 12 meses produzidos em sacolas plásticas. O trabalho foi conduzido com três métodos de enxertia (borbulhia em escudo, garfagem de topo em fenda cheia e garfagem lateral em fenda cheia e quatro idades dos porta-enxertos (3; 5; 7 e 9 meses. Os porta-enxertos foram avaliados durante nove meses com relação às variáveis: comprimento da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar. Cada procedimento de enxertia foi avaliado por 30 dias através da percentagem de pegamento. Os porta-enxertos produzidos nos tubetes maiores apresentaram-se mais desenvolvidos para todas as variáveis, todavia a percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos foi mais influenciada pelo método de enxertia do que pelo tamanho de tubete. A garfagem de topo em fenda cheia mostrou-se como o melhor método para a enxertia precoce, pois já aos três meses de idade dos porta-enxertos apresentou taxa de pegamento de 96,69%. O método de garfagem lateral em fenda cheia apresentou taxas semelhantes a partir dos cinco meses de idade dos porta-enxertos. O método de borbulhia apresentou baixo pegamento inicial (The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for early grafting in sugar apple seedlings developed in small capacity plastic tubettes as a substitute for the traditional grafting system that uses 12 months-old seedlings developed in plastic bags. The work was carried out with three budding/grafting methods (chip budding, split graft and side-stub graft and four rootstocks ages (3, 5, 7 and 9 months. The rootstocks were evaluated for 9 months with regard to the following variables: length of the plant, diameter of stem, leaf number and leaf area. Each budding/grafting procedure was evaluated after 30 days and the percentage of union. The

  15. Identification of reciprocal hybrids in citrus by the broadness of the leaf petiole wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M.L. Ballve

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadness of leaf petiole wing (WB was investigated as a morphological marker for screening hybrids of the very narrow-winged species Citrus limonia and C. sunki with broad-winged species C. aurantium and C. sinensis. Controlled polinizations produced over 500 reciprocal hybrids with potential in the ongoing rootstock breeding program identified by the Pgi-1 and Prxa-1 isozyme loci. Measurement ratios WB/leaf length, WB/leaf broadness and WB/petiole length identified 86 to 91% of the reciprocal hybrids produced. However, visual classification of WB was an equally efficient but much easier and faster method. It can be very useful in breeding programs when large number of plants have to be screened or when isozyme, RFLP or RAPD laboratories are not available.Investigou-se a largura da asa do pecíolo da folha (WB como um marcador morfológico para identificar híbridos recíprocos de Citrus limonia e C. sunki, que possuem a asa do pecíolo bastante reduzida, com C. aurantium e C. sinensis, cujas asas dos pecíolos são bem desenvolvidas. Polinizações controladas produziram mais de 500 híbridos identificados pelos loci isoenzímicos Pgi-1 e Prxa-1. WB e a razão desta pelo comprimento da folha, pela largura da folha e pelo comprimento do pecíolo identificaram, em média, 86 a 91% dos híbridos recíprocos produzidos. A simples observação subjetiva da WB é, entretanto, um processo igualmente eficiente porém muito mais fácil e rápido. Este poderá ser bastante útil e econômico em programas de melhoramento nos casos em que se necessite a seleção de grande número de plantas ou quando não se dispõe de laboratórios de eletroforese de isoenzimas RFLP ou RAPD. Os híbridos produzidos e identificados têm sido avaliados quanto ao seu potencial como porta-enxertos de citros no Brasil.

  16. Apple Rootstock New Variety Chistock #1%苹果砧木新品种中砧1号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振海; 王忆; 张新忠; 许雪峰; 孙扬吾; 沈隽

    2013-01-01

    The iron has a very important role in the growth and development of the plant,iron deficiency causes chlorosis in apple trees.The main producing areas of apple in China just iron deficiency,therefore,filter out iron-efficient resources from rich apple germplasm resources,and breeding new varieties of apple rootstocks through breeding means is fundamental pathway to solve due to iron deficiency affected yield and quality of apple production.Since 1984,the project team screened iron-efficient genotypes from 40 apple stocks and found Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang,grow normally and do not exhibit symptoms of chlorosisin in conditions of very low Fe content,was considered to be an excellent germplasm with tolerance to iron deficiency.Subsequently,open pollinated hybrids groups were established on the basis of M.xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang seedlings.In 1990,excellent grades was obtained through original selection from natural seedlings.Then after multiple selection and comparison test,bred apple clonal rootstocks Chistock #1.Chistock #1 is a tetraploid in chromosome number (2n =4x =68),with a capacity of apomixis,and setting rate above 85% after emasculation bagged.Then with excellent grafting compatibility,seedling dry good standing and strong solid ground,semi-dwarf,dwarf extent,effects and yield capacity were similar with simi-dwarfing apple rootstock M7.Sweet fruit flavor,palatability,and excellent quality.Resist apple early defoliation disease and branches ring rot,high resistance to apple Chlorotic leaf spot virus(CLSV),Stem pitting virus(SPV) and the Stem groove virus(SGV) and other latent virus.Chistock #1 can effectively prevent etiolation due to iron deficiency as apple rootstock in the lime parent material soil areas.%铁是植物生长的必需微量元素,缺铁导致苹果发生失绿症,生长结果受到影响.我国苹果主产区恰在缺铁区域范围内,因此,从丰富的苹果种质资源中筛选出铁高效型资源,通

  17. The Influence of Salinity on Seedling Growth of Some Pumpkin Varieties Used as Rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Rana KURUM; ULUKAPI, Kamile; Köksal AYDINŞAKİR; Onus, Ahmet Naci

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different salinity levels (0, “control”, 2, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1) on seedling growth of Obez, RS 841 and Ferro F1 pumpkin varieties, widely used around the world as rootstock, were investigated. Seedlings grown under saline conditions were investigated for plant main stem length, plant length, root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weights and ion concentrations (Ca++, K+, Na+) in the leaves of pumpkin varietie...

  18. Huanglongbing resistance and tolerance in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-i...

  19. Asian citrus psyllid - biology and seasonal ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal ecology of Diaphorina citri was investigated in a non-irrigated citrus grove of mature orange trees beginning January 2005 in east central Florida. No insecticides were applied during the study. Predators including lady beetles, lacewings and syrphid flies were observed during the stud...

  20. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  1. Assessment of Stubborn Disease Incidence in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD) has been a problem in California for over 90 years, yet, methods for rapidly detecting its causal agent, Spiroplasma citri, for use in estimating disease incidence have not been optimized. Two 8 ha blocks within two commercial groves were sampled in July and August, 20...

  2. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  3. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  4. Consumo, digestibilidade, desempenho, desenvolvimento ponderal e economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de capim-tifton 85 para novilhas leiteiras Effects of partial replacement of Tifton 85 hay with citrus pulp on intake, performance, and development of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Mendes Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo, a digestibilidade, o desempenho, o desenvolvimento ponderal, a conversão alimentar e a economicidade de dietas com polpa cítrica em substituição ao feno de tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear para novilhas leiteiras. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis (0; 16,6; 33,3 e 50% de substituição do feno por polpa cítrica. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com sete repetições. Utilizaram-se 28 novilhas holandesas (12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 184 kg mantidas em baias individuais. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, CT e NDT aumentaram linearmente e o de FDN decresceu à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. O consumo de EE elevou de forma quadrática com aumento dessa substituição, apresentando valor mínimo quando 2,27% do feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. Os consumos de Ca e P aumentaram com o aumento dos níveis de substituição do feno. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO, PB e FDN reduziram linearmente, enquanto os de EE e CT não foram influenciados pela substituição. O ganho de peso aumentou linearmente, mas o crescimento de altura de cernelha foi menor e o de altura de garupa não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição. Observou-se aumento linear no perímetro torácico à medida que o feno foi substituído pela polpa cítrica. A polpa cítrica pode ser utilizada em até 35% da dieta total na alimentação de novilhas leiteiras de acordo com a conveniência econômica e a disponibilidade de alimentos volumosos, como alternativa para o produtor reduzir a idade à primeira cobertura e ao primeiro parto, com menor custo de alimentação.The objective of this trial was to evaluate intake, digestibility, performance, development, feed efficiency and feeding costs in dairy heifers fed increasing levels of citrus pulp that partially replaced Tifton-85 hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pear in the

  5. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  6. Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...

  7. Differential responses of grapevine rootstocks to water stress are associated with adjustments in fine root hydraulic physiology and suberization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficits are known to alter fine root structure and function, but little is known about how these responses contribute to differences in drought resistance across grapevine rootstocks. We studied how water deficit affects root anatomical and physiological characteristics in two grapevine root...

  8. Métodos para identificação e controle da tristeza dos citros Methods of identification and control of tristeza disease of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moreira

    1954-01-01

    s vezes é possível o emprego de pés francos provenientes dos embriões nucelares. Nas plantações já existentes pode-se fazer a substituição total ou parcelada (individual das plantas, conforme se constate predominância de afídios muito ou pouco eficientes e de estirpes fortes ou fracas do vírus. A sub-enxertia ("inarching", a sôbre-enxertia ("topworking" e o afrancamento do enxerto são outras tantas modalidades de controle da tristeza, as quais podem ser vantajosamente empregadas em determinadas condições. Medidas de quarentena podem retardar a invasão das zonas ainda livres da tristeza, -sendo de interesse o esclarecimento do público quanto ao perigo representado pela importação de plantas ou suas partes vivas, exceto as sementes.The tristeza disease of citrus has not yet been reported from European countries nor from various other citrus growing areas of the world. Investigations on the disease have been carried out in various countries, such as Argentina, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, and United States. Knowledge obtained from these investigations enables citrus experts from areas not invaded by tristeza to recognize its presence in the orchards and to prevent disastrous losses for the industry. General decline symptoms of tristeza resemble those caused by foot rot, but root examination permits the differentiation of the two diseases. Presence of pitting symptoms in trees of West Indian limes or of grapefruits permits easy diagnosis of tristeza in the orchards. Stock-scion combinations may be tolerant or intolerant to tristeza. Thus, it be comes important to determine the rootstock in case of plants showing decline symptoms. This fact can be established by direct examination of sprouts from the rootstock or by observing the degree of congeniality of rootstock and scion. The colorimetric tests made with bark of the rootstock may help to determine it. Field observation of symptoms complemented by Schneider's histological tests may replace the

  9. INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON CITRUS: A REVIEW PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN Al-Yassin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, effi cient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative infl uence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees’ growth and causes physiological disorders. Primarily salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and water potential of citrus tree leaves, in addition to accumulation of excessive concentration of Chloride or Sodium in leaves. A great deal of research indicates that citrus have the genetic potential to be salt-sensitive; however inheritance studies in citrus are scarce. In this paper the adverse of effects of salinity on physiological aspects of citrus are reviewed. The review summarizes the prevailing state of knowledge about the responses and tolerance of citrus trees to salinity.

  10. HPLC Organic Acid Analysis in Different Citrus Juices under Reversed Phase Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta NOUR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A reversed phase HPLC method for separation and quantification of organic acids (oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, ascorbic and lactic acids in fruit juices was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed with a Surveyor Thermo Electron system at 10C by using potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase, an Hypersil Gold aQ Analytical Column and diode array detection at ?=254 nm for ascorbic acid and ?=214 nm for the other organic acids. Organic acid profiles of ten species of Citrus: sweet orange, minneola, clementine, mandarin orange, pomelo, lemon, lime, sweetie, white and pink grapefruit were established. Species significantly affect the organic acid distribution of citrus fruit juices. In all citrus juices, the most abundant organic acid was citric acid, ranging from 6.88 to 73.93 g/l. Citrus juices are good sources of ascorbic acid (0.215-0.718 g/l. Average ascorbic acid was the highest in lemon juice followed by sweet orange juice, sweetie and white grapefruit.

  11. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  12. Influence of three rootstocks on yield and commercial quality of "Italian Sweet" pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Doñas-Uclés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper crops (Capsicum annuum L. represent a very important production sector in the Southeast of Spain. Specifically, in the province of Almería, approximately 7000 hectares are grown every year. Due to the economic importance that this crop has for the region and the withdrawal of soil fumigants from the market, agronomic techniques have been adopted with the aim of controlling some soil pathogens and increasing the yield and quality parameters of the fruits obtained. The use of grafted pepper plants is not, as yet, very well established in this region, due mainly to the lack of commercial rootstocks that satisfy the producers of this vegetable. In this experiment three pepper rootstocks were assessed. An experiment was designed with four treatments and three replications of each one (12 experimental plots, which were distributed in randomised blocks. Three of the treatments corresponded to grafted plants of the "Palermo" cultivar onto: "Oscos", "AR40" and "Tresor", using non-grafted "Palermo" cultivar as the control test. The average yield expressed in kg/plant, showed significant differences between grafted and non-grafted plants. The highest fruit weight was obtained in Palermo onto Tresor. The presence of Blossom end rot (BER in the assessed fruits also showed significant differences between the different treatments, with the fruits from plants grafted onto Tresor showing a higher proportion of BER and the fruits coming from plants grafted onto AR40 showing the lowest proportion.

  13. Some rootstocks improve pepper tolerance to mild salinity through ionic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Quiñones, Ana; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Grafting has been proposed as an interesting strategy that improves the responses of crops under salinity. In pepper, we reported increased fruit yield of the commercial 'Adige' cultivar under salinity when grafted onto accessions Capsicum chinense Jacq. 'ECU-973' (12) and Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum 'BOL-58' (14), whereas no effect was observed when grafted onto accession Capsicum annuum L var. 'Serrano' (5). We also analysed the physiological and biochemical mechanisms related to the tolerance conferred by these rootstocks. Responses to salinity (40 mM NaCl) were studied in the different plant combinations for 30 days by determining water relations, mineral content, proline accumulation, photosynthetic parameters, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant capacity. Higher salt tolerance was achieved when the 'Adige' cultivar was grafted onto the 12 genotype, which allowed not only lower Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the scion, but also ion selectivity maintenance, particularly Na(+)/K(+) discrimination. These traits led to a minor negative impact on photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and lipid peroxidation in grafted scion leaves. This work suggests that using tolerant pepper rootstocks that maintain the scion's ion homeostasis is a promising strategy to provide salinity tolerance and can consequently improve crop yield. PMID:25480004

  14. Citrus Genetic Resources Grown on the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; ヤマモト, マサシ; 山本, 雅史

    2014-01-01

    The Ryukyu Islands are located southwest part of Japan. Various local citrus are grown in this subtropical region. Since there are large geographical and climatic differences between the Ryukyu Islands and the main islands (Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku) of Japan, there are unique local citrus genetic resources on the Ryukyu Islands. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa) is an indigenous mandarin species in this region. This species is clearly distinguished from the mandarin grown in China and India ba...

  15. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Benito F. García; Ascensión Torres; Francisco A. Macías

    2015-01-01

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compoun...

  16. Citrus blackfly in Florida: Eradication or bio-control?

    OpenAIRE

    Tefertiller, Kenneth R.; McKee, Vernon C.; Perry, Vernon G.

    1991-01-01

    The citrus blackfly (CBF) invaded south Florida in January 1976. It was considered by scientists to be a major threat to the Florida citrus industry located in the central part of the state. The CBF was successfully contained in a 1000 square mile tri-county quarantined area surrounding Ft. Lauderdale for several months before breaking out to an area near the commercial citrus production area. During this time federal and state research agencies were evaluating a bio-control approach involvin...

  17. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    irrigated land, and this contributes to increase the soil losses due to the sloping terrain. Although citrus is a world wide food, and occupy a large surface little is being researched on their impact on soil erosion, land degradation and strategies to control the soil, water and nutrient losses. This paper review the research developed until now and the results show that there is a poor background on this topic. It is necessary to develop research projects to improve the knowledge on the impact of citrus plantations on soil degradation and soil erosion. Another key information from the literature review done, is that most of the research was done in two regions of China and one of the Mediterranean. Definitively, a poor understanding of a huge environmental problem that need more scientific research. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 140, 145-154. Cerdà, A., Giménez Morera, A., Burguet, M., Arcenegui, V., González Peñaloza, F.A., García-Orenes, F., Pereira, P. 2012. The impact of the farming, abandonment and agricultural intensification on loss of water and soil. The example of the northern slopes of the Serra Grossa, Eastern Spain [El impacto del cultivo, el abandono y la intensificación de la agricultura en la pérdida de agua y suelo. el ejemplo de la vertiente norte de la serra grossa en el este peninsular] Cuadernos de Investigacion Geografica, 38 (1), 75-94. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology, 132 (4), 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation

  18. Field validation of a greenhouse demonstration of phytohormone-mediated restoration of naturally infected HLB citrus in Florida, Texas and Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, R.; Stoller, J. H.; Liptay, A.; Alvarado, V.

    2014-01-01

    A model system based on restoration of the physiological phytohormone balance in the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) infected citrus (orange, mercot, tangelo and grapefruit) was evaluated in the field at Ft Meade, FL, Weslaco, TX and Kingston, Jamaica.  We hypothesize that development of Citrus Greening Disease or Huanglongbing (HLB), is the result of the release of latent infection precipitated by phloem blockage, root disease and the demise of the mevalonate...

  19. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M. Patt; Dara Stockton; Meikle, William G; Mamoudou Sétamou; Agenor Mafra-Neto; Adamczyk, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli ...

  20. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515