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Sample records for citrus red mite

  1. An Ecoinformatics Approach to Field-Scale Evaluation of Insecticide Effects in California Citrus: Are Citrus Thrips and Citrus Red Mite Induced Pests?

    Livingston, George; Hack, Lindsey; Steinmann, Kimberly P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2018-05-28

    Experimental approaches to studying the consequences of pesticide use, including impacts on beneficial insects, are vital; however, they can be limited in scale and realism. We show that an ecoinformatics approach that leverages existing data on pesticides, pests, and beneficials across multiple fields can provide complementary insights. We do this using a multi-year dataset (2002-2013) on pesticide applications and density estimates of two pests, citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri (Moulton [Thysanoptera: Thripidae])) and citrus red mites (Panonychus citri McGregor [Acari: Tetranychidae]), and a natural enemy (Euseius spp. predatory mites) collected from citrus groves in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using correlative analyses, we investigated the long-term consequences of pesticide use on S. citri and P. citri population densities to evaluate the hypothesis that the pest status of these species is largely due to the disruption of natural biological control-i.e., these are induced pests. We also evaluated short-term pesticide efficacy (suppression of citrus thrips and citrus red mite populations immediately post-application) and asked if it was correlated with the suppression of Euseius predator populations. Although the short-term efficacy of different pesticides varied significantly, our dataset does not suggest that the use of citrus pesticides suppressed Euseius densities or worsened pest problems. We also find that there is no general trade-off between pesticide efficacy and pesticide risk to Eusieus, such that highly effective and minimally disruptive compounds were available to citrus growers during the studied time period.

  2. Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite

    Mele, van P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have

  3. Analysis of transcriptome differences between resistant and susceptible strains of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae.

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The citrus red mite is a worldwide citrus pest and a common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis. It has developed strong resistance to many registered acaricides, However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. we therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptomes between resistant strains and susceptible strains. RESULTS: We obtained 34,159, 30,466 and 32,217 unigenes by assembling the SS reads, RS reads and SS&RS reads respectively. There are total 17,581 annotated unigenes from SS&RS reads by BLAST searching databases of nr, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG with an E-value ≤ 1e-5, in which 7,075 unigenes were annotated in the COG database, 12, 712 unigenes were found in the KEGG database and 3,812 unigenes were assigned to Gene ontology (GO. Moreover, 2,701 unigenes were judged to be the differentially expressed genes (DEGs based on the uniquely mapped reads. There are 219 pathways in all annotated unigenes and 198 pathways in DEGs that mapped to the KEGG database. We identified 211 metabolism genes and target genes related to general insecticide resistance such as P450 and Cytochrome b, and further compared their differences between RS and SS. Meanwhile, we identified 105 and 194 genes related to growth and reproduction, respectively, based on the mode of action of Hexythiazox. After further analyses, we found variation in sequences but not in gene expression related to mite growth and reproduction between different strains. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome study to discover candidate genes involved in phytophagous mite resistance. This study identified differential unigenes related to general pesticide resistance and organism growth and reproduction in P. citri. The assembled, annotated transcriptomes provide a valuable genomic resource for further understanding

  4. Molecular characterization of three heat shock protein 70 genes and their expression profiles under thermal stress in the citrus red mite.

    Yang, Li-Hong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2012-04-01

    Three heat shock protein 70 family transcripts, named PcHsp70-1, PcHsp70-2 and PcHsp70-3, were isolated from the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri. PcHsp70-1, PcHsp70-2, and PcHsp70-3 contained an open reading frame of 1977, 1968, and 2028 nucleotides that encoded 658, 655 and 675 amino acid residues, respectively. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of PcHsp70-1 and PcHsp70-2 showed 86.34% identity, while the amino acid sequence of PcHsp70-3 was only 57.39 and 58.75% identical to that of PcHsp70-1 and PcHsp70-2, respectively. Sequences and phylogenetic analyses suggested that PcHsp70-1 and PcHsp70-2 were cytosolic Hsps, whereas PcHsp70-3 was located in ER (endoplasmic reticulum). To accurately validate mRNA expression profiles of the three Hsp70s under thermal stress conditions, seven housekeeping genes were evaluated. Alpha-tubulin and RpII were selected as optimal endogenous references for cold shock and heat shock conditions, respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that only the mRNA expression of PcHsp70-2 was up-regulated under heat shocks, and all of the three Hsp70s were constitutively expressed under cold shocks. The results suggest that the three Hsp70s were more critical to coping with heat than cold shocks.

  5. Control of poultry red mites

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  6. Citrus leprosis transmission by Brevipalpus yothersi mites through non citrus hosts

    Guillermo León M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis virus (C i LV was detected in Colombia at the eastern plains in 2004; it is a threat the disease spreads to other regions of the country. The main vector is Brevipalpus yothersi Baker (formerly identified as Brevipalpus phoenicis. This research determined the viability of B. yothersi to transmit C i LV to citrus plants, after been hosted in non-citrus plants. To virus acquisition, mites spent three days on symptomatic orange (Citrus x sinensis leaves positives to C i LV-C2; then mites were placed on six non-citrus plants (Dieffenbachia sp., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,Codiaeum variegatum, Swinglea glutinosa, Sida acutaand Stachytarpheta cayennensis. A randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replicates was carried out. After scheduled time in non-citrus plants, mites were three days relocated on C. x sinensis healthy plants. Leaves of receptor plants, were evaluated to the occurrence or absence of symptoms and collected for RT-PCR tests. B. yothersi mites were able to transmit the C i LV virus over 85 % of Valencia orange plants (Citrus x sinensis L., after feeding from 2-20 days on non-citrus host plants. The first leprosis symptoms on C. x sinensis leaves was confirmed from 14 to 51 days after transmission. The present research work further established that C i LV-C2 is a persistently transmitted virus. The implement quarantine diagnostic measures to prevent spread of CiLV to disease-free zones is suggested.

  7. Control of poultry red mites

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    /carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...... cages contain perches, nest boxes and dust bathing areas. This improves the welfare of the hens but also provides more hiding places for the PRM and may thus lead to increased ectoparasite problems. The approach taken against the PRM is to develop new control methods based on a combination of mite...

  8. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    Lesna, I.; Wolfs, P.; Faraji, F.; Roy, L.; Komdeur, J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  9. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify

  10. Comparative toxicity of pesticides in three phytoseiid mites with different life-style occurring in citrus: Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Argolo, Poliane Sá; Jacas, Josep A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and augmentative biological control strategies have been developed to take full advantage of the natural enemies that occur in Spanish citrus orchards. Among them, the predatory mites Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis play an important role in the biological control of tetranychid mites. However, these predatory mites are often affected by pesticides and information about the side-effects of these products against these beneficial arthropods is essential to guarantee their efficacy. The side-effects of some pesticides remain unknown and the primary aim of this study was to fill this gap. We have further used this information and that collected from other sources to compare the response of these three mite species to pesticides. Based on this information, E. stipulatus has the most tolerant species, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis. Therefore, using E. stipulatus as an indicator species in citrus may have led to the paradox of selecting presumed selective pesticides resulting in excessive impact on N. californicus and, especially on P. persimilis. Because these two latter species are considered key for the biological control of T. urticae in citrus, especially clementines, in Spain, we propose to use P. persimilis as the relevant indicator of such effects on predacious mites occurring in citrus instead of E. stipulatus. This change could have a dramatic impact on the satisfactory control of tetranychid mites in citrus in the near future.

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of various red spider mite- resistant ...

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... 3Key Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, P. R. ... Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a DNA ..... spider mite-resistant, bumper, high-quality and disease-.

  12. [Role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in the transmission of avian influenza A virus].

    Sommer, D; Heffels-Redmann, U; Köhler, K; Lierz, M; Kaleta, E F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus [D.] gallinae) in the horizontal transmission of avian influenza A virus (AIV) to chickens. This mite is the most common ectoparasite in poultry worldwide, and may play a role in the spread of infectious agents including AIV. Currently, the control of mites is difficult due to frequently developed resistance to many acaricides, their nocturnality and their ability to survive hidden without feeding for months. D. gallinae were collected in a commercial layer farm and housed in self-made fibreboard boxes. SPF chickens were intravenously infected with AIV strain A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9). The viraemia in chickens was monitored and at an appropriate time point about 1000 mites were allowed to suck on the AIV infected chickens. Re-isolation of the virus from blood-filled mites was tried daily for 14 days using chicken embryo fibroblast cultures and embryonated chicken eggs. Subsequently, the virus containing mites were placed into boxes that contained naïve SPF chickens to enable virus transmission from mites to chickens. Possible transmission to the chickens was examined using clinical signs, serology, gross lesions, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Chickens developed a dose-dependent viraemia one day after infection, therefore this day was chosen for the bloodmeal of the mites. AIV was detected in mites after bloodsucking on AIV-infected chickens over a 10-day period. Naïve SPF chickens were infected during bloodsucking of AIV carrying mites. AIV isolates in mites and in chickens were undistinguishable from the original AIV inoculum by RT-PCR. D. gallinae ingested AIV during bloodmeals on AIV infected chickens and are able to transmit AIV to SPF chickens. Therefore, mites serve as mechanical vector of AIV and may play a major role in the circulation of AIV within a facility or area although the life span of infectious virus in the mite is limited. The proven

  13. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  14. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...

  15. The acaricidal speed of kill of orally administered fluralaner against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) on laying hens and its impact on mite reproduction.

    Brauneis, Maria D; Zoller, Hartmut; Williams, Heike; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2017-12-02

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a growing threat to chickens in poultry farms. This nocturnal hematophagous ectoparasite has a rapid rate of proliferation with a negative impact on the birds' health, welfare and productivity resulting in severe economic consequences for poultry farmers. A study was performed with fluralaner, a novel systemic ectoparasiticide, to evaluate its effect on mite vitality and reproduction after oral administration to laying hens. Sixteen healthy hens were randomly allocated to two study groups (n = 8). One group was orally treated with fluralaner by gavage at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight twice 7 days apart. The negative control group received no treatment. Hens in each group were repeatedly infested with approximately 200 unfed adult D. gallinae at 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22 and 26 days after the initial administration. After infestation and feeding for 2.5 h, 25 engorged mites per hen were collected and incubated in tubes. Mites were assessed for vitality (dead/live) at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after each infestation. Tubes containing eggs and/or living mites were incubated another 8 days for assessment of mite reproductive capacity. Fluralaner demonstrated a fast speed of kill in mites within 4 h post-infestation for 12 days after treatment initiation. An efficacy (mite mortality) of 98.7-100% was achieved. At 15 days after treatment initiation, 100% efficacy was achieved within 24 h post-infestation, and no mite oviposition occurred during this period. Nineteen days after treatment initiation, the mites' ability to generate nymphs was reduced by 90.8%, which decreased to < 24.1% at later infestations. Fluralaner administered orally to hens twice, 7 days apart, provides efficacy against experimental poultry red mite infestation for at least 2 weeks. The demonstrated rapid speed of kill results in substantial depletion of the mites' oviposition and suggests that fluralaner can be an effective tool in the control

  16. Electron-beam irradiation as a quarantine treatment against red mite on exported cut flower of Chrysanthemum

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thi Ly; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. In this study, red mites (Tetranychus sp) isolated from cut Chrysanthemums were treated by electron beam irradiation at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. After irradiation, they were kept at room temperature to determine the effects of electron beam irradiation on red mite at different developmental stages (eggs, nymphs and adults) and the reproduction of female adults. The results showed that the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in red mite was eggs < 2nd instars < adults, in which the adults were the most tolerance stage. The number of eggs laid by the irradiated female mites and the hatching rate significantly decreased when the irradiation dose increased. The hatching rate of eggs at 300 Gy was 4.25% and no larvae F_1 survived during observation time. It could be concluded that 300 Gy is the effective quarantine dose for red mite infesting on cut chrysanthemums. (author)

  17. ACTIVITY OF SOME BRAZILIAN ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AGAINST THE POULTRY RED MITE DERMANYSSUS GALLINAE DE GEER (ACARI: DERMANYSSIDAE

    CR Kasburg

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a cosmopolitan and hematophagous species commonly found in layer houses around the world. Poultry mite infestations may cause anemia, stress, low body weight and egg production, and mortality. Mite control is typically based on chemical products, but they are not effective and leave residues in eggs; therefore, alternative control methods, such as entomopathogenic fungi, need to researched. This study aimed at evaluating, in the laboratory, the activity of Brazilian isolates of entomopathogenic fungi against D. gallinae. The mites were collected from a commercial layer house and were sprayed with conidial suspensions (1 × 108 conidia/mL of five isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. All tested isolates were pathogenic for the red mite, with confirmed mortality ranging from 22.9 to 52.4%. This demonstrate the potential of the tested entomopathogenic fungi isolates for mite control, and reinforces the need for further studies with other isolates, application strategies, and with fungal formulations.

  18. Spatial distributions of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on coconut and their implications for development of efficient sampling plans

    Roda, A.; Nachman, G.; Hosein, F.

    2012-01-01

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica), an invasive pest of coconut, entered the Western hemisphere in 2004, then rapidly spread through the Caribbean and into Florida, USA. Developing effective sampling methods may aid in the timely detection of the pest in a new area. Studies were conducted...... to provide and compare intra tree spatial distribution of red palm mite populations on coconut in two different geographical areas, Trinidad and Puerto Rico, recently invaded by the mite. The middle stratum of a palm hosted significantly more mites than fronds from the upper or lower canopy and fronds from...

  19. Reproductive performance of seven strains of the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) at five temperatures

    Gotoh, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Pallini, A.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker et Pritchard occurs on solanaceous plants, and causes serious damage to a variety of crops in Africa and Europe. In 2001 this species was also found in Japan, on nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), and its invasion to solanaceous of agricultural imp...

  20. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  1. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  2. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  3. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments.

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-11-01

    Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays. The repellent activity was correlated with efficacy, which was found to depend on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when admixed with a low dose of the desiccant dust Diamol. The pick-up of desiccant dust particles and fungus conidia from treated surfaces by mites did not differ depending on RH, whereas the overall efficacy of the two control agents were significantly higher at 75 than at 85 % RH. In addition, the combined effect of the two substances was synergistic when tested in a bioassay where mites could choose whether to cross a treated surface. This is the first time a member of Acari has been shown to be repelled by desiccant dusts and by conidia of an entomopathogenic fungus.

  4. Role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestation of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    Kim, Y-K; Chang, Y-S; Lee, M-H; Hong, S-C; Bae, J-M; Jee, Y-K; Chun, B-R; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Kim, Y-Y

    2002-09-01

    Spider mites such as the citrus red mite and the two-spotted spider mite have been demonstrated to be important allergens for fruit cultivating farmers. To evaluate the role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in urban and rural areas. A total of 16,624 subjects (aged 7 to 18 years) living in urban (metropolitan and non-metropolitan) and rural areas (apple orchards and citrus orchards) in Korea were evaluated by questionnaire and skin prick test for 11 common aeroallergens, including citrus red mite (CRM) and two-spotted spider mite (TSM). The positive skin response rates to TSM were 4.2% of 1,563 metropolitan subjects, 3.8% of 5,568 non-metropolitan subjects and 6.5% of 1,464 subjects living nearby apple farms, and that to CRM 15.6% of 8,029 living nearby citrus farms. The prevalence of current wheeze and rhinitis as reported on a questionnaire was higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms once or more per year than among those without it (10% vs. 7.1%, 32.8% vs. 26.7%, for wheezing and rhinitis, respectively). Among those with wheezing or rhinitis, the positive skin responses to TSM or CRM were also higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms than among those without one (11.2% vs. 6.6%, 13.0% vs. 6.6%, respectively), although the positive skin responses to house dust mites were similar in the both groups. Spider mites are common sensitizing allergens in children and adolescents exposed to them, and environmental exposure to these mites may represent an important risk factor in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

  5. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment of apples infested with diapausing eggs of the European red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    Viable eggs of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), on apples have been the concern of several importing countries and exports require preshipment, phytosanitary treatment to reduce or eliminate live eggs. Because fumigation is often detrimental to the commodity appearance and shelf-life, resulting in a loss of commercial value, there is a need for alternatives for chemical pest control as a quarantine treatment, and irradiation could be a new strategy method. The data obtained indicate that a dose of gamma radiation equal to or higher than 0.15 kGy seems to be adequate to prevent post-diapause hatching of wintering eggs of the European red mite. Thus, this dose is suggested for quarantine treatment of apples infested with wintering eggs of the European red mite. (author)

  6. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... integrated mite management. Key words: Tea ... Scientific name. Family. Parts used .... C.V.%. 8.64. Mean of five observations (30 eggs/observation). 100 numbers of ..... This work is part of a Tea Research Association in-house project ... innovation in tea science and sustainable development in tea. Industry ...

  7. Gaeolaelaps Invictianus, a new and unusual species of Hypoaspidine Mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) phoretic on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana, USA

    David Walter; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    A new species ofhypoaspidine laelapid mite, Gaeolaelaps invictianus, associated with the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren in the southern United States of America is described. This new species is unusual among the gamasine Mesostigmata in lacking a postanal seta in adults of both sexes and among species of Gaeolaelaps in being phoretic on dispersing male...

  8. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-01-01

    on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when...

  9. The effects of citrus rootstocks on Valencia Late and Rhode Red ...

    For N, K, Mg, Mn and Cu, Carrizo citrange has the highest means while Troyer and sour orange have the highest concentrations for P and. Fe, and Ca, Zn and Na, respectively. We recommend utilizations of Carrizo and Troyer citrange rootstocks for eastern Mediterranean region citrus production as they had higher ability to ...

  10. Exogenous applications of plant growth regulators influence the reproductive growth of citrus sinensis osbeck cv. blood red

    Khan, A.S.; Malik, A.U.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of exogenous applications of plant growth regulators on the reproductive behaviour of low bearing sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) trees, three separate experiments were conducted on twelve years old 'Blood Red' Sweet orange trees budded on Rough Lemon (Citrus jambheri L.) root stock. In the first experiment, trees were sprayed with 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at mid bloom (MB) stage, whilst in the second and third experiments 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination were sprayed at MB + 6 weeks after MB, and at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB stages, respectively. A single tree was selected as an experimental unit and each treatment was replicated four times. Data regarding the flowering intensity, flower drop, fruit set, fruit drop and fruit harvest percentages (%) were collected and analyzed statistically. In all experiments exogenous application of 20 mg L-1 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination to Blood Red sweet orange trees reduced the flower drop % and increased the fruit set % as compared to untreated trees. Application 2, 4-D and GA3 alone or in combination at MB did not affect the fruit drop % and fruit harvest % in contrast to untreated trees. The trees sprayed with 20 mg L-1 GA3 alone or in combination with 2, 4-D at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB exhibited highest reduction in the fruit drop % compared to control trees. In conclusions application GA3 (20 mg L-1) alone or in combination of 2, 4-D (20 mg L-1) at MB + 22 and 28 weeks after MB can be used effectively to increase the fruit set and reduce the fruit drop in Blood Red sweet oranges. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of Azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S in Controlling Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of field trials conducted in Serbia to evaluate the effectiveness of a neem-based product, NeemAzal-T/S (containing azadirachtin-A as its active ingredient in the form of an emulsifiable concentrate against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi. Efficacy evaluation against C. pyri was carried out in a commercial pear orchard of the Williams pear cultivar, located at Borkovac (Ruma. The insecticides were applied at BBCH 09 pear growth stage, several days before the beginning of hatching of the first generation larvae. The efficacy of azadirachtin was compared to that of mineral oil, abamectin and diflubenzuron. Efficacy evaluation 18 DAT showed total termination of egg laying by C. pyri after treatments with azadirachtin and abamectin, while some new (white eggs were found after treatment with mineral oil. Diflubenzuron treatment failed to fully stop egg laying, but the number of white eggs was significantly lower than it was in the control. Azadirachtin and abamectin achieved 100% efficacy, while the effectiveness of mineral oil was 97.4%, and that of diflubenzuron a mere 59%. All four insecticides significantly reduced the number of older (yellow eggs and larvae, the efficacy being 80.5-92.6% (yellow eggs, 69.8-79.3% (larvae I-III instar and 94.3-100% (larvae IV-V instar. In evaluation 38 DAT, azadirachtin,abamectin and mineral oil achieved 100% efficacy against white and yellow eggs, while diflubenzuron achieved 93% and 86.9% efficacy. All four insecticides were found to demonstrate high efficacy against I-III instar larvae (99.2-100%, but mineral oil treatmentalone achieved high efficacy against IV-V instar larvae (92.4% as well. Efficacy evaluation against P. ulmi was carried out in a commercial orchard of the Red Chief apple cultivar located at Morović (Šid. Azadirachtin efficacy in controlling a summerpopulation of European red mite was compared to a mineral oil, clofentezine and

  12. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida (Tetranychidae: Acarina

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1 screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2 bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT, the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.

  13. Psoroptes mites infestation in a captive Burmese Red Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis subspecies rubidus) of Indo-Burma bio-diversity hotspot.

    Shah, Nirali; Borpojari, Dhrubajyoti; Sarma, Kalyan; Ali, M Ayub; Saikia, Basanta; Bayan, Hitesh; Ahmed, Fazal Ali; Das, Gunjan

    2018-06-01

    An 8 years old male Burmese Red Serow ( Capricornis sumatraensis sub species rubidus ) from Aizawl Zoological Park was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex. An exploratory skin scraping revealed existence of nymphal as well as adult stages of mites of the Psoroptes spp. which were not associated with any overt lesions typical to mite infestation such as pruritus, erythema or scaling of the epidermis. The mites were identified as per their morphology, size and shape. Haemato-biochemical analysis revealed alteration of certain haematological and biochemical parameters. The red blood corpuscles were found to have anucleate cells with mild to absent central pallor. The absolute counts showed neutrophilic leucocytosis with mild monocytosis and lymphocytosis. Eosinophilic count was towards the higher side, indicating that the infestation was mild. The serum calcium, albumin, triglyceride, urea nitrogen (BUN) were found to be lower than normal, whereas serum ALT, AST, LDH, ALP and serum amylase were higher than the established reference indices. Due to lack of haemato-biochemical reference values specific to captive Serow, emphasis was given in this report to establish baseline data for this species.

  14. Toxicidade diferencial de produtos à base de abamectina ao ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae em citros Differential toxicity of abamectin based products over Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite in citrus

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis é uma das principais pragas dos citros por ser vetor do "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV, agente causal da leprose, uma das mais graves doenças da citricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito tóxico de produtos à base de abamectina sobre o ácaro B. phoenicis. Foram realizados um experimento de ação direta e três de ação residual no Laboratório de Acarologia do Departamento de Proteção de Plantas (Fitossanidade da FCAV - UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento adotado nos bioensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, onde 10 tratamentos foram repetidos 7 vezes, sendo cada repetição composta por um fruto de laranja. Os tratamentos estudados (mL p.c./100 L de água foram: Acaramik a 20; 30; 40 e 50 mL; Vertimec a 30 e 40 mL; Abamectin Nortox a 30 e 40 mL; Tricofol a 77 mL e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Utilizaram-se frutos com presença de verrugose, que foram lavados e parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se uma área sem parafina, que foi circundada com cola entomológica para contenção dos ácaros. Transferiram-se 20 ácaros adultos B. phoenicis para cada fruto. No bioensaio de ação direta, a transferência foi realizada antes das aplicações e, nos bioensaios de ação residual, aos 5; 10 e 15 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. A aplicação dos produtos sobre os frutos foi realizada em Torre de Potter. Os resultados obtidos nos bioensaios evidenciaram que os melhores tratamentos foram: Tricofol a 77 mL, Acaramik a 40 e 50 mL e Vertimec a 40 mL. De forma geral, os produtos testados podem ser utilizados no controle do ácaro B. phoenicis.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is one of the most important pests in Brazil citrus plantation, because it is the virus "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV vector, one of the most serious citrus plantation diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the toxical effect of abamectin in the mite B. phoenicis. It was performed

  15. Atividade do acaricida etoxazol sobre a mortalidade e reprodução do ácaro-da-leprose Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, em citros Activity of the etoxazole acaricide on the mortality and reproduction of the citrus leprosis mite Brevipalpus Phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, in citrus

    Fernando Juari Celoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade do acaricida etoxazol, no controle e reprodução do ácaro B. phoenicis. Para tanto, foram demarcadas com cola adesiva arenas de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em frutos de citros com alta infestação do ácaro. O ensaio foi delineado em parcelas inteiramente casualizadas, com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Em cada arena foram contados o número de ácaros adultos, jovens e ovos. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes acaricidas e doses em g i.a./100 L de água: etoxazol 110 SC (1,1; 1,65; 2,75 e 5,5; hexitiazoxi 500 PM (0,75; flufenoxuron 100 CE (3; cihexatina 500 PM (25, aplicados diretamente sobre as arenas. Os frutos foram mantidos em câmara de germinação tipo BOD. com temperatura de 25 ± 2 ºC e fotofase de 12 horas. Diariamente, foram contados o número de ácaros adultos, jovens e ovos, com auxílio de microscópio esteroscópio. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a atividade ovicida, esterilização de fêmeas e efeito sobre formas jovens. Constatou-se que o etoxazol provocou mortalidade de formas jovens do ácaro-da-leprose superior a 95%, nas doses a partir de 1,1 g i.a. /100 L de água. Ovos tratados com etoxazol, nas doses a partir de 1,65 g i.a. /100 L de água, apresentaram inviabilidade média de 60%. O etoxazol apresentou efeito esterilizante sobre fêmeas nas doses a partir de 2,75 g i.a./100 L de água, inviabilizando 95% dos ovos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of the etoxazole acaricide, on the mortality and reproduction of the citrus leprosies mite, B. phoenicis. A five centimeter diameter arena were demarcated with adhesive glue, in citrus fruits with high infestation of the mite. The design was entirely randomized plots with eight treatments and four replications. In each arena were counted the number of adults, young and eggs of B. phoenicis. The treatments consisted the following acaricides and doses in g a.i./100 L of water: etoxazole

  16. Efectiveness of Spirodiclofen in the Control of European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi on Apple and Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of spirodiclofen, an acaricide and insecticide with a novel mode of action, in protecting apple from the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi and pear from pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri was tested in field trials in four sites in Serbia in 2004, 2005 and2007. The efficacy of P. ulmi control was investigated at Morović(Šid, where the effects of spirodiclofen were compared with those of fenazaquin, clofentezine, fenpyroximate and bifenthrin. Applied in 2004 at a rate of 0.096 g a.i. L-1 against the overwintering eggs ofP. ulmi, spirodiclofen achieved 86% efficacy, while the efficacies of fenazaquin and clofentezine (25 days after treatment were 84.4% and 27.8%, respectively. In the same season, spirodiclofen displayed high and prolonged efficacy against a summer population of P. ulmi: the efficacy of this acaricide applied at concentrations of 0.096 and 0.144 g a.i. L-1 was 98% and 96.9%, respectively, while fenpyroximate, clofentezine and bifenthrin achieved 43%, 59.5% and 62% efficacy, respectively (45 days after treatment. This effect of spirodiclofen against the summer population was confirmed in the same site in 2005, when 94.9-95.7% efficacy was achieved (47 days after treatment. The efficacy of spirodiclofen, amitraz and abamectin against eggs and larvae of the first generation of C. pyri was examined at a Bela Crkva site in 2004, and in sites at Mandjelos (Sremska Mitrovica and Bela Crkva in 2005. Applied at a concentration of 0.144 g a.i. L-1 at the beginning of hatching, spirodiclofen was found to achieve 83.2-95% efficacy, abamectin 93.5-94.9% and amitraz 78.9-95.6% efficacy (14 days after treatment. Applied in a site at Borkovac (Ruma in 2007 at a rate of 0.096 g a.i.L-1 before hatching of the first generation larvae, spirodiclofen reduced the number of eggs and larvae of C. pyri by 72%, 82% and 89% in evaluations 18, 25 and 38 days after treatment, while abamectin and diflubenzuron achieved reductions of 92%, 95% and

  17. Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit

    Ohishi, H.; Watanabe, J.; Kadoya, K.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

  18. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    , but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each...

  19. Field efficacy and safety of fluralaner solution for administration in drinking water for the treatment of poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestations in commercial flocks in Europe.

    Thomas, Emmanuel; Chiquet, Mathieu; Sander, Björn; Zschiesche, Eva; Flochlay, Annie Sigognault

    2017-10-09

    Welfare concerns, production losses caused by Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), and widespread mite resistance to environmentally applied acaricides continue to drive an urgent need for new and effective control measures. Fluralaner is a novel systemic acaricide developed to address that need. A series of field studies was initiated to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fluralaner solution (10 mg/ml) administered in drinking water at a dose rate of 0.5 mg/kg on two occasions with a 7-day interval, for treatment of natural PRM infestations in chickens. Blinded, negative-controlled studies were completed in Europe across eight layer, two breeder, and two replacement chicken farms. At each farm, two similar flocks were housed in similar PRM-infested units (either rooms within a building, or separate buildings) varying from 550 to 100,000 birds per unit. One unit at each farm was allocated to fluralaner treatment, administered in drinking water on Days 0 and 7. One unit remained untreated. Mite traps were placed throughout each unit on Days -1, 0 or 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 or 14, then at weekly or two-weekly intervals, retrieved after 24 h and processed for mite counts. Efficacy at each farm was assessed by mean PRM count reductions from traps in treated units compared with those from control units. Production parameters and safety were also monitored. Efficacy was 95.3 to 99.8% on Day 3 and 97.8 to 100% on Day 9, thereafter remaining above 90% for 56 to 238 days after treatment initiation. Post-treatment improvement in egg-laying rate was greater by 0.9 to 12.6% in the treated group at 9 of the 10 layer or breeder farms. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Fluralaner administered at 0.5 mg/kg via drinking water twice, 7 days apart, was well tolerated and highly efficacious against the PRM in naturally infested chickens representing a range of production types and management systems. The results indicate that this novel treatment has

  20. Enhancement of the reproductive potential of Mallada boninensis Okamoto (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, a predator of red spider mite infesting tea: An evaluation of artificial diets

    Vasanthakumar Duraikkannu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green lacewing Mallada boninensis is an important predator of various soft-bodied arthropods, including red spider mites in tea. Efforts were made to develop mass rearing technology for this predator in a cost effective manner. Three combinations of artificial diets (Protinex (AD1, egg yolk (AD2 and royal jelly (AD3 based were evaluated in comparison with standard diet (Protinex + Honey. All the tested diets influenced the egg-laying capacity of M. boninensis. The egg yolk-based diet resulted in more egg production than the other two diets. Survival of all life stages of M. boninensis was also observed on each diet and no significant difference was noticed. Results revealed that the egg yolk-based diet is the best of the three diet combinations tested in view of high fecundity and survival rate of M. boninensis.

  1. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic poultry red mite treatment, for chicken breeders' reproductive performances.

    Huyghe, Bruno; Le Traon, Gaelle; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-10-31

    Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the chicken egg-laying industry, altering the health condition of the birds, and causing stress, mortality and decline of egg quality impacting economic performance. Fluralaner is a novel systemic parasiticide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in chickens after oral administration. The evaluation of the safety of this new product in breeder chickens is particularly relevant because poultry mite infestation affects long cycle production systems, such as layers and breeders farms, for which the productivity heavily depends on the health of the reproductive function. This study was designed to investigate the safety for reproductive performances of fluralaner in male and female chickens at 3 times the recommended dose (1.5 instead of 0.5 mg/kg body weight) and 2 times the recommended duration (4 administrations instead of 2 administrations, with a 7 day interval between administrations). This randomized, parallel-group, blinded study included 432 Bovans brown parent stock chickens (48 males and 384 females, 17-week old). Birds were randomly assigned to 16 pens (three males and 24 females per pen), and then each pen assigned to one of the two treatment groups (8 pens, i.e. 216 birds per group). Fluralaner was administered via drinking water on a total of four occasions 7 days apart, at daily doses of 1.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 3 times the recommended dose of fluralaner per administration and 2 times the recommended number of administrations. Birds supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. The treatments were given at time of peak egg production in the bird's life: i.e. at 30 to 34 week of age. During that period, all adult chickens were clinically observed. The reproductive performances were carefully monitored including the number of eggs laid, egg weight, fertility and hatchability

  2. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    ão necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.This study was carried out to evaluate the residual toxicity of some pesticides used in citrus orchards, on Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor under laboratory conditions. The residual contact bioassay method was adopted. Citrus leaves of the variety "Pêra" were sprayed in a Potter tower. The products' residual toxicity was evaluated at two hours and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after treatment. Ten adult females of N. californicus were transferred to each arena together with an enough amount of Tetranychus urticae to feed the predator. Mortality evaluations were performed at 72 hours after transferring the predaceous mites to the arenas. The pesticides acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, sulphur, fenpropathrin, fenbutatin oxide and propargite did not cause significant mortalities to the adults of N. californicus. Abamectim, azocyclotin and cyhexatin caused mortalities of 29.8, 24.0 and 34.1%, respectively, for N. californicus adults exposed to two-hour pesticide residues. Dicofol, pyridaben and chlorfenapyr caused 100% of mortality to the predators exposed to the two-hour acaricide residues. Abamectin provoked significant mortalities for a period shorter than one day. Residues of azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben and chlorfenapyr caused significant mortalities for periods of 1, 1, 10, 10 and 21 days, respectively. The results of this study provided basic information for choosing the adequate pesticides to be used in citrus orchards in which N. californicus is present, or in those the predator will be released. The results are also useful for the decision of the best releasing time for N. californicus in the field, after pesticide applications. Studies carried out in the field are still necessary to understand better the effect of these pesticides under the predaceous mite.

  3. Safety of fluralaner oral solution, a novel systemic poultry red mite treatment, for chicken breeders’ reproductive performances

    Bruno Huyghe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry mites are the most significant pest affecting production systems in the chicken egg-laying industry, altering the health condition of the birds, and causing stress, mortality and decline of egg quality impacting economic performance. Fluralaner is a novel systemic parasiticide that is effective against poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum in chickens after oral administration. The evaluation of the safety of this new product in breeder chickens is particularly relevant because poultry mite infestation affects long cycle production systems, such as layers and breeders farms, for which the productivity heavily depends on the health of the reproductive function. This study was designed to investigate the safety for reproductive performances of fluralaner in male and female chickens at 3 times the recommended dose (1.5 instead of 0.5 mg/kg body weight and 2 times the recommended duration (4 administrations instead of 2 administrations, with a 7 day interval between administrations. Methods This randomized, parallel-group, blinded study included 432 Bovans brown parent stock chickens (48 males and 384 females, 17-week old. Birds were randomly assigned to 16 pens (three males and 24 females per pen, and then each pen assigned to one of the two treatment groups (8 pens, i.e. 216 birds per group. Fluralaner was administered via drinking water on a total of four occasions 7 days apart, at daily doses of 1.5 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 3 times the recommended dose of fluralaner per administration and 2 times the recommended number of administrations. Birds supplied with non-medicated drinking water served as controls. The treatments were given at time of peak egg production in the bird’s life: i.e. at 30 to 34 week of age. During that period, all adult chickens were clinically observed. The reproductive performances were carefully monitored including the number of eggs laid, egg

  4. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  5. Histiostoma Blomquisti N. SP. (Acari: Histiostomatidae) A phoretic mite of the red imported ant, Solenopsis Invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Stefan Wirth; John Moser

    2010-01-01

    The new species Histiostoma bJol1lquisti n. sp., associated with the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta, is described by its deutonymph. A putative adult female is depicted. The deutonymphs only attach to female alates, dealates and queens of S. invicta. While queens may be covered by more than 200 deutonymphs over their entire bodies, the numbers of deutonymphs...

  6. Susceptibility of geographically isolated populations of the Tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard to commonly used acaricides on tomato crops in Kenya

    F. J. Toroitich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in Kenya continue to raise concerns of difficulty in managing Tetranychus evansi, the most widespread pest species of tomato applying the most commonly used acaricides. This invasive pest species is not only found in Kenya, but in Eastern and Southern Africa, as well as parts of Europe and Asia. In the current study, populations of T. evansi were collected from farms in the four major tomato-growing areas of Kenya (Loitoktok, Kibwezi, Athi-River and Subukia and their susceptibility compared to a laboratory culture (ICIPE that had been maintained for three years without exposure to acaricides. Susceptibility of T. evansi eggs and adults (contact and residual to Brigade (bifenthrin, Dimethoate (dimethoate, Karate (lambdacyhalothrin, Kelthane (dicofol, Omite (propargite and Polytrin (profenofos+ cypermethrin was tested in the laboratory using respective manufacturer’s recommended concentrations. Dimethoate resulted in variable ovicidal mortality while Kelthane, Brigade, Karate, Omite and Polytrin had high mortality across all populations. Similarly, adult contact and residual mortality was lower than that of the other chemicals when exposed to Dimethoate regardless of the location. Furthermore, it also had no residual effect on the mites from ICIPE and Kibwezi. On the other hand, Kelthane was most lethal against the mites from all locations followed by Brigade and Polytrin in that order. Omite caused significantly lower mortality on mites from Subukia while Karate produced variable effects on mites from Kibwezi, Loitoktok and Subukia. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  7. Species composition and abundance of Brevipalpus spp. on different citrus species in Mexican orchards.

    Salinas-Vargas, D; Santillán-Galicia, M T; Valdez-Carrasco, J; Mora-Aguilera, G; Atanacio-Serrano, Y; Romero-Pescador, P

    2013-08-01

    We studied the abundance of Brevipalpus spp. in citrus orchards in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Quintana Roo and Campeche. Mites were collected from 100 trees containing a mixture of citrus species where sweet orange was always the main species. Eight collections were made at each location from February 2010 to February 2011. Mites from the genus Brevipalpus were separated from other mites surveyed and their abundance and relationships with the different citrus species were quantified throughout the collection period. A subsample of 25% of the total Brevipalpus mites collected were identified to species level and the interaction of mite species and citrus species were described. Brevipalpus spp. were present on all collection dates and their relative abundance was similar on all citrus species studies. The smallest number of mites collected was during the rainy season. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) were the only two species present and they were found in all locations except Campeche, where only B. phoenicis was present. Yucatan and Campeche are at greater risk of leprosis virus transmission than Quintana Roo because the main vector, B. phoenicis, was more abundant than B. californicus. The implications of our results for the design of more accurate sampling and control methods for Brevipalpus spp. are discussed.

  8. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 1. Response to volatile kairomones.

    Dicke, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Y-tube olfactometer, a study has been made of the response of females of the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to volatile kairomones of three prey species: the European red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae

  9. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    Sheila Abreu Mourão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentrações dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim que mataram 50% e 99% dos indivíduos de O. ilicis, após 72 horas de exposição, foram de 0,02, 15,9 e 121,4 mg/mL e de 10,9, 520,9 e 277,4 mg/mL, respectivamente. A taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de O. ilicis diminuiu, linearmente, com o aumento da concentração dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim até 0,075, 15 e 144 mg/mL, respectivamente, a partir das quais as populações desse ácaro foram extintas.The objective of this work was to study the toxicity of extracts of oil cake, seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. Concentration-mortality and instantaneous rate of populational growth were determined for adult females of the red mite on disks of coffee with 3.5 cm diameter, floating on water and impregnated with dry residues of the neem extracts. Concentrations of these extracts which caused 50% mortality of the individuals of O. ilicis were 0.02, 15.9 and 121.4 mg/mL; while 99% mortality of this mite was reached with 10.9, 520.9 and 277.4 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively. The instantaneous rate of populational growth of O. ilicis dropped as the extract doses increased up to 0.075, 15 and 144 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively.

  10. Determination of limonin and nomilin contents in different citrus cultivars using high performance liquid chromatography

    Bilal, H.; Hassan, S.; Sahar, S.; Akram, W.; Sahar, S.

    2013-01-01

    High perlorrnance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was done to quantify the amount of limonoids (nomilin and nomilin) in seven selected citrus cultivars. According to the HPLC analysis red blood orange (Citrus sinensis var red blood orange) had maximum amount of limonin (479.77 ug/rnl.), while rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) had no limonin content. in case of nomonin, rough lemon (Citrus jambhir) had maximum amount of nomilin (54.23 micro g/ML)) while succari (citrus sinensis var succari) had very low amount of nomilin (0.37 micro g/Ml). (author)

  11. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    Uraisakul, Kanok [Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi Phranakhonsiayathaya, Hantra Campus, Phranakhonsiayathaya (Thailand); Piadang, Nattaya [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2006-09-15

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  12. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    Uraisakul, Kanok; Piadang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  13. Effects of Euseius stipulatus on establishment and efficacy in spider mite suppression of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis in clementine.

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Urbaneja, Alberto; Hoffmann, Daniela; Schausberger, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is one of the most problematic phytophagous pests in Spanish clementine orchards. The most abundant predatory mites in this ecosystem are Euseius stipulatus, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. Euseius stipulatus is dominant but poorly adapted to utilize T. urticae as prey. It mainly persists on pollen and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri. A recent study suggested that the more efficacious T. urticae predators P. persimilis and N. californicus are negatively affected by lethal and non-lethal intraguild interactions with E. stipulatus. Here, we investigated the potential of N. californicus and P. persimilis to colonize and thrive on young clementine trees infested by T. urticae in presence and absence of E. stipulatus. Presence of E. stipulatus interfered with establishment and abundance of P. persimilis and negatively affected the efficacy of N. californicus in T. urticae suppression. In contrast, the abundance of E. stipulatus was not affected by introduction of a second predator. Trait-mediated effects of E. stipulatus changing P. persimilis and N. californicus behavior and/or life history were the most likely explanations for these outcomes. We conclude that superiority of E. stipulatus in intraguild interactions may indeed contribute to the currently observed predator species composition and abundance, rendering natural control of T. urticae in Spanish clementine orchards unsatisfactory. Nonetheless, stronger reduction of T. urticae and/or plant damage in the predator combination treatments as compared to E. stipulatus alone indicates the possibility to improve T. urticae control via repeated releases of N. californicus and/or P. persimilis.

  14. In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits

    The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro a...

  15. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  16. Ocorrência do ácaro vermelho europeu Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Tetranychidae associado à cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil European red spider mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Tetranychidae occurrence of vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é descrita ocorrência e o dano causado pelo ácaro vermelho europeu Panonychus ulmi (Koch associado à cultura da videira. As coletas foram realizadas na safra 2005-2006 em Vitis vinifera L. da cultivar Merlot, nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Candiota, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As folhas infestadas apresentaram bronzeamento, com manchas avermelhadas na face adaxial, resultando na queda prematura das mesmas. Esse é o primeiro registro do ácaro vermelho europeu danificando a cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul.The occurrence and the damage caused for the European red spider mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch associated to the culture of the grapevine are described. The collections had been carried through in 2005-2006 seasons in Vitis vinifera L. of cultivating Merlot in Bento Gonçalves and Candiota counties, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The infested leaves had presented bronzing, with spots redly in the adaxial face resulting in the premature fall. This is the first register of the European red mite damaging the culture of the grapevine in Rio Grande do Sul.

  17. Comparação econômica entre controle biológico e químico para o manejo de ácaro-vermelho em macieira Economic comparison of biological and chemical control in the management of red spider mites in apple orchard

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro-vermelho da macieira, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae, é uma importante praga na cultura da macieira em Fraiburgo - SC, e o controle biológico aplicado foi implantado em meados dos anos 90. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os benefícios econômicos da utilização do controle biológico no manejo do ácaro-vermelho. A avaliação foi realizada em dois pomares comerciais de macieiras. Em um deles, foi implantado o controle biológico aplicado de ácaros, baseado na liberação do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae, seleção de inseticidas e manejo de ervas invasoras, e o outro pomar seguiu o manejo convencional de artrópodes, baseado na aplicação de produtos químicos para o controle de insetos, ácaros fitófagos e ervas invasoras. A análise econômica mostrou que os custos com mão-de-obra e máquinas foram semelhantes em ambos os pomares, entretanto os custos com acaricidas foram significativamente inferiores no pomar onde o manejo foi o controle biológico, demonstrando que, apesar da necessidade de investimentos em instalações para a criação do ácaro predador e custos de manutenção das mesmas, a estratégia biológica foi economicamente viável.Red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae is a significant pest in apple tree in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina (SC and applied biological control was implemented in the mid-nineties. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the economic benefits of biological control in the management of red spider mite. The assessment was carried out in two commercial orchards, one of which was subjected to biological control of spider mite by releasing the predator Neoseiulus californicus, insecticide selection and weed management, and the other to conventional arthropod management, based on the application of chemicals to control insects, phytofagous mites and weed. Economic analysis showed that the costs for labor and machines were

  18. Systemic translocation and metabolism of 14C-metalaxyl in citrus

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Systemic uptake and translocation of 14 C-metalaxyl to citrus seedlings from soils (Humic Gley and Yellow Red Latosol) with different physical - chemical properties are studied. Seedlings of Citrus limonia are treated with 14 C-metalaxyl. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Compatibilidade entre acaricidas e fertilizantes foliares em função de diferentes águas no controle do ácaro da leprose dos citros Brevipalpus phoenicis Compatibility between acaricides and foliar fertilizers in different water resources for citrus leprosis mite control Brevipalpus phoenicis

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2013-03-01

    of foliar fertilizers to an acaricide spray tank is frequently used in citrus crop targeting to reduce application costs. However, its implications are unknown. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of acaricide spray mixed to foliar fertilizers and also prepared by different water resources for citrus mite control B. phoenicis. Two laboratory experiments were performed in 2009 and 2010, using B. phoenicis infested orange fruits. The first experiment was about three bio essays, which the purpose had been to evaluate the effect of leaf fertilizers and cyhexatin, propargite and acrinathrin acaricides blends into B. phoenicis control. In the second one, leaf fertilizers and propargite and acrinathrin acaricides blends were tested and, in addition, the evaluation of water resources effect into the spray preparation. The results presented that foliar fertilizers as zinc chloride; manganese chloride, urea and the mixture of potassium phosphite + urea + zinc chloride did not affect the cyhexatin, propargite and acrinathrin acaricide action into controlling B. phoenicis infestation. The zinc and manganese chloride mixtures with magnesium sulphate and the addition of potassium phosphite decreased some acaricides efficiency as propargite and acrinathrin, therefore, primarily, they must not be added at the same application. Water resources coming from Itápolis, Pirangi and Pirassununga interfered in the propargite and acrinathrin efficiency over B. phoenicis control, but the Itápolis water resource had shown better results. There was also observed a pH and electrical conductivity variation after some fertilizers addition into the spray water.

  20. Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.

    Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes.

  1. Fungi and mites on humid indoor walls : a laboratory study

    Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Siebers, Rob; Cunningham, M.; Fitzharris, P.

    2000-01-01

    The potential allergen source formed by mites and fungi developing on walls has been studied in a semi-natural model. Gypsum and wooden pieces, representing indoor walls, were artificially soiled with one of two different organic compounds, a yeast/vegetable mixture (Mannite) or a red currant juice

  2. Allergens of mites

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  3. (HLB) infected citrus

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... 1Departments of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul ... Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus ..... Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging,.

  4. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  6. Fermentation potentials of Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa juice ...

    This study aimed to determine the fermentation potentials of yeast isolates from Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa for the fermentation of juice extracts of C. limon and H. sabdariffa. Isolation and morphological studies of yeast cells were carried out by standard protocols. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) ...

  7. Microjets of citrus fruit

    Smith, Nicholas; Dickerson, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The rupture of oil glands in the citrus exocarp is a common experience to the discerning citrus consumer. When peeled, oil cavities housed with the citrus exocarp often rupture outwardly in response to externally applied bending stresses. Bending of the peel compresses the soft material surrounding the glands, the albedo, increasing fluid pressure. Ultimately, the fluid pressure exceeds the failure strength of the outermost membrane, the flavedo. The ensuing high-velocity discharge of oil and exhaustive emptying of oil glands creates a novel method for jetting small quantities of the aromatic and volatile oil. We compare the jetting behavior across five citrus hybrids through high-speed videography and material testing of exocarps. The jetting oil undergoes an initial acceleration surpassing 5,000 gravities, reaching velocities in excess of 10 m/s. Film of citrus jets and mimicking jets in the lab reveal their high level of instability is caused by irregular and non-circular orifice geometry. Through material characterization and bending simulations, we rationalize the combination of material properties necessary to generate the internal gland pressures required for explosive dispersal.

  8. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    2011-04-27

    ... for all germplasm and budwood destined for propagation in nurseries within the State, construction and... movement of citrus nursery stock is considered to be a high-risk pathway for citrus canker and citrus..., we did not initiate rulemaking at that time to establish such a systems approach. Rather, we decided...

  9. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    2013-10-24

    ... that seed transmission may occur. The pathogen can also be transmitted by two insect vectors in the... by the Secretary prior to movement. Citrus canker is a plant disease that is caused by a complex of....75-6. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the...

  10. Eficiência do óxido de fenbutatin sobre formas móveis do ácaro vermelho europeu (Panonychus ulmi Koch. em macieira Efficience evaluation of fenbutatin oxide on control of red mite (Panonychus ulmi Koch. on apple tree

    Ivan Francisco Dressler da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficiência do Óxido de Fenbutatin, no controle das formas móveis do ácaro vermelho europeu. Realizou-se um ensaio em pomar de macieira, cv. Fuji, na Empresa Florense, em Lagoa Vermelha, RS, na safra de 1993/94. Os resultados demonstraram que todas as doses utilizadas foram eficientes, até os trinta dias após a aplicação.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficience of Fenbutatin Oxide for controlling mobile forms of red mite ( Panonichus ulmi Koch.. An experiment was conducted in apple orchard cv. Fuji, in Lagoa Vermelha county, RS, Brazil, in 1993/94. The results indicated that all treatments with Fenbutatin Oxide were efficients at 30 days after application.

  11. History and Diversity of Citrus leprosis virus Recorded in Herbarium Specimens.

    Hartung, John S; Roy, Avijit; Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-09-01

    Leprosis refers to two diseases of citrus that present similar necrotic local lesions, often surrounded by chlorotic haloes on citrus. Two distinct viruses are associated with this disease, one that produces particles primarily in the nucleus of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type [CiLV-N]; Dichorhavirus) and another type that produces particles in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type [CiLV-C]; Cilevirus). Both forms are transmitted by Brevipalpid mites and have bipartite, single-stranded, RNA genomes. CiLV-C and CiLV-N are present in South and Central America and as far north as parts of Mexico. Although leprosis disease was originally described from Florida, it disappeared from there in the 1960s. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service maintains preserved citrus specimens identified at inspection stations 50 or more years ago with symptoms of citrus leprosis. We isolated RNA from these samples and performed degradome sequencing. We obtained nearly full-length genome sequences of both a typical CiLV-C isolate intercepted from Argentina in 1967 and a distinct CiLV-N isolate obtained in Florida in 1948. The latter is a novel form of CiLV-N, not known to exist anywhere in the world today. We have also documented the previously unreported presence of CiLV-N in Mexico in the mid-20th century.

  12. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  13. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  14. Current status of the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV -C and its vector Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

    Guillermo León M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus leprosis virus CiLV-C is a quarantine disease of economic importance. Over the past 15 years, this disease has spread to several countries of Central and South America. Colombia has about 45,000 hectares of citrus planted with an annual production of 750,000 tonnes. The CiLV-C has only been detected in the departments of Meta, Casanare and recently Tolima. Meta has 4,300 hectares representing 10% of the national cultivated area, and Casanare, where CiLV-C appeared in 2004, has no more than 500 ha planted with citrus. The presence of the Citrus leprosis virus in Colombia could affect the international market for citrus, other crops and ornamental plants with the United States and other countries without the disease. The false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is the main vector of the CiLV-C. Disease management is based on control programs of the vector and diminishing host plants. Chemical mite control is expensive, wasteful and generates resistance to different acaricides. This paper provides basic information on CiLV-C and its vector, advances in diagnosis and methods to control the disease and prevention of its spread

  15. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Tirry, Luc; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Nauen, Ralf; Dermauw, Wannes

    2015-06-01

    Acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. An analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. Other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly Brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. Acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits (74% of the market), including grape vines and citrus. However, their use is increasing in major crops where spider mites are becoming more important, such as soybean, cotton and corn. As revealed by a detailed case study of the Japanese market, major shifts in acaricide use are partially driven by resistance development and the commercial availability of compounds with novel mode of action. The importance of the latter cannot be underestimated, although some compounds are successfully used for more than 30 years. A review of recent developments in mode of action research is presented, as such knowledge is important for devising resistance management programs. This includes spirocyclic keto-enols as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the carbazate bifenazate as a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a novel class of complex II inhibitors, and the mite growth inhibitors hexythiazox, clofentezine and etoxazole that interact with chitin synthase I. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  17. Effect of Nigerian citrus ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol ...

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on ...

  18. Long term dynamics of dermanyssus gallinae in relation to mite control measures in aviary systems for layers.

    Nordenfors, H; Höglund, J

    2000-12-01

    1. The dynamics of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in aviary systems for layers were studied in an empirical study in Sweden between 1994 and 1997. Fluctuations were monitored with mite traps at monthly intervals during 3 laying cycles at each of 2 commercial poultry farms. 2. When mites were first detected in the system it then took about 5 months for the populations to reach equilibrium levels around which they fluctuated. Within flocks when the population growth was unaffected by temporary control activities, it was demonstrated that the mite populations were significantly denser in summer than in winter. 3. Current control methods had limited effects as mite populations were only temporarily suppressed. One exception was the control achieved with permethrin impregnated plastic strips, which reduced the population at equilibrium level to approximately 22%, compared with the previous flock. 4. The distribution of mites was patchy horizontally, along the aviary system, at low burden wlhereas it became more evenly dispersed at equilibrium. 5. Significant differences in vertical mite distributions that correlated with the hybrids used and their rearing conditions were also observed. In flocks with brown hens, mites gathered at the lower tiers, whereas they were found at the highest tiers in association with white hens. As the hens are attacked mainly at night-time the most likely explanation is that the mites adjust their behavioural pattern to the birds' roosting behaviour.

  19. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  20. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  1. Induced mutations in citrus

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Vardi, Aliza

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  2. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  3. Evidence for host plant preference by Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Citrus.

    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present field and laboratory evidence on the preference of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) for grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) leaves compared with sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves. This preference was confirmed in four orchards whether leaf samples were taken from either border trees of contiguous grapefruit or sweet orange or interior row trees with both citrus species in adjacent rows. Iphiseiodes quadripilis was most abundant in grapefruit trees in spite of the greater abundance of the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in sweet orange trees. Similar preference responses were observed in laboratory tests using a Y-tube olfactometer whether I. quadripilis were collected from sweet orange or grapefruit. Iphiseiodes quadripilis collected from grapefruit trees showed significant preference for grapefruit over sweet orange leaves in contact choice tests using an arena of alternating leaf strips (12 mm long x 2 mm wide) of sweet orange and grapefruit. However, I. quadripilis collected from sweet orange trees did not show preference for either grapefruit or sweet orange leaves. Based on these results, grapefruit leaves foster some unknown factor or factors that retain I. quadripilis in greater numbers compared with sweet orange leaves.

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

    Sholeh Saeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon, Mandarin (Citrus reticulata and Pummelo (Citrus grandis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different Citrus leaf extracts were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils. Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr

  5. Learned predation risk management by spider mites

    Thomas eHackl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation is a prime selective force shaping prey behavior. Investment in anti-predator behavior is traded-off against time and energy for other fitness-enhancing activities such as foraging or reproduction. To optimize this benefit/cost trade-off, prey should be able to innately and/or by experience modulate their behavior to the level of predation risk. Here, we assessed learned predation risk management in the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We exposed spider mites coming from benign (naïve or high immediate predation risk (experienced environments to latent and/or no risk and assessed their site choice, activity and oviposition. Benign environments were characterized by the absence of any predator cues, high immediate risk environments by killed spider mites, physical presence of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and associated chemosensory traces left on the surface, and latent risk environments by only predator traces. In the no-choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites laid their first egg later on leaves with than without predator traces. Irrespective of predator traces presence/absence, experienced mites laid their first egg earlier than naïve ones did. Naïve spider mites were more active, indicating higher restlessness, and laid fewer eggs on leaves with predator traces, whereas experienced mites were less active and laid similar numbers of eggs on leaves with and without predator traces. In the choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites preferentially resided and oviposited on leaves without predator traces but experienced mites were less active than naïve ones. Overall, our study suggests that spider mites experienced with high predation risk behave bolder under latent risk than naïve spider mites. Since predator traces alone do not indicate immediate risk, we argue that the attenuated anti-predator response of experienced spider mites represents adaptive learned

  6. Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals.

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Elbez, Yves; Caillard, Philippe; Zamaria, Nicolas; Cloarec, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy and safety effects of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic citrus dry extract) in weight management; metabolic parameters; and inflammatory, glycemic and oxidative status. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sinetrol-XPur was given to overweight subjects twice daily with meals in the tested group (N = 47) versus a placebo group (N = 48). Waist and hip circumference and abdominal fat were decreased in the Sinetrol-XPur group as compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001) (-5.71% vs. -1.56% for waist, -4.71% vs. -1.35% for hip and -9.73% vs. -3.18% for fat). Inflammatory markers were reduced (C-reactive protein: -22.87% vs. +61%; fibrinogen: -19.93% vs. -1.61%, p < 0.01). Oxidative stress was lowered as seen by the reduction of malondialdehyde (-14.03% vs. 2.76%) and the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione (17.38% vs. 2.19% and 4.63% vs. -2.36%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. Kidney, liver, and lipid panels remained unchanged. These results indicated that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing abdominal fat, waist and hip circumference, and body weight and for improving inflammatory, glycemic, and oxidative status in healthy overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Lipolytic effect of a polyphenolic citrus dry extract of red orange, grapefruit, orange (SINETROL) in human body fat adipocytes. Mechanism of action by inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE).

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Tenca, Guillaume; Juchaux, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the lipolytic (break of fat stored) effect of a citrus-based polyphenolic dietary supplement (SINETROL) at human adipocytes (ex vivo), body fat (clinical) and biochemical levels (inhibition of phosphodiesterase). Free fatty acids (FFA) release was used as indicator of human adipocyte lipolysis and SINETROL activity has been compared with known lipolytic products (isoproterenol, theopylline and caffeine). SINETROL stimulated significantly the lipolytic activity in a range of 6 fold greater than the control. Moreover, SINETROL has 2.1 greater activity than guarana 12% caffeine while its content in caffeine is 3 times lower. Clinically, two groups of 10 volunteers with BMI relevant of overweight were compared during 4 and 12 weeks with 1.4 g/day SINETROL and placebo supplementation. In the SINETROL Group the body fat (%) decreased with a significant difference of 5.53% and 15.6% after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively, while the body weight (kg) decreased with a significant difference of 2.2 and 5.2 kg after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. These observed effects are linked to SINETROL polyphenolic composition and its resulting synergistic activity. SINETROL is a potent inhibitor of cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) (97%) compared to other purified compounds (cyanidin-3 glycoside, narangin, caffeine). These results suggest that SINETROL has a strong lipolytic effect mediated by cAMP-PDE inhibition. SINETROL may serve to prevent obesity by decreasing BMI.

  8. Drought Tip: Irrigating Citrus with Limited Water

    Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    As an evergreen in California's Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, citrus requires some water all year long. Depending on the cultivar and rootstock, citrus can sustain certain levels of drought stress.

  9. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  10. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  11. In vitro plant regeneration in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) by ...

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... H S Rattanpal*1, Gagandeep Kaur2 and Monika Gupta2 ... Seeds were extracted from ripe fruits of rough lemon. ... extract and additional dose of 25 g/l sucrose. ..... important grapefruit cultivar Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.).

  12. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  13. Antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Homma, R; Ando, T; Miyahara, A; Kimura, H; Ito, G; Uesato, N; Ino, Y; Iwaki, M

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that there was a very weak antigenic cross-reactivity between these different suborder of mites but that this cross-reactivity was not attributed to D. farinaes major allergen's, Der fI and Der fII. These results suggest that P. persimilis might scarcely provoke allergic symptoms in patients sensitized to house dust mites.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  15. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Matioli, Andre L.; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G.

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (± 360 μm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  16. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Matioli, Andre L. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economica], e-mail: almatioli@biologico.sp.gov.br; Pallini, Angelo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: pallini@ufv.br; Tavares, Mara G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: mtavares@ufv.br

    2009-03-15

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute ({+-} 360 {mu}m long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  17. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  18. The management of house dust mite allergies

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Schober, G.; Kniest, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    A safe and practical home sanitation procedure for the removal of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and their allergens is described. The severity of mite infestation was assessed with the use of the Acarex test, which measures the concentration of guanine in house dust, and all

  19. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search...

  20. Domatia reduce larval cannibalism in predatory mites

    Ferreira, J.A.M.; Eshuis, B.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    1. Acarodomatia are small structures on the underside of leaves of many plant species, which are mainly inhabited by carnivorous and fungivorous mites. 2. Domatia are thought to protect these mites against adverse environmental conditions and against predation. They are considered as an indirect

  1. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  2. Resposta diferencial de espécies e de híbridos de citros à leprose Differential response of citrus species and hybrids to leprosis

    Juliana Freitas-Astúa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi buscar novas fontes de resistência à leprose-dos-citros, no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma do Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronômico, em Cordeirópolis, SP. Foram utilizadas plantas obtidas por sementes de 26 acessos, infectadas com o vírus da leprose-dos-citros (Citrus leprosis virus - CiLV, por meio do seu vetor Brevipalpus phoenicis. O aparecimento de lesões, a partir de 21 dias após a inoculação, foi observado em 11 dos genótipos testados (42,3%. Quinze espécies, entre elas Citrus pennivesiculata e C. celebica, comportaram-se como altamente resistentes, enquanto outras, como C. keraji, foram mais suscetíveis que o padrão C. sinensis. Os dados mostraram grande variação de respostas de Citrus spp. à leprose, com elevado número de espécies resisentes, que podem ser utilizadas como fonte de resistência à doença em programas de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to prospect for new sources of resistance to leprosis in the Citrus Germplasm Bank of Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronômico, in Cordeirópolis, SP, Brazil. Plants obtained through seeds from 26 citrus accessions were mite-infected with Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Typical lesions started to appear in 11 genotypes (42.3% of the tested accessions 21 days after inoculation. Fifteen species, among them Citrus pennivesiculata and C. celebica, behaved as highly resistant, while other genotypes, as C. keraji, were more susceptible than the standard C. sinensis. The data showed a wide variation in the response of Citrus spp. to leprosis, with a large number of resistant species, wich can be used as source of resistance to this disease, in breeding programs.

  3. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  4. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    2012-10-01

    ... occur. The pathogen can also be transmitted by two insect vectors in the family Psyllidae: Diaphorina... California due to the presence of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a vector of the bacterial pathogen that causes... INFORMATION: Background Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be...

  5. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  6. Fortuynia marina nov. gen., nov. spec., an Oribatid mite from the intertidal zone in Netherlands New Guinea

    Hammen, van der L.

    1960-01-01

    On December 7, 1953, while collecting animals along the south coast of Biak Island (Netherlands New Guinea), in the neighbourhood of the Base of the Royal Netherlands Navy 1), I was surprised in seeing red Trombidiid mites creeping on stones in the intertidal zone. These stones, which fall dry at

  7. Citrus and Prunuscopia-like retrotransposons.

    Asíns, M J; Monforte, A J; Mestre, P F; Carbonell, E A

    1999-08-01

    Many of the world's most important citrus cultivars ("Washington Navel", satsumas, clementines) have arisen through somatic mutation. This phenomenon occurs fairly often in the various species and varieties of the genus.The presence of copia-like retrotransposons has been investigated in fruit trees, especially citrus, by using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences. Amplification products from a genotype of each the following species Citrus sinensis, Citrus grandis, Citrus clementina, Prunus armeniaca and Prunus amygdalus, were cloned and some of them sequenced. Southern-blot hybridization using RT clones as probes showed that multiple copies are integrated throughout the citrus genome, while only 1-3 copies are detected in the P. armeniaca genome, which is in accordance with the Citrus and Prunus genome sizes. Sequence analysis of RT clones allowed a search for homologous sequences within three gene banks. The most similar ones correspond to RT domains of copia-like retrotransposons from unrelated plant species. Cluster analysis of these sequences has shown a great heterogeneity among RT domains cloned from the same genotype. This finding supports the hypothesis that horizontal transmission of retrotransposons has occurred in the past. The species presenting a RT sequence most similar to citrus RT clones is Gnetum montanum, a gymnosperm whose distribution area coincides with two of the main centers of origin of Citrus spp. A new C-methylated restriction DNA fragment containing a RT sequence is present in navel sweet oranges, but not in Valencia oranges from which the former originated suggesting, that retrotransposon activity might be, at least in part, involved in the genetic variability among sweet orange cultivars. Given that retrotransposons are quite abundant throughout the citrus genome, their activity should be investigated thoroughly before commercializing any transgenic citrus plant where the transgene(s) is part

  8. Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.

    Rosa Anna Iorio

    Full Text Available Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39% to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica, confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

  9. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  10. Biological control of fruit-tree red spider mite

    Rabbinge, R.

    1976-01-01

    During the last decade, integrated pest control systems have been developed for several crops. One of the main fields of research in integrated control has been the control of orchard pests. Experience with modified spraying programmes in apple orchards, the increasing resistance of spider

  11. RNA-interference gene knockdown in the poultry red mite ...

    Lucy

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... transmission of poultry diseases, such as salmonellosis. (Afrim et al., 2011; Moro et al., ... tick lysosomal cathepsin D- like protease and also cathepsin-like proteins ..... potential vector of pathogenic agents. Exp. Appli. Acarol.

  12. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  13. Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites

    Hubert, J.; Pekár, S.; Nesvorná, M.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2010), s. 2249-2257 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : mites * temperature * acclimation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2010

  14. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  15. [Citrus boron nutrient level and its impact factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing, China].

    Zhou, Wei; Peng, Liang-Zhi; Chun, Chang-Pin; Jiang, Cai-Lun; Ling, Li-Li; Wang, Nan-Qi; Xing, Fei; Huang, Yi

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the level of boron nutrient in citrus and its impact factors, a total of 954 citrus leaf samples and 302 soil samples were collected from representative orchards in the 12 main citrus production counties in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing to determine the boron content in citrus leaves, as well as the relationships between leaf boron content with soil available boron content, soil pH value, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree. Results indicated that the leaf samples from 41.6% orchards (tree did affect the leaf boron content. The leaves from the orchards with soil pH of 4.5-6.4 demonstrated significantly higher boron contents than with the soil pH of 6.5-8.5. The leaf boron contents in the different cultivars was ranged as Satsuma mandarin > pomelo > valencia orange > sweet orange > tangor > navel orange. The citrus on trifoliate orange and sour pomelo rootstocks had significantly higher leaf boron contents than on Carrizo citrange and red tangerine rootstocks. Compared with the adult citrus trees (above 8 year-old), 6.6% more of leaf samples of younger trees (3 to 8 year-old) contained boron contents in the optimum range (35-100 mg x kg(-1)).

  16. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  17. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Citrus water use in South Africa

    Vahrmeijer, JT

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available scheduling is needed to justify the quantity of water needed for the production of citrus. Models, which are formidable tools to predict water use and crop performance, are therefore vital to provide accurate estimates of citrus water use across different...

  19. Understanding the dynamics of citrus water use

    Taylor, NJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of water use of citrus orchards is important in order to prevent stress developing in the orchard and to avoid wasting precious water resources. Measurement of citrus orchard water use is not possible under all environ-mental...

  20. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  1. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway - RNAi evidence

    In silico analyses of the draft genome of Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid, for genes within the Ribonucleic acid interference(RNAi), pathway was successful. The psyllid is the vector of the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is linked to citrus gree...

  2. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  3. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations.

    Hart, B J

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the life cycle of house-dust mites, as well as environmental factors influencing mite populations, can be exploited in mite control. The most important limiting factor for house-dust-mite populations is air humidity. House-dust mites osmoregulate through the cuticle and therefore require a high ambient air humidity to prevent excessive water loss. In addition, the supracoxal glands actively take up ambient water vapour, and the protonynph stage of the life cycle is resistant to desiccation. Larger house-dust-mite populations are found when the absolute indoor air humidity is above 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at 20 degrees C). Consequently, ventilation by air-conditioning systems is being developed as a means of control. A number of other aspects of the domestic environment are also being manipulated in an integrated approach to render the habitat less suitable for mites. The potential exists for developing models for house-dust mite populations, environmental characteristics, and the effects of various approaches to control.

  4. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  5. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  6. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  7. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  8. Correlation between the proportion of stained eggs and the number of mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) monitored using a 'non-parallel board trap'.

    Odaka, Makiko; Ogino, Kazumasa; Shikada, Michitaka; Asada, Kenichi; Kasa, Syoujirou; Inoue, Takahiro; Maeda, Ken

    2017-12-01

    The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is a serious problem for the poultry industry worldwide. However, the relationship between the mite population and the damage that they cause is still unclear. In this study, the mite population in poultry houses was examined using an established trap method, and the risk of blood-stained eggs caused by the mites was assessed. Traps were placed once a week outside the egg channels and/or on the floor in two poultry farms in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, from April 2012 to July 2014. The numbers of blood-stained eggs and total eggs were counted at weekly intervals. The results showed that the number of mites increased from April to May, and reached a peak around the beginning of June when the average temperature and humidity were >24°C and 70-90%, respectively. In the segmented model, the correlation between the proportion of blood-stained eggs and the number of mites or temperature was positive over a threshold. In conclusion, our established trap method is useful for monitoring mites and can be used to predict when poultry farms should be treated to prevent appearance of blood-stained eggs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  10. Simple method of detecting sarcoptes scabiei var hominis mites among bedridden elderly patients suffering from severe scabies infestation using an adhesive-tape.

    Katsumata, Kazuo; Katsumata, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Scabies infestation is very common among bedridden elderly patients. The standard method of diagnosis for scabies by scraping the skin requires some skill. Therefore, dermatologists employ this method. However, dermatologists are usually not present in most long-term nursing units. Thus, we tried to catch mites using a strong transparent adhesive tape commercially available for packing use as an alternative method for the diagnosis of severe scabies infestation. After firmly applying the adhesive side of the tape onto an appropriate skin lesion of patients, the tape was pulled off and transferred directly onto a slide for microscopy, affixing the adhered separated part of the corneal skin. When a massive outbreak of scabies infestation occurred in May 2004 at the nursing unit of K hospital with thirty-one bedridden elderly patients, we tried to detect scabies mite using an adhesive tape. We could detect mites from six patients using this tape method. The diagnosis was confirmed by the standard scraping method. By the tape method we could observe some mites moving around and also could see a striated structure with dark red or weak red color or gray color granule-like constitution on the body of some mites. We found mites only on the skin of the fingers and toes where the skin of a patient is thin. Recently, massive scabies infestation in elderly long-term residents has been reported elsewhere. This tape method is simple and useful for diagnosis of severe scabies infestation in long-term nursing units.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of ‘Shatangju’ Mandarin

    Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), ‘Shatangju’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and ‘Shatangju’ mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in ‘Red tangerine vs Canton lemon’. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways. PMID:28081213

  12. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  13. When do predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) attack? Understanding their diel and seasonal predation patterns.

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Aguilar-Fenollosa, Ernestina; Hurtado, Mónica A; Jaques, Josep A; Pina, Tatiana

    2017-06-16

    Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are considered one of the most important groups of natural enemies used in biological control. The behavioral patterns of arthropods can differ greatly daily and seasonally; however, there is a lack of literature related to Phytoseiidae diel and seasonal predation patterns. The predatory activity of three phytoseiid species (two Tetranychidae-specialists, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, and one omnivore, Euseius stipulatus) that occur naturally in Spanish citrus orchards was observed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer. The temperature and photoperiod of the climatic chamber where the mites were reared did not change during the experiment. Our study demonstrates that phytoseiids can exhibit diel and seasonal predatory patterns when feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Neoseiulus californicus was revealed to be a nocturnal predator in summer but diurnal in winter. In contrast, P. persimilis activity was maximal during the daytime, and E. stipulatus showed no clear daily predation patterns. The predatory patterns described in this study should be taken into account when designing laboratory studies and also in field samplings, especially when applying molecular techniques to unveil trophic relationships. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.

  15. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  16. Improved annotation of the insect vector of citrus greening disease: Biocuration by a diverse genomics community

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is the insect vector of the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). HLB threatens citrus production worldwide. Suppression or reduction of the insect vector usin...

  17. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  18. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

    Almeida,Weliton Antonio Bastos de; Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes,Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Pavan,Alexandra; Rodriguez,Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2003-01-01

    Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck). Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod) were used...

  20. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruits.

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-09-01

    Twenty-four flavonoids have been determined in 66 Citrus species and near-citrus relatives, grown in the same field and year, by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Statistical methods have been applied to find relations among the species. The F ratios of 21 flavonoids obtained by applying ANOVA analysis are significant, indicating that a classification of the species using these variables is reasonable to pursue. Principal component analysis revealed that the distributions of Citrus species belonging to different classes were largely in accordance with Tanaka's classification system.

  1. [Investigation of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits].

    Tao, Ning; Zhan, Xiao-dong; Sun, En-tao; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To study the species and density of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits. The samples from the dried fruit stores and warehouses were collected, and the mites breeding in them were separated, then the slides with mites were prepared and observed by a light microscope for species identification and counting. The indexes such as the breeding density, species richness index, diversity index and evenness index were calculated. Totally 12 species of Acaroid mites belonging to 6 families and 10 genera were obtained from the total 49 samples. The dominant mite species were Carpoglyphus lactis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and Caloglyphus berlesei. The breeding densities of mites in longans, filberts and plum candies were 79.78, 48.91, 35.73 mites/g, respectively, which were higher than those in other dry fruits. The seasonal variation experiment of mites found that the average breeding density of acaroid mites was higher in July and October, the richness index and diversity index reached the highest value in July, and the evenness index was higher in January and April. The observation of the growth and decline of Acaroid mites under the artificial condition found the number of Caloglyphus berlesei declined sharply and Tyrophagus putrescentiae first increased and then decreased. The pollution of Acaroid mites is serious in the stored dried fruits, for which the positive prevention and control measures to the mite breeding should be taken to reduce the harm.

  2. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  3. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    Islam, N. U.; Shahid, M.; Ahsan, F.; Khan, I.; Shah, M. R.; Khan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  4. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  5. Anti-mite measurements in mite-sensitive adult asthma. A controlled trial.

    Burr, M L; St Leger, A S; Neale, E

    1976-02-14

    A cross-over controlled trial has been conducted among 32 adult patients with mite-sensitive asthma. The bedclothes and pillows of each subject were laundered and vacuum-cleaned and a plastic cover applied to the mattress for six weeks in an attempt to reduce exposure to mites. No improvement in daily peak-flow reading or drug usage was found in comparison with a control period.

  6. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    2013-07-10

    ... therefore opposed importation of fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay until its effectiveness could be validated...'' imports. The commenter stated that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus... metric tons, which is less than 3 percent of U.S. production. Uruguay's total fresh orange and lemon...

  7. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    2013-02-06

    ...] australis, causal agent of sweet orange scab); and a pathogen (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, causal agent... oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm. f.), four species of mandarins (C... of the reading room). The PRA, titled ``Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit, including Sweet Orange...

  8. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range

  9. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range

  10. H NMR analyses of Citrus macrophylla subjected to Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a phloem feeding insect that can host and transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the putative causative agent of the economically important citrus disease, Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP are widespread in Florida, and are spreading in Ca...

  11. Phagostimulants for the Asian citrus psyllid also elicit volatile release from citrus leaves

    Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...

  12. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  13. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  14. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 69 CITRUS FARMERS PRODUCTION

    oma

    Emerging trends and advances in the citrus industry globally necessitates updating ... citrus is ranked first among other fruit crops by farmers (NIHORT, 2000). .... the arduous task of producing horticultural crops which are pest, diseases and ...

  15. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  16. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  17. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq TM (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  18. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.

  19. Hemipteroseius adleri Costa, 1968 collected on red firebug: the first record of the family Otopheidomenidae Treat, 1955 (Acari: Mesostigmata in Hungary

    Kontschán, J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic mite Hemipteroseius adleri Costa, 1968 was collected on red firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus,1758 for the first time in Hungary. Short description and drawings of the specimens are presented.

  20. Current Situation of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong, P. R. China

    Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...

  1. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  2. Citrus Tristeza Virus: An Increasing Trend in the Virus Occurrence ...

    Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus orchards around the world. Here, we report, an ELISA-based indexing of citrus trees over a period of eight years (2002 to 2010) in Northwest Pakistan, revealing that the incidence of CTV is increasing mainly with the distribution ...

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Paramyosin from the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression.

    Mattsson, J G; Ljunggren, E L; Bergström, K

    2001-05-01

    The burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei is the causative agent of the highly contagious disease sarcoptic mange or scabies. So far, there is no in vitro propagation system for S. scabiei available, and mites used for various purposes must be isolated from infected hosts. Lack of parasite-derived material has limited the possibilities to study several aspects of scabies, including pathogenesis and immunity. It has also hampered the development of high performance serological assays. We have now constructed an S. scabiei cDNA expression library with mRNA purified from mites isolated from red foxes. Immunoscreening of the library enabled us to clone a full-length cDNA coding for a 102.5 kDa protein. Sequence similarity searches identified the protein as a paramyosin. Recombinant S. scabiei paramyosin expressed in Escherichia coli was recognized by sera from dogs and swine infected with S. scabiei. We also designed a small paramyosin construct of about 17 kDa that included the N-terminal part, an evolutionary variable part of the helical core, and the C-terminal part of the molecule. The miniaturized protein was efficiently expressed in E. coli and was recognized by sera from immunized rabbits. These data demonstrate that the cDNA library can assist in the isolation of important S. scabiei antigens and that recombinant proteins can be useful for the study of scabies.

  5. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mite (Tetranychidae) on cut flowers

    Zainon Othman; Mohd Ridzuan Ismail; Hamidah Sulaiman; Mohd Shamsudin Osman

    2000-01-01

    Cut flower, an important export commodity of Malaysia in international trade, is often subjected to infestation by various pests such as mites, scales and thrips. The use of low ionising radiation has been suggested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, the current pest disinfestation treatment for cut flower but which is being phased out due to environmental concerns. The criterion for efficacy of radiation as a quarantine treatment will be the inability of treated mites to reproduce at a new location rather than causing immediate mortality. Irradiating red spider mite Tetranychus piercie at a dose of 300 and 400 Gy produced sterile female adults from irradiated protonymph and deutonymph respectively. A lower dose of 200 Gy induced sterility in female adults developed from the less immature stages of irradiated egg and larva. Deteriorating effects caused by irradiation treatment were reflected in immatures by their reduced emergence rate/mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A dose of 240 Gy prevented reproduction in female adult of T piercie by inducing sterility while a much higher dose of 5 kGy is required to produce instant mortality. Based on the results obtained gamma irradiation of dose range 300-400 Gy may be applied as a quarantine treatment against Tetranychus piercie. However, this dose range is only suitable for chrysanthemum (in 4% sucrose solution) but not roses, carnations and orchids which showed phytotoxic symptoms at dose range of 100-300 Gy

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  7. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5

  8. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized e...

  9. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  10. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis c...

  11. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  12. Long conduction time POs experiments on MITE

    Woodall, H.N.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Zagar, D.M.; Simpson, W.W.; Zuchowski, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    MITE is a power flow test bed that has been modified to conduct experiments in high power plasma opening switch (POS) technology and apply this technology to Inertial Confinement Fusion. The goal of the experiment is to develop a plasma opening switch that conducts megampere currents for 300 ns, then opens in 5--10 ns. MITE/POS is an advanced power flow experiment that uses a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) as the inductive energy store and as a means to shape the output pulse. This experiment demonstrates that a simplified, lower-cost facility can be built by eliminating water pulse-forming lines and water-switching. Another advantage of this approach is that high energy efficiency at peak power can be achieved. The disadvantage is that a new technology, the triggered POS, must be implemented. The triggered POS is necessary for synchronization of multiple modules with a long conduction-time POS. The MITE facility has been modified to drive a 250 nH, 16.6 Ohm MITL at 0.9 MA to accommodate this power flow experiment. A MITL inductive energy storage of 101 kJ is available for POS switching to a matched load. Experiments have been conducted using segmented flashboards and magnetic-field controlled plasma sources. These experiments will lead to the development of the triggered POS. The initial experiments with plasma conduction times of 120 ns to 800 ns are discussed

  13. A Modular Cage System Design for Continuous Medium to Large Scale In Vivo Rearing of Predatory Mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima beans,  Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. The cage units connect with each other through a connection cup, which also serves for monitoring and collection. Predatory mites migrate upwards to new cage units as prey is depleted. The system was evaluated for production of Phytoseiulus persimilis. During a 6-month experimental period, 20,894.9±10,482.5 (mean ± standard deviation predators were produced per week. The production consisted of 4.1±4.6% nymphs and 95.9±4.6% adults. A mean of 554.5±59.8 predatory mites were collected per harvested cage and the mean interval length between harvests was 6.57±6.76 days. The potential for commercial and experimental applications is discussed.

  14. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  15. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    Demoly, P; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Rehm, D

    2017-10-01

    Treatment with SQ (standardised quality) house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis (AR) exacerbation day (from 11% [placebo] to 5% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]) and an increased probability of having a mild AR day (from 16% [placebo] to 34% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]). © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  16. The Types of Essentials Oil Components Isolated From the Leaves of Citrus Aurantifolia and Citrus Nobilis

    Wulandari, Mutiara Juni; Mohammad Anwar Jamaludin,, Lailatul Riska, Agustin Laela Prunama; Mumun Nurmilawati, Indra Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil or known as the eteris oil (etheric oil) was result from secondary metabolism of a plant. In general essential oil contains of citronellal, Citronelal, Citronelol, Limonen, β-Pinene dan sabinene. The components essential oil derived from citrus plants commonly used by perfume industry, on other hand it is used as essentials oil orange flavour addition in some drinks and food, and also as an antioxidant and anti cancer. One of the essential oil is produced by Citrus aurantifolia ...

  17. Evaluation of the Tolerance of Some Citrus Rootstocks to Citrus Nematode in Greenhouse (Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    Y. Mohammad Alian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus nematode is one of the most important damaging nematodes of citrus trees, spreading widely in most areas under citrus planting causing dieback, the gradual decline of trees and crop decrease in citrus orchards. Eighty citrus cultivars and species are sensitive to this nematode. From other nematode hosts, we can refer to olive, fig, medlar, persimmon, pear and grapevine. Surveys Full filled in Mazandaran province is indicative of the widespread of this nematode in citrus horticulture and the level of infection in some samples is so high, thus it is necessary to use different ways of controlling this parasite. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out for 2 successive years and the reaction of sin citrus rootstocks including Citromelo, Poncirus, Sour Orange, Bakraee, Rough lemon and Off-type to citrus nematode under controlled conditions in the greenhouse was evaluated. Three months years old plants of this rootstock Were planted in completely random design with 5 replications in pots containing the population of 40 larvae per cubic centimeter of soil and after six months, the level of infection of roots was investigated and then the most tolerable rootstock for nematode was introduced on the basis of the least population of young females and adult females injected in one gram of root volume. Results and Discussion: Experiment results on the basis of LSD test in two successive years indicated that there is a meaningful statistical difference between Citrumelo and poncirus Poncirus with the least population of nematode of adult female on the root and other treatments the results show that sour orange and off-type rootstocks are the most sensitive to citrus nematode, poncirus Poncirus and Citrumelo are the most tolerable to nematode Bakraee and Rough lemon are in the biotype group with average tolerance (relatively sensitive to citrus nematode. Purpose of this research is to assess the sensitivity level of six citrus

  18. Nutritional deficiency in citrus with symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis disease

    ME. Silva-Stenico

    Full Text Available It is well known that citrus plants that have been infected by Xylella fastidiosa display nutritional deficiencies, probably caused by production of extracellular polymers by the bacteria that block normal nutrient flow through the xylem. The aim of this work was to study the mineral composition of specific foliar areas in different stages of infection in citrus. Thus, the concentrations of macro and micronutrients in leaves of citrus infected by X. fastidiosa were measured. Samples from four infected citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were respectively collected from Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, Neves Paulista, Gavião Peixoto and Paraíso counties. The presence of X. fastidiosa in leaves was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific PCR primers. To understand the variation in leaf-nutrient content in citrus plants, we used foliar nutrient values from control (non-symptomatic plants as a reference. Chemometric analysis showed that the deficiency of P and K in symptomatic trees for all orchards and high concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn were observed in chlorotic areas, although other studies revealed deficiency of zinc in leaves. This is the first report showing that a correlation between chlorotic citrus leaf and higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn are observed when infected and healthy plants were compared.

  19. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    Sadaf, S.; Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  20. Desarrollo y validación de una metodología para la determinación de residuos de orto-fenilfenol en aceite esencial de frutas cítricas en Tucumán, R. Argentina Development and validation of a methodology for determining orto-phenylphenol residues in citrus essential oil in Tucumán, Argentina

    Norma Kamiya

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de frutas cítricas constituyen mezclas complejas de compuestos orgánicos que interfieren en la cuantificación de residuos de plaguicidas. Siendo escasa la bibliografía encontrada para la determinación de orto-fenilfenol (OPP en estas matrices, este trabajo apunta a adaptar, desarrollar, validar y acreditar bajo Norma IRAM 301 (ISO/IEC 17025:2005, un método sencillo y de menor costo. Para dicha cuantificación, se tomaron como punto de partida metodologías aplicadas al análisis de frutas cítricas y se aprovechó el carácter ácido del OPP para separarlo mediante una extracción ácido-base. Posteriormente, fue detectado y cuantificado por cromatografía gaseosa (CG con detector de ionización de llama (FID. Se obtuvieron recuperaciones promedio de 89% a 104%, en el rango de 0,1 a 100 mg/kg, para aceite esencial de limón (AEL; de 93% a 103 % y de 90% a 114% entre 0,2 mg/kg y 10 mg/kg de OPP para aceite esencial de pomelo (AEP blanco y rosado, respectivamente. Los límites de detección fueron 0,05 mg/kg para AEL y 0,1 mg/kg para AEP blanco y rosado. Los límites de cuantificación fueron 0,1 mg/kg para AEL y 0,2 mg/kg para AEP. Además, se observaron una linealidad aceptable en los rangos evaluados e incertidumbres relativas de 24% para AEL, 14% para AEP blanco y 23% para AEP rosado.The essential oils of citric fruits constitute complex mixtures of organic compounds which interfere with pesticide residues quantitation. As there exists scarce bibliography on ortho-phenylphenol (OPP determination in this commodity, the present work aims to adapt, develop and validate a simple and cheaper method for determining phenylphenol residues in citrus essential oil, while certifying it under IRAM 301 standard (ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Citrus fruit analysis methods were used, taking advantage of OPP acidity for its extraction from the commodity by simple acid-base extraction. Later, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector

  1. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the

  2. Bee Mite ID - an online resource on identification of mites associated with bees of the World

    Parasitic mites are known to be a factor in recent declines in bee pollinator populations. In particular, Varroa destructor, an introduced parasite and disease vector, has decimated colonies of the western honey bee, one of the most important agricultural pollinators in the world. Further, global tr...

  3. ENERGY USE IN CITRUS PRODUCTION OF MAZANDARAN ...

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The aim of this study was to evaluate energy use in citrus production in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 155 farmers using a face-to-face interview method. The total energy .... control mainly were mechanised and a few of them ... fertilisers was manual; while manure application.

  4. Detection of Citrus Trees from Uav Dsms

    Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.

  5. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  6. The "Phantom Costs" of Florida's Citrus Industry

    Muraro, Ronald P.; Roka, Fritz M.; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory compliance, the "phantom costs of production," is an increasingly "fact-of-life" for U.S. agriculture. A survey was developed and implemented to enumerate regulatory compliance costs for Florida's 748,500 acres citrus industry. Complying with 61 production related regulations, 643,757 hours were expended at a total annual cost of over $24.3 million.

  7. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  8. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; jr. Maccheroni, W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as

  9. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  10. House dust mites in the city of Lima, Peru.

    Croce, M; Costa-Manso, E; Baggio, D; Croce, J

    2000-01-01

    Since mites are the most common house dust allergens, knowledge about the species most prevalent in a region is important for diagnostic and specific immunotherapy purposes. In order to establish the prevalence of house dust mites in different city districts, 100 house dust samples were collected from different parts of Lima. Lima is a city of tropical climate located along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The relative air humidity is 80-90% and the various districts studied are located at altitudes ranging from 37-355 meters. The mite Blomia tropicalis was the organism most frequently detected, being present in 59% of the house dust samples. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus occupied second place (15.9%), followed by Chortoglyphus arcuatus and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. These four mites, taken together, represented more than 90% of the mites detected. No specimen of the species Dermatophagoides farinae was detected. We conclude that B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus are the most common house dust mites in Lima. Considering the high prevalence of B. tropicalis in Lima and the fact that its cross-reactivity with antigens of the mites of the family Pyroglyphidae is minimal, we conclude that sensitization to this mite should be investigated separately in allergic patients living in Lima.

  11. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  12. Ecology, life history and management of tropilaelaps mites

    Parasitic mites are the major threat of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera. For much of the world, Varroa destructor single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilae...

  13. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: Observations of their reproductive success

    Tropilaelaps spp. are more successful parasitic mites of Apis mellifera than Varroa destructor in Asia (Burgett et al., Bee World 64:25-28). We sought explanations to this success by assessing their fecundity on European bees in three short experiments using the mite transfer technique: 1) fecundity...

  14. IPM potentials of microbial pathogens and diseases of mites

    van der Geest, L.P.S.; Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of diseases in mites, caused by infectious microorganisms. Many pathogens play an important role in the regulation of natural populations of mite populations and are for this reason subject of research on the feasibility to develop such pathogens to biological control agents.

  15. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  16. Spider mite control and resistance management: does a genome help?

    Van Leeuwen, T.; Dermauw, W.; Grbic, M.; Tirry, L.; Feyereisen, R.

    2012-01-01

    The complete genome of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, has been reported. This is the first sequenced genome of a highly polyphagous and resistant agricultural pest. The question as to what the genome offers the community working on spider mite control is addressed.

  17. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  18. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  19. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  20. Clinical evaluation of a double-blind dust mite avoidance trial with mite-allergic rhinitic patients

    Kniest, F.M.; Young, E.; Praag, van M.C.G.; Vos, H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Koers, W.J.; Maat-Bleeker, de F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Inheritance and allergen exposure are key factors in the development and the course of atopic allergy, expressed as conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthma or dermatitis. This study concerns the clinical significance of mite and mite-allergen avoidance measures based on intensive cleaning with acaricide

  1. Mechanisms and patient compliance of dust-mite avoidance regimens in dwellings of mite-allergic rhinitic patients

    Kniest, F.M.; Wolfs, B.G.; Vos, H.; Ducheine, B.O.I.; Schayk-Bakker, M.J.; de Lange, P.J.P.; Vos, E.M.P.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the mechanisms, the environmental changes and patient compliance with regard to conventional and new dust and mite avoidance measures to prevent allergic symptoms caused by mite allergens, taking into account both allergen contamination and the developmental success of pyroglyphid

  2. Temporal stability in the genetic structure of Sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived Sarcoptes mite in Asturias, Spain

    Rossi Luca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicitly, parasite molecular studies assume temporal genetic stability. In this study we tested, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of changes in genetic diversity and structure of Sarcoptes mite populations from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica in Asturias (Spain, using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and Sarcoptes samples from sympatric Pyrenean chamois, red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Results The analysis of an 11-years interval period found little change in the genetic diversity (allelic diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity. The temporal stability in the genetic diversity was confirmed by population structure analysis, which was not significantly variable over time. Population structure analysis revealed temporal stability in the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite under the host-taxon law (herbivore derived- and carnivore derived-Sarcoptes mite among the sympatric wild animals from Asturias. Conclusions The confirmation of parasite temporal genetic stability is of vital interest to allow generalizations to be made, which have further implications regarding the genetic structure, epidemiology and monitoring protocols of the ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite. This could eventually be applied to other parasite species.

  3. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  4. Citrus leprosis virus N: A New Dichorhavirus Causing Citrus Leprosis Disease.

    Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Tassi, Aline Daniele; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Harakava, Ricardo; Salaroli, Renato Barbosa; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local necrotic and chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches, and fruit and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in noncommercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013 to 2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells. However, every attempt to identify these particles by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests failed, even though all described primers for the detection of known CL-causing cileviruses and dichorhaviruses were used. Next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracts from three symptomatic samples revealed the genome of distinct, although highly related (>92% nucleotide sequence identity), viruses whose genetic organization is similar to that of dichorhaviruses. The genome sequence of these viruses showed trees and those used for the transmission of one of the characterized isolates to Arabidopsis plants were anatomically recognized as Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto. Molecular and biological features indicate that the identified viruses belong to a new species of CL-associated dichorhavirus, which we propose to call Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus. Our results, while emphasizing the increasing diversity of viruses causing CL disease, lead to a reevaluation of the nomenclature of those viruses assigned to the genus Dichorhavirus. In this regard, a comprehensive discussion is presented.

  5. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents.

  6. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  7. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  8. Global associations between birds and vane-dwelling feather mites.

    Doña, Jorge; Proctor, Heather; Mironov, Sergey; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Understanding host-symbiont networks is a major question in evolutionary ecology. Birds host a great diversity of endo- and ectosymbiotic organisms, with feather mites (Arachnida: Acariformes: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea) being among the most diverse of avian symbionts. A global approach to the ecology and evolution of bird-feather-mite associations has been hampered because of the absence of a centralized data repository. Here we present the most extensive data set of associations between feather mites and birds. Data include 12 036 records of 1887 feather mite species located on the flight feathers of 2234 bird species from 147 countries. Feather mites typically located inside quills, on the skin, or on downy body feathers are not included. Data were extracted from 493 published sources dating from 1882 to 2015. Data exploration shows that although most continents and bird families are represented, most bird species remain unexplored for feather mites. Nevertheless, this is the most comprehensive data set available for enabling global macroecological analyses of feather mites and their hosts, such as ecological network analyses. This metadata file outlines the structure of these data and provides primary references for all records used. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  10. Phoretic mites identified on andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae of Caldas, Colombia

    Natalia López-Orozco

    Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  11. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  12. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  13. Free living astigmatid mites (Astigmatina): new taxa, rearing and use for mesostigmatid (Mesostigmata) predatory mite production

    Marina Ferraz de Camargo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The cohort Astigmatina is divided in two major groups: Psoroptidia, composed mainly by feather and fur mites, and Non-psoroptidia, a dominant component of the acarofauna in ephemeral habitats. In these environments Astigmatina usually are saprophages or feed on fungi or bacteria. Astigmatina protonymphs undergo a complete reorganization of the body structure leading to the production of heteromorphic deutonymphs, generally specialized for dispersion through phoresy using arthropods and verteb...

  14. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    Ni Ni Win

    2005-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  15. Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.

    Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

    2006-06-01

    Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status.

  16. Detection methods for irradiated mites and insects

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the study on the following tests for separation of irradiated pests from untreated ones are reported: (a) test for identification of irradiated mites (Acaridae) based on lack of fecundity of treated females; (b) test for identification of irradiated beetles based on their locomotor activity; (c) test for identification of irradiated pests based on electron spin resonance (ESR) signal derived from treated insects; (d) test for identification of irradiated pests based on changes in the midgut induced by gamma radiation; and (e) test for identification of irradiated pests based on the alterations in total proteins of treated adults. Of these detection methods, only the test based on the pathological changes induced by irradiation in the insect midgut may identify consistently either irradiated larvae or adults. This test is simple and convenient when a rapid processing technique for dehydrating and embedding the midgut is used. (author)

  17. Un mundo sin límites

    Córdoba, Joaquín Mª

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XVI, las nuevas ediciones del Atlas de Ptolomeo publicadas en Roma o Venecia solían incluir un mapamundi modificado sin cesara a medida que descubridores y navegantes alcanzaban nuevos y antes desconocidos horizontes. La temprana circunnavegación de Magallanes y Elcano (1519-1522 confirmaba con su esferidad, que el mundo no tenía límites. Durante aquel siglo magnífico, la literatura española de viajes al Oriente Próximo islámico tenía que ser menos señalada. La casi perenne guerra contra el Imperio Otomano, señor de una buena parte de las costas mediterráneas, y sobre todo la empresa de América y los viajes de exploración y conquista que aquella demandaba, …

  18. Phenomenon of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis mite.

    Sutáková, G

    1994-01-01

    An unknown microorganism occurring in a predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was described by the author in 1977 as a new species Rickettsiella phytoseiuli. Some new results on the relation between this agent and its hosts are presented in this paper.

  19. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... treatment and then the selected 5th instar larva were transferred to fundamental colonies with 10 to 12 ... Key words: Varroa mite, hygienic behavior (uncapping and .... into a container containing hot water and detergent.

  20. Genetic background of resistance to gall mite in Ribes species

    Ingrida Mazeikiene

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to gall mite is an important genetic trait of Ribes. P and Ce genes, responsible for gall mite resistance, were established in Ribes species and interspecific hybrids using molecular markers. Resistance in R. americanum is determined by P gene and in R. sanguineum by Ce gene. Both molecular markers were absent in R. dikuscha genome. Molecular markers related to P and Ce genes were identified in the genome of R. aureum. Resistance to gall mite in the field conditions in R. nigrum x R. americanum, R. nigrum x R. aureum and R. nigrum x R. sanguineum F3 hybrids fitted an expected Mendelian segregation ratio of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. 75.0% of hybrids with a pyramidal resistance to gall mite carrying markers related to Ce and P genes were obtained in the cross combination R. nigrum x R. aureum and will be included in the future breeding programs.

  1. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Citrus tristeza virus: An increasing trend in the virus occurrence and ...

    ABC

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus ... diseases of citrus trees reported in Pakistan are tristeza, .... bark. Vein clearing and stem pitting were also observed on sweet orange trees sour ..... disposal of source of inoculum by removing old citrus trees ...

  3. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  4. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p3...

  5. (Liberibacter spp.) associated with citrus greening disease in Uganda

    ACSS

    Citrus is one of the largest fruit crops grown in Uganda ... of several citrus industries in Asia and. Africa (da Graca ... role in transmission of HLB, psyllid feeding ... The Indian Ocean islands of Reunion and ..... Pacific Grove, California: Duxbury ...

  6. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in citrus interspecific ...

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Department of Plant Breeding and Improvement, Iran Citrus Research Institute, Mottahari Street, Ramsar, .... (C. aurantium) rootstock plants for further agronomic evaluation .... literatures may be attributed to pollination efficiency and ... zygotic seedlings in Swingle citromelo Citrus paradisi × Poncirus tifoliata.

  7. Development of sparse-seeded mutant kinnow (Citrus reticulata ...

    ... crops like citrus, induced mutation for seedlessness in Kinnow with gamma irradiation of dormant bud which was attempted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Dormant bud irradiation-cum-grafting technique was employed, using the Citrus jambhiri rootstock for propagation of the scion.

  8. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  9. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  10. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  11. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  12. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...

  13. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 69 CITRUS FARMERS PRODUCTION

    oma

    models of citrus, production of bottled citrus juice, jams and marmalades. Although a lot of work has been done in development of improved technologies for ..... Acta. Horticulturae 123:23-27. Owoeye, T (2010) Nigeria: Training farmers will boost agricultural production. www.freshplaza.com/news_detail. Umeh, V.C, Garcia ...

  14. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    Citrus is economically important fruit crop in Ethiopia. However, its production is seriously constrained by various diseases including Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot. Surveys were conducted between June 2012 and May 2013 in the main citrus production areas of the country to assess the spread of the disease, and to ...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...

  16. A phagostimulant blend for the Asian citrus psyllid

    Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...

  17. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites

    Aratchige, N.S.; Lesna, I.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract

  18. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil

    Gomes, S. N.; Pesenti, T. C.; Cirne, M. P.; Müller, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25...

  19. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  20. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  2. Phoretic Arthropods of the Red Imported Fire Ant in Central Louisiana.

    John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2011-01-01

    More than 4,665 phoretic arthropods comprising29species were collected from alates of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis inoicta Buren, preparing to fly from nests in Pineville, LA. A wide variety of taxonomic groups were represented, including two insect and 17 mite families. Most arthropods fell into two classes: 1) those that may be truly phoretic with more than...

  3. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  4. SCREENING FITOKIMIA, AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIMIKROBA PADA BUAH JERUK LEMON(Citrus limon DAN JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantiifolia

    Anindya Nirmala Permata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The desire to live healthy by eating natural foods and drinks into the lifestyle of the community. Orange becomes one of the fruits that become functional food to maintain and maintain health. The purpose of this research is to know the difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on Citrus limon and Citrus aurantiifolia. The research method is laboratory experimental research with descriptive analysis. This research was conducted in February-April 2017 at the Laboratory of Plant Biological Microbiology and Plant Chemistry Department of Biology State University of Malang. Phytochemical screening by color reaction method, total phenol with Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity with DPPH method and antimicrobial activity with disc method. Screening results show the presence of saponins and alkaloids but there are no flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Total phenol test showed total phenol content in Lemon (Citrus limon of 110,25 mg GAE / 100ml while in Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 116,5 mg GAE / 100ml. The antioxidant activity of Lemon Citrus (Citrus limon 49.593 g / ml and Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia 49.589g / ml. Antimicrobial activity test obtained the highest zone of resistance at 100% concentration of each citrus fruit. The conclusion of this study is that there is a difference of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in both oranges, where the lemon fruits (C.limon antioxidant activity is higher than and Lime (C. aurantiifolia, while the antimicrobial activity of lemon (C. aurantiifolia is higher Rather than lemon (C.limon.

  5. Metabolic interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  6. Resistance evaluation of Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to citrus canker in greenhouse conditions

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri results in serious yield losses and phytoregulation penalties. The use of resistant genotypes is recognized as an important tool to facilitate control of the pathogen. Studies have show that artificial inoculation results in typic...

  7. Homologues of CsLOB1 in citrus function as disease susceptibility genes in citrus canker.

    Zhang, Junli; Huguet-Tapia, Jose Carlos; Hu, Yang; Jones, Jeffrey; Wang, Nian; Liu, Sanzhen; White, Frank F

    2017-08-01

    The lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) genes encode a group of plant-specific proteins that function as transcription factors in the regulation of plant growth and development. Citrus sinensis lateral organ boundary 1 (CsLOB1) is a member of the LBD family and functions as a disease susceptibility gene in citrus bacterial canker (CBC). Thirty-four LBD members have been identified from the Citrus sinensis genome. We assessed the potential for additional members of LBD genes in citrus to function as surrogates for CsLOB1 in CBC, and compared host gene expression on induction of different LBD genes. Using custom-designed transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, two members of the same clade as CsLOB1, named CsLOB2 and CsLOB3, were found to be capable of functioning similarly to CsLOB1 in CBC. RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a set of cell wall metabolic genes that are associated with CsLOB1, CsLOB2 and CsLOB3 expression and may represent downstream genes involved in CBC. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis Peel Essential Oils

    Sajid, A.; Hanif, M.A.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used extensively to prevent and treat human diseases. In the past decades, worldwide demand for citrus essential oils has greatly increased. Citrus essential oils containing 85-99 percent volatile and 1-15 percent non-volatile components. Essential oils from Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis peels were extracted through steam distillation and characterized by GC-MS. C. pseudolimon has thirty six and C. grandis has thirty three total components; limonene 47.07 percent and 71.48 percent was the major component in both oils respectively. Antioxidant activity was checked by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test. Both oils have modest activity. The antimicrobial potential was assessed against different bacterial and fungus strains. C. pseudolimon oil possessed strong activity against all tested strains while C. grandis has moderate activity. The antitumor activity was evaluated by potato disc assay, C. pseudolimon showed 81.25 inhibition. Hence the essential oils could have a great potential in pharmaceutical industry. (author)

  9. Expression and functional analysis of citrus carotene hydroxylases: unravelling the xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits.

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yungyuen, Witchulada; Tsukamoto, Issei; Iijima, Natsumi; Oikawa, Michiru; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Kato, Masaya

    2016-06-29

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids and fulfill critical roles in plant growth and development. In plants, two different types of carotene hydroxylases, non-heme di-iron and heme-containing cytochrome P450, were reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll. Citrus fruits accumulate a high amount of xanthophylls, especially β,β-xanthophylls. To date, however, the roles of carotene hydroxylases in regulating xanthophyll content and composition have not been elucidated. In the present study, the roles of four carotene hydroxylase genes (CitHYb, CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C) in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll in citrus fruits were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four citrus carotene hydroxylases presented in four distinct clusters which have been identified in higher plants. CitHYb was a non-heme di-iron carotene hydroxylase, while CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C were heme-containing cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylases. Gene expression results showed that the expression of CitHYb increased in the flavedo and juice sacs during the ripening process, which was well consistent with the accumulation of β,β-xanthophyll in citrus fruits. The expression of CitCYP97A and CitCYP97C increased with a peak in November, which might lead to an increase of lutein in the juice sacs during the ripening process. The expression level of CitCYP97B was much lower than that of CitHYb, CitCYP97A, and CitCYP97C in the juice sacs during the ripening process. Functional analysis showed that the CitHYb was able to catalyze the hydroxylation of the β-rings of β-carotene and α-carotene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Meanwhile, when CitHYb was co-expressed with CitCYP97C, α-carotene was hydroxylated on the β-ring and ε-ring sequentially to produce lutein. CitHYb was a key gene for β,β-xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits. CitCYP97C functioned as an ε-ring hydroxylase to produce lutein using zeinoxanthin as a substrate

  10. Product (RED)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  11. Oral mite anaphylaxis caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki/ pancake-mix in Japan: 8 case reports and a review of 28 reported cases.

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Masami; Fukutomi, Yuma; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Watai, Kentaro; Mitsui, Chihiro; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Minoguchi, Kenji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Anaphylaxis after the ingestion of foods contaminated with mites has recently been recognized. Case series and case reports thus far have shown that mite-contaminated wheat flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis. However, we have found 8 cases of oral mite anaphylaxis which were caused by mite-contaminated okonomiyaki-mix, a savory Japanese style pancake mix, in our hospital. In addition to our 8 cases, the databases of MEDLINE and ICHUSHI were systematically searched for patients with oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan. Thirty-six patients including our 8 cases with oral mite anaphylaxis were identified. Thirty-four out of 36 cases (94%) ingested okonomiyaki or takoyaki, prepared at home using okonomiyaki-mix or takoyaki-mix which was previously opened and stored for months at ambient temperature. Microscopic examination of culprit mixes of 16 cases including our 1 case revealed contamination of mites such as Dermatophagoides farina (Der f) (5 cases), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tyr p) (4 cases), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) (3 cases). The specific IgE to each mite is generally upregulated in these patients. Especially, the titers of specific IgE to Der p and Der f were more than class 2 in all cases. Mite-contaminated flavored flour is the major cause of oral mite anaphylaxis in Japan.

  12. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  13. Analyses of mitogenome sequences revealed that Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) from California was related to those from Florida but different from those in Southern China

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama; Hemiptera: Liviidae) transmits “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), an unculturable alpha-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease, also called citrus greening disease). HLB is threatening citrus prod...

  14. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy.

  15. Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.

    Gols, Rieta; Roosjen, Mara; Dijkman, Herman; Dicke, Marcel

    2003-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites and uninduced control plants. Infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only one or four spider mites per plant. Phytoseiulus persimilis showed a density-dependent response to volatiles from plants that were infested with different numbers of spider mites. Similarly, treating plants with increasing concentrations of JA also led to increased attraction of P. persimilis. Moreover, the duration of spider mite infestation was positively correlated with the proportion of predators that were attracted to mite-infested plants. A pretreatment of the plants with JA followed by a spider mite infestation enhanced the attraction of P. persimilis to plant volatiles compared to attraction to volatiles from plants that were only infested with spider mites and did not receive a pretreatment with JA. The herbivore, T. urticae preferred leaf tissue that previously had been infested with conspecifics to uninfested leaf tissue. In the case of choice tests with JA-induced and control leaf tissue, spider mites slightly preferred control leaf tissue. When spider mites were given a choice between leaf discs induced by JA and leaf discs damaged by spider mite feeding, they preferred the latter. The presence of herbivore induced chemicals and/or spider mite products enhanced settlement of the mites, whereas treatment with JA seemed to impede settlement.

  16. Foliar nectar enhances plant-mite mutualisms: the effect of leaf sugar on the control of powdery mildew by domatia-inhabiting mites.

    Weber, Marjorie G; Porturas, Laura D; Taylor, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Mite domatia are small structures on the underside of plant leaves that provide homes for predacious or fungivorous mites. In turn, mites inhabiting domatia defend the plant by consuming leaf herbivores and pathogens, which can result in a domatia-mediated, plant-mite defence mutualism. Several recent studies have suggested that plants receive enhanced benefits when they provide a foliar food source, such as sugars secreted from extrafloral nectaries, to mite mutualists alongside mite domatia. However, the effect of foliar sugar on reducing leaf pathogen load via domatia-inhabiting mites has not been directly investigated. To fill this gap, the links between foliar sugar addition, domatia-inhabiting mite abundance, and pathogen load were experimentally evaluated in wild grape. Furthermore, because the proposed combined benefits of providing food and housing have been hypothesized to select for the evolutionary correlation of extrafloral nectaries and domatia across plant lineages, a literature survey aimed at determining the overlap of mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries across plant groups was also conducted. It was found that leaves with artificial addition of foliar sugar had 58-80 % more mites than leaves without foliar sugar addition, and that higher mite abundances translated to reduced powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) loads on leaves. It was found that mite domatia and extrafloral nectaries occur non-randomly in the same clades across Eudicots. Genera with both traits are reported to highlight candidate lineages for future studies. Together, the results demonstrate that foliar sugar can indeed enhance the efficacy of domatia-mediated plant-mite mutualisms, and suggest that this synergism has the potential to influence the co-distribution of foliar nectar and mite domatia across plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiosensitivity of protoplasts of orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Goldman, M.H.S.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Genetics Section of the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, is utilising both ''in vivo'' and ''in vitro'' methods for mutation induction in Citrus, cv. ''Pera'', aiming at resistance to citrus canker. The experiments carried out so far determined the methodology to isolate protoplasts and their sensitivity to gamma-rays. Regarding the culture of protoplasts from embryogenic callus, the best experimental conditions were: enzymatic digestion for 5 h on a medium containing cellulase (307.6 mg/10 ml), macerozyme (30.3 mg/10 ml), mannitol (328.0 mM) and sucrose (336.2 mM) as osmotic stabilisers. The isolation efficiency of 1.2x10 6 viable protoplasts/g will make it possible to use protoplasts in mutation breeding. To determine radiosensitivity of protoplasts, gamma-irradiation from 60 Co source was conducted 42 h after their isolation. This time interval is recommended because during this period protoplasts will reach the stage prior to or at the first mitotic division. Survivals were determined by metylen-blue dyeing, and the LD 50 was found to be around 37.5 Gy. Any difference compared with other authors might be due to different genotypes used or different methods of calculation of survival. (author)

  19. Partial dehydration and cryopreservation of Citrus seeds.

    Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí

    2011-11-01

    Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)

    Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Mineiro, Jeferson L.C. [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economico

    2009-07-01

    In great populations mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae can cause damages in stored products. The work had as objective to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 to control the mites of the specie T. putrescentiae. The mites were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 Gy, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, with a dose rate of 0.718 kGy/hour. Each treatment consisted of four repetitions containing 10 mites each, in a total of approximately 40 mites for treatment. The evaluations were daily, being counted the number of mites died, put eggs and emerged larvae. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the dose sterilizing for the mites of this specie was of 300 Gy. Already the dose of 600 Gy induced the total mortality of the mites after 11 days of the irradiation process. (author)

  1. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  2. Field validation of a system for autodissemination of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to control the Asian citrus psyllid on residential citrus

    The citrus industries of California and Texas share a pressing problem with the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and huanglongbing (HLB) spreading in residential citrus near commercial groves. Insecticidal treatment of residential trees for the psyllid is problem...

  3. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTIVE GROWTH GROUPS (SPGG: INNOVATION ON PAPAYA MITE MANAGEMENT

    Marycruz Abato-Zárate

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Grower’s previous experience and their ability to communicate technical information to other growers, allows greater adoption of technologies. Thus, appropriation of technologies of mite management and sampling was evaluated, based on the “Simultaneous Productive Growth Groups (SPGG” technology transfer model. A preliminary diagnosis was made, evaluating the technology transfer achieved by six leading growers showing up continuously to seven meetings carried out from March to July 2010, and also by 19 growers showing up on a more irregular basis. All growers were from the municipality of Cotaxtla and belonged to the Papaya-Product-System of Veracruz, Mexico. Participation, attitude and efficacy of training were evaluated with a survey. Forty-two percent of growers considered the papaya ring spot virus as the main problem and 48 % revealed spider mites as the second one; 96 % used pesticides on spider mites. Participation of the SPGG basic group was 71 %, who agreed on sampling, recording data in sampling forms and using selective acaricides. Seventy percent were able to recognize spider mites from predatory mites and 83 % recognized selective acaricides. Growers considered that sampling can help reduce control costs. The SPGG model allowed building collective knowledge and better decision making by the working group.

  4. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck, I - efeitos no controle de plantas daninhas Continous use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. I - effects on weed control

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso continuo dos principais herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, enxertada sobre limão cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 parâmetros e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utiliza dos com as respectiva s dose s do i.a. em kg/ha foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone a 4,5; dichlobenil a 5,0; diuron a 3,2; bromacil a 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraqua t a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77, além de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em maio/75 e a 14 aplicação foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma área de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última foi realizada em 1986. O efeito dos tratamentos no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliado pela contagem por espécie botânica, assim como por avaliações visuais. Todos os herbicidas utilizados apresentaram controle de aceitável a excelente, dependendo da composição específica das plantas daninhas, e aqueles cue apresentaram os melhores índices de controle das plantas daninhas, assim como efeitos residuais mais prolongados, foram bromacil + diuron, diuron, bromacil, ametryne + secbumetone e terbacil. herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência os melhores índices de controle foram obtidos com glyphosate e paraquat.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1.75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyin g the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the weed control on a 'Pena' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

  5. Red Sirius

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  6. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    van Wijk, M.; Wadman, W.J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a

  7. Prevailing indoor climate classification to predict house-dust mite abundance in Dutch homes

    Schober, G.; Verstappen, I.; Snijders, M.C.L.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1995-01-01

    In Europe 10-15 % of the human population is sensitized to allergens of house dust mites (Pyroglyphidae). Population development of house dust mites is primarily influenced by water activity (aw) of the mite habitat. The availability of H20 (water-activity and relative humidity) in the niches of

  8. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys.

  9. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs

    B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis.

  10. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  11. mites y control constitucional en México

    Arminda Balbuena Cisneros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los límites a la reforma constitucional es un tema siempre vigente en el derecho constitucional, ello es así por las posibles arbitrariedades que pueden cometer los órganos detentadores del poder mediante las modificaciones a la constitución. En México, hoy en día este tema cobra particular relevancia por el profundo proceso de reforma que se vive, y por la controvertida posición que la corte mexicana ha adoptado en relación con los límites a la reforma. El presente artículo trata de dar una visión general de los límites al poder de reforma y, en particular, de la posición que la suprema corte de justicia de la nación ha adoptado respecto a los mismos.

  12. Mechanical Damage Detection of Indonesia Local Citrus Based on Fluorescence Imaging

    Siregar, T. H.; Ahmad, U.; Sutrisno; Maddu, A.

    2018-05-01

    Citrus experienced physical damage in peel will produce essential oils that contain polymethoxylated flavone. Polymethoxylated flavone is fluorescence substance; thus can be detected by fluorescence imaging. This study aims to study the fluorescence spectra characteristic and to determine the damage region in citrus peel based on fluorescence image. Pulung citrus from Batu district, East Java, as a famous citrus production area in Indonesia, was used in the experiment. It was observed that the image processing could detect the mechanical damage region. Fluorescence imaging can be used to classify the citrus into two categories, sound and defect citruses.

  13. efficacy of rehabilitation methods on citrus canker disease

    ACSS

    Unfortunately it is increasingly devastated by canker disease. Several measures ... Le citronnier (Citrus sinensis) est une culture importante en Ouganda, où il est produit pour la consommation ... South- East Asian countries, from where it has.

  14. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 69 CITRUS FARMERS PRODUCTION

    oma

    TRAINING ON IMPROVED TECHNIQUES OF CITRUS PRODUCTION. OYEDELE,. 1. O. O. AND ..... 56pp. Adetola, A (2008) Ekiti Kete: The value, the virtue and the vision. ... water resources, and biodiversity in the United States. Centre for ...

  15. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci for wild Citrus ...

    1Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South ... Recently, due to human .... efforts, but also for efficient management and conservation ... Assessing genetic diversity and population structure in a Citrus.

  16. Sorption behavior of congo red on different plant leaves (abstract)

    Khan, M.I.; Mirza, M.L.; Zafar, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of different plant leaves (Bougainvillaea Glabra and Citrus Sinensis) for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution by optimizing different parameters such as effect of shaking time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration, temperature etc. The experimental data was subjected to different types of isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated and was comparable for both the leaves through Freundlich isotherm by using the optimized parameters of weight and time at room temperature. The sorption mean free energy from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was also determined and compared. Pseudo-first and Pseudo-second order kinetics models were tested for the adsorption of Congo red on plant leaves powder. The experimental data fitted well for Pseudo-second order model. The uptake of Congo red was also studied with the variation of temperature. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The results indicate that the plant leaves of Bougainvilia Glabra and Citrus Sinensis are efficient adsorbents for Congo red dye from aqueous solutions and can be used for wastewater management. (author)

  17. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (Pair-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  18. Quantitative study of flavonoids in leaves of citrus plants.

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Koizumi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2000-09-01

    Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.

  19. Compatibility of reduced-risk insecticides with the non-target predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Döker, İsmail; Pappas, Maria L; Samaras, Konstantinos; Triantafyllou, Anneta; Kazak, Cengiz; Broufas, George D

    2015-09-01

    Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a common predatory mite in citrus orchards in some areas of the Mediterranean basin and an important biological control agent of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes in greenhouse crops. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the 'reduced-risk' insecticides acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, methoxyfenozide, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans, as a means of testing their compatibility in IPM programmes. Although all pesticides decreased immature survival, high mortality was only recorded for young larvae when exposed to acetamiprid, while metaflumizone, thiamethoxam and spinetoram resulted in intermediate lethal effects. The estimated LC50 values of acetamiprid, spinetoram and thiamethoxam for I. degenerans females were 0.52, 0.84 and 0.16-fold lower than the respective maximum recommended doses of the pesticides for field application. Although all pesticides tested significantly decreased fecundity, highest rates corresponded to the three pesticides already mentioned. Chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and methoxyfenozide may preliminarily be included in IPM programmes, whereas the effects of acetamiprid, metaflumizone, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans should be clarified in further field toxicological tests. This information could be useful for rationally planning and implementing pest management on a sustainable basis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  1. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Chlorophyll and its degradation products in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae: observations using epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll and chlorophyll degradation products were observed in the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A clear red fluorescence (EFM) and a fluorescence induced by a laser wavelength of 650 nm (CLSM) were observed. In the lateral caeca, in the ventriculus and in the excretory organ, a bright light blue fluorescence was observed in close association with chlorophyll by using EFM. The same material can be localized with CLSM by using a laser with a wavelength of 488 nm. By comparison with synthetic guanine, this bright fluorescence is supposed to be guanine. The presence of guanine fluorescence in the mite pellets confirms this hypothesis. A possible mechanism for guanine formation is discussed.

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  4. Immunogenesity of spesific protein molecular weight 16 KDa (PS16 leaf of siam citrus infected by citrus vein phloem degeneration (CVPD disease

    Made Sritamin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Vein Phloem degeneration (CVPD is an important citrus disese, which damaged citrus plantation and causing decrease of citrus production. In Indonesia, the CVPD disease caused by Liberobacter asiaticum bactery and the disease spread out by vectir insect Diaphorina citri and using infected bud in wood grafting. In infected citrus plant, two specific protein molecules with molecular weigt 16 kDa and 66 kDa are found. These protein molecules are not found in healthy citrus plant. The immunogenicity of PS16 accumulated on leaf of citrus plant infected by CVPD is known yet. The research material were leaves of citrus plant infected CVPD, leaves of healthy citrus plant and reagent used these research are for isolation of the total protein leaf of citrus plant, SDS-PAGE electroforesis, electroelution of PS16, ELISA Methods, Dot-Blot Method, anti-PS16 as aprimery antibody and secondary antibody is anti-Rabbit IgG Conjugated AP. The result of the research showed that of PS16 accumulated on leaf of citrus plant infected CVPD has immunogenic character. It is indicated by increase of the titer anti-PS16 after first immunization ang 2nd booster by indirect ELISA method and can be used to induce antibody (anti-PS16 and so showed that positive reaction between PS16 with anti-PS16. It is indicated by purples dark blue on cellulose membrane by Dot Blot method.

  5. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.

  6. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  7. Effect of dried Citrus sinensis peel on gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits of broiler chickens

    Abbas Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred broiler chickens (Ross-308 were used in a completely randomised study to evaluate the effects of supplementing the feed with different levels of dried Citrus sinensis peel (DCSP on the gasrointestinal microbial population and immune system traits. Feed was supplemented with different DCSP amounts: 0.25% w/w (DCSP-0.25, 0.5% w/w (DCSP-0.50, 0.75% w/w (DCSP-0.75, and 1% w/w (DCSP-1. Control diet (DCSP-0, with no feed additition was used as reference. The study involved five treatments in a time frame of six weeks (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 10 chickens. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was performed using the Duncan test. The results allowed to observe that the mean of Escherichia coli in caecum on day 42 was significantly different (P>0.05 but did not affect other gastrointestinal microbial population traits (P>0.05. The mean of total sheep red blood cells and immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM on day 28 (P>0.05 were also determined. Total sheep red blood cells on day 42 were significantly different (P<0.05. The IgG and IgM mean titers on days 28 and 42 was of no significant difference (P>0.05. Supplementing the feed with Citrus sinensis had no significant effect on Newcastle disease on day 42 (P>0.05. The mean value for hemagglutination inhibition on day 42 was significantly different (P<0.05. It can be then concluded that DCSP feed supplemention ameliorated the gastrointestinal microbiota and immune system traits.

  8. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: debona@iapar.br; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail: gould@tamu.edu; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.edu; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail: stelly@tamu.edu; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail: e-louzada@tamu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  9. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  10. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit.

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Harisha, C R; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P K

    2014-01-01

    Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

  11. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways.

    Audray Dugrand-Judek

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the "grapefruit juice effect". Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus

  12. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  13. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  14. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  15. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  16. Ecological Factors Determining Abundance of Parasitic Mites on Aedes spp. Larvae

    Nurhadi Eko Firmansyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ability to infestation and abundance of parasitic mites in Aedes spp. larvae cannot be separated from the influence of various factors. Ecological factors have been suggested to play a role determine the presence of parasitic mites that under certain conditions become a key factor in determining the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae. The aim of this study to determine the ecological factors affect the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae in Bogor Regency. Capturing of Aedes spp. larvae was performed directly on the habitats found in indoor and outdoor. Capturing mites in the body of Aedes spp. larvae was performed using insect forceps. Ecological factors measured were dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, temperature, and total dissolved solid (TDS. The influence of ecological factors was analyzed using regression and correlation analysis. The result of mite identification has been obtained three species of mites that are Halacarus sp., Histiostoma sp., and Hydrozetes sp. The result indicated that total dissolved solid (TDS and temperature was the factors that determined the abundance of mites. The factors of pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO did not determine the abundance of parasitic mites of Aedes spp. larvae. The research result can be further developed as a new alternative to Dengue Hemorraghic Fever control and provide information on parasitic mites that infest Aedes spp. larvae. In addition, this results become an early step in controlling of Aedes spp. strategy platform by the parasitic mites.

  17. Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria ...

    Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria. ... tends towards pure competition. Keywords: Benue, citrus, gini coefficient, Kano, marketing, pure competition, traders. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes on the southern Coast of Brazil

    Diego Silva da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  19. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of

  20. Control of house-dust mites with home disinfectants

    Schober, G.; Wetter, G.; Bischoff, E.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Kniest, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical disinfectants and biocidal preparations used in households were tested in the laboratory for their ability to kill the house-dust miteDermatophagoides farinae. Batches of ten specimens were soaked in aqueous solutions or suspensions containing 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0% (by volume)

  1. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  2. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  3. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  4. Six new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0044-586X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphthiracaroidea * Madagascar * morphology * new species * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  5. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    Megan S Thoemmes

    Full Text Available Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled.

  6. Predatory mites avoid ovipositing near counter-attacking prey

    Faraji, F.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Attacking prey is not without risk; predators may endure counterattackby the prey. Here, we study the oviposition behaviour of a predatory mite(Iphiseius degenerans) in relation to its prey, thewesternflower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This thrips iscapable of killing the eggs of the

  7. High mite burdens in an island population of Cape Wagtails ...

    Mite infection of birds captured on the island was explored graphically against the morphometrics of individuals using cubic splines. Formal statistics were then applied using generalised linear mixed models, with observation and unique ring number as random effects within a two-level hierarchical mixed binomial model, ...

  8. Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria associated with Varroa destructor mites.

    Maddaloni, M; Pascual, D W

    2015-11-01

    Bacteria associated with varroa mites were cultivated and genotyped by 16S RNA. Under our experimental conditions, the cultivable bacteria were few in number, and most of them proved to be fastidious to grow. Cultivation with seven different media under O2 /CO2 conditions and selection for colony morphology yielded a panel of species belonging to 13 different genera grouped in two different phyla, proteobacteria and actinobacteria. This study identified one species of actinobacteria that is a known commensal of the honey bee. Some isolates are oxalotrophic, a finding that may carry ramifications into the use of oxalic acid to control the number of phoretic mites in the managed colonies of honey bees. Oxalic acid, legally or brevi manu, is widely used to control phoretic Varroa destructor mites, a major drive of current honey bees' colony losses. Unsubstantiated by sanctioned research are rumours that in certain instances oxalic acid is losing efficacy, forcing beekeepers to increase the frequency of treatments. This investigation fathoms the hypothesis that V. destructor associates with bacteria capable of degrading oxalic acid. The data show that indeed oxalotrophy, a rare trait among bacteria, is common in bacteria that we isolated from V. destructor mites. This finding may have ramifications in the use of oxalic acid as a control agent. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  10. The mites associated with Ips typographus in Sweden

    John C. Moser; Hubertus H. Eidmann; Jan R. Regnander

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four species of mites were found associated with Ips typographus (Linnaeus) collected from pherommone traps in Sweden, bringing to 38 the total recorded for this scolytid. Because three of the species are parasites, it may be possible to use them in biological control of I. typographus. Couplets from an earlier key to these...

  11. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    Three days later, the number of female Varroa in the capped cells were counted as attraction criteria for each treatment separately. ... The negative correlation between 2 major resistance traits (hygienic behavior and attraction traits) in the breeding stock deems that selection for resistance against Varroa mite and improved ...

  12. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro

    Ivanovi?, ?arko; Perovi?, Tatjana; Popovi?, Tatjana; Blagojevi?, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrn?i?, Snje?ana

    2017-01-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from...

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF CITRUS ESSENTIAL OILS ON Dysmicoccus brevipes (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)

    MARTINS, GISELE DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA; ZAGO, HUGO BOLSONI; COSTA, ADILSON VIDAL; ARAUJO JUNIOR, LUIS MOREIRA DE; CARVALHO, JOSÉ ROMÁRIO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The insect Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been reported as an important pest for several crops, especially coffee. The citrus essential oils can be obtained as by-products of the citrus-processing industry and have been tested as an alternative to control different insect groups. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the toxicity of commercial sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) ...

  14. Effect of limonene on anaerobic digestion of citrus waste and pretreatments for its improvement

    RUIZ FUERTES, BEGOÑA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and technically sound way to valorise citrus waste if the inhibitory effect of the citrus essential oil (CEO) is controlled. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these difficulties: keeping the organic loading rate (OLR) in low values to avoid excess dosage of inhibitor, supplementing the citrus waste with nutrient and buffering solutions or pre-treating the citrus waste in order to reduce the CEO concentration, either by recovery or by d...

  15. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  16. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach r...

  18. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an ec...

  19. Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program

    The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

  20. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished by...

  1. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil.

    Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  2. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil

    Lemos, WP; Silva, RA da; Araújo, SCA; Oliveira, ELA; Silva, WR da

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  3. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  4. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be eligible to receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of this...

  5. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery... nursery stock. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, a commercial citrus nursery may be eligible to receive funds to replace certified citrus nursery stock in accordance with the provisions of...

  6. Saving Citrus: Does the Next Generation See GM Science as a Solution?

    Rumble, Joy N.; Ruth, Taylor K.; Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Taylor, Melissa R.; Ellis, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of Florida's most prominent commodities, providing 66% of the total United States' value for oranges. Florida's citrus production decreased 21% in 2014 from the previous season, partly due to the disease citrus greening. The science of genetic modification (GM) is one of the most promising solutions to the problem. However, a…

  7. Repellency of Selected Psidium guajava cultivars to the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB)(also known as citrus greening disease) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. It is caused by a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. Considerable research has been conducted toward...

  8. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  9. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...

  10. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  11. The SQ House Dust Mite SLIT-Tablet Is Well Tolerated in Patients with House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergic Disease

    Emminger, Waltraud; Hernández, María Dolores; Cardona, Victòria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SQ house dust mite (HDM) SLIT-tablet (ALK, Denmark) addresses the underlying cause of HDM respiratory allergic disease, and a clinical effect has been demonstrated for both HDM allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Here, we present pooled safety data from an adult population with...

  12. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: The first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Cabrera, Ana R; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Scholl, Elizabeth; Opperman, Charles; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yield sequences of genes critical during physiological processes poorly understood in acarines, i.e., the regulation of female reproduction in mites. The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was selected to conduct a transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing. The objective of this project was to obtain DNA-sequence information of expressed genes from P. persimilis with special interest in sequences corresponding to vitellogenin (Vg) and the vitellogenin receptor (VgR). These genes are critical to the understanding of vitellogenesis, and they will facilitate the study of the regulation of mite female reproduction. A total of 12,556 contiguous sequences (contigs) were assembled with an average size of 935bp. From these sequences, the putative translated peptides of 11 contigs were similar in amino acid sequences to other arthropod Vgs, while 6 were similar to VgRs. We selected some of these sequences to conduct stage-specific expression studies to further determine their function. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Denegación y límite: Acerca de los llamados trastornos límites

    Pereña, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    El estudio de los trastornos del límite revela que la neurosis y la psicosis sólo cubren un reducido campo de la psicopatología. Studies regarding disorders of borderline point out that neurosis and psychosis only cover a small field within psychopathology.

  14. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A

    2017-08-30

    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  15. Efficacy of an autodisseminator of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to suppress Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under greenhouse conditions

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), transmits the causative agents of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus trees in the world today. ACP dwelling in noncommercial citrus (neighborhoods, commercial landscapes, etc.) can stymie area-wide management program...

  16. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  17. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel.

    Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.

  18. Resistance of citrus genotypes to Phyllocnitis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Santos, M S; Vendramim, J D; Lourenção, A L; Pitta, R M; Martins, E S

    2011-01-01

    The development and reproduction of the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, were evaluated in six citrus genotypes in order to identify genotypes with resistance traits that could be applied in a program for the development of citrus varieties resistant to the citrus leafminer. Tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14h photophase). Seedlings of each genotype tested were infested with eggs obtained from a stock colony of CLM maintained on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck), and the duration and survival of the eggs, larval and pupal stages, pupal size and weight, fecundity and longevity of adults, and sex ratio were evaluated. No influence was observed on the duration and survival of eggs, larvae and pupae of P. citrella. However, pupae obtained in the hybrid C x R(4) were significantly smaller and lighter than pupae from the remaining treatments. Adult females from the hybrids C x R(4) and C x R(315) were the least fecund. However, the lowest value for the corrected reproductive potential (CRP) was recorded in the hybrid C x R(315), suggesting that this genotype is the least favorable for the development and reproduction of CLM. On the other hand, the highest CRP value obtained in the 'Rugoso' lemon confirms the susceptibility of this genotype, indicating it as the most suitable for CLM.

  19. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Uncovers Photosynthetic Fingerprint of Citrus Huanglongbing

    Haiyan Cen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus, which has posed a serious threat to the global citrus production. This research was aimed to explore the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging combined with feature selection to characterize and detect the HLB disease. Chlorophyll fluorescence images of citrus leaf samples were measured by an in-house chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The commonly used chlorophyll fluorescence parameters provided the first screening of HLB disease. To further explore the photosynthetic fingerprint of HLB infected leaves, three feature selection methods combined with the supervised classifiers were employed to identify the unique fluorescence signature of HLB and perform the three-class classification (i.e., healthy, HLB infected, and nutrient deficient leaves. Unlike the commonly used fluorescence parameters, this novel data-driven approach by using the combination of the mean fluorescence parameters and image features gave the best classification performance with the accuracy of 97%, and presented a better interpretation for the spatial heterogeneity of photochemical and non-photochemical components in HLB infected citrus leaves. These results imply the potential of the proposed approach for the citrus HLB disease diagnosis, and also provide a valuable insight for the photosynthetic response to the HLB disease.

  20. Technological Advances in Huanglongbing (HLB or Citrus Greening Disease Management

    Krishna Prasad Paudyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, previously citrus greening disease, is the most destructive of citrus species causing major threat to the world citrus industry. The disease was reported from China in 1919 and now known to occur in more than 40 different countries of Asia, Africa, South and North America. Three species of gram negative bacterium namely Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus are the casual organisms of HLB, respectively prevailing in the continent of Asia, Africa and South America. It is one of the most extensively researched subjects in citriculture world. HLB was detected in 2004 and 2005, respectively in San Paulo of Brazil and Florida of USA: the two leading citrus production hub of the world causing huge economic loss within 5 years of first detection. Since then research on HLB detection and management was further accelerated in American continents. This paper presents the scientific advancement made on detection, spread, economic losses caused by HLB in different parts of the world and controlling management strategies. Remarkable achievements have been made on HLB detection techniques including iodine test, qPCR and more recently in spectroscopy. While efforts are being made to develop resistance varieties using conventional and biotechnological tools management strategy which includes reduction of inoculums source, vector control and replant with disease-free planting materials still remains major option for HLB control. Citrus intercropping with guava have shown promising results for vector reduction.

  1. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  2. Effect of reagins and allergen extracts on radioallergosorbent assays for mite allergen

    Tovey, E.R.; Vandenberg, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reproducibility of the radioallergosorbent (RAST) inhibition and direct binding assays with mite allergen were investigated in the presence of heterogeneous extracts and non-mite sensitive atopic sera. Both contain components similar to potential contaminants which would occur in the assay of mite allergen and dust allergen extracts. The standardized inhibition and direct binding assays employed had a day to day (n = 4) coefficient of variation [(s.d. x 100)/mean] of 15% and 24% respectively. The inhibition assay for mite allergen was reproducible in the presence of protein concentrations of added plant, fungal, arthropod and animal extracts in excess of the protein concentrations that occur under the operational mite assay conditions. The mite inhibition assay was also reproducible in the presence of non-mite allergen extracts, with and without additional sera containing IgE specific for the non0mite allergens. The binding of a constant quantity of mite allergen to the activated solid phase in the direct binding assay was reproducible in the presence of added bovine serum albumin, and of a fungal or arthropod extract, representing the heterogeneous components of an allergen extract at the concentrations of total protein known to occur in the direct binding assay of mite extracts. (author)

  3. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Takeshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  4. Three Species of Ectoparasite Mites (Acari: Pterygosomatidae Infested Geckos in Indonesia

    TARUNI SRI PRAWASTI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited data is hitherto available on the diversity and dispersal of parasitic mites of geckos in Indonesia. Here, we collected three species of geckos, namely Cosymbotus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, and H. garnotii throughout Indonesia to study the distribution and diversity of its parasitic mites. We conducted detail morphological analysis of the mites using whole mount polyvinyl lactophenol and scanning electron microscope preparation. Three species of ectoparasite mites from genus Geckobia were identified in a total of 221 individuals out of 448 geckos collected from 25 sites in Indonesia. Two species were G. glebosum and G. bataviensis, and the other one was designated as Geckobia sp 1. Based on our result, the three mites species were spread randomly and live sympatrically. The G. bataviensis mite showed the widest distribution, because it was found in almost all gecko collection sites, hence the most cosmopolitan mites. We also found that C. platyurus gecko had the lowest mite prevalence which might due to the fact that it has the least number of skin folds, an important site for mite protection. This result implies that further research on the relationship of anatomy of gecko skin with chelicera and claw structure of mites is necessary in the future.

  5. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers.

  6. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  7. Evaluation of dry-adapted strains of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus for spider mite control on cucumber, strawberry and pepper.

    Palevsky, E; Walzer, A; Gal, S; Schausberger, P

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of Neoseiulus californicus. Performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of Phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with Tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% RH. Under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. On cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'burnt out' within 4 weeks of spider mite infestation. On strawberry, all predators satisfactorily suppressed spider mites yet they differed in short term efficacy and persistence. Phytoseiulus persimilis suppressed the spider mites more rapidly than did the BOKU and SI N. californicus strains. Both N. californicus strains persisted longer than did P. persimilis. The BOKU strain was superior to SI in population density reached, efficacy in spider mite suppression and persistence. On pepper, in the first 2 weeks of the experiment the BOKU strain was similar to P. persimilis and more efficacious in spider mite suppression than strain SI. Four weeks into the experiment the efficacy of P. persimilis dropped dramatically and was inferior to the SI and BOKU strains. Overall, mean predator density was highest on plants harbouring the BOKU strain, lowest on plants with P. persimilis and intermediate on plants with the SI strain. Implications for biocontrol of spider mites using phytoseiid species under dry conditions are discussed.

  8. Inhibitory effect of Epstein-Barr virus activation by Citrus fruits, a cancer chemopreventor.

    Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Okuda, Y; Mukainaka, T; Tsuruta, A; Okuda, M; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    1999-05-24

    To search useful compounds in Citrus fruit for cancer chemoprevention, we carried out a primary screening of extracts of fruit peels and seeds from 78 species of the genus Citrus and those from two Fortunella and one Poncirus species, which were closely related to the genus Citrus. These Citrus extracts inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) as a useful screening method for anti-tumor promoters. Our results indicated that Citrus containing substances may be inhibit susceptibility factors involved in the events leading to the development of cancer.

  9. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  10. Relationships between mycorrhizas and antioxidant enzymes in citrus (citrus tangerina) seedlings inoculated with glomus mosseae

    Liu, C.Y.; Wu, Q.S.

    2014-01-01

    A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5-40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10-40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants. (author)

  11. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  12. Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by β-aminobutyric acid in citrus.

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-10-01

    β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (β-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri.

  13. Metalized polyethylene mulch to repel Asian citrus psyllid, slow spread of huanglongbing and improve growth of new citrus plantings.

    Croxton, Scott D; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    Greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a debilitating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibactor asiaticus and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. HLB now occurs worldwide in all major citrus growing regions except the Mediterranean and Australia. Management relies principally on insecticidal control of the ACP vector, but is insufficient, even for young trees which are most susceptible to the disease. We tested the ability of metalized polyethylene mulch to repel adult ACP as well as effects on incidence of HLB and early tree growth. Metalized mulch significantly reduced ACP populations and HLB incidence compared to whiteface mulch or bare ground. In addition, metalized mulch, together with the associated drip irrigation and fertigation system, increased soil moisture, reduced weed pressure, and increased tree growth rate. Metalized mulch slows spread of ACP and therefore HLB pressure on young citrus trees. Metalized mulch can thereby augment current control measures for young trees based primarily on systemic insecticides. Additional costs could be compensated for by increased tree growth rate which would shorten time to crop profitability. These advantages make a compelling case for large-scale trials using metalized mulch in young citrus plantings threatened by HLB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Detection of Citrus psorosis virus in the northwestern citrus production area of Argentina by using an improved TAS-ELISA.

    Zanek, Maria Cecilia; Peña, Eduardo; Reyes, Carina Andrea; Figueroa, Julia; Stein, Beatriz; Grau, Oscar; Garcia, Maria Laura

    2006-11-01

    Citrus Psorosis in Argentina is a serious disease. Citrus is produced in two regions located in the northeast (NE) and northwest (NW) area of the country. These two areas have different climates and soil types, and therefore different citrus species and varieties are cultivated. In the NE region, Psorosis is epidemic, and in the NW region, the disease was described on several occasions since 1938, but it is not observed commonly in the orchards. Recently, trees with symptoms of Psorosis were observed in the Tucumán and Salta Provinces located in the NW region. Epidemiological studies in Argentina and Texas suggested that the disease is spread naturally by an unknown vector. The causal agent of the disease is the Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), which can be detected by TAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and indicator plants. A new more rapid TAS-ELISA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) is described which is more reliable, faster and more sensitive than the currently used for this virus, the TAS-ELISA-AP (alkaline phosphatase). Psorosis was detected by this improved method in few trees in the orchards of the Tucumán Province, in the NW citrus region, although natural spread does not seem to occur.

  15. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.

  16. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  17. Radiation preservation of Citrus Unshiu, 3

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1977-01-01

    Effects of energy and current of electron-beams and synergistic effect of heat and radiation on a growth of fungi and a browning of peel were investigated to extend shelf-life of Citrus Unshiu (''Satsuma'' orange). The fruits were irradiated with a surface dose of 200krad by various energies of electrons (0.2-1.5MeV), and then stored at 3 0 C for 3 months. Percent of browned fruit in the fruits irradiated by 0.2MeV electrons was almost the same as that in the unirradiated ones. However, if the fruits were irradiated by energies of more than 0.5MeV, the browning of peel increased with increasing energy of electrons. The browning seems to depend on a dose absorbed only in peel, but not to depend on a total dose absorbed in fruit. When the fruits were stored at 3 0 C for 3 months followed by storage at room temperature (16-25 0 C) for one week, the effective growth inhibition of fungi was observed on the fruits irradiated by 0.5MeV electrons. On the fruits irradiated with 0.1-1.0mA of beam current by 0.5MeV electrons, increasing current tended to inhibit the growth of fungi. But the browning of peel was unaffected by beam current. Heat and radiation combination increased the browning of peel and the growth of fungi during storage. (auth.)

  18. Insecticidal activity of some citrus oils against culex quinquefasciatus

    Saeed, H. M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the larvicidal potency of peel oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on 4''th instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Orange oil was the most effective followed by grapefruit oil and then lime oil. The toxicity of the oils applied to the 4''th instar larval stage was extended to pupal and adult stages. All oils produced deleterious effects on fecundity of survivors of sublethal doses. By the aid of chemical analysis of oils, the active compound was found to be limonene, a monoterpene compound. The percentages limonene were 97.15%, 92.46% and 32.29% for orange, grapefruit and lime respectively.(Author)

  19. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  20. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  1. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  2. The influence of household pets on the composition and quantity of allergenic mite fauna within Irish homes: a preliminary investigation.

    Clarke, D; Dix, E; Liddy, S; Gormally, M; Byrne, M

    2016-03-01

    Allergenic mites are responsible for inducing hypersensitive reactions in genetically predisposed people worldwide. Mites in dust from 30 Irish homes with pets (dogs, n = 23; cats, n = 7) were compared with those in 30 homes without pets. House dust mites constituted 78% of all mites recorded, with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) representing 57-72% of mites in furniture and mattresses in both home types compared with only 22% of mites in pet beds. Although storage mites accounted for just 13% of all mites recorded, they represented 46% of mites recorded in pet beds. Median levels of the dust mite allergen Der p 1 (µg/g) in dust samples from mattresses in homes without pets were significantly greater than in mattresses from homes with pets, reflecting the greater densities of D. pteronyssinus found in the former home category. Mite species richness was greater in homes with pets (17 species) than in homes without pets (13 species). This suggests that although the presence of pets can result in a wider variety of epidemiologically important mite species within households, increased competition among mite species may result in a more balanced mite fauna in the home, inhibiting the dominance of any one species and hence lowering allergen-associated risks. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Enhanced Acquisition Rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in the Presence of Vegetative Flush Growth in Citrus.

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V

    2016-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  4. La red de Matrix. ¿En los límites de lo posible?

    Petrizzo Páez, María Ángela; Maya Jariego, Isidro

    2005-01-01

    La trilogía de Matrix ofrece una poderosa metáfora sobre la convergencia hombremáquina. Los resquicios de esa interface llevan implícita una dualidad que permite presentar el viejo tópico de la confusión entre fantasía y realidad en términos de "espejismos virtuales", como es propio de la era de la Inteligencia Artificial. Pero la navegación en estructuras paralelas a la realidad, así como la íntima conexión entre el hombre y los computadores, tienen referencias reales. Los buscadores de Inte...

  5. Toxicity of geraniol solution in vitro to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae

    George D.R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Geraniol is a bioactive component found in Palmarosa essential oil which has previously demonstrated good repellence to cattle ticks, mosquitoes and sand flies. The toxicity of geraniol to Dermanyssus gallinae, the most economically deleterious ectoparasite of laying hens in Europe, was studied in vitro in the laboratory. Exposure of D. gallinae to 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations of geraniol (equating approximately to 0.02, 0.04 and 0.07 mg/cm2 geraniol, respectively over a period of 24 hours resulted in 100% mortality of D. gallinae at all doses used.

  6. Effect of pruning and trellising of tomatoes on red spider mite ...

    Key Words: Arthropod pest, Lycopersicon esculentum, Tetranychus evansi. RÉSUMÉ La petite araignée rouge, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Prichard accidentellement introduite en Afrique Australe vers 1980 est une peste relativement nouvelle pour la tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum) de l'Afrique. Depuis lors l'espèce ...

  7. Evolutionary Aspects of Acaricide-Resistance Development in Spider Mites

    Masahiro (Mh. Osakabe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the development of acaricide resistance in spider mites is a long-standing issue in agricultural fields, recent problems with acaricide resistance may be characterized by the development of complex- and/or multiresistance to acaricides in distinct classes. Such complexity of resistance is not likely to be a single mechanism. Pesticide resistance involves the microevolution of arthropod pests, and population genetics underlies the evolution. In this review, we address the genetic mechanisms of acaricide resistance evolution. We discuss genetic diversity and linkage of resistance genes, relationships between mite habitat and dispersal, and the effect of dispersal on population genetic structure and the dynamics of resistance genes. Finally, we attempt to present a comprehensive view of acaricide resistance evolution and suggest risks under globalization as well as possible approaches to managing acaricide resistance evolution or emergence.

  8. Concepto de límite funcional : aprendizaje y memoria

    Tomás Ortega del Rincón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo forma parte de un proyecto de investigación sobre el concepto de límite funcional en el que se viene trabajando desde hace varios años. En este caso, se contrasta si la noción de límite ligada a la definición métrica perdura en la memoria de los alumnos más que la definición como aproximación óptima dada por Blázquez y Ortega en 2002. Se trata de un estudio empírico realizado con alumnos de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina, que en cursos anteriores habían estudiado ambas conceptualizaciones.

  9. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy....

  10. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  11. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  12. Elemental composition changes in citrus affected by the CVC disease

    Nadai Fernandes de, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Turra, C.; Franca de, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease results in serious economical losses for the Brazilian citriculture. The influence of CVC disease on the elemental composition of citrus plants was investigated. Leaves of sweet orange varieties Hamlin, Pera Rio and Valencia were collected from healthy and CVC-affected trees for chemical characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Significant differences between healthy and CVC-affected leaves were identified for Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc and Sm. Rare earth elements presented consistently higher mass fractions in the healthy leaves. (author)

  13. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  14. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

    M. E. Santamaria

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production.

  15. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics ...

  16. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    Silva, HM; Hernandes, FA; Pichorim, M

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fiftee...

  17. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

    Santamaria, M. E.; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit) treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production. PMID:29681917

  18. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  19. Catalogue of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of the world.

    NiedbaŁa, Wojciech; Liu, Dong

    2018-03-11

    As important representatives of Oribatida (Acari), ptyctimous mites comprise more than 1400 described species in 40 genera and subgenera, with nearly cosmopolitan distribution except for the Arctic and Antarctic Regions. They are capable of folding the aspidosoma under the opisthosoma to protect their appendages, and are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Our purpose was to provide a detailed catalogue of all known ptyctimous mite species in the world with information of distribution, taxonomic issues and some remarks. Data of known juvenile  instars of ptyctimous mites which were not included in Norton Ermilov (2014) were added. We hope that our catalogue with bibliography will be helpful in taxonomic and ecological studies.        The catalogue presents taxonomic information and geographic distribution of 1431 known species of the world belonging to 42 genera and eight families (not including data of genus and species inquirenda, nomina nuda and species without author name). Among them, 261 species are listed as synonyms, 43 species inquirenda, nine homonyms, 17 new synonyms, one new subgenus Mahuntritia subgenus nov. and three new names are included in the catalogue.

  20. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  1. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  2. Tetranychus urticae mites do not mount an induced immune response against bacteria.

    Santos-Matos, Gonçalo; Wybouw, Nicky; Martins, Nelson E; Zélé, Flore; Riga, Maria; Leitão, Alexandre B; Vontas, John; Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Magalhães, Sara; Sucena, Élio

    2017-06-14

    The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae , a herbivore, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether spider mites can mount an immune response and survive bacterial infection. In other chelicerates, bacterial infection elicits a response mediated by immune effectors leading to the survival of infected organisms. In T. urticae , infection by either Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium did not elicit a response as assessed through genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. In line with this, spider mites died within days even upon injection with low doses of bacteria that are non-pathogenic to Drosophila Moreover, bacterial populations grew exponentially inside the infected spider mites. By contrast, Sancassania berlesei , a litter-dwelling mite, controlled bacterial proliferation and resisted infections with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria lethal to T. urticae This differential mortality between mite species was absent when mites were infected with heat-killed bacteria. Also, we found that spider mites harbour in their gut 1000-fold less bacteria than S. berlesei We show that T. urticae has lost the capacity to mount an induced immune response against bacteria, in contrast to other mites and chelicerates but similarly to the phloem feeding aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Hence, our results reinforce the putative evolutionary link between ecological conditions regarding exposure to bacteria and the architecture of the immune response. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  4. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before.

  5. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  6. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed.

  7. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  8. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    Pasqual, M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 27 0 C. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Detection of a new variant of Citrus tristeza virus in Greek citrus crops

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, the most destructive virus of citrus, is a quarantine pathogen in Greece. Since 2000, several accidental imports of infected propagation material have been detected in the country, and while eradication measures were applied, a few disease foci still remain. CTV isolates were collected from Chania (Crete and the “lemonwood” of Poros (Peloponnese, and their genetic variability was studied using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. One previously characterized isolate from Argolida grafted on a Mexican lime (GR3 and two Italian isolates from Calamondin were also included in the study. ELISA and RT-PCR tests confirmed CTV presence, and SSCP analysis of the virus amplified coat protein (CP gene was used to separate either distinct virus isolates for cloning the CP gene or variants (haplotypes for sequencing. Analyses showed that selected variants of four representative isolates clustered into three of the seven defined phylogenetic groups: groups 3b and 5 (severe isolates and group M (mild isolates. The prevalent haplotypes detected in the CTV from lemonwood of Poros (GR9 were in group 3b, confirming previous results. However, one sequence variant was identified as a recombinant between haplotypes from groups 3b and 5. Variants of these two groups were also detected in the Italian Calamondin isolate. In the grafted Mexican lime isolate (GR3 from Argolida, only one haplotype was found which belonged to group M, while in the field isolate from Chania (GR6 the only haplotype detected was in group 5. This is the first report of variants of group 5 in Greece, suggesting an unknown virus introduction. The prevalence of severe isolates in the area is of particular concern, and implications for the future of the CTV epidemics are discussed.

  10. Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.

    Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

    2004-03-01

    Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.

  11. Study of entomophatogenic fungus to control vector insect of citrus tristeza virus on citrus

    Dwiastuti M.E.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV disease is a silent killer, which threatens to decrease productivity, quality and even death of citrus plants and the erosion of genetic resources. Spreading in the field very quickly by the intermediate insect vector pest, aphid (Toxoptera citricida, T. Aurantii and A. Gosypii. The microbes studied for potential biopesticide candidates are: Beauveria bassiana and Hirsutella citriformis, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch Sorokin previously reported to control Diaphorina citri pests resulting effectiveness of > 25% and was able to suppress yield loss up to 10%. The objectives of the study examined the effectiveness of entomopathogen in controlling the pest of CTV vector, Toxoptera citricida, in the laboratory and screen house, to findout the physiological, biochemical and molecular physiology of entomopathogen. The results showed that the best entomopathogen suspension concentration was B.bassiana 106 followed by H. citriformis 106 and M. anisopliae 106. Entomopatogen B. bassiana and H. citriformis effectively controled the CTV vector pest in the laboratory. In the semi-field experiments at the screen house, the most effective result was H.citriformis 106 and the combination of H.citriformis 106 + B.bassiana 106, killing up to 50% and 100% on day 7th H.citriformis had the most physiological character, was able to develop optimally at a temperature of 20-400C and humidity between 60-80%. The biochemical character of the entomopathogenic fungus B.bassiana contained cellulase enzyme and phosphate solvent and IAA hormone, at most compared to the others. H.citriformis had not been found to contain enzymes and hormones. The molecular biochemical characterization of entomopathogenic fungi using FS1 and NS2 primers more clearly distinguished isolates and entomopathogenic species.

  12. Efficient micropropagation of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from ...

    sunny t

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... 2Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, ... 2007 data, India is the largest producer of lemons .... Values represent mean±SE, values within each column followed by the same letters are not significantly ..... ICALTD Asian Citrus rehabilitation conference.

  13. Extraction of low molecular weight RNA from Citrus trifolita tissues ...

    We employed a simple and quick method involving trizol for total RNA extraction from citrus tissues, then generation of LMW RNA using 4M LiCl, which have been successfully utilized in studies in our laboratory. Compared with traditional methods, this method is less expensive and produced high RNA yields while avoiding ...

  14. Assessing genetic variability in male sterile and low fertile citrus ...

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... male sterile types, with old scattered resources; Iran has obvious diversity of citrus materials. ... From each accession, four young leaves were taken and total genomic DNA was ..... sexual reproduction and recombination are disabled in detecting such mutations in asexually propagated species. Therefore ...

  15. Evaluation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) as rootstock for ...

    Lakesh.Sharma

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... rootstock for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under in vitro conditions ... INTRODUCTION. Around the world, citrus is one of the .... to summarize the general effect of different concentrations of NaCl on rough lemon on the ...

  16. Discrimination of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains using Mexican ...

    Two strains of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were studied for six years in Yaounde in the forest zone of Cameroon. These strains, SNCL2 and SNCL4, were characterized on Lisbon lemon in Nyombe in the littoral zone of Cameroon. They were inoculated onto combinations of Mexican lime/citrange Troyer. The virulent strain ...

  17. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu (Citrus ...

    fbn

    (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) in liquid culture. Dita Agisimanto1*, Normah Mohd Noor1,2, Rusli Ibrahim3 and Azhar Mohamad3. 1School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600. Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Institute of Systems Biology ...

  18. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and ...

    The highest Fusarium sp. followed by Aspergillus, Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium and Alternaria species were remote from the collected samples of roots and soil from the four tehsils of Sargodha district of Pakistan. The maximum Fusarium sp. was isolated from the roots of declining citrus trees from tehsil Bhalwal ...

  19. Genetic transformation in citrus: Thinking outside the box

    Conventional breeding methods to incorporate resistance in citrus are very slow, due to extended juvenility from seedling trees and multiple generations needed to incorporate resistance from distant relatives. Use of transgenic methods may provide disease resistance in less time. Published protocols...

  20. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2007-01-01

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  1. Comparative efficacy of sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (l) rind ...

    Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis((L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais(Mot.) under ambient laboratory conditions (28 ± 2o C and 75 ± 20% R.H.). Experiments consisted of exposing adult S. zeamais to both the powder and oil for 42 days. Mortality counts were taken from the ...

  2. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu ( Citrus ...

    Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration, initial cell density and carbon sources and concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using cell suspension culture. Cells were first inoculated into Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  3. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    Chong Saw Peng; Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  4. Citrus Production, Constraints and Management Practices in Ethiopia

    home

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... Citrus is economically important fruit crop in Ethiopia. However, its .... water. Sterilized leaves or fruit peels were cut, and four to six leaf discs or peel pieces were placed on each Petri dish containing potato dextrose agar (PDA) in five replicates ... banana, avocado and papaya), vegetable crops (primarily.

  5. Apoptotic properties of Citrus sudachi Hort, ex Shirai (Rutaceae ...

    Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and annexin V/propidium iodidle assay were used to test the antiproliferative activity and apoptosis of methanol extract of Citrus sudachi, respectively. Griess reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were carried ...

  6. Expression and Purification of Coat Protein of Citrus Tristeza Virus ...

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, P.O. Box 436 Nazareth, Ethiopia ... Citrus is one of the major fruit crop in Thailand and in present day production value of ..... The QIAexpressionist™ A handbook for high-level expression and ... application of a multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for.

  7. Uniformity of plants regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts.

    Kobayashi, S

    1987-05-01

    Using 25 plants (protoclones) regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts, several characters, including leaf and flower morphology, leaf oil, isozyme patterns and chromosome number, were examined. No significant variations in each character were recorded among the protoclones. Uniformity observed among protoclones was identical to that of nucellar seedlings.

  8. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  9. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  10. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  11. Insect pest situation and farmers' cultural practices in citrus orchards ...

    The major leaf feeders were the scale insects which infested a mean of 13 % of the trees, the leaf miners (8.7 %), aphids (10.6 %) and the swallowtail butterfly larvae (23.7 %). Termites damaged the exposed parts of roots and the woody structure of some citrus trees, and was suspected to have positively influenced the ...

  12. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    Schoubroeck, van F.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The

  13. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  14. Apoptotic properties of Citrus sudachi Hort, ex Shirai (Rutaceae ...

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Results: Citrus sudachi exerted cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner in cancer cells which ... NO• produced by activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), while it suppressed the levels .... ethanol and kept on ice for 30 min. ... reagent and incubated at room temperature for.

  15. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening, considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90% of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition. However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  16. Efeitos dos níveis de substituição do milho pela polpa de citrus peletizada sobre a digestibilidade aparente em bovinos mestiços confinados Effects of substitution levels of corn by citrus pulp on apparent digestibility in feedlot bulls

    Willian Gonçalves do Nascimento

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de quatro níveis de substituição do milho (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% pela polpa de citrus peletilizada sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da matéria orgânica, da proteína bruta, da energia bruta e da fibra em detergente neutro, utilizando a cinza insolúvel em ácido como indicador interno, em bovinos machos inteiros, terminados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 28 animais, mestiços (F1 - Nelore x Red Angus, com aproximadamente 20 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 346kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de polpa de citrus e sete repetições. Além do milho e/ou polpa de citrus, usados como fonte de energia, os animais recebiam silagem de milho, farelo de soja, farinha de carne e ossos, fosfato bicálcico, calcário, sal mineral e monensina. Os animais foram mantidos estabulados, individualmente, em baias de 10m2, alimentados ad libitum. As fezes foram coletadas diretamente do chão, com auxílio de uma colher com haste longa. O período de coleta de fezes iniciou-se 28 dias após o início do experimento e teve duração de 7 dias. A substituição do milho pela polpa de citrus peletizada diminuiu o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da matéria orgânica, da proteína bruta, da energia bruta e da fibra em detergente neutro nos tratamentos intermediários (60% e 80% de substituição. Por outro lado, os melhores resultados para a digestibilidade aparente foram obtidos com a substituição de 40% e 100% do milho pela polpa de citrus. Dessa forma, as equações que melhor se ajustaram para descrever coeficientes de digestibilidade observados, foram as quadráticas.This experiment was carried out to study the apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy and neutral detergent fiber of four diets with different

  17. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  18. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  19. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection.

    Oddie, Melissa A Y; Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera , are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor , that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera , is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor , we suggest learning more from nature, i.e., identifying the obviously

  20. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  2. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  3. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  4. Male Gametophytic Screening of Citrus Genotypes for Salt Stress Tolerance

    A. Barandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are classified as a sensitive group of trees to salt stress, but the levels of their sensitivity or tolerance to salt are different among cultivars. In order to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on pollen germination of some citrus cultivars, an experiment was performed in factorial, based on completely randomized design in three replications with Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni and Poncirus trifoliata as tolerant and sensitive controls along with 13 genotypes. Pollen grains of these genotypes were cultured in media containing different levels of sodium chloride (0, 0.87, 1.6, 2.4, 3.1 dS/m along with 15% sucrose, 0.7% agar and 100 mg/L boric acid. In order to understand the biochemical responses of pollen grains to salt stress, they were cultured in liquid media with three levels of salinity (i.e. 0, 0.87 and 1.6 dS/m and then the amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX were evaluated. Significant differences of pollen germination (P ≤ 0.01 were observed in different salinity levels, but there were no significant differences in pollen tube growth. Pollen germination in Cleopatra was greater in comparison to Poncirus trifoliate, indicating that Cleopatra is a tolerant cultivar. The amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of SOD and APX were influenced by genotypes, salinity levels and their interactions (P ≤ 0.01. Considering the fastness and accuracy of this type of experiment, the evaluation of citrus pollen responses may, potentially, be hired as an initial screening criteria for detecting salt-sensitive varieties from the tolerant citrus ones.

  5. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one

  6. Correlation of electronic monitoring and stylet pathways elucidate the role of sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding on citrus leaves by Asian citrus psyllid

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina. citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-wal...

  7. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on citrus foliage: Effecs on foliar volatiles and aggregation behavior of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-known activators of chemical defenses in plants. The SA pathway is involved in citrus response to infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas); less is known about the role of jasmonates in citrus defense response. We examined the eff...

  8. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles' Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector.

    John S Ramsey

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas, the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'Candidatus Profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+ and CLas(- populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+ insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+ insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+ and CLas(- D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide.

  9. Effect of intercropping of maize in citrus orchards on citrus leaf miner infestation and population of its natural enemies

    Ahmed, S.; Khan, M.A.; Qasam, M.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of intercropping of maize fodder in months of monsoon (July to October), in Faisalabad, Pakistan, on infestation of citrus leaf miner (CLM) (Phyllocnistis citrella Stanton) and its predators. Lemon, Kinnow, Grapefruit and Musambi intercropped with and without maize were selected for recording data on these insects. Percent leaf miner infestation and number of predators were recorded from randomly selected branches of citrus trees. Results showed that intercropped plots of each variety had low infestation of citrus miner and high population of coccinellids and Chrysoperla carnea and Musambi was 8.40+-0.144 and 12.72+-0.171 in intercropped and 9.12+-0.169 and 14.52+-0.200 in wihtout intercropped plots, respectively. Interaction of population of Chrysoperla carnea and coccinellids was non-significant for months, varieties and intercropping but was significant within months, varieties and intercropping. The possibility of using maize fodder as intercrop in autumn in citrus is discussed. (author)

  10. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves.

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Bartels, David W

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  11. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, in Citrus Groves.

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  12. Guanine as a hygienic index for allergological relevant mite infestation in mattress dust

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Since guanine is not only an essential constituent of vital nucleic acids, but also the main end product of nitrogenous waste excretion in arachnids, it is a potential candidate for a hygienic index for mite activity in house dust. The public health significance of these mites is based on their

  13. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: An examination of the injuries inflicted on Apis mellifera

    Tropilaelaps spp. are the most serious parasites of Apis mellifera in Asia. However, much of their biology and ecology are largely unexplored (de Guzman et al., 2017 J. Econ. Entomol. 1-14). Like varroa mites, tropilaelaps mites puncture through the integuments of their bee hosts to feed on hemolymp...

  14. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  15. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects

    van Wijk, M.; de Bruijn, P.J.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The

  16. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources.

    Hallas, Thorkil E

    2010-05-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented in accordance with known physical laws. The occasional finding of higher concentrations is the result of synchronized populations of the mites developing outdoors and being passively transported into our homes by wind and dust. The hypothesis explains why we find mites in our homes but nonetheless have no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.

  17. Social environment affects the life history tactic of a phoretic mite

    Nehring, Volker; Müller, Josef K

    2009-01-01

    Phoretic animals use their hosts for travelling to habitat patches suitable for reproduction. Some species, such as the mite Poecilochirus carabi, are phoretic as juveniles and cannot leave their habitat once they reach adulthood. Previous work has shown that mites exercise choice over the habitat...... influence of the social environment on a phoretic's habitat choice and life history....

  18. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    HM Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  19. Characterization of a group of MITEs with unusual features from two coral genomes.

    Shi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs, which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

  20. Characterization of a group of MITEs with unusual features from two coral genomes.

    Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Meyer, Eli; Matz, Mikhail V

    2010-05-18

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

  1. Association between HLA genes and dust mite sensitivity in a Brazilian population.

    da Costa Lima Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2017-02-01

    Type I hypersensitivity, also known as IgE-mediated allergy, is a complex, multifactorial condition whose onset and severity are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Mite allergens stimulate the production of humoral response (IgE), especially in children, which is closely involved in atopic asthma and rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA class I (-A, -B, and -C), and HLA class II (-DRB1) genes in individuals sensitive to dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, or Blomia tropicalis) and mite-insensitive controls. 396 participants were grouped as mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive according to immediate hypersensitivity as determined by skin-prick tests, and to HLA genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO). After chi-square heterogeneity testing no significant differences were observed in HLA-A, B, and C genes, except for the HLA-DRB1 locus, which, showed a negative association for DRB1∗04, between mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive individuals. In high resolution, DRB1∗04:11 allele was significantly different from all other results (P=0.0042, OR=0.26, and 95%CI=0.09-0.70). The analysis stratified by etiologic agent confirmed these associations. Our results suggest a possible association between HLA-DRB1 genes and hypersensitivity to dust mites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like

  3. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern United States and causes yield reduction, and deprivation in fiber fitness. A greenhouse colony of the spider mite was used to infest cotton and pinto beans at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, r...

  4. Two simple techniques for the safe Sarcoptes collection and individual mite DNA extraction.

    Soglia, Dominga; Rambozzi, Luisa; Maione, Sandra; Spalenza, Veronica; Sartore, Stefano; Alasaad, Samer; Sacchi, Paola; Rossi, Luca

    2009-10-01

    Availability of mites is a recognized limiting factor of biological and genetic investigations of the genus Sarcoptes. Current methods of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from individual mites also need substantial improvement in efficiency and operator friendliness. We have first developed a technique for efficient and safe extraction of living mites from scabietic skin samples (crusts or deep skin scrapings). Its core device is a large plastic syringe connected with a 1.5-ml Eppendorf tube. The source material is introduced in the syringe and the device in a shoe box with the tip half of the tube emerging. Mites migrate towards a heat source during a minimum of 36 h. Then, the tube is detached and the mites utilized without risks for the operators. A second technique allows operator-friendly manipulation of individual mites for DNA extraction. Fixed mites are isolated by adhesion to a small strip of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive tape operated with tweezers. Then, mite and strip are plunged in the lyses buffer and the sample twice submitted to thermal shock for disruption of the chitinous exoskeleton. Data show that the tape does not interfere with successive DNA extraction with a commercial kit. The corresponding protocol, that we briefly name "PVC adhesive tape + thermal shock + kit DNA extraction," compares favorably with the available ones.

  5. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  6. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  7. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  8. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  9. Alternative oxidase (AOX) constitutes a small family of proteins in Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis L. Osb.

    Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs.

  10. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  11. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  12. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  13. The effect of pre spring spray to reduce of citrus important pests.

    Hashemi, B; Damavandian, M R; Shoushtaril, R Vafaei; Tafaghodynia, B

    2008-10-01

    The importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell and Panonychus citri McGregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. In this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (Thomson navel on Citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. The experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. According to the results, the pre spring spray do not effect on population density of citrus aphids and P. aurantii during March, April, May and June. However, the P. citri population decreased. Therefore, it seems the pre spring spray in citrus orchards is not necessary, but if P. citri is observed, the pre spring spray should be recommended.

  14. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  15. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  16. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  17. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  18. Interactions between natural enemies: Effect of a predatory mite on transmission of the fungus Neozygites floridana in two-spotted spider mite populations.

    Trandem, Nina; Berdinesen, Ronny; Pell, Judith K; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-02-01

    Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20-40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  20. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  1. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  2. Pyroglyphid mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity in dust from hospital mattresses.

    v d Lustgraaf, B; Jorde, W

    1977-12-01

    Dust from mattresses of different composition and age was analysed for mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity. The mites of the genus Demodex were the most abundant (58.2 per cent). Also pyroglyphid mites occurred commonly (36.6 per cent). Pyroglyphid mites were present in small numbers (mean: 1 specimen/0.2 g of dust) in 12 out of the 17 older polyester-foam mattresses. The 11 cotton-horsechair mattresses and the newly used polyester-foam mattresses (three tested) were without them. The dust from the cotton-horsehair mattresses had a significantly higher allergenic activity than from those of polyester-foam. Xerophilic fungi were isolated in three out of 31 mattresses. The species isolated belonged to the genus Aspergillus and Eurotium. E. repens occurred most frequently. Disinfection of mattresses was suggested to have a negative influence on the occurrence of mites and fungi.

  3. Short form of Demodex species mite in the dog: occurrence and measurements.

    Chesney, C J

    1999-02-01

    A form of Demodex species mite shorter in length than Demodex canis was found in six consecutive cases of canine demodicosis. The mean length of the parasite was 122.6 microns (SD 12.0 microns, 39 mites counted), significantly shorter than either male or female forms of D canis (P < 0.0001). The proportion of short to long mites in each case varied from 0.5 to 22 per 100. In young dogs, skin signs associated with the presence of mites were first noted after about seven months, while in the oldest subject the disease became apparent at 10 years of age. This form of mite has now been found in four countries over three continents, the findings suggesting that it is not uncommon and is acquired in puppyhood, although it may be carried unnoticed for many years.

  4. STUDY OF ACAROID MITES POLLUTION IN STORED FRUIT-DERIVED CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS.

    Xu, Li-fa; Li, He-xia; Xu, Peng-fei; Xu, Hai-feng; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-08-01

    to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui province. samples of stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials were collected from 30 herb stores and storehouses in 17 Anhui cities, where the breeding acaroids mites were detected. 20 species of acaroids mites were found in 33 samples, belonging to 15 genus, 5 families of the acaridae respectively, among which T. putrescentiae, A. farinae, C. lactis, and C. berlesei are predominant species. stored fruit-derived Chinese medicinal materials in Anhui areas suffer from serious acaroid mites pollution. Therefore, proactive measures should be taken to control acaroid mites from breeding in an effort to reduce the harm on medicinal materials. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Intercropping With Fruit Trees Increases Population Abundance and Alters Species Composition of Spider Mites on Cotton.

    Li, Haiqiang; Pan, Hongsheng; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Yanhui

    2018-05-05

    With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop. The species composition of spider mites also differed greatly between cotton intercropped with apple or jujube compared to the cotton monocrop. The relative proportion of Tetranychus truncates Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the species complex generally increased while that of another spider mite, Tetranychus dunhuangensis Wang (Acari: Tetranychidae), decreased under fruit tree-cotton systems. More attention should be paid to the monitoring and management of spider mites, especially T. truncates in this important region of China.

  6. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    David T Peck

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  7. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees

    Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation. PMID:27942015

  8. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions

    Powell, James; Paniagua, John; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George; Todosow, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R_eactor E_nginE_), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions. The MITEE concept is based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with modifications that enable a smaller, lighter nuclear engine. A range of MITEE Engine designs is described. Representative design parameters for the baseline MITEE reactor are: 75MW(th) power level, 1000 second Isp, 100 kilogram mass, 10 MW/Liter fuel element power density, 39 cm core diameter/height. Total engine mass, including turbo pump assembly, nozzles, controls, and contingency, is estimated to be 200 kilograms. Using the MITEE engine, ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions are enabled. A range of such missions has been analyzed using the MULIMP code, and are described.

  9. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    Peck, David T; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  10. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by‐products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three‐step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP...... to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by‐products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by‐products....

  11. In vitro Propagation of Citrus limonia Osbeck Through Nucellar Embryo Culture

    Alka Jajoo

    2010-01-01

    Citrus limonia Osbeck is a promising rootsctock for commercial citrus species with sturdy anddisease and drought resistant characters. A n efficient and highly reproducible plant regeneration protocol hasbeen developed from nucellar embryo of Citrus limonia. Murashige and Skoogs medium was used for plantregeneration from nucellar embryos. It was noted that 6-benzylaminopurine at a concentration of 2.22 mMinduced highest number of multiple shoots as 18.26 shoots per explant. O n transfer of in...

  12. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  13. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  14. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic.

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E

    2004-12-01

    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  15. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  16. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  17. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  18. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    Sun, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  19. Citrus peel extract and powder attenuate hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia using rodent experimental modeling

    Humaira Ashraf

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Conclusively, inclusion of citrus peel bioflavonoids in dietary therapies is a promising strategy to modulate lipidemic and glycemic attributes without imparting any deleterious effect on hematological parameters.

  20. The effects of citrus rootstocks on Valencia Late and Rhode Red ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... However, all cultivars mean were within the range of optimal limits except Zn. The rootstock had ... optimize fertilization programs. ... Leaf samples were decontaminated by washing detergent solution, tap water and rinsing with distilled water. Then, samples were dried at. 70°C until constant weight and ...

  1. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for spider mites (Acarina: tetranychidae) in horticultural products

    Ignatowicz, S.; Banasik-Solgala, K.

    1999-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.), and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are closely related species of tetranychid mites (Acarina, Tetranychidae) that respond to gamma irradiation in a similar way. Eggs of both species exposed to gamma radiation early in embryonic development were considerably more susceptible to irradiation than older eggs. The tolerance of eggs to gamma radiation increased in 3-4-day-old eggs, when eye-spots were formed. Nymphs were more resistant to gamma radiation than eggs and larvae. Deteriorative effects of irradiation treatment were reflected in the immatures by their mortality in subsequent developmental stages. A positive relationship between dosage and the percent egg mortality or the mortality of subsequent stages was usually found when the immature stages were irradiated. The sex ratio of adults developed from irradiated eggs, larvae, and nymphs was affected by the irradiation treatment; the ratio was usually skewed towards males. Irradiation of females resulted in increased mortality, lowered fecundity, reduced egg viability, and sex ratio distortion in their progeny. Two-day-old females of the carmine spider mite and the two-spotted spider mite irradiated with 200 or 300 Gy lived as long as the controls. Mortality occurred after 3 weeks. The number of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites was considerably lower than in the control, and it decreased as the absorbed dose increased. The higher the dose of gamma radiation applied to adults of the spider mites (the parental generation, P), the higher the mortality of the F1 mites during their embryonic development. Viability of eggs laid by irradiated females of spider mites mated with irradiated males was significantly reduced. Young females treated with a dose of 0.2 kGy produced 40-50% nonviable eggs, while control mites produced only 6.0-6.6% nonviable eggs. A dose of 0.3 kGy caused high mortality of eggs; 88% and 97% nonviable

  2. Negative evidence of Wolbachia in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Enigl, M; Zchori-Fein, E; Schausberger, P

    2005-01-01

    The cytoplasmically inherited bacterium Wolbachia is widespread in arthropod species and has been repeatedly detected in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Our original goal was to assess the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in P. persimilis and the potential fitness consequences for this host. To accomplish that goal, seven P. persimilis strains were obtained from Europe, Africa and the USA and reared on the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae as prey. After preliminary results showed that the T. urticae used was infected with Wolbachia, the minimum starvation time of the predators to prevent false positive results from undigested prey was determined. We tested DNA samples by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) after starving the predators or feeding them Wolbachia-free T. urticae for various periods. Those experiments showed that Wolbachia could not be detected after 16 h at 25 degrees C and 48 h at 20 degrees C. To verify the results of the PCR analyses, we furthermore conducted crossing experiments with antibiotic-treated and untreated individuals. No indications of Wolbachia effects were recorded. Additionally, we screened live eggs of four of the seven strains reared in our laboratory and alcohol samples of 10 other P. persimilis strains for the occurrence of Wolbachia by PCR, none of which tested positive. Synthesis of our study and previous reports suggests that infection of P. persimilis with Wolbachia is extremely rare and of minor importance. We discuss the significance of our findings for future studies on the presence of Wolbachia in predaceous arthropods.

  3. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  4. Contribution to the Uropodina mites of Peru (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan

    2017-02-27

    Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.

  5. A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange

    Foley, Janet E.; Serieys, L.E.; Stephenson, N.; Riley, S.; Foley, C.; Jennings, M.; Wengert, G.; Vickers, W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa L.; Moriarty, J.; Clifford, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.

  6. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  7. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  8. Differentiation between Flavors of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

    Feng, Shi; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Gmitter, Frederick G; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-10

    Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.

  9. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  10. Adventive plants from ovules and nucelli in Citrus.

    Kochba, J; Spiegel-Roy, P; Safran, H

    1972-09-01

    1- to 8-week-old ovules and nucelli from three Citrus cultivars-Shamouti and Valencia (Citrus sinensis) oranges and Marsh Seedless (C. paradisi) grapefruit-were cultured in vitro. No embryo differentiation was observed in the explants prior to culture. The Shamouti ovules had degenerated and were apparently unfertilized. Embryoids formed on Murashige and Tucker nutrient medium supplemented with 500 mg/l malt extract. Whole plants developed on the same basal medium supplemented with kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), coconut milk or gibberellic acid (GA3). A higher kinetin/IAA ratio or the addition of coconut milk favoured stem elongation more than root formation while a lower kinetin/IAA ratio favoured root formation and inhibited stem elongation. The addition of GA3 to the basal medium stimulated rooting and stem elongation. These results can be of aid in mutation research, allowing irradiation at stages prior to embryonic development.

  11. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  12. CSFRI symposium: research into citrus and subtropical crops

    1986-10-01

    This publication only contains the abstracts of papers delivered on the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute symposium which was held at Nelspruit on 21-23 October 1986. The abstracts primarily discuss the problems in and around the South African fruit industry such as pest control, etiology, plant diseases, problems with greening, flowering, and plant growth. One abstract specifically discusses the effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential of false cadling moth

  13. Energy use in citrus production of Mazandaran province in Iran ...

    The total energy requirement under citrus farming was 17,112.2 MJ ha-1, whereas 36.3 and 33.62% was consumed due to fertilisers and pesticides, respectively. Renewable energy was about 12% of total energy input. The energy ratio, productivities, specific and net energy gain were 1.71, 0.905, 1.104 and 12,251.4 MJ ...

  14. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.

  16. Phytochemical Investigation of Antimicrobial Seed Extract of Citrus paradise Fruits

    , R.M.O. Mohammed; , S.Mo.H. Ayob

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of Citrus paradise (Grapefruit) of the family Ructaceae are gaining grounds as important source for treatment in complementary medicine. The Sudanese varieties are one of the best in the market, which prompted investigation of seed extracts. The 96% ethanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and highlighted the biological monitoring of activity in order to isolate the active metabolites from the chloroform extract of the seeds. The presence of sterols and triterp...

  17. Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

  18. The effect of sub-floor heating on house-dust-mite populations on floors and in furniture.

    de Boer, Rob

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in a study of 16 houses with sub-floor heating and 21 without. The pattern of changes in air humidity and temperature on the floors was investigated and compared to known data of the tolerance of dust mites. Also the resident mite populations were compared. Floors with sub-floor heating had, on average, fewer mites, but the difference with unheated floors was small. It was remarkable that mite numbers were also lower in upholstered furniture. Another important observation was that some houses with sub-floor heating had high mite numbers, indicating that this type of heating is compatible with a thriving mite population. Temperature and humidity conditions of heated floors may allow mites not only to survive, but also to remain active in winter. A moderate increase in temperature, a moderate decrease in (absolute) air humidity, or a combination of both, will suffice to keep the humidity all winter below the Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the level of air humidity that is critical for mite growth and reproduction, hence for allergen production. However, it is argued that measures to suppress allergen production by house dust mites are likely to be far more effective if taken in summer rather than in winter.

  19. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  20. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits

    Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S.; Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)