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Sample records for citrus clementina hort

  1. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported.

  2. A reference genetic map of C. clementina hort. ex Tan.; citrus evolution inferences from comparative mapping

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    Ollitrault Patrick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most modern citrus cultivars have an interspecific origin. As a foundational step towards deciphering the interspecific genome structures, a reference whole genome sequence was produced by the International Citrus Genome Consortium from a haploid derived from Clementine mandarin. The availability of a saturated genetic map of Clementine was identified as an essential prerequisite to assist the whole genome sequence assembly. Clementine is believed to be a ‘Mediterranean’ mandarin × sweet orange hybrid, and sweet orange likely arose from interspecific hybridizations between mandarin and pummelo gene pools. The primary goals of the present study were to establish a Clementine reference map using codominant markers, and to perform comparative mapping of pummelo, sweet orange, and Clementine. Results Five parental genetic maps were established from three segregating populations, which were genotyped with Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP, Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR and Insertion-Deletion (Indel markers. An initial medium density reference map (961 markers for 1084.1 cM of the Clementine was established by combining male and female Clementine segregation data. This Clementine map was compared with two pummelo maps and a sweet orange map. The linear order of markers was highly conserved in the different species. However, significant differences in map size were observed, which suggests a variation in the recombination rates. Skewed segregations were much higher in the male than female Clementine mapping data. The mapping data confirmed that Clementine arose from hybridization between ‘Mediterranean’ mandarin and sweet orange. The results identified nine recombination break points for the sweet orange gamete that contributed to the Clementine genome. Conclusions A reference genetic map of citrus, used to facilitate the chromosome assembly of the first citrus reference genome sequence, was established. The high

  3. Early embryo achievement through isolated microspore culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cvs. ‘Monreal Rosso’ and ‘Nules’

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    Benedetta eChiancone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microspore embryogenesis is a method of achieving complete homozygosity from plants. It is particularly useful for woody species, like Citrus, characterized by long juvenility, a high degree of heterozygosity and often self-incompatibility. Anther culture is currently the method of choice for microspore embryogenesis in many crops. However, isolated microspore culture is a better way to investigate the processes at the cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels as it avoids the influence of somatic anther tissue. To exploit the potential of this technique, it is important to separate the key factors affecting the process and, among them, culture medium composition and particularly the plant growth regulators and their concentration, as they can greatly enhance regeneration efficiency. To our knowledge, the ability of meta-Topolin, a naturally occurring aromatic cytokinin, to induce gametic embryogenesis in isolated microspores of Citrus has never been investigated. In this study, the effect of two concentrations of meta-Topolin instead of benzyladenine or zeatin in the culture medium was investigated in isolated microspore culture of two genotypes of Citrus. After eleven months of isolated microspore culture, for both genotypes and for all the four tested media, the microspore reprogramming and their sporophytic development was observed by the presence of multinucleated calli and microspore-derived embryos at different stages. Microsatellite analysis of parental and embryo samples was performed to determine the embryo alleles constitution of early embryos produced in all tested media, confirming their origin from microspores.To our knowledge, this is the first successful report of Citrus microspore embryogenesis with isolated microspore culture in Citrus, and in particular in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan, cvs. ‘Monreal Rosso’ and ‘Nules’.

  4. Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping

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    Ollitrault Patrick

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. In citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding DNA sequences. To optimize the use of these EST-SSRs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide or their position in the coding sequences. Results Among 11000 unigenes from a Clementine EST library, we have found at least one microsatellite sequence (repeated units size ranged from 2 to 6 nucleotides in 1500 unigenes (13.6%. More than 95% of these SSRs were di or trinucleotides. If trinucleotide microsatellites were encountered trough all part of EST sequences, dinucleotide microsatellites were preferentially (50% concentrated in the 5' 100th nucleotides. We assessed the polymorphism of 41 EST-SSR, by PCR amplification droved with flanking primers among ten Citrus species plus 3 from other genera. More than 90% of EST-SSR markers were polymorphic. Furthermore, dinucleotide microsatellite markers were more polymorphic than trinucleotide ones, probably related to their distribution that was more often located in the 5' UnTranslated Region (UTR. We obtained a good agreement of diversity relationships between the citrus species and relatives assessed with EST-SSR markers with the established taxonomy and phylogeny. To end, the heterozygosity of each genotype and all dual combinations were studied to evaluate the percentage of mappable markers. Higher values (> 45% were observed for putative Citrus inter-specific hybrids (lime lemon, or sour orange than for Citrus basic true species (mandarin, pummelo and citron (70% with a significant proportion suitable for synteny analysis. Conclusion Fourty one new EST-SSR markers were produced and were available for

  5. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

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    Navarro Luis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9, one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22 and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18 of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of stylar canal cells identifies novel candidate genes implicated in the self-incompatibility response of Citrus clementina

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    Caruso Marco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive biology in citrus is still poorly understood. Although in recent years several efforts have been made to study pollen-pistil interaction and self-incompatibility, little information is available about the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. Here we report the identification of candidate genes involved in pollen-pistil interaction and self-incompatibility in clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.. These genes have been identified comparing the transcriptomes of laser-microdissected stylar canal cells (SCC isolated from two genotypes differing for self-incompatibility response ('Comune', a self-incompatible cultivar and 'Monreal', a self- compatible mutation of 'Comune'. Results The transcriptome profiling of SCC indicated that the differential regulation of few specific, mostly uncharacterized transcripts is associated with the breakdown of self-incompatibility in 'Monreal'. Among them, a novel F-box gene showed a drastic up-regulation both in laser microdissected stylar canal cells and in self-pollinated whole styles with stigmas of 'Comune' in concomitance with the arrest of pollen tube growth. Moreover, we identify a non-characterized gene family as closely associated to the self-incompatibility genetic program activated in 'Comune'. Three different aspartic-acid rich (Asp-rich protein genes, located in tandem in the clementine genome, were over-represented in the transcriptome of 'Comune'. These genes are tightly linked to a DELLA gene, previously found to be up-regulated in the self-incompatible genotype during pollen-pistil interaction. Conclusion The highly specific transcriptome survey of the stylar canal cells identified novel genes which have not been previously associated with self-pollen rejection in citrus and in other plant species. Bioinformatic and transcriptional analyses suggested that the mutation leading to self-compatibility in 'Monreal' affected the expression of non

  7. Caracterização molecular de uma progênie de tangerineira 'Clementina Fina' e 'Montenegrina' Molecular characterization of a progeny between tangerines 'Clementina Fina' and 'Montenegrina'

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    Roberto Luis Weiler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os citros apresentam uma taxonomia muito complexa, principalmente com relação ao número de espécies que constituem o gênero Citrus e os gêneros afins. Genótipos classificados como espécies podem ter sido originados por hibridação interespecífica e preservados por meio da embrionia nucelar. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar uma população de tangerineiras híbridas oriundas do cruzamento das tangerineiras 'Clementina Fina' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., genitor feminino, e 'Montenegrina' (Citrus deliciosa Ten., genitor masculino, utilizando marcadores do tipo microssatélites (SSR. Com 12 pares de primers, foi possível diferenciar 93 acessos do estudo e agrupar a F1 em indivíduos mais próximos do genitor feminino e do genitor masculino. O PIC (Conteúdo de Informação de Polimorfismo dos primers variou de 0,27 a 0,65. Toda a progênie do cruzamento entre 'Clementina Fina' e 'Montenegrina' analisada neste estudo é híbrida, e os SSRs foram eficientes para identificar híbridos com maior similaridade genética em relação aos genitores, mostrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre as plantas da população estudada.Citrus have a very complex taxonomy, especially considering the number of species included in genus Citrus and related genera. What is classified as a species may have originated by interespecific hybridization and preserved through nucellar embryony. This research aimed to characterize a population of hybrid tangerines, originated from the cross of 'Clementina Fina' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. as female and 'Montenegrina' (Citrus deliciosa Ten. as male parents, using microsatellite molecular makers. With 12 pairs of primers it was possible to differentiate 93 of the studied accessions and to group F1 individuals nearer to the male or to the female parent. The primers PIC (Polymorphism Information Content ranged from 0.27 to 0.65. All the analyzed progeny between 'Clementina Fina

  8. Development of genomic resources for Citrus clementina: Characterization of three deep-coverage BAC libraries and analysis of 46,000 BAC end sequences

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    Talon Manuel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus species constitute one of the major tree fruit crops of the subtropical regions with great economic importance. However, their peculiar reproductive characteristics, low genetic diversity and the long-term nature of tree breeding mostly impair citrus variety improvement. In woody plants, genomic science holds promise of improvements and in the Citrus genera the development of genomic tools may be crucial for further crop improvements. In this work we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from Clementine (Citrus clementina, one of the most relevant citrus fresh fruit market cultivars, and the analyses of 46.000 BAC end sequences. Clementine is a diploid plant with an estimated haploid genome size of 367 Mb and 2n = 18 chromosomes, which makes feasible the use of genomics tools to boost genetic improvement. Results Three genomic BAC libraries of Citrus clementina were constructed through EcoRI, MboI and HindIII digestions and 56,000 clones, representing an estimated genomic coverage of 19.5 haploid genome-equivalents, were picked. BAC end sequencing (BES of 28,000 clones produced 28.1 Mb of genomic sequence that allowed the identification of the repetitive fraction (12.5% of the genome and estimation of gene content (31,000 genes of this species. BES analyses identified 3,800 SSRs and 6,617 putative SNPs. Comparative genomic studies showed that citrus gene homology and microsyntheny with Populus trichocarpa was rather higher than with Arabidopsis thaliana, a species phylogenetically closer to citrus. Conclusion In this work, we report the characterization of three BAC libraries from C. clementina, and a new set of genomic resources that may be useful for isolation of genes underlying economically important traits, physical mapping and eventually crop improvement in Citrus species. In addition, BAC end sequencing has provided a first insight on the basic structure and organization of the citrus genome and has

  9. Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

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    Jeong, Sung Woo; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Huh, Moo Ryong; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Yi; Shin, Sung Chul

    2014-04-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Fruit peels infected with C. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. Seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. The flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards and quantified. Among the 17 flavonoids, the concentration of component 3 was the highest and that of component 10 was the lowest. During 8 days after inoculation, the concentration of the seven flavonoids 1-3, 5, 6, 13, and 14 increased gradually up to day 8. Flavonoid 4 was detected from day 7. The seven minor flavonoid components, 8-12, 15, and 16 increased to day 5 and then decreased. However, flavonoids level variations were not significantly different from that of the non-infected fruits during the experimental period. The monitoring suggested that the constitutively formed seven polymethoxyflavones (8-12, 15, and 16) may act as phytoanticipins in the defence mechanism against the fungus, and that hespertin 7-O-glucoside (4), produced de novo on day 6 after infection, may function as a phytoalexin.

  10. Investigation of peel and leaf essential oils of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. growing in the south of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thao-Tran Thi; Thi Tran, Thanh-Tram; Hua, Tra-My

    2016-01-01

    (disc diffusion antibiotic sensitivity assay) of the oils was investigated against six reference test organisms including two Gram (+) bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram (-) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri), and one fungus (Candida...

  11. Determinação de metodologia para oisolamento de protoplastos de tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort.)

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, R.P. de; Mendes,B.M.J.; Tulmann Neto,A.

    1995-01-01

    A hibridação somática via fusão de protoplastos vem sendo utilizada no melhoramento de porta-enxertos de citros em diversos países. Nos Estados Unidos, vários estudos demonstram a eficiência de procedimentos no isolamento e cultivo de protoplastos dessa frutífera. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do meio de cultivo de calos embriogênicos do porta-enxerto tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort.) sobre o isolamento de protoplastos, bem como sugerir alteraçõe...

  12. ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO E O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLÂNTULAS DE TANGERINA 'CLEÓPATRA' (Citrus reshni hort. ex. Tanaka GIBBERELLIC ACID AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANDARIN (Citrus reshni hort. ex. Tanaka SEEDLINGS

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    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas de tangerina 'Cleópatra'(Citrus reshni hort. ex. Tanaka, foram utilizadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições no esquema de parcelas sub-divididas, onde os tratamentos principais foram 5 concentrações de ácido giberélico: T1 = 0, T2 = 25, T3 = 50, T4 = 100 e T5 = 150 mg.L-1, parceladas em quatro pulverizações. As coletas de material foram realizadas dos 70 aos 210 dias, em intervalos de 14 dias. Pelos resultados obtidos, o fitorregulador promoveu efeito favorável com relação ao incremento do comprimento do caule, sendo que aplicações de 100 e 150 mg.L-1 foram superiores as demais. O diâmetro do caule não foi influenciado pela aplicação de ácido giberélico.'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex. Tanaka seedlings used in an entirely randomized trial, with three replicates in a split plot format, were submitted to five gibberellic acid treatments of concentrations 0; 25; 50; 100; 150 mg.L-1, split into four sprayings. Data was collected, from the 70th up to the 120th day, in 14- day intervals. The results showed that the plant regulator enhanced the growth of the seedlings increasing the length of their stems. The sprays of concentration 100 and 150 mg.L-1 gave the best results. The gibberellic acid spraying had no effect on stem diameter.

  13. Determinação de metodologia para oisolamento de protoplastos de tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. Methodology choice for protoplast isolation in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort.

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    R.P. de Oliveira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação somática via fusão de protoplastos vem sendo utilizada no melhoramento de porta-enxertos de citros em diversos países. Nos Estados Unidos, vários estudos demonstram a eficiência de procedimentos no isolamento e cultivo de protoplastos dessa frutífera. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do meio de cultivo de calos embriogênicos do porta-enxerto tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. sobre o isolamento de protoplastos, bem como sugerir alterações de procedimento. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade do isolamento de 1.4 x 10(6 a 4.7 x 10(6 protoplastos por grama de calos da espécie estudada. Verificou-se que, o subcultivo dos calos de tangerina Cleópatra em meio de cultura, sem reguladores 1 hora, sob condições de escuro a 120 rpm, proporcionou maior eficiência de isolamento de protoplastos (4.7 x 10(6 protoplastos/g de calo.Somatic hybridization has been used for citrus rootstock breeding in many countries. In USA, many reports had proved the efficiency of procedures for the isolation and culture of citrus protoplasts. This research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of procedures of protoplast isolation using embryogenic callus of the Cleópatra mandarin rootstock. Alterations were proposed to increase protoplast isolation and culture method. Results show the possibility of a protoplast yield of 1.4 to 4.7 x 10(6 pps/g.f.w. for Cleópatra tangerine rootstock callus. Protoplast yield can be raised to 4.7 x 10(6 pps/g.f.w. if the embryogenic callus are grown in a medium supplemented only with 4% sucrose and pre-treated with 1% w/v macerozyme for 1 hour, at 120 rpm, in dark, is applied before protoplast isolation.

  14. Caracterização morfológica, determinação do nível de ploidia e viabilidade do pólen de uma progênie de tangerineira 'Clementina Fina' e 'Montenegrina'

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    Roberto Luis Weiler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas cítricas possuem ampla variação morfológica e citogenética. Neste contexto, análises dessas plantas podem auxiliar na identificação de materiais mais promissores para cruzamentos. Uma população de tangerineiras híbridas oriundas do cruzamento das tangerineiras 'Clementina Fina' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Montenegrina' (Citrus deliciosa Ten. foi avaliada segundo características morfológicas, época de maturação, número cromossômico e viabilidade de pólen. Foi possível distinguir as 94 plantas da progênie e os genitores através dos dados morfológicos. Verificou-se uma alteração no período de maturação dos frutos nas plantas híbridas. Todas as plantas avaliadas são diplóides com um número cromossômico de 2n=18, bem como, alto grau de viabilidade de pólen, variando entre 79,0% e 98,1%.

  15. SNP mining in C. clementina BAC end sequences; transferability in the Citrus genus (Rutaceae, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

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    Ollitrault Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing availability of EST databases and whole genome sequences, SNPs have become the most abundant and powerful polymorphic markers. However, SNP chip data generally suffers from ascertainment biases caused by the SNP discovery and selection process in which a small number of individuals are used as discovery panels. The ongoing International Citrus Genome Consortium sequencing project of the highly heterozygous Clementine and sweet orange genomes will soon result in the release of several hundred thousand SNPs. The primary goals of this study were: (i to estimate the transferability within the genus Citrus of SNPs discovered from Clementine BACend sequencing (BES, (ii to estimate bias associated with the very narrow discovery panel, and (iii to evaluate the usefulness of the Clementine-derived SNP markers for diversity analysis and comparative mapping studies between the different cultivated Citrus species. Results Fifty-four accessions covering the main Citrus species and 52 interspecific hybrids between pummelo and Clementine were genotyped on a GoldenGate array platform using 1,457 SNPs mined from Clementine BES and 37 SNPs identified between and within C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata and C. micrantha. Consistent results were obtained from 622 SNP loci. Of these markers, 116 displayed incomplete transferability primarily in C. medica, C. maxima and wild Citrus species. The two primary biases associated with the SNP mining in Clementine were an overestimation of the C. reticulata diversity and an underestimation of the interspecific differentiation. However, the genetic stratification of the gene pool was high, with very frequent significant linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, the shared intraspecific polymorphism and accession heterozygosity were generally enough to perform interspecific comparative genetic mapping. Conclusions A set of 622 SNP markers providing consistent results was selected. Of the

  16. Efecto de los biorreguladores del crecimiento en la embriogénesis somática de mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.

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    Reina M. Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas in vitro vía embriogénesis somática es un prerrequisito indispensable, para la aplicación de algunas herramientas de la Biotecnología en la mejora genética de las plantas y más aún en el caso de los cítricos. Para aumentar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro, como la embriogénesis somática, que requieren de medios de cultivo artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es el uso de biorreguladores del crecimiento de producción nacional, como el Pectimorf ® y los análogos de brasinoesteroides: Biobras-6 y MH5. Estos biorreguladores, al igual que el 24-Epibrasinólido, son efectivos en los procesos morfogenéticos, generalmente a bajas concentraciones, como sustitutos o complementos de las auxinas y citoquininas. Se empleó la técnica de cultivo de óvulos fecundados in vitro, para obtener una línea celular embriogénica de Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan y como fuente de óvulos fecundados, se tomaron ovarios de dicha especie procedentes de árboles de la Estación de Cítricos de Ceiba del Agua en Caimito, provincia La Habana. Para el mantenimiento de la línea embriogénica, se utilizaron callos embriogénicos de la línea celular establecida. Este trabajo estuvo dirigido a evaluar el efecto del Pectimorf ® y los brasinoesteroides, MH5, Biobras-6 y 24-Epibrasinólido, en la obtención y el mantenimiento de la línea celular embriogénica de mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. En los resultados se pudo comprobar un incremento en la masa fresca del callo embriogénico en un menor tiempo de cultivo mediante el uso de estos biorreguladores.

  17. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Transported from Roots to Shoots Promotes Leaf Abscission in Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) Seedlings Rehydrated after Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, D; Primo-Millo, E

    1992-09-01

    The effect of water stress and subsequent rehydration on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase activity, ethylene production, and leaf abscission was studied in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) seedlings. Leaf abscission occurred when drought-stressed plants were allowed to rehydrate, whereas no abscission was observed in plants under water stress conditions. In roots of water-stressed plants, a high ACC accumulation and an increase in ACC synthase activity were observed. Neither increase in ACC content nor significant ethylene production were detected in leaves of water-stressed plants. After rehydration, a sharp rise in ACC content and ethylene production was observed in leaves of water-stressed plants. Content of ACC in xylem fluid was 10-fold higher in plants rehydrated for 2 h after water stress than in nonstressed plants. Leaf abscission induced by rehydration after drought stress was inhibited when roots or shoots were treated before water stress with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, inhibitor of ACC synthase) or cobalt ion (inhibitor of ethylene-forming enzyme), respectively. However, AOA treatments to shoots did not suppress leaf abscission. The data indicate that water stress promotes ACC synthesis in roots of Cleopatra mandarin seedlings. Rehydration of plants results in ACC transport to the shoots, where it is oxidized to ethylene. Subsequently, this ethylene induces leaf abscission.

  18. 欧柑橘皮中黄酮物质的提取和分析%Isolation and Analysis of Flavonoid from Citrus Suavissina Hort. et Tanaka Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫林

    2013-01-01

      通过两种方法提取瓯柑黄酮,实验结果显示采用乙醚-乙醇溶剂体系提取瓯柑橘中黄酮类物质的效果好于石油醚-甲醇溶剂体系的提取效果,瓯柑橘提取物的黄酮结构分析显示副环即C环上只有一个羟基而不是甲氧基。经过紫外分光光谱法和红外光谱分析证明所得产品是柚皮苷。%The flavonoid was isolated from Citrus Suavissina Hort. et Tanaka peel with two methods, the result showed that the ethyl ether-ethanol solvent system had an advantage over the petroleum ether-Methanol system in flavonoid isolation,it was proved by UV-Vis spectrum and IR spectrum that the product was naringin.

  19. Otimização de protocolos para regeneração de plantas in vitro de tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. Optimization of protocols for in vitro regeneration of 'Cleopatra'(Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. mandarin plants

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    Rosely Pereira da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de técnicas biotecnológicas no melhoramento in vitro de citros está condicionado à existência prévia de uma metodologia eficiente de regeneração de plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um sistema para regeneração de plantas in vitro, via organogênese de tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tan.. Experimentos avaliando concentrações de BAP (benzilaminopurina e condições de cultivo, posição e polaridade do segmento de epicótilo, no meio de cultura, foram desenvolvidos para maximizar a regeneração. Para a indução das brotações, segmentos de epicótilo (1,0 cm de comprimento foram cultivados em meio de cultura MT (Murashige & Tucker, 1969. Após 45 dias, foram avaliados: percentual de explantes responsivos e nº. de gemas/ explante responsivo. Para enraizamento, foram utilizados os meios MT e MT/2, com ou sem ANA (ácido naftalenoacético na concentração 1,0 mg L-1. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se o percentual de brotos que emitiram raízes. A máxima proliferação de gemas foi obtida em condições de escuro, por 30 dias, utilizando-se da concentração 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Não houve efeito significativo da posição do explante na resposta organogenética. Os segmentos apicais e mediais mostraram-se mais eficientes que os basais. A concentração de 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP com o cultivo em condições de escuro, por 30 dias, na fase de indução de brotações combinada com ausência de auxina no meio MT/2, na fase de indução de raízes, assegurou melhor índice de enraizamento dos brotos regenerados.The success of biotechnology for in vitro citrus plant breeding programs depends on the availability of efficient methodologies for plant regeneration. The objective of this work was to establish a system for regeneration of in vitro plants, through organogenesis of 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. mandarin plants. Experiments were performed to evaluate the concentration of BAP and culture

  20. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in Citrus using array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usach Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many fruit-tree species, including relevant Citrus spp varieties exhibit a reproductive biology that impairs breeding and strongly constrains genetic improvements. In citrus, juvenility increases the generation time while sexual sterility, inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility prevent the production of homozygous cultivars. Genomic technology may provide citrus researchers with a new set of tools to address these various restrictions. In this work, we report a valuable genomics-based protocol for the structural analysis of deletion mutations on an heterozygous background. Results Two independent fast neutron mutants of self-incompatible clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. cv. Clemenules were the subject of the study. Both mutants, named 39B3 and 39E7, were expected to carry DNA deletions in hemizygous dosage. Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH using a Citrus cDNA microarray allowed the identification of underrepresented genes in these two mutants. Subsequent comparison of citrus deleted genes with annotated plant genomes, especially poplar, made possible to predict the presence of a large deletion in 39B3 of about 700 kb and at least two deletions of approximately 100 and 500 kb in 39E7. The deletion in 39B3 was further characterized by PCR on available Citrus BACs, which helped us to build a partial physical map of the deletion. Among the deleted genes, ClpC-like gene coding for a putative subunit of a multifunctional chloroplastic protease involved in the regulation of chlorophyll b synthesis was directly related to the mutated phenotype since the mutant showed a reduced chlorophyll a/b ratio in green tissues. Conclusion In this work, we report the use of array-CGH for the successful identification of genes included in a hemizygous deletion induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. The study of gene content and order into the 39B3 deletion also led to the unexpected

  1. Características da variedade Fremont quando comparadas com as das tangerinas 'Ponkan' e 'Clementina Nules' Characteristics of Fremont variety compared to Ponkan and Clementina Nules tangerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Pio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O quadro varietal das tangerinas plantadas comercialmente é bastante restrito, concentrando-se na tangerina 'Ponkan' e no tangor 'Murcott'. Aumentar o número de variedades, assim como ampliar o período de safra são fatores importantes tendo em vista que trarão vantagens ao consumidor e ao produtor desse grupo de citros. No período de 2002 a 2005, foram estudadas as características da variedade Fremont e comparadas com as tangerinas 'Ponkan' e 'Clementina Nules', no município de Capão Bonito-SP. Pode-se concluir, dos resultados obtidos, que as plantas da tangerina Fremont são de porte reduzido (semi-anãs; os frutos apresentam características excepcionais para consumo in natura, maturação de meia-estação e período de colheita, que se estende por até três meses, sendo dessa maneira boa opção para plantios visando à entressafra da 'Ponkan'.Commercial grown tangerines variety are mainly restricted to a few options such as Ponkan tangerine and Murcott tangor. The increasing number of varieties as well as the harvest extending season is important, potentially benefiting consumers and producers of this kind of citrus. Fremont characteristics were compared to Ponkan and Clementina Nules tangerines at Capão Bonito County in São Paulo State from 2002 to 2005. By the results, it was possible to conclude that Fremont trees were semi-dwarfed, the fruits had excellent characteristics for in natura consumption and a harvesting season enlargement of three months, therefore appearing to be a good alternative for orchards, aiming at Ponkan' off-season period.

  2. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  3. hortícolas andaluzas

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    Leonor María Pérez Naranjo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La renta de las explotaciones agrarias, estimada mediante su margen bruto directo, no se encuentra distribuida de forma uniforme por el territorio. Dada la importancia de la horticultura en el sector agrario andaluz, el objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la distribución espacial del margen bruto de los distintos tipos de estructuras productivas clasificadas dentro de este subsector. Tras un análisis financiero de las explotaciones hortícolas, procedimos a la localización territorial de dichas explotaciones a nivel municipal. El análisis espacial de datos (análisis de densidad permitió determinar que, dependiendo de la estrategia productiva, la localización geográfica del margen bruto por hectárea y de los jornales por unidad de superficie es muy diferente. Esta metodología puede ser muy útil para conocer dónde están localizadas las explotaciones mas relevantes, tanto desde un punto de vista financiero como social, con el fin de diseñar, por ejemplo, políticas agrarias.

  4. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail.

  5. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Wang; Lijuan Zhou; Dazhi Li; Liangying Dai; Amy Lawton-Rauh; Pradip K. Srimani; Yongping Duan; Feng Luo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif anal...

  6. Computational identification of citrus microRNAs and target analysis in citrus expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Jia, Q; Fang, J; Li, F; Wang, C; Zhang, Z

    2010-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new family of small RNA molecules found in plants and animals. We developed a comprehensive strategy for identifying new miRNA homologues by mining the repository of available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs). By adopting a range of filtering criteria, we identified a total of 38 potential miRNAs--nine, five, nine and 15 miRNAs in Citrus trifoliata (ctr-miRNAs), C. clementina (ccl-miRNAs), C. reticulata (crt-miRNAs) and C. sinensis (csi-miRNAs), respectively--from more than 430,000 EST sequences in citrus. Using the potential miRNA sequences, we conducted a further BLAST search of the mRNA database and found six potential target genes in these citrus species. Eight miRNAs were selected in order to verify their existence in citrus using Northern blotting, and the functions of several miRNAs in miRNA-mediated gene regulation are experimentally suggested. It appears that all these miRNAs regulate expression of their target genes by cleavage, which is the most common situation in gene regulation mediated by plant miRNAs. Our achievement in identifying new miRNAs in citrus provides a powerful incentive for further studies on the important roles of these miRNAs.

  7. Inhibitory effects of citrus essential oils and their components on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, M; Sun, S H; Ozaki, K; Ishikawa, J; Ukeda, H

    1999-12-01

    Twenty-eight kinds of citrus essential oils and their components were studied for inhibitory effects on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). The reaction mixture consisted of dimethylamine and sodium nitrite adjusted at pH 3.6, in addition to essential oils and an emulsifying agent. The quantification was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography monitored at 220 nm. All of the essential oils inhibited the formation of NDMA in the range of 20-85%. The oils of ujukitsu (Citrus ujukitsu Hort. ex Shirai), yuzu (C. junos Tanaka), mochiyu (C. inflata Hort. ex Tanaka), and ponkan (C. reticulata Blanco cv. F-2426) inhibited the formation of NDMA much more effectively than other citrus oils. The inhibitory proportions of components of citrus essential oils such as myrcene, alpha-terpinene, and terpinolene were as high as 80%.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clementine Citrus clementina Citrus_clementina_L.png Citrus_clementina_NL.png Citrus_clementi...na_S.png Citrus_clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementi...na&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NS ...

  9. A novel trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative from Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Ito, Chihiro; Itoigawa, Masataka

    2012-12-15

    Isolation and structural elucidation of a new trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative from Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri hort. ex Y. Tanaka) was carried out. The derivative exhibited the antioxidative activity by ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay and was found in the flavedo and alvedo of Meyer lemon peel.

  10. Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2013-04-01

    Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (∼10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid.

  11. Identification and characterization of volatile components of the Japanese sour citrus fruit Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Mei; Ikeda, Yukinori; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2008-07-01

    A total of 39 aroma compounds were detected in the essential oil of Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka (nagato-yuzukichi) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons (12 components, 90.52%). The composition pattern of essential oil in C. nagato-yuzukichi was fairly similar to that of Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Sudachi). Principal component analysis (PCA) of data obtained with an electronic nose indicated a variation of each oil along PC1. The oils of Citrus junos Tanaka (Yuzu) and Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanaka (Kabosu) showed a clear upward displacement as compared with those of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi. However, in PC2, the oils of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi showed a displacement in a negative direction and a positive one respectively.

  12. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e custo de produção de porta-enxertos de citros em recipientes para fins de subenxertia Vegetative development and production cost of citrus rootstocks in containers for inarching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e estimar o custo de produção de 11 porta-enxertos de citros para fins de subenxertia, em diferentes recipientes. Avaliaram-se limão 'Cravo' clone Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; citrumelo 'Swingle' (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; limão 'Volkameriano' clone Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; laranja 'Caipira' clone DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; limão 'Rugoso da África' clone Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A'; tangerina 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; tangerina 'Sunki' clone 2506 ou Fruto Grande (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka e Poncirus trifoliata 'Barnes'. Foram utilizados tubetes de 290 mL, sacolas de 1,7 L, e porta-enxertos transplantados de tubetes de 75 mL para sacolas de polietileno de 1,7 e 4,5 L. Porta-enxertos produzidos diretamente em sacolas de 1,7 L atingem ponto ideal de subenxertia em menor tempo, de 100 a 150 dias após a semeadura, e permitem a obtenção de plantas maiores e com sistema radicular adequado, porém com custo de produção superior ao sistema de produção em tubetes de 290 mL.The vegetative development and the estimation of the production cost of eleven citrus rootstocks for inarching were evaluated in different containers. 'Rangpur' lime cultivar Limeira (Citrus limonia Osbeck; 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf.; 'Cleópatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Volkamer' lemon cultivar Catânia 2 (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale; 'Caipira' sweet orange cultivar DAC (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; 'Rugoso da África' rough lemon cultivar Mazoe (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; Poncirus trifoliata cultivar Davis A; 'Sun Shu Sha Kat' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; 'Sunki' mandarin

  13. Physiological Mechanism on the Difference of Sugar Accumulation in Four Citrus Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-zhong; ZHANG Shang-long; LIU Shuan-tao; CHEN Jun-wei; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of sucrose,glucose,fructose,titratable acid,ABA and the activity of acid invertase(AI)were measured injuice sacs of Bendizao mandarin(Citrus succosa Hort),Ponkan(Citrus reticulata Blanco),Miyagawa wase(Citrus unshiu Marc)and Meyer lemon(Citrus,meyeri Y).The acid hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro was also studied.The results showed that the sugar content,the ratio of different sugars,titratable acidity,ABA content and the activity of AI were obviously different in four citrus varieties.The sugar content inj uice sacs of citrus fruit was related to that of ABA at the late stage of fruit development.The result suggested that ABA played an important role in sugar accumulation in juice sacs of citrus fruit.Bendizao mandarin and Miyagawa wase mainly accumulated sucrose inj uice sacs of citrus fruit.Meyer lemon accumulated hexose,and Ponkan citrus was the sucrose-hexose accumulating type variety.In Meyer lemon with high acid degree,the composition of sugar inj uice sacs was determined by acid-hydrolysis of sucrose.In Bendizao mandarin,Ponkan citrus and Miyagawa wase with low acid degree,the composition of sugars at the late stage of fruit development was obviously affected by the AI activity.

  14. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  15. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  16. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi De Masi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  17. Systemic resistance in citrus to Tetranychus urticae induced by conspecifics is transmitted by grafting and mediated by mobile amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that systemic signalling and communication between roots and leaves plays an important role in plant defence against herbivores. In the present study, we show that the oviposition of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae in the systemic leaves of citrus rootstock Citrus aurantium (sour orange) was reduced by 50% when a lower leaf was previously infested with conspecifics. Metabolomic and gene expression analysis of the root efflux revealed a strong accumulation of glutamic acid (Glu) that triggered the expression of the citrus putative glutamate receptor (GRL) in the shoots. Additionally, uninfested sour orange systemic leaves showed increased expression of glutamate receptors and higher amounts of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in plants that were previously infested. Glu perception in the shoots induced the JA pathway, which primed LOX-2 gene expression when citrus plants were exposed to a second infestation. The spider mite-susceptible citrus rootstock Cleopatra mandarin (C. unshiu) also expressed systemic resistance, although the resistance was less effective than the resistance in sour orange. Surprisingly, the mobile signal in Cleopatra mandarin was not Glu, which suggests a strong genotype-dependency for systemic signalling in citrus. When the cultivar Clemenules (C. clementina) was grafted onto sour orange, there was a reduction in symptomatic leaves and T. urticae populations compared to the same cultivar grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin. Thus, systemic resistance is transmitted from the roots to the shoots in citrus and is dependent on rootstock resistance.

  18. San José Pignatelli (1735-1811 y Vicente Requeno(1743-1811, socios de la Academia Clementina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ASTORGANO ABAJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objeto de este trabajo es trazar las relaciones de los jesuitas expulsos, san José Pignatelli (1735-1811 y Vicente Requeno (1743-1811, amantes de las Bellas Artes, con la Academia Clementina en la Bolonia de finales del siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to trace the relationships between expelled Jesuits, Saint José Pignatelli (1735-1811 and Vicente Requeno (1743-1811, both Fine Arts lovers, and the Clementine Academy of Bologna at the end of the 18th century.

  19. Parental diagnosis of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) revealed by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Ohta, Satoshi; Nonaka, Keisuke; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Endo, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-12-01

    Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) are the predominant cultivated citrus variety in Japan. Clarification of its origin would prove valuable for citrus taxonomy and mandarin breeding programs; however, current information is limited. We applied genome-wide genotyping using a 384 citrus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and MARCO computer software to investigate the satsuma mandarin parentage. Genotyping data from 206 validated SNPs were obtained to evaluate 67 citrus varieties and lines. A total of five parent-offspring relationships were newly found by MARCO based on the 206 SNP genotypes, indicating that 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins (Citrus kinokuni hort. ex Tanaka accession 'Kishuu mikan' and 'Nanfengmiju') and 'Kunenbo' type mandarins (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. kunip Tanaka accession 'Kunenbo' and 'Bendiguangju') are possible parents of the satsuma mandarin. Moreover, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences analysis showed that the genotypes of four regions in chloroplast DNA of 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins were identical to that of the satsuma mandarin. Considering the historical background, satsuma mandarins may therefore derive from an occasional cross between a 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarin seed parent (derivative or synonym of 'Nanfengmiju') and a 'Kunenbo' type mandarin pollen parent (derivative or synonym of 'Bendiguangju').

  20. ISSR Analysis of M_1 Generation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort Treated by EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gladiolus hybridus Hort is one of famous cutting flowers,being famous of big size,bright color,various shapes and long bloom period.New species should be cultivated in order to meet consumers' needs.Mutagenic breeding is a shortcut to cultivate new species of flowers.In this study,corm bud of G.hybridus Hort was treated with different concentrations of EMS.Then M 1 generation was analyzed by ISSR.Results showed that EMS was a very effective mutagenic agent for the corm bud of G.hybridus Hort.With the increa...

  1. Alteração na atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis em microtangerinas (Citrus spp. infectadas por Phytophthora parasitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to characterize and evaluate species and varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka’s group (Citrus spp. with potential use as rootstocks, in relation to infection to the Phytophthora parasitica, by means of foliar determination of peroxidase activity and total phenolics content. It was used the following species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan., C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Ochese, C. aurantium L, C. reticulata Blanco and C. limonia Osb. The Center of Citrus Germoplasm of Botucatu and Cordeirópolis provide all plant material. Four resistant varieties to the stem rot and root rot infections: Pectinifera, Crenatifolia, Sun Chu Shu (clone Kat 1004 and Cleopatra (clone 1 were evaluated. Susceptible plants infected by P. parasitica presented higher activity of peroxidase, while phenolics contents were lower in susceptible group.

  2. Exploiting BAC-end sequences for the mining, characterization and utility of new short sequences repeat (SSR) markers in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Chai, Lijun; Mayer, Christoph; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a large set of microsatellite markers based on publicly available BAC-end sequences (BESs), and to evaluate their transferability, discriminating capacity of genotypes and mapping ability in Citrus. A set of 1,281 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the 46,339 Citrus clementina BAC-end sequences (BES), of them 20.67% contained SSR longer than 20 bp, corresponding to roughly one perfect SSR per 2.04 kb. The most abundant motifs were di-nucleotide (16.82%) repeats. Among all repeat motifs (TA/AT)n is the most abundant (8.38%), followed by (AG/CT)n (4.51%). Most of the BES-SSR are located in the non-coding region, but 1.3% of BES-SSRs were found to be associated with transposable element (TE). A total of 400 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and their transferability and polymorphism tested on a set of 16 Citrus and Citrus relative's species. Among these 333 (83.25%) were successfully amplified and 260 (65.00%) showed cross-species transferability with Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella sp. These cross-species transferable markers could be useful for cultivar identification, for genomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella sp. Utility of the developed SSR marker was demonstrated by identifying a set of 118 markers each for construction of linkage map of Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among 40 Citrus and its related species were conducted with the aid of 25 randomly selected SSR primer pairs and results revealed that citrus genomic SSRs are superior to genic SSR for genetic diversity and germplasm characterization of Citrus spp.

  3. Citrus leprosis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  4. Crescimento vegetativo de plantas cítricas no norte e noroeste do Paraná Vegetative growth of citrus trees in north an northwest of Parana

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    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em Paranavaí e Londrina-PR, os fluxos de crescimento vegetativo dos ramos de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertada sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb., limoeiro 'Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Ten. e Pasq., tangerineira 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e laranjeira 'Pêra' sobre o porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo'. Ocorreram seis fluxos de crescimento em Paranavaí e sete em Londrina, no inverno, primavera, verão e outono, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. O comprimento final dos ramos (121,2 mm a 151,6 mm não foi influenciado pelas combinações copa/porta-enxerto em Londrina, mas em Paranavaí a combinação 'Pêra'/limoeiro 'Cravo' produziu ramos mais longos que as demais. O período de crescimento dos ramos variou de 25,5 a 37,8 dias e foi menor em Paranavaí do que em Londrina, para todas as combinações de copa/porta-enxerto. Os resultados são discutidos em relação às características edafoclimáticas dos dois locais.This work evaluated in Paranavaí and Londrina, PR, Brazil, the vegetative growth fluxes of branches of 'Folha Murcha' orange on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq., 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., and 'Pêra' orange on 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. Six growth flushes were observed in Paranavaí, and seven were observed in Londrina, in winter, spring, summer, and autumn, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The final length of the branches (121.2 mm to 151.6 mm was not influenced by the scion/rootstock combinations in Londrina; in Paranavaí, however, the 'Pêra'/'Rangpur' lime combination produced longer branches than the others. The growth period of branches ranged from 25.5 to 37.8 days and was shorter in Paranavaí than in Londrina, for all scion/rootstock combinations. The results are discussed

  5. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangjin Xie

    Full Text Available The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Li, Yongjie; He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  7. Study on Flowering, Cultivation, and Reproduction of Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae)%Study on Flowering, Cultivation, and Reproduction of Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangnong LIU; Shicheng PENG; Lianren LIU

    2012-01-01

    Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae) is a perennial herb. This paper summarized its classification, distribution, morphological characteristics, habit, flowering and fruiting, cultivation and reproduction, as well as multiple uses in daily life, which provided references for the exploitation and utilization of Agave americana Vat. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae).

  8. RAPD Analysis of M1 Generation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort Treated by EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; GUO Ying; CHE Daidi; LIU Shenkui; YANG Chuanpin

    2009-01-01

    Gladiolus hybridus Hort is one of the world's famous cutting flowers. It is very popular because of the big size, bright color, various shape, and long period of bloom. New species should be cultivated in order to meet the consumers' need of asking for the new. Among the technologies of cultivating new species of flowers, mutagenic breeding is a shortcut. This study treated corm bud of G. hybridus Hort with EMS of different consistency. Then M1 after treated was analyzed by RAPD. The result showed that EMS was a very effective mutagenic agent for the corm bud of G. hybridus Hort. With the increase of consistency, the mutagenic range increased first, then decreased, among which 0.6% EMS treatment had the biggest influence. However, with the same EMS consistency, there was not close relevancy between the amount of mutagenic agent and the divergence of plant's genomes, which offered a molecular basis for selecting plants with good mutation.

  9. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

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    Dicle Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the world’s important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

  10. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dossat Carole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most

  11. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit.

  12. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts in variegata irregulare mutants of garden petunias (Petunia hybrida hort. superbissima

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    Stanisław Muszyński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of mutated chloroplasts in tetraploid garden petunias (Petunia hybrida hort. superbissima was analyzed by electron microscopy. The formation of grana structure is inhibited after secondary thylacoids start forming. Rapid dezintegration of the structure is observed. It is suggested that a substance responsible for photostabilization of grana structure is lacking.

  13. Comparison of chemical components of Ligusticum chuanzxiong HORT and Cnidium officinale MAKINO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.B.; Yang, M.O. [Korean Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Chemical components of domestic Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and Cnidium officinale MAKINO were analyzed. Proximate analysis of each species showed crude protein 18.5% and 11.1%, crude lipid 5.9% and 62.%, crude fiber 6.4% and and 6.5%, crude ash 5.4% and 6.0%, and carbohydrate 63. 7% and 70.2%, respectively. Contents of potassium which was found to be the most abundant mineral in both species were 1.8% and 3.0%, and those of sucrose were 0.4% and 0.3% respectively while neither fructose nor glucose were detected in each species. Major fatty acids in Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and Chidium officinale MAKINO were linoleic acid (60.7% and 61.2%), oleic acid (19.9% and 21.3%), palmitic acid (11.4% and 11.3%)(respectively) bu there was no significant difference between two species. Glutamic acid was revealed as the most abundant amino acid in both species with 2.5% in Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and 1.6% in Cnidium officinale MAKINO. Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT and Cnidium officinale MAKINO also were shown to be contained 0.0009% and 0.0005% vitamin B{sub 1}, and 0.6% and 0.7% tannin, respectively.

  14. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  15. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  16. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  17. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  18. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways.

  19. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  20. Caracterização de híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata e de outros porta-enxertos de citros no Estado da Bahia Characterization of Poncirus trifoliata hybrids and other citrus rootstocks in the State of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sampaio Passos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos visando à caracterização de híbridos de Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. e porta-enxertos tradicionais foram realizados no sentido de se conhecer o seu comportamento nas condições tropicais do Estado da Bahia. Foram tomadas medidas de altura, diâmetro e peso de frutos, número de sementes por fruto e por quilo, bem como contagem de embriões, taxa de poliembrionia, percentagens de germinação e de vingamento de borbulhas na enxertia, em mais de 34 acessos, a maioria introduzida da Califórnia - EUA. Os dados obtidos estimulam o uso de alguns híbridos de trifoliata, como os das tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka e 'Sunki' (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka com os trifoliatas 'Swingle' e 'English'.Studies on characterization of trifoliate hybrids and traditional rootstocks were accomplished in order to know their behavior under tropical conditions in the State of Bahia. Measurements of the height, diameter and weight of the fruits were taken, number of seeds per fruit and per kilo were counted, as well as number of embryos, polyembryony and germination rate and grafting in 34 accessions, mostly introduced from California, USA. The obtained data encourage the use of some trifoliate hybrids, as those from crosses between 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki hort. ex Tanaka with 'Swingle' and 'English' trifoliate.

  1. Luigi Balugani from Bologna to Rome. The Training and Early Works of a Draftsman from the Accademia Clementina in the Mid-Eighteenth Century

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    Silvia Medde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay treats the figure of the architect and draftsman Luigi Balugani: specifically his training and his first professional activity, documented in Bologna and in Rome. Balugani’s name is known on account of his association with the archaeological and naturalistic expedition to Africa and to the Middle East led in 1765 by the Scott James Bruce of Kinnaird, in which Balugani took part as a draftsman. As regards his professional training, Balugani gained experience in the Bolognese context of the Accademia Clementina in the 1750s, an academic experience representative of the background of many architects, not only in Bologna. Luigi Ferdinando Marsili was the founder of the Institute of Sciences and Arts, that incorporated the Accademia Clementina. Due to his interdisciplinary organization of the course of studies, and following the twenty years of teaching at the Academy by Ferdinando Galli Bibiena, the academic program of the Institute came to include the study of subjects such as measurement, architectonic composition and perspective, while leaving out the practical aspects of architecture. It is no coincidence that most of Balugani’s documented experiences, both in Bologna and in Rome, where he moved in 1761 to improve his studies, centre on drawing and engraving, which he learnt at the Accademia.

  2. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  3. Efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Akaike

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of

  4. 广东曲江区柑橘园天敌瓢虫种类调查及食性观察(鞘翅目:瓢虫科)%Survey and preys of lady beetles (Coccinellidae) in citrus groves in Qujiang, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝武; 虞国跃

    2013-01-01

    对广东曲江区4个柑橘园4种橘类植物(甜橙Citrus sinensis(Linn.)Osbeck,沙田柚Citrus grandis(Linn.)Osbeck var.shatinyu Hort,温州蜜橘Citrus unshiu Marcovitch和沙糖桔Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Shiyue Ju)上的瓢虫进行种类调查和食性观察,共采集320头瓢虫标本,鉴定结果为24属51种,多数为蚜虫的捕食性天敌,其中龟纹瓢虫、六斑月瓢虫、红肩瓢虫、黄斑盘瓢虫、台湾隐势瓢虫、后斑小瓢虫和细缘唇瓢虫为优势种.对大多数种类的食性作了观察或进行室内饲养,基本明确了它们在橘类上的猎物.%Survey and preys of lady beetle species in citrus groves were carried out in Qujiang District, Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province between January 2010 to July 2012. The surveyed 4 Citrus plants are Citrus sinensis (Linn. ) Osbeck, C. grandis (Linn. ) Osbeck var. shatinyu Hort, C. unshiu Marcovitch and C. reticulata Blanco cv. Shiyue Ju. A total of 320 lady beetle specimens (excluding plant -eating ones) were collected and identified. They belonged to 51 species of 24 genera. Most of them are predator of citrus aphids, and Propylea japonica (Thunberg, 1781), Cheilomems sexmaculata (Fabricius, 1781), Harmonia dimidiata ( Fabricius, 1755), Lemnia saucia ( Mulsant, 1850), Cryptogonus horishanus (Ohta, 1929), Scymnus (Pullus) posticalis Sicard, 1912 and Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyhhenhal, 1808) were dominant species. Most of them are provided with the observed preys in field or the feeding preys indoor.

  5. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  6. Isoflavonoids in the Rutaceae family: 1. Fortunella obovata, Murraya paniculata and four Citrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcík, Oldrich; Klejdus, Borivoj; Davidová, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Kubán, Vlastimil; Moravcová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Several types of compounds with immunoreactivity similar to isoflavonoids were detected in water: ethanol extracts of leaves of Fortunella obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, Murraya paniculata Jack. and four Citrus species, namely C. aurantium L, C. grandis Osbeck, C. limonia Osbeck., and C. sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae). The chromatographic mobilities of the immunoreactive substances were compared with those of authentic standards, revealing a spectrum of isoflavonoid metabolites in all plants studied. Aglycones as well as glycosides were recognized, namely daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, and several incompletely characterized isoflavonoids. A subsequent HPLC-MS study verified the identities of the main immunoreactive isoflavonoids and established the identities of several others, viz. glycitein, glycitin, ononin and sissotrin, including the malonylated and acetylated isoflavonoid glucosides. The estimated content of the individual immunoreactive entities ranged from a few microg to about 2 mg/kg (dry weight). It is concluded that the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is present throughout the Rutaceae family.

  7. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

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    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  8. Redes sociales asimétricas en el sistema hortícola del valle de Tepeaca, México

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    Diosey Ramón Lugo-Morín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las relaciones de negociación y subordinación de los pequeños productores hortícolas en las redes sociales asimétricas en el sistema hortícola del valle de Tepeaca, Puebla. Las redes sociales son espacios intersticios donde los pequeños productores, a partir de cierta autonomía, negocian la retención de excedentes económicos con intermediarios y empresas. Se concluye que la organización del sistema productivo hortícola se realiza mediante redes sociales asimétricas, donde el pequeño productor establece relaciones de negociación y subordinación que se definen según el tipo de arreglos.

  9. Phytophthora x pelgrandis, a new natural hybrid pathogenic to Pelargonium grandiflorum hort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Helgard I; Gerlach, Wolfram F; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A new Phytophthora hybrid of Ph. cactorum (Leb. & Cohn) Schroet. and Ph. nicotianaevan Breda de Haan pathogenic to cultivars of Pelargonium grandiflorum hort. is described as Phytophthora X pelgrandis and its morphological features are documented. Morphological, physiological (e.g., temperature requirements) and molecular data (DNA sequencing, random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR) are presented for isolates of the Phytophthora hybrid. Pathogenicity was tested on cultivars of P. grandiflorum and Nicotiana tabacum. For comparison cultures of the parental species and additional Phytophthora taxa also were examined.

  10. Investigations on structure of flowers and inflorescences of the Anthurium andreanum hort., non Linden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Szender

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the structure of the flowers and inflorescences of Anthurium andreanum hort. because of some controversial statements which have been made on this subject. It was stated that the spadix is an inflorescence made of fleshy and hermaphroditic flowers which are situated on the rachis forming a spiral. The flowers are two-sided symmetrical. Close morphological analysis confirmed by the enclosed photos showed fourfold structure of the protogynic flower: the perianth consisting of four fleshy sepals situated conjugately, four stamens and one upper and fleshy pistil.

  11. Terapia Hortícola-Horticultura Educativa Social y Terapéutica

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Fuciños, Inma

    2011-01-01

    El uso de la horticultura como terapia y como instrumento educativo y socializador, con entidad propia y diferenciadora, tiene desde hace más de medio siglo una amplia implantación y reconocimiento en países como Reino Unido, Irlanda, Alemania, Canadá, Estados Unidos, etc. La Terapia Hortícola es una disciplina encuadrada dentro de las ciencias socio-sanitarias, con titulación específica en diversos países. Combina un amplio elenco de conocimientos sobre discapacidad física, cognitiva y senso...

  12. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  13. Effect of drought stress on mineral nutrient contents in leaves of sdeedling plant of C. tangerina Hort., C. sinensis Osbeck and C. grandis Osbeck%干旱胁迫对实生红橘、甜橙和柚叶中营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文涛; 樊卫国

    2007-01-01

    以红橘(Citrus tangerina Hort.)、甜橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck)、柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck)实生苗为材料,采用模拟降雨控水长期干旱胁迫的方法,研究了降水量400和800 mm的干旱胁迫对3种柑橘实生苗叶片的N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu、Mn、B元素含量的影响.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了实生甜橙、红橘和柚的叶片中N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、B元素的含量,增加了叶中Mn元素的含量;实生红橘和柚叶中的Zn含量在降水量400 mm的干旱胁迫下显著降低,而同样的干旱胁迫条件下,实生甜橙叶中的Zn含量极显著地增加了.干旱胁迫降低实生甜橙和红橘叶中N、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、B元素含量的作用相对较大.

  14. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J.Z.; Zhu, Li; Crous, P.W.; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isol

  15. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  16. La competencia por el control de los mercados hortícolas mexicanos entre la empresa transnacional y la nacional: impacto económico y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guadalupe Galindo Mendoza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El subsector hortícola juega un papel fundamental par el comercio exterior mexicano, elnivel de exportaciones de esto productos se ha elevado en los ultimos años en un 65%, asi mismo, la agroindustria hortícola del país aporta, dentro del total nacioanl, un 45% de estas ventas, lo que para 1995 h dejado una derama económica de 1395 millones de dólares. De aqi la importancia de determinar quién controla la produccion hortícola en México, si la empresa transnacional o la e capital nacional

  17. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  18. La ‘doppia assenza’: peregrinazioni letterarie tra italia e argentina in clementina Sandra Ammendola, Miguel Ángel García e Laura Pariani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Camilotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo analizza le sollecitazioni delle identità e il senso di appartenenza di personaggi letterari che hanno vissuto esperienze di migrazione tra Italia e Argentina nei seguenti testi letterari: Il maestro di tango di Miguel Ángel García, Lei che sono io e Ci sono volte, tutte le volte di Clementina Sandra Ammendola e Quando Dio ballava il tangodi Laura Pariani. Tale analisi si realizza a partire dalle chiavi di lettura offerte dal saggio di Abdelmalek Sayad, La Double absence. Des illusions de l'émigré aux souffrances de l'immigré. Questi tre autori condividono l’esperienza biografia, divisa tra Italia e Argentina, che rappresentano a partire dallo strumento letterario. Si analizzano le loro opere comparando i modi a partire dai quali le identità dei personaggi (italiani emigrati in Argentina e argentini in Italia vengono rappresentate, come tali identità sono sollecitate e con quali conseguenze. Il confronto –che richiederà anche una contestualizzazione storica– incrocia le variabili di genere, classe e razza: infatti, al fine di esaminare la nozione di identità e i suoi mutamenti nei contesti migratori, appare necessario considerare come i processi sociali, culturali ed economici influenzano i personaggi.

  19. Chloride absorption in salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José Luís; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    In this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and the salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. The results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the time of salinity exposure, although they were more rapidly reduced in the tolerant genotype. In each rootstock, chloride uptake rates paralleled the decreases in transpiration rates. When transpiration was modified, concomitant changes in leaf Cl(-) concentrations were observed. There was a high positive correlation between total chloride content per plant and total water absorbed. In addition, the data indicate that the tolerant genotype "excluded" more chloride, i.e. it absorbed lower amounts of chloride per volume of water. Cleopatra also possessed a less efficient root system for water uptake and a higher shoot-to-root ratio. The results show that, overall, chloride absorption is linked to water use and that further tolerance in Cleopatra is mostly conferred by superior root resistance to Cl(-) uptake. Therefore, it is proposed that chloride absorption and, hence, salt tolerance in citrus depends to a great extent upon water use.

  20. The Analysis of MADS box Genes Expressing in the Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.%柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬虎; 潘一山; 王少峰; 邹金美; 陈羡德; 林莹; 王玉玲; 蓝炎阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerning the MADS box gene family from the fruitlet (less than 5 days) and the yang leaf of two kinds of pomelo breeding (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.) using the De novo transcriptomics method. The fruitlet and the yang leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (which was taken as mutant group)and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (which was taken as reference group)were taken as experiment materials, by RNA extraction, reverse transcription, sequencing and assembly Unigene sequences. The MADS box transcription factor family gene annotation results were retrieved from the Nr, Swiss Prot, KEGG and COG the four databases. Adopting digital gene expression label (DGE) technology, the gene transcription abundance in the sample was taken as RPKM value, that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing the different of the RPKM value between the mutant group and reference group, with the duplication≥2. There were 28 MADS box genes were annotated from the fruitlet and the yang leaf of the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo. There were 25 MADS box genes expressed in the fruitlet from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (FE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (FL), and sixs of them were DEGs. Meanwhile, There were 27 MADS box genes expressed in the leaf from the Early Mature Dragon Pomelo (LE) and the Guangxi Sweet Pomelo (LL), and sevens of them were DEGs. The 28 MADS box gene family was reported eighteens of them in Citrus clementina and twenties of them in Citrus sinensis, respectively, and fives of them have reported neither in Citrus clementina nor in Citrus sinensis, and have not found in the Citrus's other breeding.%以De novo转录组学方法分析柚(Citrus grandis Osbeck cv.)MADS box基因家族的基因.以特早熟龙柚(变异型)和琯溪蜜柚(参照型)嫩果(不超过5天)和新叶为材料,经过RNA提取、反转录、测序、组装得到Unigene序列. Unigene序列在 Nr、Swiss-Prot、KEGG 和 COG 四

  1. Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Gumnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort. have been studied. Three gypsogenic acid glycosides including 3-O-glucopyranoside, 3,28-O-di-glucopyranoside and 3-O-glucopyranosy1,28-0-[glucopyranosyl(1→6glucopyranoside] have been identified by means of LSI mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR. Inhibitory activities of isolated compounds against growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride and the growth of the roots of Lepidium sativum and D. caryophyllus seedlings were measured. None of the isolated compounds showed pronounced activity in T. viride test. Seedling root growth was affected severely at the presence of gypsogenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside. Bidesmosidic form showed marginal stimulatory activity. The obtained data are discussed in relation to the activity of medicagenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside, the compound differing just with 2-OH substitution from gypsogenic acid glycosides.

  2. Screening of Bioactive Ingredients in Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort for Protection against Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the spectrum-effect relationship and effective components of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort. (LCH on the protection of canine myocardial ischemia. Methods: Fingerprint spectrum of LCH extracts was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and a canine model of acute myocardial ischemia was established by ligating the coronary artery. Bivariate correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to correlate the pharmacodynamics of LCH extract and its common peaks in HPLC. Results: The bioactive components of LCH were ligustrazine, ferulic acid, cnidilide and ligustilide. Ligustrazine and ferulic acid could significantly reduce serum lactic acid in canine model of acute myocardial ischemia, while ligustilide could significantly reduce the elevation of serum free fatty acid. Conclusions: The spectrum-effect relationship study shows that the effective components of LCH are ligustrazine, ferulic acid, cnidilide and ligustilide, which have protective effect on myocardial ischemia.

  3. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  4. Influencia del porta-injertos y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad de pomelo (Citrus paradisis Macfad variedad Rio Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés José Armadans Rojas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción San Lorenzo, Paraguay, se estudió la influencia del tipo de porta-injerto y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo rosado (Citrus paradisis. Macfad var. Rio Red. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, siendo la parcela principal las épocas (abril, mayo y junio de cosecha y la subparcela los porta-injertos [tangelo Orlando -Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tanaka x Citrus paradisi Macfad., limón rugoso -Citrus jambhiri Luch, lima Rangpur -Citrus limonia y Citrange C35 -Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Ruby en cuatro repeticiones. Se cosecharon 10 frutos por unidad experimental y se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos: diámetro y forma del fruto, y los porcentajes de jugo, bagazo, sólidos solubles totales,acidez titulable y relación o cociente entre sólidos solubles totales: acidez. Los resultados mostraron la influencia de los porta-injertos sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo Rio Red. El limón rugoso fue el porta-injerto que presentó el menor porcentaje de jugo (47.33% y el mayor en bagazo (48.72%, sólido soluble (10.54% y acidez (1.42%. Mientras que el mayor porcentaje de jugo (52.76 y 50.75% se presentó en los frutos cosechados en abril y mayo. El mayor porcentaje de acidez se presentó en abril (9.53%.

  5. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family) genera from certain countries where citrus greening or... Rutaceae may be a pathway for the introduction of those diseases. The interim rule was necessary in order...), we amended the regulations to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several...

  6. OBTENÇÃO DE PLANTAS DE LIMÃO CRAVO (Citrus limonia Osbeck E TANGERINA CLEÓPATRA (Citrus reshni Hort. A PARTIR DO CULTIVO DE PROTOPLASTOS DE SUSPENSÃO CELULAR PLANT REGENERATION OF 'RANGPUR' LIME (Citrus limonia Osbeck AND 'CLEÓPATRA' MANDARIN (Citrus reshni Hort. THROUGH PROTOPLASTS OF CELL SUSPENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rocha Latado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve uma metodologia para a regeneração de plantas de tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo', a partir do cultivo de protoplastos de suspensão celular. Para tal, calos nucelares foram induzidos em meio contendo BAP e cultivados em meio sem reguladores de crescimento. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares e cultivados em gotas de agarose, com densidade de 2 X 105 protoplastos.ml-1. O meio MT, contendo ácido giberélico e água de coco, foi eficiente na germinação de embriões somáticos. Os métodos de aclimatação de plantas testados apresentaram baixa eficiência. Como resultado final, 17 plantas adaptadas de tangerina e 8 de limão foram obtidas.The present research describes the regeneration of 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Rangpur' lime plants from cell suspension protoplasts. Nucelar calli were induced on a medium containing BAP and maintained on growth regulator free medium. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension and plated at a concentration of 2 X 105 protoplasts.ml-1, on agarose droplets. The MT medium with gibberellic acid and coconut water was efficient to stimulate somatic embryo conversion. Rooted plants acclimation had low efficiency. Seventeen mandarin plants and eight lime plants were obtained.

  7. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  8. Distribution and Elimination of Lead Species in Soils Related to GAP of Chinese Medicinal Materials of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the sequential extraction procedure was used for the selection of fractions of lead in seven stages corresponding to lead exchangeable, lead bounded to carbonates, to manganese oxides, to organic matters, to amorphous iron, and lead associated to crystallized iron, and to residuals. The vertical distributions of lead species were carried out in the soils related to good agriculture progress (GAP) of Chinese medical materials of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort in Dujiangyan city and Wenchuan Co...

  9. Capítulo I: características generales de los cultivos hortícolas en Colombia

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Las especies hortícolas en general, poseen una serie de características que las hacen importantes en el contexto nacional: alta demanda en la dieta alimenticia de la poblaci6n, amplia superficie sembrada de la cual se deriva el sostenimiento de un importante sector agrícola y campesino y grandes generadores de empleo en el campo y en la agroindustria.

  10. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L

  11. Diversity in sensory quality and determining factors influencing mandarin flavor liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Carmi, Nir; Porat, Ron

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the sensory quality of 42 mandarin varieties that belong to 7 different natural subgroups: common mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex. Tan), Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (Citrus nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) and tangelo (Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi). Consumer flavor acceptance tests revealed wide diversity in flavor preferences among mandarin varieties and subgroups. Furthermore, descriptive flavor-analysis tests conducted with the aid of a trained sensory panel revealed that the 9 most preferred varieties had similar flavor profiles, characterized by high sweetness, moderate to low acidity levels, low bitterness and gumminess, strong fruity and mandarin flavor, and high juiciness. The average total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels among the highly preferred varieties were 13.1% and 1.1%, respectively. In contrast, the 8 least preferred varieties were either too sour or gummy or had low levels of sweetness, fruity, or mandarin flavor, and either high acidity levels (>1.4%) or low TSS levels (mandarin flavor, and negative correlations with acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between highly accepted varieties that were tightly correlated with high TSS levels and perceptions of sweetness fruitiness and mandarin flavor, as compared with the least accepted varieties that were correlated with high acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess.

  12. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  13. Blooming biology and pollen abundance of Anemone japonica Houtt.= Anemone x hybrida hort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out between 2002 and 2003 and in 2005 in the Botanical Garden in Lublin. The blooming and the pollen flow of Anemone japonica Houtt. (=A. x hybrida hort were observed. The blooming of the perennial took place in the middle and end of summer. The number of flowers per inflorescence and the mass of pollen produced in anthers significantly depended on insolation conditions and were greater on sunny plots. Anemone japonica is characterized by the variability of many features which directly influence the amount of delivered pollen. The number of stamens varied from 175 to 507 per flower, the mass of pollen from 1.1mg to 4.9 mg per 100 anthers, the number of flowers from 25 to 118 per one inflorescence and from 355⋅m-2 to 2202⋅m-2. Therefore the pollen efficiency varied widely from 1.3g⋅m-2 to 27.7g⋅m-2 and reached 15.3 g ⋅ m-2 on average.

  14. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., clones, cultivars, strains, varieties, or hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all clones... in agricultural products and other commodities that pose a risk of harboring plant pest in ways...

  15. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  16. Survey for Citrus diseases in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Thermoz, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The presence on the continent of major threats for Citrus orchards has required a survey to assess the situation of Citrus pathogens in the French territory of Guiana. Agriculture in French Guiana is located on the coast (about 300 Kms from west to east and 50 Km wide). There are 1200 Ha of Citrus orchards (Ministry of Agriculture). Citrus are grown either for export (Tahiti lime) or for local consumption : sweet oranges, tangerines and hybrids. Trees are grafted on Carrizo citrange, Rough le...

  17. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  18. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  19. Alleviation of High Temperature Stress in Wax Begonia (Begonia × semperflorens?cultorum Hort.) by Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ling-Na; Huang, Kuang Liang; Okuibo, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Wax begonia (Begonia × semperflorens?cultorum Hort.) plants often suffer from high temperature stress during hot seasons in Taiwan. Since salicylic acid (SA) has proved to enhance heat tolerance in many plants, this study evaluates whether exogenous SA applications could alleviate high temperature stress of wax begonias. Plug seedlings of wax begonia ‘Super Olympia’ were treated with 25, 100, 400, 800, with 1600 μM SA before 55 °C, for 2 h of high temperature stress. Results indicated that 25...

  20. Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability in Petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability and heterosis were estimated for ornamental and vegetative traits of four petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort. inbred lines viz. L5 (P1, L8 (P2, L11 (P3 and L17 (P4 and their diallel hybrids in horticultural research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2011. The measured traits were plant height at first flower, number of leaf to first flower, flower diameter, flower tube length, internode length, stem diameter, plant height at flowering stage, plant spreading, number of branches per plant, leaf length and width. The results of combining ability for all studied traits revealed that both additive and non-additive gene effects contributed to the inheritance of the traits. Estimates of general combining ability effects showed that parent P3 was a good general combiner for most of the studied traits. For flower diameter, hybrid combination P1 � P2 had the highest significant positive specific combining ability effects. Reciprocal effects were significant for all traits and hybrid combination P1 � P2 had the highest significant positive reciprocal effects for flower tube length and plant height. Heterosis was found significant relative to both the mid parent and batter parent for all traits. For flower diameter, the highest positive values of heterotic effects were recorded in hybrid combination P2 � P3 both relative to the parental mean (37.3% and relative to the better parent (33.9%. It is obvious that heterotic effects represent an important resource in hybrid breeding of petunia.

  1. Plant Regeneration by Callus-Mediated Protocorm-Like Body Induction of Anthurium andraeanum Hort.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-xun; LIU Ling; LIU Juan-xu; WANG Jing

    2009-01-01

    This research aims at developing a plant regeneration system from leaf and petiole explants of Anthurium andraeanum Hort.,thereby establish a foundation for mass production and transformation.Using tissue culture technique,the conditions for callus induction,protocorm-like body (PLB) formation and plant regeneration from leaf explants and petiole of A.andraeanum,such as basal medium and plant growth regulator,were investigated.Totipotent callus was induced on a 1/2-strength MS medium containing 0.90 μmol L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 8.88 μmol L-1 N6-benzyladenine (BA).The callus exhibited complete hormone autonomy for growth and differentiation of PLBs.This callus proliferated well and was maintained by subculturing on 1/2 MS medium containing 0.90 μmol L-1 2,4-D and 4.44 μmol L-1 BA.On average,8 protocorm-like bodies could be obtained from a piece of 4 mm callus after being transferred to the 1/2 MS medium with 4.44 μtmol L-1 BA after 8 wk of culture.The regenerated PLBs formed shoots and roots on 1/2 MS medium.After 24 wk of culture on these medium,well-developed plantlets for potting were produced.An efficient micropropagation method was established for indirect PLB formation and plant regeneration from leaf and petiole ofA.andraeanum.

  2. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depends on the rootstock salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Pérez-Tornero, Olaya; Morte, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and Alemow (Citrus macrophylla Wester) were inoculated with a mixture of AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) (+AM), or left non-inoculated (-AM). From forty-five days after fungal inoculation onwards, half of +AM or -AM plants were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 50 mM NaCl. Three months later, AM significantly increased plant growth in both Cleopatra mandarin and Alemow rootstocks. Plant growth was higher in salinized +AM plants than in non-salinized -AM plants, demonstrating that AM compensates the growth limitations imposed by salinity. Whereas AM-inoculated Cleopatra mandarin seedlings had a very good response under saline treatment, inoculation in Alemow did not alleviate the negative effect of salinity. The beneficial effect of mycorrhization is unrelated with protection against the uptake of Na or Cl and the effect of AM on these ions did not explain the different response of rootstocks. This response was related with the nutritional status since our findings confirm that AM fungi can alter host responses to salinity stress, improving more the P, K, Fe and Cu plant nutrition in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow plants. AM inoculation under saline treatments also increased root Mg concentration but it was higher in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow. This could explain why AM fungus did not completely recovered chlorophyll concentrations in Alemow and consequently it had lower photosynthesis rate than control plants. AM fungi play an essential role in citrus rootstock growth and biomass production although the intensity of this response depends on the rootstock salinity tolerance.

  3. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  4. Exploración de alternativas para el desarrollo sostenible de sistemas de producción hortícola-ganaderos familiares en el sur de Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguerre, V.; Chilibroste, P.; Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.

    2014-01-01

    La sostenibilidad de la mayoría de los predios hortícolas familiares en el sur de Uruguay está amenazada por ingresosinsuficientes y por el deterioro de los recursos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó el efecto de la inclusión de diferentesactividades de producción ganadera en la estructura y

  5. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S��o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit

  6. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... infected plants, which render the fruit unmarketable, and cause infected fruit to drop from the trees... of the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening. In... disease that is caused by a complex of Xanthomonas spp. bacteria and that affects plants and plant...

  7. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09539-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S_5436_A1_H01_SP6E RPCI-11 Human Male BAC Librar... 48 0.61 1 ( ET114101 ) QM0AAC25BB07FM1 CCH3 Citrus clementi...na genomic cl... 48 0.61 1 ( ET113021 ) QM0AAC23BA07RM1 CCH3 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 48 0.61 1 ( ...ET112755 ) QM0AAC22CF05FM1 CCH3 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 48 0.61 1 ( ET111687 ) QM0AAC20DH01RM1 CCH3 Citrus clementi...na genomic cl... 48 0.61 1 ( ET111061 ) QM0AAC20AA04RM1 CCH3 Citrus clementi...na genomic cl... 48 0.61 1 ( ET105020 ) QM0AAC10CE07FM1 CCH3 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 48 0.

  9. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  10. STUDI KARAKTERISTIK PERTUMBUHAN DAN PEMBUNGAAN Hippeastrum hybridum hort. cv. ”Red Lion” PADA TANGGAL TANAM YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah Hanum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Study on growth and flowering characteristic at different planting date done to gain optimum planting date of Hippeastrum hybridum hort.cv.’Red Lion’ at Bali Botanical garden nursery. In this research, three different planting dates, namely July 30, August 30, and September 30 were used. Parameter observed at this experiment was days to first leaf emergence, number of leaves, plant height, Days to flower scape emergence and number of bulblets per plants to know growing character.Number of flowers per scape, diameter of flower, and percent of flowering used to know flower character. It was observed that August planting gives the best result for number of flower per scape, plant height, number of leaves per plants and diameter of flower following by July planting. Late planting meaning September planting did not come out with satisfactory results.

  11. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercós Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly

  12. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  15. Effect of Glomus versiforme on Mineral Nutritional Contents in Leaves of Citrus under Water Stress Conditions%水分胁迫下Glomus versiforme对柑橘叶片矿质营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强盛; 邹英宁

    2009-01-01

    在盆栽温室条件下研究Clomus versiforme(Karsten)Berch接种对正常水分和水分胁迫下红橘(Citrus tangerine Hort.ex Tanaka)实生苗叶片大量元素和微量元素含量的影响.结果表明:无论在正常水分还是水分胁迫下,菌种处理均显著提高叶片P、K、Fe的含量,对叶片Cu、Ca、Mn含量没有显著影响.Glomus versiforme的感染仅显著提高正常水分下叶片N和zn含量以及水分胁迫下叶片Mg含量.P、K和Fe含量的升高将有利于增强菌根化植株的抗旱性.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03903-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QM0AAB16CG08FM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic c... 46 1.4 1 ( ET097143 ) QM0AAB...10CG08FM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic c... 46 1.4 1 ( ET079749 ) QM0AAB8CG08FM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina ...genomic cl... 46 1.4 1 ( ET074765 ) QM0AAB1BC05FM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 46 1.4 1 ( AC229702

  17. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  19. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  20. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  1. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  2. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  3. El nuevo Régimen de Trabajo Agrario. Desajustes y propuestas de adecuación para el sector hortícola del periurbano bonaerense sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone analizar el grado de ajuste y las formas de adecuación del Nuevo Estatuto del Peón (NEP en la horticultura del sur del Gran Buenos Aires. Para ello, se identifican las modalidades de trabajo hortícola regional y se realiza un recorrido por las características más importantes del NEP. Esto posibilita indagar en la distancia entre lo normado y la práctica. Con estos insumos se discuten alternativas de adecuación de la ley. Se reflexiona que la legislación laboral y su cumplimiento son una política necesaria pero no suficiente para la problemática de la explotación del trabajador en un sector complejo y particular como es el hortícola.

  4. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  5. 川芎多糖提取工艺的研究%Study on the Process of Polysaccharide Extract from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      以川芎为原料,采用水提醇沉法对川芎多糖的提取工艺进行研究,通过单因素试验及正交试验优化的最佳提取工艺条件为:物料粒径60目,提取温度60℃,提取时间1.5 h,料液比1∶14,提取2次,川芎多糖提取率可达3.72%。%Taking Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort as raw material, the extraction process of polysaccharide from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort was studied by using water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. Through the single factor experiment and orthogonal test, the optimum extraction condition was as follows: particle size was 60 mesh, extraction temperature was 60 ℃, extraction time was 1.5 h, the ratio of material to liquid was 1∶14, extracting for 2 times, the extraction rate of polysaccharide from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort could up to 3.72%.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12585-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Populus trichocarpa ... 76 7e-10 2 ( DY275348 ) IC0AAA39AF08RM2 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 76 1e-0...9 2 ( DY290648 ) IC0AAA75DH06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 76 1e-09 2 ( DY273780 ) IC0AAA34DF03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 76 1e-09 2 ( DY300818 ) KN0AAQ11YF24RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...AAA98AE11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 68 2e-07 2 ( DY282568 ) IC0AAA5...7AD08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 68 2e-07 2 ( DY293301 ) IC0AAA82BG07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10135-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 ( DN798741 ) Volcani_2_03_G03 Volcani02 Citrus reticulata x Ci... 44 2e-06 3 ( DY283678 ) IC0AAA5AH03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5', ... 44 3e-06 3 ( DY284210 ) IC0AAA60DA05RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5...',... 44 3e-06 3 ( DY269595 ) IC0AAA27BE08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',...... 44 3e-06 3 ( DY303184 ) KN0AAQ5YA22RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 44 3e-06 3 ( DY295298 ) IC0AA...A87DF02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 5e-06 3 ( DY278445 ) IC0AAA46CF08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  8. Identificação de espécies de citros mediante polimorfismo enzimático Identification of citrus species by means of enzymatic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, mediante polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida, a variabilidade genética das espécies de laranja-doce (Citrus sinensis; laranja-azeda (C. aurantium; tangerinas clementina (C. clementina, sunki (C. sunki, cleópatra (C. reshni e poncã (C. rsticulata; lima-da-pérsia (C. limettioides; limão-galego (C. aurantifolia; limão-cravo (C. limonia e trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata. Extratos de folhas foram analisados para as isoenzimas de malato deidrogenase (MDH, enzima málica (ME, leucino amino peptidase (LAP, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase (GOT, fosfoglucoisomerase (PGI, fosfoglucomutase (PGM e isocitrato deidrogenase (IDH. Verificou-se grande variabilidade genética interespecífica, porém nenhuma entre os cultivares de laranja-doce. Foram encontradas algumas aloenzimas, além das referidas pela literatura em gel de amido, como aquelas de uma região próxima ao loco conhecido por Pgm-1, responsável por proteínas monoméricas. Este sistema, denominado PGM, revelou a maior diferenciação entre as espécies, tendo apresentado duas regiões distintas com 9 alelos. No sistema MDH, foram considerados dois locas codificando para proteínas diméricas com 7 alelos; no ME, um loco com 3 alelos; no LAP, possivelmente dois locos responsáveis por proteínas monoméricas com 4 alelos; no GOT, dois focos com 7 alelos; no PGI, um loco com 3 alelos e no IDH, um loco com 4 alelos.The genetic diversity of citrus cultivars was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on sweet orange (C. sinensis; tangerines (C. clementine, C. sunki, C. reshni, C. reticulata; Palestine lime (C. Iimettioides; West Indian lime (C. aurantifolia; Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Sour orange (C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata. Citrus leaf extracts were analysed for isozymes of malato dehidrogenase (MDH, malic enzyme (ME, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphoglucose mutase (PGM and

  9. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  10. Effect of Glomus versiforme inoculation on reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine leaves exposed to water stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiangsheng; ZOU Yingning; XIA Renxue

    2007-01-01

    In a potted greenhouse experiment,Citrus tangerine Hort.ex Tanaka was inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus,Glomus versiforme (Karsten)Berch,or non-AM fungus as control.Arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-AM seedlings were grown tmder well-watered or water-stressed conditions after 97 days of acclimation.The reactive oxygen metabolism of C.tangerine leaves was studied in order to elucidate whether AM symbiosis affects enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.The results showed that water stress caused a decrement of 33% for the colonization of G.versiforme on C.tangerine roots.Under well-watered and water-stressed conditions,G.versiforme inoculation increased the leaf phosphorus (P) content by 45% and 27%,and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents by 25% and 21%,and 16% and 16%,respectively,compared with the control.Inoculation with G.versiforme enhanced the activities of leaf superoxide dismutase,peroxidase,catalase and ascorbate peroxidase,and increased the contents of leaf soluble protein,ascorbate and total ascorbate notably,regardless of soil moisture conditions.Under water-stressed conditions,G.versiforme inoculation decreased the leaf superoxide anion radical (O2-) content by 31%.It is concluded that drought resistance of C.tangerine leaves is enhanced due to the improvement of reactive oxygen metabolism after G.versiforme inoculation.

  11. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  12. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  13. Influência de substratos na formação dos porta-enxertos: limoeiro-Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck e tangerineira-Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tanaka em ambiente protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABUR MARCOS ANTÔNIO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando a estudar o efeito do substrato na produção de porta-enxertos de limoeiro-Cravo e tangerineira-Cleópatra em tubetes sob ambiente protegido, conduziu-se este trabalho na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal-UNESP. O estudo foi realizado em ambiente coberto com sombrite preto sem proteção lateral, adotando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x2, 4 repetições e 20 sementes por parcela. Utilizaram-se os substratos húmus de minhoca oriundo de esterco de curral (H% e vermiculita média (V%, sendo S1=H0 V100; S2=H25 V75; S3=H50 V50; S4=H75 V25 e S5=H100 V0. Avaliaram-se o número de plântulas emergidas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, massas fresca e seca de raiz e parte aérea. Observaram-se resultados estatisticamente significativos para diâmetro do caule, aos 104 e 118 dias após a semeadura (DAS entre espécies, com superioridade de Cravo em relação a Cleópatra, porém não aos 132 DAS. Não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os substratos. Quanto à massa fresca de parte aérea, nenhuma diferença estatística ocorreu entre as espécies; porém, quanto aos substratos, S3 mostrou-se superior a S1, não diferindo, entretanto, dos demais. Embora a análise estatística não tenha mostrado diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para os outros parâmetros analisados, S3 destacou-se entre os substratos testados.

  14. Surgimiento, dinámica y rol de las plantineras en el aglomerado hortícola de La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La caracterización de la actual dinámica del Cinturón Hortícola Platense tendría un mejor ajuste si se interpreta desde el enfoque de economías de aglomeración. Así, una actividad que se caracterizó históricamente por su producción atomizada y descentralizada, ahora muestra una concentración espacial y cercana articulación con los eslabones de aprovisionamiento de insumos y comercialización. El objetivo del trabajo es desarrollar la influencia y dependencia de un servicio existente en la zona hortícola platense: las plantineras. Se busca identificar las razones de su surgimiento, su evolución y actual importancia y dependencia. También describir su interrelación con las semilleras y agronomías. Finalmente, se caracteriza el rol de las plantineras en el aglomerado de empresas que conforma la horticultura platense. Se concluye que las plantineras pueden considerarse un caso de economía externa, causa y consecuencia a su vez del incremento de la competitividad en este espacio productivo. ABSTRACT The current dynamics of La Plata’s Horticultural Belt seem to fit better if interpreted from the agglomeration economies perspective. Thus, an activity historically characterized by its fragmented and decentralized production nowadays shows a spatial concentration and close coordination with the links in supply of inputs and marketing. The aim of this work is to develop the influence and dependence on an existing service in La Plata’s horticultural zone: the nursery garden. It seeks to identify the reasons for its emergence, evolution and current importance and dependence. Also to describe their interrelationships with seed companies and agrochemical shops. Finally, the nursery garden role in horticultural agglomerate of La Platais characterized. It is concluded that nursery garden could be considered a case of external economy, cause and consequence of increasing competitiveness in the productive space.

  15. Seguridad en la aplicación de productos fitosanitarios en cultivos hortícolas y frutícolas Safety in the application of phitosanitary products in horticultural and fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. Bulacio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En sistemas de producción intensivos, el uso incorrecto de productos fitosanitarios puede afectar la salud de los operarios. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar sobre el cuerpo del operario aplicador las zonas de deposición de agroquímico al momento de realizar tratamientos foliares en cultivos hortícolas de diferente porte y en monte frutal. Se trabajó en lotes de acelga (Beta vulgaris var cicla L., de alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L., de poroto chaucha (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y en monte de naranjos (Citrus sp.. En cada lote se simularon 4 aplicaciones foliares de fitosanitarios utilizando mochila manual, reemplazando los productos por una solución de fenoftaleína (0,5 g/l. En cada aplicación se recorrieron 100 m entre las hileras de cultivo y previo a cada una de ellas se distribuyeron sobre distintas zonas del cuerpo del operario parches de tela de algodón blanca de 10 cm x 10 cm. En laboratorio se recuperó el residuo de fenoftaleína de cada parche con hidróxido de sodio 0,1 N y se valoró en espectrofotómetro a 540 nm. Los residuos detectados en la parte anterior y posterior del cuerpo del aplicador, respectivamente, fueron: en acelga 1095,6 μg/cm² y 91,02 μg/cm², en alcaucil 787,00 μg/cm² y 404,00 μg/cm², en poroto chaucha 197,50 μg/cm² y 68,35 μg/cm², en monte frutal 481,70 μg/cm² y 44,20 μg/cm². Se demostró la exposición de todo el cuerpo del operario al realizar tratamientos en condiciones similares a las de estos ensayos, validando la necesidad de contar con elementos de protección que lo cubran en forma total.In intensive production systems, the improper use of phytosanitary products may affect the operator's health. The objective of this work was to determine the areas the agrochemical deposits on the worker's body, at the time of applying foliar treatments in horticultural crops of several heights and in fruit trees. It was performed in lots of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var cicla L., artichoke (Cynara

  16. Analysis on genuineness of Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. by ISSR%川芎道地性的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 肖海波; 马逾英; 蒋桂华; 唐琳

    2008-01-01

    利用ISSR分子标记技术,对来自国内17个居群的285个川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong hort.)个体进行道地性分析.从99条ISSR随机引物中筛选出10条引物对285个川芎个体进行扩增,共得到186条清晰的扩增位点,其中多态性位点183个,多态位点百分率(PPB)为98.39%.根据结果进行聚类分析,得出16个川芎居群遗传距离的非加权算术平均(UPGMA)树.采自四川省内的10个川芎居群表现出更近的亲缘关系,各个川芎居群间具有高度遗传多样性.

  17. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  18. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04588-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntina genomic clo... 48 0.42 1 ( DY301750 ) KN0AAQ13YP19RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementin...a cDNA 5',... 48 0.42 1 ( DY297580 ) IC0AAA93AE09RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDN...A 5',... 48 0.42 1 ( DY292015 ) IC0AAA79DA12RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 48 0.42 1 ( DY265385 ) ...IC0AAA17AF03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 48 0.42 1 ( DR910824 ) USDA-FP_18952 Citrus sinensis ph...9736 ) C07001G10SK NTLeaf1 Citrus clementina cDNA clone ... 48 0.42 1 ( CV704553 ) UCRPT01_0005J04_r Ponciru

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00653-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SSI153. 521 e-143 1 ( DY264372 ) IC0AAA14BE01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...68 9e-07 1 ( DY273682 ) IC0AAA34CE03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 1e-06 2 ( FC901972 ) IC0AAA34CE03RM1 IVIA1 Citrus cle...mentina cDNA clon... 46 1e-06 2 ( DY276248 ) IC0AAA40CE11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clemen...tina cDNA 5',... 44 4e-06 2 ( DY264781 ) IC0AAA15CA07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina c...DNA 5',... 44 4e-06 2 ( DY273310 ) IC0AAA33CD02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 4e-06 2 ( FC89208

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15608-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C0AAA41DE05RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 8e-05 3 ( FF334861 ) 28045...3F12_b Madame Vinous Sweet Orange Multipl... 44 0.019 2 ( DY269966 ) IC0AAA28BF10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementin...a cDNA 5',... 44 0.020 2 ( DY272111 ) IC0AAA30BA11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cD...NA 5',... 44 0.021 2 ( DY287256 ) IC0AAA67BD04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 0.021 2 ( DY274852... ) IC0AAA37DC04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 0.022 2 ( DY294421 ) IC0AAA85BH10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11437-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( AC025544 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 1 clone RP11-414D13, WORK... 52 0.057 1 ( ET110552 ) QM0AAC19AF12RM2 CCH3 Citrus clementi...na genomic cl... 52 0.057 1 ( DY299767 ) IC0AAA99BC02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA ...5',... 52 0.057 1 ( DY295916 ) IC0AAA89CC08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',...... 52 0.057 1 ( DY293291 ) IC0AAA82BF09RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 52 0.057 1 ( DY275546 ) IC0A...AA39CG08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 52 0.057 1 ( DY272702 ) IC0AAA31DE09RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  4. Apparent tolerance to huanglongbing in citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a Ft. Pierce, Florida field planting, growth and huanglongbing (HLB) severity were assessed as indicators of HLB-tolerance on progenies of 83 seed-source accessions of citrus and citrus-relatives from the Riverside, California genebank. The HLB-pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) and vec...

  5. Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, van E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus Hirsutellathompsonii Fisher and partly through a decline in feed qual

  6. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus harvested domestically. We made... variety. Total citrus production in Uruguay in 2011 was 270,367 metric tons, which is less than 3 percent... metric tons, respectively, which is less than 3.2 percent of U.S. production and 1 percent of total...

  7. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  8. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  9. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  10. Cloning and Analysis of NBS-LRR Disease-Resistant Gene Analogs in Citrus unshiu Marc.%晚熟温州蜜柑 NBS-LRR类抗病基因同源序列的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登全; 王园秀; 崔朝宇; 秦双林; 欧阳慧; 蒋军喜

    2016-01-01

    为加深对柑橘黄龙病抗性机理的了解和为黄龙病抗性基因的克隆提供依据,根据已知植物抗病基因NBS-LRR保守结构域设计简并引物,以柑橘黄龙病抗性品种“晚熟温州蜜柑”为供试材料,对其基因组DNA进行PCR扩增、克隆和序列测定,结果共获得17条抗病基因同源序列(resistance gene analogs,RGAs),其在NCBI中的登录号为KJ019189~KJ019199,KR815564~KR815569。序列分析表明,这17个RGAs与甜橙、柚等柑橘属中推测的一些抗病蛋白基因或其他相关蛋白基因具有显著高的同源性。其中一些RGAs与拟南芥抗霜霉病RPP13基因、柑橘抗衰退病毒基因Ctv或烟草抗TMV基因N具有51.7%~79.0%的氨基酸序列同源性。依据论文结果,笔者认为,晚熟温州蜜柑中存在较丰富的NBS-LRR类抗病基因,但具体哪些病基因与抗黄龙病相关尚需进一步研究。%In order to deepen understanding of the resistant mechanism of Citrus to Candiadatus Liberi-bacter asiaticus( CLas) and lay the foundation for cloning of citrus huanglongbing( HLB)-resistant gene,a pair of degenerate primers was designed from the conserved domains of NBS-LRR type plant disease-resistant gene and used for amplifying the disease-resistant gene analogs( RGAs) by polymerase chain reaction( PCR) from the genomic DNA of Citrus unshiu Marc.,a citrus cultivar resistant to HLB.After cloning and sequencing the PCR products,the nucleotide sequences and their deduced amino acid sequences of 17 RGAs were obtained and deposited in GenBank with the accession number of KJ019189-KJ019199 and KR815564-KR815569.Se-quence analysis showed that these 17 RGAs shared significantly high homology with some putative disease-re-sistant genes and other protein genes in Citrus sinensis or Citrus clementina, some of which shared 51.7%-79.0%amino acid sequence homology with the known disease gene of RPP13,Ctv,or N.Based on these re-sults,it is concluded

  11. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  12. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  13. Current California Drought: Impact on Citrus Trees and Potential Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    California is in another cycle of extended drought. The article reviews and discusses likely impact of the current drought on citrus growers and potential mitigation techniques. Citrus physiological responses to water stress is briefly reviewed. The direct impact of drought on citrus is reduced frui...

  14. Biological Indexing of Graft Transmissible Diseases of Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological indexing for the detection of graft transmissible diseases of citrus is essential for maintaining a citrus certification program. Many of the graft transmissible diseases of citrus are harbored as latent infections in the scions, but when propagated on a susceptible rootstock that allow...

  15. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01419-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anogaster clone RPCI98-43N11, WORKI... 42 6.1 1 ( DY266467 ) IC0AAA1AE12FM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5'...om spleen, liver,... 42 6.1 1 ( FC901296 ) IC0AAA1AE12FM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09276-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry Canis lup... 46 1.1 1 ( DY294423 ) IC0AAA85BH12RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cD... Genomic Spe... 38 4.7 2 ( ET091038 ) QM0AAA16BA09FM1 CCL1 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 38 4.8 2 ( AC1710

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06678-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E... 50 0.032 1 ( ET111914 ) QM0AAC21BC05FM1 CCH3 Citrus clementina genomic cl...... 50 0.032 1 ( ET090021 ) QM0AAA14DC04FM1 CCL1 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 50 0.032 1 ( EI893769 ) VUH1-7

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLC188 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .62 3 ( ET100352 ) QM0AAB16CG08FM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic c... 46 0.66 1... ( ET097143 ) QM0AAB10CG08FM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic c... 46 0.66 1 dna update 2009. 2.23 Homology

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13721-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ORKING DRAFT SEQU... 44 9.6 1 ( ET102670 ) QM0AAB21AF04RM1 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic c... 44 9.6 1 ( E...T078397 ) QM0AAB6CC11FM2 CCER1 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 44 9.6 1 ( EK064905 ) 1092960110396 Global-Oc

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10043-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone ZM... 44 7.4 1 ( DY290874 ) IC0AAA76CE08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA ...5',... 44 7.4 1 ( DY278886 ) IC0AAA47DE04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 7.4 1 ( CX672396 ) UCRC

  2. AcEST: DK958548 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Maturation-associated SRC1-like protein O... 34 7.3 tr|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clementina x Citr...++ G++ Sbjct: 4 IMHKIEDALHIGGRKKEEEHKGEHHGEHKGEH 35 >tr|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clementina x Cit

  3. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.

  4. Características de la competencia en el mercado hortícola estadounidense: el caso de la berenjena mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Javier Maya Ambía

    2004-01-01

    El mercado hortícola de Estados Unidos es el escenario de una dinámica competencia en la que se enfrentan empresas productoras-distribuidoras de naciones con muy dispares grados de desarrollo. Este artículo se enfoca al caso de la berenjena mexicana exportada hacia dicho país, considerando que, a partir de su estudio, es posible repensar una serie de conceptos empleados en la investigación sobre el tema. En particular, se propone, siguiendo una idea expu...

  5. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' sobre quatro porta-enxertos Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Espinoza Núñez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco sobre os porta-enxertos limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumelo 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP, em 1997. Embora diferenças na produção tenham sido registradas em função dos porta-enxertos, nos anos de 2003 a 2005, a produção acumulada nas safras de 2000 a 2006 não revelou influência dos mesmos. Os valores do índice de alternância de produção e eficiência de produção não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos. O teor de sólidos solúveis, bem como acidez total foram superiores nos frutos das plantas enxertadas sobre citrumelo 'Swingle' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'. Os valores de volume da copa e diâmetro do tronco foram superiores nas árvores sobre tangelo 'Orlando' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'.An experiment was installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil in 1997, with the aim of evaluate the effect of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. and 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco. Despite that differences in yield have been registered related to the rootstocks between 2003 to 2005; cumulative yield from 2000 to 2006 seasons was not affected by the rootstock. Alternate bearing index and yield efficiency values were not influenced by the rootstocks. Fruits from trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Cleópatra' mandarin had higher values of total soluble solids concentration and total acids. Trunk diameter and canopy volume values were higher in

  6. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16263-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available leaf, infected ... 46 1.3 2 ( DY269133 ) IC0AAA26AE02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 1.4 2 ( DY...265282 ) IC0AAA16DE02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 1.5 2 ( DY279013... ) IC0AAA48AH11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 1.7 2 ( EH194014 ) EC04_d_2518 EC04 Eragrostis cu...rvula cDNA, mRNA se... 46 1.8 2 ( DY304469 ) KN0AAQ8YM18RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 46 1.8 2 (... DY290950 ) IC0AAA76DD03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 1.9 2 ( DY303

  9. Nuevas interpretaciones del Paleolítico Superior Final de la Cataluña meridional: el yacimiento de L’ Hort de la Boquera (Priorat, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Argüelles Andreu, Pilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper publishes for the first time the results of the excavations conducted at L’Hort de la Boquera site (Margalef de Montsant, Tarragona. This site is included in the research project we began in 1979 on the prehistoric settlement of the middle course of the Montsant River. We present the results obtained with respect to the lithic industries, palaeoecology, palaeeconomy, radiocarbon dates, and the latest discovery, an item of mobiliary art. These make it clear that the site belongs to the final Upper Palaeolithic, with specific features that partly distinguish it from the classic Magdalenian.En este trabajo ofrecemos, por primera vez, los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento en las excavaciones en L’Hort de la Boquera, situado en Margalef de Montsant (Tarragona. El yacimiento forma parte del proyecto de investigación que llevamos a cabo sobre el poblamiento prehistórico del curso medio del río Montsant desde 1979. Los avances se centran en el estudio industrial, de paleoecología, de paleoeconomía, en las dataciones radiocarbónicas y, lo más novedoso, en el del arte mueble, así como en su adscripción a un Paleolítico superior final cuyas características particulares le diferencian del Magdaleniense clásico.

  10. 川芎挥发油提取工艺的研究进展%Advances in research on extraction technologies of volatile oils from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽华; 张玮; 张丽娟; 朱全刚; 刘继勇; 高申

    2012-01-01

    Ligusticum chuan.riong Hort. is an important medicinal herb in which the main ingredients are volatile oils. The extraction technologies of volatile oils from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , including steam distillation,solvent extraction, water extraction coupling rectification, supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasonically enhanced supercritical CO2 extraction were summarized in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods in the terms of yield,components and content of extracts were analyzed. The development of the extraction technologies was also discussed.%川芎是一种重要的药用植物,其主要成分是挥发油.本文综述了川芎挥发油的各种提取方法,包括水蒸气蒸馏法、溶液萃取法、提取共沸精馏耦合新工艺、超临界流体萃取法和超声强化超临界CO2萃取法,从得率、提取得到的成分及含量等方面对各种方法的优缺点进行了比较和分析,并对其发展方向提出展望.

  11. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  12. Synthesis of potential radioprotective components from Chinese herb drug Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , umbelliferae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1993-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of some Chinese traditional herb drugs, reported by Hong-Fu Wang et al. in China, could inhibit platelet aggregation as well as protect against radiation damage in mice, rat and rabbits. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of five Chinese drugs on the rate of platelet aggregation were observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests, averaging 23--53% in vitro and 46--69% in vivo. Antiradiation tests on mice vs. 7.5--8.0 Gy of [gamma]-radiation, using the herb drug extracts as protective agents, showed increasing survival rates by 8--50%. Based on Hong-Fu Wang's report, a search for the active constituents of these herb drugs in inhibiting platelet aggregation and protecting animals against radiation damage was started. In this research program, a Chinese traditional drug, Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) was chosen. Three types of chemicals present in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, appeared promising for testing: 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole, 4-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide and 5-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide, and 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamyl 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamate. A total of 56 compounds of these derivatives has been synthesized and 30 were synthesized for the first time. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based on IR, [sup 1]H NMR and elemental analysis. From this research program, a very mild dehydrogenation method was developed. It was by using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in acetonitrile at ice bath temperature to dehydrogenate 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole into 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole. This project showed for the first time that harmanoid alkaloids have the activity of inhibition of plate aggregation by 4 to 23 times that of aspirin. These results aid in establishing a relation between radiation protection in animals and prevention of platelet hyperaggregation.

  13. Aspectos de demanda para 41 productos hortícolas en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Villalobos Monge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se resume el análisis efectuado a una sección de la actividad “Estudio del mercado hortícola en la zona sur-sur de Costa Rica”, que forma parte del proyecto “Investigación de mercados para productos agrícolas”, el cual se encuentra adscrito ante la Vicerrectoría de Investigación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. El objetivo de esta sección es determinar los principales aspectos cuantitativos y cualitativos referentes a la demanda de hortalizas presente en la zona sur de Costa Rica, lo cual permitirá a los diferentes agentes que participan en estas agrocadenas contar con información de fuentes primarias para tomar las decisiones pertinentes, principalmente para planificar tanto los procesos de siembra como de comercialización. El trabajo de campo consistió en la aplicación de encuestas durante el primer semestre del año 2009 a personas involucradas con cinco tipos de actividades económicas (sodas, restaurantes, supermercados, verdulerías y hoteles en los cantones de Aguirre, Osa, Golfito, Buenos Aires, Coto Brus y Corredores, todos de la provincia de Puntarenas. La información se obtuvo mediante encuestas aplicadas según un diseño estratificado de una etapa, que permitió realizar la inferencia estadística para el parámetro poblacional de demanda, esto en el caso de los productos olerícolas demandados por los encuestados. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar un total de 41 productos, los cuales presentaron diferentes comportamientos según el estrato, y gracias a la inferencia se evidenció los límites mínimos y máximos que se podrían esperar, con un nivel de confianza del 95%.

  14. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03670-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3059I07, W... 50 0.049 1 ( ET089327 ) QM0AAA13DD03FM1 CCL1 Citrus clementi...Cl-Salt1 Citrus reshni cDNA 5', m... 50 0.049 1 ( DY303587 ) KN0AAQ6YD17RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5'..., ... 50 0.049 1 ( DY285549 ) IC0AAA63DA10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 50 0.049 1 ( DY283831 ) I...C0AAA5CF07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 50 0.049 1 ( DY281704 ) IC0AA...A54CG07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 50 0.049 1 ( DY275607 ) IC0AAA39DD11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  16. Preliminary Studies on Species and Distribution of Citrus Viroids in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Chang-yong; TANG Ke-zhi; LAN Jian-qiang; ZHOU Yan; LI Zhon-gan

    2008-01-01

    Citrus viroids are the small but economically important RNA pathogens.For investigating their occurrence and distribution in China,65 viroid samples collected from 8 major citrus cultivated regions were evaluated using one-step or multiplex one-step RT-PCR and biological indexing for specifically detection of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd),Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd),Hop stunt viroid (HSVd),Citrus viroid-ⅢI (CVd-Ⅲ) and Citrus viroid-Ⅳ (CVd-Ⅳ).The results showed that there were at least 4 kinds of citrus viroids (CEVd,CBLVd,HSVd,and CVd-Ⅲ) on citrus trees in China.Most of the infected citrus plants harbored more than one viroid species,and two plants were infected with up to 4 citrus viroids.Sweet orange was more frequently infected by viroids than other citrus varieties.It is the preliminary report on the species and distribution of citrus viroids in China.

  17. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  18. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  19. Rheology and composition of processed citrus fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    While fibrous byproducts are abundant in supply, using them in food products in such a way to not degrade taste or texture can be challenging. Citrus fibers have been shown to have high water holding and viscous properties. However, to better incorporate dried orange pulp into foods, their propert...

  20. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  1. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  2. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  3. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  4. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  5. Armazenamento refrigerado de três cultivares de hortênsia cultivadas em vaso Three potted hydrangea cultivars storaged in low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Sonego

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. RS, no período de agosto de 1993 a janeiro de 1995. Os objetivos foram verificar o efeito do armazenamento a 2°C sobre a duração do cultivo da hortênsia - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser. e fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento da cultura da hortênsia, através da caracterização fenométrica das cultivares disponíveis na região. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, constituído por um esquema bifatorial 6x3, cujos tratamentos constaram de seis períodos de armazenamento a frio (zero, duas, três, quatro, cinco e seis semanas, em câmara frigorífica a 2°C e três cultivares de hortênsia (Rústica, Branca e Decorativa. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que as cultivares Rústica e Decorativa mostraram-se indiferentes ao armazenamento a 2°C, enquanto que a cultivar Branca atrasou o florescimento, em cerca de dois meses. Por sua vez. as três cultivares possuem potencial para a produção em vasos e são caracterizadas pelas diferenças de diâmetro da inflorescência, ciclo de florescimento e ciclo total da cultura.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Fitotecnia, in the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, from August 1993 to January 1995. The purposes were to verify the effect of cold storage in the lenght of cultivation of hydrangea - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser, and to obtain informations on the development of the hydrangea culture, through the fenometric characterization of the cultivars available in the region. It was conducted in completely randomized design, with five replications. The experiment was a 6 x 3 bifactorial whose treatments were six cold storage periods (zero, two, three, four, five and six weeks in a cold chamber in a temperature of 2°C and three hydrangea cultivars (cv. Rustic, White and Decorative. The results showed no influence of the 2°C storage

  6. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  7. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  8. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C. de; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  9. 正交优选川芎苓节种子消毒方案%Orthogonal Optimum Proposal on Seed Disinfection of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 樊哲仁; 马逾英; 唐琳

    2010-01-01

    采用3因素3水平正交实验设计建立了川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.)无菌苗快速繁殖体系.结果表明,不同因素不同水平组合的消毒方法对苓种子消毒效果及发芽率影响显著(P<0.05).川芎无菌苗最佳消毒方案为中部芩节在70%酒精下消毒30 S,0.1%升汞消毒10 min,在此培养体系下可快速扩增和长期继代培养无菌苗,利用该体系、无菌苗作为外植体可诱导分化出愈伤组织.

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates of Wild Type Citrus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Long; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from Chinese wild type citrus were analyzed by comparing the sequences of nine genomic regions (p23, p20, p13, p18, p25, p27, POL, HEL and k17) with the CTV isolates of cultivated citrus from different countries. The results showed that the divergence pattern of genomic RNA of the CTV isolates from wild type citrus was similar to that of other isolates from cultivated citrus, the 3´ proximal region was relatively conserved, and the 5´ proximal region had greater variability. The nine genomic regions of CTV isolates analyzed were found to have been under purifying selection in the evolution process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven Chinese wild CTV isolates were located at different clades and did not relfect their geographical origins, suggesting genetic diversity among the Chinese wild CTV populations. These results will aid in the understanding of molecular evolution of the Chinese CTV populations.

  11. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  12. Características de la competencia en el mercado hortícola estadounidense: el caso de la berenjena mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Maya Ambía

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El mercado hortícola de Estados Unidos es el escenario de una dinámica competencia en la que se enfrentan empresas productoras-distribuidoras de naciones con muy dispares grados de desarrollo. Este artículo se enfoca al caso de la berenjena mexicana exportada hacia dicho país, considerando que, a partir de su estudio, es posible repensar una serie de conceptos empleados en la investigación sobre el tema. En particular, se propone, siguiendo una idea expuesta por Van Sickle y otros autores, tomar el segmento del mercado como indicador de la competitividad de los oferentes. De acuerdo con este indicador, se trata de ubicar el posicionamiento actual de las hortalizas mexicanas en el mercado de los Estados Unidos, comparando la berenjena con las otras hortalizas más importantes exportadas por México. Se busca explicar esta participación a partir de una serie de elementos, como son innovaciones tecnológicas, rendimientos, costos, estrategias de comercialización y, de especial importancia, la atención a las normas para preservar la inocuidad alimentaria. El caso estudiado viene a confirmar la hipótesis de autores como Friedland y Bonanno, quienes sostienen el carácter global de la competencia en los mercados hortícolas. El artículo concluye con algunas reflexiones derivadas del estudio de caso, mismas que apuntan hacia el cuestionamiento del concepto de “división internacional del trabajo”.

  13. Análisis del comportamiento de precios de cinco productos hortícolas en Costa Rica de 1999 al 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Análisis del comportamiento de precios de cinco productos hortícolas en Costa Rica de 1999 al 2003. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el comportamiento y las fluctuaciones de los productos hortifrutícolas más comercializados en Costa Rica durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y el 2003, para que los productores planifiquen sus épocas de siembra y los consumidores hagan mejor uso de la información al realizar sus compras. El análisis de información se realizó entre el 2004 y el 2005 y está orientado al mercadeo de cinco productos hortícolas: coliflor, lechuga americana, papa, pepino y plátano verde comercializados en el Centro Nacional de Abastecimiento y Distribución (CENADA ubicada en Barrial de Heredia y en las ferias del agricultor. La información fue proporcionada por el Consejo Nacional de Producción (CNP, ubicado en avenida 10, detrás de la Municipalidad de San José. Los resultados del análisis mensual y anual de precios presentaron diferencias en los volúmenes de productos transados. El mercado en el que se comercializan los productos es un factor decisivo para las variaciones de precios, al igual que lacalidad de los productos. Además, otros factores que intervienen en los precios son la época de siembra y cosecha. Seencontró que los productos analizados son, en su mayoría, de ciclo de producción corto, con épocas de siembra y cosecha muy bien definidas, aspectos que por razones de oferta y demanda inciden en los precios en períodos determinados.

  14. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  15. Huanglongbing Resistance and Tolerance in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stover, E.; McCollum, G.; Driggers, R.; Duan, Y; Shatters, Jr., R. G.; Ritenour, M.; Hall, D.G.; J. Chaparro

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-incidence. ‘Temple’ had the lowest HLB symptoms and Liberibacter (Las) titer, while ‘Murcott’ and ‘Minneola’ had the highest. The USDA Ft. Pierce, FL farm is managed to reveal genotype responses to ...

  16. Polyembryony in non-apomictic citrus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo. PMID:20675656

  17. Dicty_cDB: VFK784 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-18 1 ( DY302241 ) KN0AAQ2YG21RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 58 4e-04 1 ( DY299208 ) IC0AAA97CH11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clem...entina cDNA 5',... 58 4e-04 1 ( DY291964 ) IC0AAA79CE04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07120-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT inserti... 30 0.95 3 ( ET082221 ) QM0AAC3BC11RM1 CCH3 Citrus clementi... ... 46 1.0 1 ( ET108942 ) QM0AAC16CC01RM1 CCH3 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 46 1.0 1 ( ET108775 ) QM0AAC16BC01RM1 CCH3 Citrus cle...mentina genomic cl... 46 1.0 1 ( EJ429842 ) 109301524820

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE TANGERINAS DE BANCO ATIVO DE GERMOPLASMA DE CITROS DO CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MANDARIN FRUITS FROM CITRUS GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK OF `CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O número de variedades de tangerinas utilizadas economicamente é muito restrito, apesar da importância comercial deste grupo de citros. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC possui em torno de 383 acessos de tangerineiras e híbridos, os quais têm sido estudados sob o ponto de vista botânico, genético e agronômico. Este trabalho visa descrever por meio de 38 caracteres morfológicos, os frutos das tangerineiras Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará e Mexerica-do-Rio. Foram coletados 30 frutos maduros de cada acesso, sendo 10 frutos por planta, num total de 3 plantas por acesso. As tangerineiras, enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra e espaçadas de 7,5 m entre linhas por 5,5 m entre plantas, foram estudadas com 8 anos de plantio (safra 1994. Foi observada variabilidade fenotípica acentuada entre os acessos estudados, para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados e verificou-se que muitos caracteres agronômicos desejáveis encontram-se dispersos entre os acessos analisados, podendo vir a ser aproveitados em programas de melhoramento. A análise de agrupamento dos acessos através dos caracteres avaliados quantitativamente pode fornecer indicativos sobre as distâncias filogenéticas entre os diferentes genótipos.The number of mandarin varieties economically explored is very restricted, in spite of their commercial importance. The Active Citrus Germplasm Bank, of the `Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC' holds around 383 accessions of mandarins and hybrids, which are analyzed in botanical, genetic and agronomic aspects. As a part of this program, this work aims the fruit morphological description through 38 characters of the following mandarins: Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará and Mexerica-do-Rio. The mandarin trees are about 8 years old spaced 7

  20. Optimization of an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the separation and determination of essential oil from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Qiushi; Hu, Zhiyan; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was established and employed for the extraction, concentration and analysis of essential oil constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Response surface methodology was performed to optimize the key parameters in accelerated solvent extraction on the extraction efficiency, and key parameters in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were discussed as well. Two representative constituents in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, (Z)-ligustilide and n-butylphthalide, were quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that the qualitative result of the accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach was in good agreement with that of hydro-distillation, whereas the proposed approach took far less extraction time (30 min), consumed less plant material (usually extraction and analysis of essential oil.

  1. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  2. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  3. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  4. Water and nitrogen use efficiencies in citrus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Assinck, F.B.T.; Heinen, Marius; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors for citrus production. Reported effects of water and N inputs on citrus yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) vary greatly, mainly due to differences in cultivars, tree age, climate, soil types, and water and N input level

  5. Changes in anthocyanin production during domestication of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are imortant fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varities of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon lme and grapefruit. Citron and it...

  6. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  7. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  8. Induction of red pigment in white petals of Hippeastrum x Hybr. Hort. during infection by Phoma Narcissi (Aderh. Boerema, De Gruyter et Noordel., Comb. Nov. and by mechanical injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Red colouration of tissues occurs as a result of mechanical injuries to petals of Hippeastrum hybr. hort. cv. Winter Carnival or their infection by Phoma narcissi. Microscopic study recorded red pigment formation following mechanical injuries or pathogenic infection of white petals. For comparison, localization of anthocyanins in natural red petals of cv. Red Lion was determined. Red pigment, formed in white petals mechanically injured or infected by Phoma narcissi, is different than anthocyanins.

  9. Diversificación con frambuesa : : el impacto de su introducción en sistemas hortícolas de Coronda, Santa Fe, Argentina : análisis de un caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Travadelo, Mariana; Sordo, María del Huerto; Favaro, Juan Carlos; Pernuzzi, Cristian; Perren, Ricardo; Gariglio, Norberto; Maina, Mariela; Rossler, Noelia; Brizi, María C.; Carboni, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar el impacto micro-económico que produce la introducción del cultivo de frambuesa en una pyme hortícola de Coronda, dedicada esencialmente a la producción de frutillas.El patrón de diversificación actual es escaso, debido principalmente a las limitaciones financieras existentes a nivel predial. Se combina el cultivo de frutilla con otras hortalizas, a contra-ciclo, tales...

  10. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 127-131. The demand for high-value commodities such as oranges continues to increase every year. One of the qualities of orange that can not be met by domestic manufacturers is the color of a citrus peel. Most consumers like citrus orange, like mandarin oranges and other citrus imports. Efforts to reduce the national citrus imports is to improve the productivity and quality of citrus orange in Indonesia. Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima is one of the featured horticultural commodities in East Kalimantan, which has the advantage of being low lying tangerine with orange rind. It Is indispensable citrus cultivation technique is good and right, so that the citrus plant can develop optimally so that later can produce citrus fruit both in quality and quantity.

  11. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  12. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  13. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

  14. 不同产地川芎药材HPLC指纹图谱的研究%Fingerprint of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort from Different Habitats by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 刘敏; 温成泉; 李明春

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立川芎药材的HPLC指纹图谱,考察不同产地川芎的药材质量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,流动相为甲醇-冰醋酸水溶液梯度洗脱,检测波长为322nm.结果:建立的指纹图谱共确定了8个共有峰,结果稳定,重复性好.结论:用该方法建立的川芎药材的指纹图谱,对川芎药材的质量控制是可行的.%Objective :To investigate the quality of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort. from different areas. Methods: HPLC method was adopted with a mixture of CH3OH as the mobile phase and with a wavelength at 322nm. Results: The HPLC fingerprints of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort. has been established and the result is stable. Conclusion: The fingerprint can be used for quality control of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.

  15. Study on the Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Soil-Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort System%土壤-川芎系统重金属富集规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬; 彭国照

    2015-01-01

    Through field trials,the method by microwave digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave digestion hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used to detect heavy metals contents(Cu、Hg、Pb and As) of soil-Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.system in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.authentic producing areas of Sichuan which were Willow street town of Dujiangyan city,Xu Du village of Dujiangyan city and Qing xing town of pengzhou city.And then their enrichment was studied.This research could provide scientific evidence for GAP production and be controlled of heavy metals enrichment.It can be proposed appropriate measures to reduce heavy metals contents in commodity Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.%通过大田试验,运用微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法和微波消解-氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法分别测定四川川芎道地产区都江堰市柳街镇、徐渡乡和彭州市庆兴镇三地土壤-川芎系统中的Cu、Hg、Pb和As重金属含量,并研究其富集规律.研究可以为GAP生产和控制重金属富集提供科学依据,以此提出相应的措施来减少商品芎中重金属含量.

  16. Optimizing Process of Extracting Ferulic Acid from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. by Ultra-high Pressure%川芎中阿魏酸超高压提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽丽; 陈洪海; 张守勤

    2014-01-01

    优化川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.)中阿魏酸的常温超高压提取条件,应用高效液相色谱法测定提取液中的阿魏酸含量,以阿魏酸提取率为评价指标进行L9(34)正交试验。结果表明,常温超高压提取川芎中阿魏酸的最优工艺为乙醇体积分数70%,压力300 MPa,固液比1:50(m:V ,g:mL),时间3.0 min,提取1次。超高压提取技术作为一种新的提取方法,提取川芎中阿魏酸稳定、可行。%The optimal Ultra-high Pressure (UPE) process for extracting ferulic acid from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. was studied. The process was selected by L9 (34) orthogonal design using the content of ferulic acid as index. The optimal extraction condition was extraction solvent with 70% ethanol, extraction pressure of 300 MPa, solid/liquid ratio of 1:50 (m:V , g:mL), extraction for 3.0 min and extracting for 1 times. UPE is the optimal extraction method for extracting ferulic acid from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

  17. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Effective October 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Program... Huanglongbing disease of citrus by the international taxonomic community. We are amending the definition to... issued under Sec. 204, Title II, Public Law 106-113, 113 Stat. 1501A-293; sections 301.75-15 and...

  18. 76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... regulations to implement the PPA. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease... the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening...

  19. Reestructuraciones de las periferias hortícolas de Buenos Aires y modelos espaciales ¿ Un archipiélago verde ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Le Gall

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’article analyse la structure socio-productive des périphéries maraîchères de l’Aire métropolitaine de Buenos Aires (AMBA, leur évolution durant ces cinquante dernières années, et le rôle des migrants Boliviens dans les recompositions spatiales qui les affectent. Dans un contexte d’influences externes et internes à l’activité maraîchère (conjoncturelles et structurelles, on a sélectionné une série de variables (production, commercialisation, avancées des fronts urbain et agricole, caractéristiques des migrants qui expliquent les processus de concentration et de différenciation des espaces maraîchers de Buenos Aires. Est mis en évidence le développement inégal de la région Nord (Pilar et Sud (La Plata, qui bouscule le modèle de ceinture verte continu et uniforme prédominant jusqu’alors pour décrire les périphéries maraîchères. Devant l’apparition de deux grandes « îles » productives, on privilégie la figure « d’archipel maraîcher » : elle révèle les complémentarités émergentes entre régions Nord et Sud, notamment sous l’influence des migrants boliviens et de leurs réseaux, et les recompositions métropolitaines à l’œuvre.El presente trabajo analiza la actual estructura socioproductiva de las periferias hortícolas del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA, su evolución en los últimos cincuenta años y el papel que jugaron los migrantes bolivianos en sus recomposiciones socio-espaciales. En el marco de una serie de cambios políticos, económicos, migratorios y de avance de la frontera agrícola y urbana, se seleccionaron un conjunto de factores claves para el sector hortícola, especialmente en la región norte (Pilar y sur (La Plata del AMBA. Se evidencia una fuerte tendencia hacia la diferenciación espacial y el desarrollo desigual en el interior del AMBA así como también un quiebre en un área que ahora se puede señalar como heterogénea. La estructura

  20. 川芎与东川芎挥发性成分分析%Analysis of the volatile component from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自梁; 王景迪; 邹依霖; 安仁波

    2016-01-01

    用气流吹扫微注射器萃取技术(GP-MSE)得到川芎和东川芎的挥发性成分,用气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)鉴定了所得挥发性物质的化学成分,并用归一化法测定了其相对含量.在川芎中鉴定出2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯(21.94%)、间苯二胺(6.04%)、丁烯苯酞(5.17%)和1(2,4二甲基苯基)2甲基1丙酮(4.83%)等32个化合物.在东川芎中鉴定出(1Z,4Z)6丁基环庚1,4二烯(15.76%)、2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯(13.46%)、(11E,14E)二十碳二烯酸甲酯(9.32%)和1(2,4二甲基苯基)1丙酮(5.61%)等34个化合物.2羟基苯乙酸异丁酯为首次从川芎和东川芎中鉴定出的成分,其相对百分含量分别为21.94%和13.46%.%The volatile component of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino were han-dled by gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE),and were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spec-trometer (GC-MS).Area normalization method was used for the detection of the volatile component.Thirty-two compounds were identified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and the components conclude isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (21.94%),benzene-1,3-diamine (6.04%),n-butene phthalide (5.17%),1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-methylpropan-1-one (4.83%),etc;thirty-four compounds were extracted and identified from Cnidium officinale Makino,the components conclude (1Z,4Z)-6-butylcyclohepta-1,4-diene (15.76%), isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (13.46%),(11E,14E)-methyl icosa-11,14-dienoate (9.32%),1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)propan-1-one (5.61%),etc.The component isobutyl 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate was iden-tified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.and Cnidium officinale Makino for the first time,the relative per-centage content is 21.94% and 13.46%,respectively.

  1. 川芎中内酯类化合物的质谱学规律%The Regular Patterns of Mass Spectrometry of Lactones from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志; 谢润乾; 张涛; 谭丽贤; 庾秀英

    2011-01-01

    质谱学在中药药效物质的结构确定中起至关重要的作用,对每一个化合物质谱的确切解释需要对每一个质谱的关键裂解过程具有足够的了解.本研究报道了川芎中具有不饱和侧链与饱和侧链内酯类化合物的质谱学规律.质谱特征峰[M+ -29]和[M+-42]表明了从这些内酯类化合物的分子离子分别失去不饱和侧链上的末端烷基-C2H5和-C3H6基团,这是川芎中具有不饱和侧链内酯类化合物(如(Z)-藁本内酯、(E)-藁本内酯、丁烯基酞内酯和川芎内酯Ⅰ)的典型质谱特征;质谱特征峰[M+-57]显示了从这些内酯类化合物的分子离子失去饱和侧链-C4H9基团,这是川芎中具有饱和侧链内酯类化合物(如丁基酞内酯和川芎内酯A)的典型质谱特征.%Mass spectrometry plays a crucial role in the structure elucidation of those effec-tive substances from traditional Chinese medicine. Secure interpretation of the mass spec-trum of each compound requires an adequate understanding of the key fragmentation process of the mass spectrum. In this paper, the regular patterns of mass spectrometry of lactones with unsaturated side chain and with saturated side chain from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Were reported. The diagnostic peaks at [M+ -29] and [M+ -42] show the molecu-lar ion of the lactones losses a -C2H5 group and a -C3H6 group, respectively, the terminal alkyl groups from the unsaturated side chain. They are typical characteristic of the mass spectra of the lactones with unsaturated side chain from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , such as (Z)-ligustilide. (E)-ligustilide, butylidene phthalide and senkyunolide I. The char-acteristic peak at [M+ -57] displays the molecular ion of the lactones losses a -C4 H9 group from the saturated side chain. This is typical characteristic of the mass spectra of the lactones with saturated side chain from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , such as bu-tylphthalide and senkyunolide A.

  2. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U07086-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 44 5.5 1 ( DY272854 ) IC0AAA32BC06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',...... 44 5.5 1 ( DY271159 ) KN0AAP9YA15FM1 Fruit-TF Citrus clementina cDNA 5'... 44 5.5 1 ( DY259793 ) KN0AAP10Y...D11FM1 Fruit-TF Citrus clementina cDNA 5... 44 5.5 1 ( CV710938 ) UCRPT01_0015C02

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02738-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZM_BFb Zea mays cDNA 5', mRNA seq... 34 0.53 2 ( DY261081 ) KN0AAP1YK01FM1 Fruit-TF Citrus clementina cDNA 5... mature leaf cDNA library KBLW ... 48 0.73 1 ( FC908706 ) KN0AAQ3YK21RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi...osome 2 clone CH201-425C6; ZMMBBc04... 36 1.5 2 ( FC912982 ) IC0AAA33BF07RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi...na cDNA clon... 36 1.6 3 ( FC899640 ) IC0AAA93DD12RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clon... ...36 1.6 3 ( FC909724 ) IC0AAA76AF05RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clon... 36 1.6 3 ( EY715694 ) CS00-C3-702

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14861-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 2 ( DY270079 ) IC0AAA28CH10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 0.26 2 (... AL807374 ) Neurospora crassa DNA linkage group V BAC contig ... 42 0.27 3 ( DY271448 ) IC0AAA29BF04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi....29 2 ( AQ231733 ) HS_3243_B1_F04_MR CIT Approved Human Genomic Sper... 38 0.29 2 ( DY299259 ) IC0AAA97DE07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 44 0.30 2 ( DY302778 ) KN0AAQ3YO17RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA ...5', ... 44 0.34 2 ( DY294987 ) IC0AAA87AC01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 0.35 2 ( DY266921 ) I

  6. 川芎高频再生体系的建立%Establishment and Optimization of High-frequency Shoot Regeneration System of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲玲; 梅兰菊; 唐琳

    2012-01-01

    We explored optimized induction and differentiation medium and culture conditions to establish a protocol of rapid clonal propagation of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. The petioles were the best explant and Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2.0 mg/L KT and 0. 5 mg/L IAA was suitable for high-frequency shoot regeneration. The results suggested that callus were induced from petioles of aseptic seedlings in dark conditions. And then these callus were subcuttured for 15 days in light conditions,about 44.4% frequency of shoot regeneration was induced. The rooting percentage of the regenerated shoots reached 90% on 1/2 MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA and 0. 5 mg/L IBA. Approximately 95% rooted shoots survived in a greenhouse.%为建立川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.)高频再生体系,优化了诱导和分化培养基及培养条件.以叶柄为外植体,以MS为基本培养基,KT2.0 mg/L+ IAA0.5mg/L的激素组合对不定芽分化最有利.在此基础上,针对外植体来源、培养条件和愈伤组织继代时间3个因素进行优化.结果表明:采用川芎无菌苗叶柄作为外植体,黑暗条件下诱导出愈伤组织,再在光照下继代培养15d后转入分化培养基中对不定芽诱导最为有利,分化率为44.4%.分化后得到的不定芽在含NAA0.5 mg/L和IBA 0.5 mg/L的1/2MS培养基上生根率达90%,移栽存活率为95%.

  7. Effects of Drying Methods on the Content of Ferulic Acid in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.%干燥方法对蘼芜中阿魏酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昕; 欧丽兰; 张丹; 何颖; 何兵

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the effect of drying methods on the content of ferulic acid in different parts of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. . [ Method] The content of ferulic acid in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Was determined by HPLC. [ Result] There was a good linear relationship between the concentration and peak area of ferulic acid when the sample injection ranged from 0.01148 to 0.1148 μg (r = 0.999 9). The average recovery was 100.1% with the RSD of 1. 18% (n =9). The content of ferulic acid in naturally sun-dried Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Was 0.0054% with the RSD of 1. 55 %, while that was 0.010 5% with the RSD of 1.07% in those dried oven-drying after sunshine. As to Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , oven-drying after sunshine was superior to the above two methods. [ Conclusion] Among the three drying methods , oven-drying after sunshine was the optimal one for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort..%[目的]研究干燥方法对蘼芜中阿魏酸含量的影响.[方法]采用高效液相色谱法测定不同干燥方法处理的蘼芜中阿魏酸的含量.[结果]阿魏酸在进样量0.01148~0.1148μg/ml浓度范围内,与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率为100.1%,RSD为1.18%(n=9);采用晒后烘干法干燥的蘼芜中阿魏酸的含量为0.0054%,RSD为1.55%;采用自然阴干法干燥的蘼芜中阿魏酸的含量为0.0080%,RSD为1.80%;采用晒后烘干法干燥的蘼芜中阿魏酸的含量为0.0105%,RSD为1.07%.结果表明,3种干燥方法中,以晒后烘干处理的蘼芜中阿魏酸的含量最高.[结论]蘼芜的最佳干燥方法为晒后烘干法.

  8. HPLC determination of tetramethylpyrazine in geo-authentic Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.of Sichuan province%HPLC法测定川产道地药材川芎中川芎嗪的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美晓; 黄志芳; 肖红斌; 易进海

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立川芎中川芎嗪的含量测定方法,并测定川产道地药材川芎中川芎嗪的含量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定川芎中川芎嗪的含量.色谱柱:Phenomenex Gemini C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相:甲酵-四氢呋喃-20 mmol·L-1醋酸铵水溶液(pH 9.5)(68:7:425);流速:1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长:280 nm;柱温:35℃.结果:川产道地药材川芎中川芎嗪含量甚微,大多数药材含量低于检测限0.10 μg·g-1而未检出.结论:川芎嗪为川芎中主要有效成分是一个认识误区,本方法测定结果可靠,为进一步科学认识川芎药效成分提供参考.%Objective: To establish determination method of tetramethylpyrazine in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. ,and determine the content of tetramethylpyrazine in geo - authentic Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. of Sichuan province. Methods:The contents of tetramethylpyrazine were determined by HPLC. HPLC was carried out with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 ( 250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm) column, the mobile phase was methanol - tetrahydrofuran ( THF) - 20 mmol · L-1 ammonium acetate water solution ( pH 9. 5) (68: 7: 425) with a flow rate of 1. 0 mL ·min -1 , the detection wavelength was 280 nm and the column temperature was 35 ℃ . Results :The content of tetramethylpyrazine in geo - authentic Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. of Sichuan province was minimal, and mostly lower than 0. 10 μg · g -1 then not be detected. Conclusion : There is a cognition mistake that tetramethylpyrazine is the main active component in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. . The result determined by this method is reliable, which provide the basis in order to further scientific cognition about pharmacodynamic action component of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. .

  9. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  10. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest. Analyses of RNAi-related genes in the Asian citrus psyllid genome showed an absence of sequences encoding R2D2, a dsRNA-binding protein that functions as a cofactor of Dicer-2 in Drosophila. Nevertheless, bioassays using an in Planta System showed that the Asian citrus psyllid was very sensitive to ingested dsRNA, demonstrating a strong RNAi response. A small dose of dsRNA administered through a citrus flush was enough to trigger the RNAi mechanism, causing significant suppression of the targeted transcript, and increased psyllid mortality. This study provides evidence of a functional RNAi machinery, which could be further exploited to develop RNAi based management strategies for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:27901078

  11. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2013-07-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious α-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments.

  12. The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis.

  13. INFLUENCE OF CITRUS LEPROSIS ON THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Citrus sinensis LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. de L. Nogueira

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis is the main viral disease affecting citrus in Brazil. Viral diseases can affect the mineral composition of citrus leaves, inducing mineral deficiencies. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of citrus leprosis on the mineral composition of citrus leaves, cultivar Pera. Orange seedlings were grown in pots containing sterile soil, and kept under greenhouse conditions. When plants had 15 to 20 leaves, they were infested with the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, the leprosis vector, collected from infected citrus plants. Other plants were not infested, and were used as the control. Ninety days after infestation, all the infested plants presented leprosis lesions. The six upper leaves of each plant were collected and the determination of macro and micro-elements was performed. Leaves from the infected plants showed lower levels of N and higher levels of Ca, S and Fe, as compared to the control (= 0.05. Both treatments presented similar levels of P, K, Mg, Cu,Mn, Zn and B.A leprose dos citros é uma das principais doenças de citros no Brasil. As doenças causadas por vírus podem afetar a composição mineral de folhas de citros, induzindo deficiências minerais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência da leprose dos citros na composição mineral de folhas de citros, cultivar Pera. Seedlings de laranja foram crescidos em vasos contendo solo estéril e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Plantas com 15 a 20 folhas foram infestadas com ácaro da espécie Brevipalpus phoenicis, vetor da leprose dos citros, provenientes de plantas de citros com sintomas da doença. Outras plantas não foram infestadas, e serviram como controle. Após noventa dias, todas as plantas infestadas apresentavam lesões de leprose. Seis folhas da parte superior de cada planta foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de macro e micronutrientes. As folhas das plantas infectadas apresentaram níveis mais baixos de N e mais elevados de Ca, S

  14. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  15. Overexpression of citrus polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in citrus black rot pathogen Alternaria citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Nalumpang, Sarunya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (RlemPGIPA) was overexpressed in the pathogenic fungus Alternaria citri. The overexpression mutant AcOPI6 retained the ability to utilize pectin as a sole carbon source, and the overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein did not have any effect on the growth of AcOPI6 in potato dextrose and pectin medium. The pathogenicity of AcOPI6 to cause a black rot symptom in citrus fruits was also unchanged. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein was secreted together with endopolygalacturonase into culture filtrates of AcOPI6, and oligogalacturonides were digested from polygalacturonic acid by both proteins in the culture filtrates. The reaction mixture containing oligogalacturonides possessed activity for induction of defense-related gene, RlemLOX, in rough lemon leaves.

  16. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka) and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort...

  17. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Almeida Coelho Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10: C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05. C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7% was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  19. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  20. Citrus phytophtorose in humid subtropical zone of West Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mziuri Gabaidze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials about harmfulness of phytophtorose, which is one of the significant disease of citrus, its spread, time of emergency and effective means of its control are given in the article.

  1. Ethno medicinal values of Citrus genus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Citrus genus play an important role as a dietary supplement and therapeutic assent as well since ages. The present review summarizes some such attributes of Citrus genus. Literature review was done through published works to gather information on nutritional and ethnic values, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Citrus. Information about the plant and phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities were collected from the published reports. The plant was found to possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, and hypolipidemic properties. They are found to be significant antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic activity. The phytoconstituents which are present in the plant are mainly coumarins and flavonoids which are responsible for the actions. The phytochemical constituents and isolated bioactive compounds of Citrus can be investigated further to develop novel herbal drugs by using reverse pharmacological approaches especially in the treatment of liver diseases, arthritis, malignancies, and other inflammatory diseases.

  2. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Bare-Earth Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  3. Citrus residues isolates improve astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

    2010-01-01

    The wild strain and two astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strains, W618 and GNG274, of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium containing (per liter): 2 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4, 2 g KNO3, and 1 g yeast extract, and supplemented with citrus residues isolates as a carbon source (citrus medium). The selected strain W618 was evaluated under various contents of citrus juice. At the content of 20% (v/v), the highest astaxanthin production reached 22.63 mg L(-1), which was two-fold more than that observed in yeast malt medium. Addition of 8% (v/v) n-hexadecane to the citrus medium was found to be optimal, increasing the astaxanthin yield by 21.7%.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with Agrobacterium suspension for 5, 10, 20 or 40 minutes; co-cultivation medium was supplemented with acetosyringone at 0, 100 or 200 mmol L-1; Explants ends had a longitudinal terminal incision (2-3 mm; co-cultivation temperatures of 19, 23 or 27degreesC were imposed. The experimental design was completely randomized in all experiments with five replications, each consisted of a Petri dish (100 x 15 mm with 30 explants and resulted in a total of 150 explants per treatment. Longitudinal terminal incision in the explant ends did not improve shoot regeneration. However, transgenic plants of all three cultivars were confirmed from explants that had been subjected to inoculation time of 20 minutes, co-culture of three days at 23-27degreesC, in the absence of acetosyringone.

  5. Citrus pectin: structure and application in acid dairy drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhatan Naseri, Abrisham; Thibault, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide, is mainly used in food industries for its gelling and stabilizing properties. In industrial applications, pectin is usually widely extracted from citrus peels, and in some intances, apple pomace is also used. Lime and lemon are the preferred citrus species used in the extraction of pectin, while orange and grapefruit are used less often. In the food industry, pectin is widely employed in the production of jams and jellies, confectionary products a...

  6. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  7. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  8. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman; Muhammad Aizam Hassan; Lutfun Nahar; Norazah Basar; Shajarahtunnur Jamil; Sarker,Satyajit D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citru...

  9. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control.

  10. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  11. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15821-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.30 1 ( DY303224 ) KN0AAQ5YC18RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 50 0.30 1 ( DY301134 ) KN0AAQ12YE03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clement...ina cDNA 5',... 50 0.30 1 ( DY289233 ) IC0AAA71DD10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDN...A 5',... 50 0.30 1 ( DY286491 ) IC0AAA65AG05RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',...... 50 0.30 1 ( DY285793 ) IC0AAA64AD11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 50 0.30 1 ( DY282777 ) IC0AA...A57CG03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 50 0.30 1 ( DY279881 ) IC0AAA4CF05RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12726-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DY298864 ) IC0AAA96DA07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 48 0.10 1 ( DY298348 ) IC0AAA95BD07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 48 0.10 1 ( DY294893 ) IC0AAA86DB10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 48 0.10 1 ( DY291995 ) IC0AAA79CG12RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 48 0....10 1 ( DY282181 ) IC0AAA56AB08RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 48 0.10 1 ( DY279712 ) IC0AAA4AF10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5', ... 48 0.10 1 ( DY277548 ) IC0AAA44AG01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05261-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q12YL10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 50 0.13 1 ( DY282415 ) IC0AAA56CG01RM1 CitNFL Citrus cleme...ntina cDNA 5',... 50 0.13 1 ( DY271865 ) IC0AAA2CC11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cD...NA 5', ... 50 0.13 1 ( DY263124 ) IC0AAA10DE06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 50 0.13 1 ( CO502820 ...rassa cDNA - 7 Days P... 50 0.13 1 ( FC916234 ) IC0AAA56CG01RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clon... 50 0.13... 1 ( FC895453 ) IC0AAA2CC11RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clone... 50 0.13 1 ( FC886493 ) IC0AAA10DE06RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi

  15. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  16. Worker exposure to ethion in Florida citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojeck, G A; Nigg, H N; Stamper, J H; Bradway, D E

    1981-11-01

    Dermal and respiratory exposure to ethion was determined for 17 men in eight spray crews in Florida citrus spray operations. Respiratory exposure was less than 1% of the total exposure. Hands represented 42% of the total body exposure for applicators and 76% for suppliers. At one location, suppliers exhibited a larger decrease in ChE activity than applicators. This difference appeared related to the higher mean dermal ethion exposure to suppliers. Acute symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning were not observed. The total percent/hr of the probable human dermal LD50 was very low in all cases. These data indicate a relatively low potential acute hazard to workers applying ethion with air blast equipment under the conditions of this study.

  17. Relationship Between Leaf Vein Splitting and Mineral Nutrition of Citrus%柑橘叶脉开裂症与矿质营养的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 谢钟琛; 谢文龙; 吴兴明; 施清

    2011-01-01

    柑橘叶脉开裂症属于多病因的病症,缺Mg或缺B均可导致发病,对'纽荷尔'脐橙[Citrus sinensis(L.)Osbeck'Newhall']的缺Mg叶脉开裂症病株,在生长季4月采用1.0%硝酸镁叶面喷施矫治2~3次,可有效降低病叶发生.通过福建柑橘产区普查,由缺Mg引起叶脉开裂症占86.2%,其次为B与Mg共同缺乏,缺B仅占2.3%.不同品种缺Mg叶脉开裂的感病顺序为:纽荷尔脐橙>琯溪蜜柚,其它发病品种还有金柑、早熟温州蜜柑、瓯柑.采用易感品种纽荷尔脐橙与抗性品种椪柑互为中间砧高接比对发现,纽荷尔脐橙对Mg和B的吸收能力低于椪柑,对K的吸收高于椪柑,这可能是纽荷尔脐橙易患叶脉开裂症的原因.缺Mg和缺B病症的最显著的区别为,缺Mg叶脉开裂多位于叶片项部"∧"形黄化部位;缺B叶脉开裂症病叶呈绿色不黄化;Mg、B缺乏症的病叶主脉和侧脉明显开裂与全叶黄化,或叶脉开裂达基部"∧"形绿色区域.%This study confirmed that leaf vein splitting of citrus was multi-pathogeny caused by both Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency. Spraying 1.0% Mg(NO3)2· 6H2O had significant effect on remedying leaf vein splitting of‘ Newhall’ [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] caused by Mg-deficiency in April. According to the investigation in Fujian citrus orchards, 86.2% of leaf vein splitting was suffered from Mg-deficiency, 11.5% from Mg-deficiency and B-deficiency, only 2.3% from B-deficiency. Infection rates of leaf vein splitting caused by Mg-deficiency ranked in descending order was as follow: Newhall navel orange, ‘Guanxi-miyou' [C. grandis (L.) Osbeck]. Other infected varieties included ‘Kumquat’(Fortunella crassifolia Swingle), Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc. ‘Early variety’ ) and ‘Ougan’(C. suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka). Leaf vein splitting susceptible variety Newhall [C. sinensis(L. )Osbeck]and resistant varieties Ponkan ( C. reticulate Blanco) were used as intermediate stocks in graft

  18. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHL677 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osphatidylinositolglycan class N, complete cds. 62 6e-12 2 DY294852 |DY294852.1 IC0AAA86CG03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 84 9e-12 1 DY292438 |DY292438.1 IC0AAA7DH07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina... cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 84 9e-12 1 DY261328 |DY261328.1 KN0AAP2YH23FM1 Fruit-TF Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ...mRNA sequence. 84 9e-12 1 CX290998 |CX290998.1 C03002G05Rv OF1 Citrus clementina

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05437-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us_pacificus_L4_pDNR_L... 42 8.2 1 ( DY294682 ) IC0AAA86AH04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 42 8.2 ...1 ( DY283540 ) IC0AAA59DC05RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 42 8.2 1 ( DV018915 ) AHAH-aaa02b04.g1 P...irritans eggs Haematobia irr... 42 8.2 1 ( FC911884 ) IC0AAA59DC05RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi...na cDNA clon... 42 8.2 1 ( FC892946 ) IC0AAA86AH04RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clon... 42 8.2

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11859-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 81BG01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 8.3 1 ( DY287623 ) IC0AAA68BD10RM1 CitNFL Citrus clement...ina cDNA 5',... 44 8.3 1 ( DY286736 ) IC0AAA65DE03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA... 5',... 44 8.3 1 ( DY269772 ) IC0AAA27DE02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 44 8.3 1 ( CF507756 ) USD...1... 44 8.3 1 ( EI870413 ) CAH1-35J8TV CAA1Ba Cicer arietinum genomic clone ... 44 8.3 1 ( DY292958 ) IC0AAA

  2. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  4. Coleopterofauna epígea de importancia agrícola en cultivos de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) y tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), con diferente manejo sanitario, en el Cinturón Flori-Hortícola Platense

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El Cinturón Flori-Hortícola Platense (CFHP) (NE prov. Buenos Aires) representa la región más importante de la Argentina en la producción de hortalizas. La producción hortícola convencional implica el cultivo de especies de ciclos en general cortos y repetitivos, la práctica de laboreos intensivos y la aplicación de agroquímicos de síntesis (plaguicidas, herbicidas y fertilizantes). El elevado uso de estos últimos compuestos es visto como un problema socio-ambiental. Como alternativa de produc...

  5. Cambio estructural y exportaciones hortícolas de México hacia los Estados Unidos: análisis del comportamiento histórico de los principales productos exportados por Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Maya Ambía

    2011-01-01

    exportaciones de calabazas en términos de valor y las de berenjenas, tanto en valor como en volumen, podrían sugerir alguna relación con el TLCAN, ya que los años de cambio fueron 1996 y 1997 respectivamente. Sin embargo, se observa que si el TLCAN tuvo alguna influencia, ésta tardó de dos a tres años en aparecer, lo cual debilita la hipótesis de que dicho tratado sirvió para promover las exportaciones hortícolas seleccionadas.

  6. Análisis de las transformaciones de la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años : El rol de los horticultores bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    García, Matías

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis en su conjunto provee un análisis de la producción, la tecnología, la tierra, los agentes de la producción, la comercialización, la fuerza de trabajo que, en interacción, brindan elementos no sólo para interpretar las transformaciones en la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años, sino que también logran desarrollar o poner en cuestión el nuevo modelo de producción y abastecimiento a nivel agregado. Estas transformaciones fueron descriptas y analizada...

  7. Análisis de las transformaciones de la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años : El rol de los horticultores bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    García, Matías

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis en su conjunto provee un análisis de la producción, la tecnología, la tierra, los agentes de la producción, la comercialización, la fuerza de trabajo que, en interacción, brindan elementos no sólo para interpretar las transformaciones en la estructura agraria hortícola platense en los últimos 20 años, sino que también logran desarrollar o poner en cuestión el nuevo modelo de producción y abastecimiento a nivel agregado. Estas transformaciones fueron descriptas y an...

  8. 适用于川芎的ISSR-PCR反应体系的建立及优化(英文)%Optimization of ISSR-PCR Reaction Conditions for Genomic DNA of Ligusticum chuanxiong hort.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 唐琳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the impacts of ISSR-PCR amplification factors, for the establishment and optimization of ISSR-PCR reaction system for Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. [Method] Using genomic DNA of Chuanxiong leaf extracted via an improved CTAB method as template, single factor analysis was performed to investigate the impacts of DNA template concentration, Mg2+ concentration, dNTPs concentration, primer concentration, Taq DNA polymerase concentration on ISSR-PCR amplification and to optimize this system for Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. [Result] The ISSR-PCR amplification(25 μl) suitable for Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. was determined to be composed of 2.5 μl of 10×reaction buffer, 2.1 mmol/L MgCl2, 300 μmol/L dNTPs, 0.4 μmol/L primer, 1.0 U Taq DNA polymerase and 20-40 ng genomic DNA. [Conclusion] Our study laid basis for analyzing the genetic diversity of Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. resources distributed in 17 different areas of China.%[目的]建立和优化适合川芎的ISSR-PCR反应体系。[方法]以川芎叶片为材料,利用改良CTAB法提取了叶片基因组DNA,利用单因素试验分析了DNA模板、Mg2+、dNTP、引物和TaqDNA聚合酶的浓度对ISSR-PCR反应的影响,对适合川芎的ISSR-PCR反应条件进行了优化。[结果]确定了适合川芎的ISSR-PCR反应体系为25.0μl,其中含2.5μl10×TaqDNA聚合酶缓冲液、2.1mmol/LMgCl2、300μmol/LdNTP、0.4μmol/L引物、1.0UTaqDNA聚合酶和20~40ng模板DNA。[结论]为进一步对全国17个不同分布区的川芎资源进行遗传多样性研究奠定了基础。

  9. 适用于川芎的ISSR-PCR反应体系的建立及优化%Establishment and Optimization of ISSR-PCR Amplification System for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 唐琳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to establish and optimize the ISSR-PCR reaction system for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. [ Method] Using genomic DNA of Chuanxiong leaf extracted via an improved CTAB method, single factor analysis was performed to investigate the impacts of DNA template concentration, Mg2+ concentration, dNTPs concentration, primer concentration, Taq DNA polymerase concentration on ISSR-PCR amplification and to optimize this system for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. [ Result] The ISSR-PCR amplification(25 μl) suitable for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Was determined to be composed of 2. 5 μl of 10 × reaction buffer, 2.1 mmol/L MgCl2, 300 μmol/L dNTPs, 0.4 μmol/L primer, 1.0 U Taq DNA polymerase and 20 -40 ng genomic DNA. [ Conclusion] Our study laid basis for analyzing the genetic diversity of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Resources distributed in 17 different areas of China.%[目的]建立和优化适合川芎的ISSR-PCR反应体系.[方法]以川芎叶片为材料,利用改良CTAB法提取了叶片基因组DNA,利用单因素试验分析了DNA模板、Mg2+、dNTP、引物和Taq DNA聚合酶的浓度对ISSR-PCR反应的影响,对适合川芎的ISSR-PCR反应条件进行了优化.[结果]适合川芎的ISSR-PCR反应体系为25.0μl,其中含2.5μl10×Taq DNA聚合酶缓冲液、2.1 mmol/L MgCl2、300μmol/L dNTP、0.4 μmol/L引物、1.0 U Taq DNA聚合酶和20 ~40 ng模板DNA.[结论]为进一步对全国17个不同分布区的川芎资源进行遗传多样性研究奠定了基础.

  10. 金边龙舌兰一种新病害的病原菌鉴定%Pathogen identification of a new disease on Agave americana L. var. marginata Hort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玖利; 张荣意; 谭志琼

    2008-01-01

    对海南省金边龙舌兰(Agave americana L. var.marginata Hort)的一种新病害进行了症状描述和病原菌鉴定,结果表明:第一病原是肺腐镰刀菌[Fusarium solani(Mart.Sacc.]和燕麦镰刀菌[Fusarium avenaceum(Fr.)Sacc.],第二病原是果胶杆菌(Pectobacterium sp.),可增强茄腐镰刀菌对金边龙舌兰的致病性.

  11. Antioxidant Effects and Cytotoxicity of Crude Polysaccharide from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.%川芎粗多糖抗氧化和细胞毒活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原江锋; 王大红

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of crude polysaccharide from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LCP) was extensively investigated with DPPH radical-scavenging, hydroxyl radical-scavenging, superoxide anion-scavenging, total antioxidant activity,chelating effect on ferrous ion and reducing power and lipid peroxidation. In addition,the antiproliferative activity of HepGj cell was also tested. The experimental results showed that LCP exhibited antioxidation and cytotoxicity. LCP has higher activities on reducing power,superoxide anion-scavenging and lipid peroxidation,and it also exhibited antipro-liferation ability on HepG2 cell. LCP is expected to be explored as a natural potential antioxidant and cytotoxic natural bioactive macromolecule.%通过川芎粗多糖(LCP)对DPPH离子、超氧阴离子、·OH、总抗氧化能力、螯合能力、还原性和脂质过氧化能力的抗氧化效果和对肝癌细胞HepG2的抑制作用研究.结果显示:LCP具有较强的还原力,对超氧阴离子自由基、脂质过氧化产物有良好的抑制作用,其对肝癌细胞HepG2也具有一定的抑制作用.LCP有望作为天然抗氧化剂及功能性食品得到开发与应用.

  12. Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J; Maccheroni, jr., W.; Elsas, van, J.D.; Vuurde, van, M.; Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by ...

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  14. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  15. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; Maccheroni, jr. W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independen

  16. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... States. Citrus canker is a plant disease that affects plant and plant parts, including fresh fruit of... Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit From Quarantined Areas... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We...

  17. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  18. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit crop, times the coverage level percent... temperatures. Harvest. The severance of mature citrus fruit from the tree by pulling, picking, shaking, or any... the fruit type; (2) Produced by citrus trees that have not reached the fifth growing season...

  19. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished...

  20. Protocol for introducing new and licensed citrus varieties into California. A Florida case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the light of the current Huanglongbing (HLB) threat to the California (CA) citrus industry, and preliminary data indicating that some citrus varieties in Florida (FL) may possess some degree of tolerance to HLB, the California citrus growers indicated a strong interest in proactively introducing ...

  1. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  2. Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing by Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening disease) was discovered in Florida in 2005 and is spreading rapidly amongst the citrus growing regions of the state. Detection via visual symptoms of the disease is not a long term viable option. New techniques are being developed to test fo...

  3. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified citrus... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus...

  4. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSH417 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available discoideum cDNA clone:ddc39g02, 3' ... 214 2e-51 1 ( ET109862 ) QM0AAC18AB01FM1 CCH3 Citrus clementina geno...mic cl... 50 0.076 1 ( ET107592 ) QM0AAC14CA03RM2 CCH3 Citrus clementina genomic cl... 50 0.076 1 dna update

  6. Dicty_cDB: SHL713 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 0.084 1 DY275609 |DY275609.1 IC0AAA39DE01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.33 1 DY...267839 |DY267839.1 IC0AAA22CC06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', mRNA sequenc

  7. 75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... canker is a plant disease that affects plant and plant parts, including fresh fruit of citrus and citrus... Information Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit from... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker and to request...

  8. The Role of Image Enhancement in Citrus Canker Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padmavathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is employed in numerous areas of biology to identify and analyse problems. This approach aims to use image processing techniques for citrus canker disease detection through leaf inspection. Citrus canker is a severe bacterium-based citrus plant disease. The symptoms of citrus canker disease typically occur in the leaves, branches, fruits and thorns. The leaf images show the health status of the plant and facilitate the observation and detection of the disease level at an early stage. The leaf image analysis is an essential step for the detection of numerous plant diseases. The proposed approach consists of two stages to improve the clarity and quality of leaf images. The primary stage uses Recursively Separated Weighted Histogram Equalization (RSWHE, which improves the contrast level. The second stage removes the unwanted noise using a Median filter. This proposed approach uses these methods to improve the clarity of the images and implements these methods in lemon citrus canker disease detection.

  9. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries were queried and all bona fide and putative photoreceptor gene families were found in citrus species. We have identified 53 orthologs for several families of transcriptional regulators and cytoplasmic proteins mediating photoreceptor-induced responses although some important Arabidopsis phytochrome- and cryptochrome-signaling components are absent from citrus sequence databases. The main gene families responsible for phototropin-mediated signal transduction were present in citrus transcriptome, including general regulatory factors (14-3-3 proteins, scaffolding elements and auxin-responsive transcription factors and transporters. A working model of light perception, signal transduction and response-eliciting in citrus is proposed based on the identified key components. These results demonstrate the power of comparative genomics between model systems and economically important crop species to elucidate several aspects of plant physiology and metabolism.

  10. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04791-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 847 Cunninghamella elegans pBluescript (E... 46 0.41 1 ( DY302321 ) KN0AAQ2YK07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina ...cDNA 5', ... 46 0.41 1 ( DY300323 ) IC0AAA9DD02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 46 0.41 1 ( DY29354...3 ) IC0AAA83AD09RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 0.41 1 ( DY288464 ) I...C0AAA6CG09RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 46 0.41 1 ( DY285820 ) IC0AAA64AF01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 46 0.41 1 ( DY284501 ) IC0AAA61CC02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 0.41 1 (

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09504-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um slug cDNA, clone SSL812. 476 e-129 1 ( DY302241 ) KN0AAQ2YG21RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 58... 8e-04 1 ( DY299208 ) IC0AAA97CH11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 58 8e-...04 1 ( DY291964 ) IC0AAA79CE04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 58 8e-04 1 ( DY276814 ) IC0AAA42AG02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 58 8e-04 1 ( DY272149 ) IC0AAA30BE02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDN...A 5',... 58 8e-04 1 ( DY272123 ) IC0AAA30BB11RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 58 8e-04 1 ( DY263857

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12191-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 ) LedoSEQ1279 Lentinula edodes pBluescript (EcoRI-X... 46 4.2 1 ( DY304724 ) KN0AAQ9YI12RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5', ... 46 4.2 1 ( DY304181 ) KN0AAQ7YP19RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5', ... 46 4.2 1 ...( DY298237 ) IC0AAA95AB02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 4.2 1 ( DY29...7661 ) IC0AAA93BE06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 4.2 1 ( DY295228 ) IC0AAA87CH01RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 46 4.2 1 ( DY294370 ) IC0AAA85BD06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 4.2

  14. AcEST: DK953355 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clementina x Citrus retic... 34 4.1 tr|B8LF...EEEH ++ G++ Sbjct: 4 IMHKIEDALHIGGRKKEEEHKGEHHGEHKGEH 35 >tr|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clementi

  15. El nodo de distribución en la cadena hortícola de valor México-Estados Unidos: el caso de las exportaciones sinaloenses de productos frescos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Maya Ambía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinaloa es la principal entidad federativa exportadora de hortalizas frescas de México a Estados Unidos. Su inserción en la globalización ocurre a través de la cadena hortícola de valor que existe entre ambos países. Para que ésta funcione de manera eficiente, es central el papel de las empresas que distribuyen en Estados Unidos las hortalizas producidas en Sinaloa. Después de explicar las características de la cadena en el contexto del mercado hortícola mundial, a partir del trabajo de campo realizado en la zona fronteriza de Nogales, Arizona, el presente artículo analiza la experiencia de los horticultores sinaloenses que crearon distribuidoras propias en territorio estadounidense, para mejorar su posición competitiva en el mercado y tener mayor control sobre sus productos. Asimismo, se detalla la situación actual y los desafíos que la globalización impone a las empresas estudiadas.

  16. Determination of Metal Elements in Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort by FAAS%火焰原子吸收光谱法测定川芎中金属元素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠航; 董顺福; 刘建华; 韩丽琴

    2009-01-01

    采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定了川芎中金属元素铁、锰、铜、锌、镍和铬的含量.测定结果显示,川芎中含有丰富的金属元素,铁元素含量较高为439.9415±10.8599μg·g~(-1).实验为探讨川芎中金属元素与药理关系提供了有用的数据,采用原子吸收光谱法测定金属元素,准确度高,操作简便,结果准确.%The trace elements of iron, manganese, copper, zincum, nickel and chromium in ligusticum chuanxiong hort were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The trace elements were rich in ligusticum chuanxiong hort and the content of iron is higher than the other elements,its herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines. The atomic absorption spectrometry is the accurate and convinente method for the trace elements.

  17. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04429-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA, BAC clone:3D12B. 34 6.2 2 ( FC894521 ) IC0AAA28CE04RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clon... 38 6.3 2 ( A...-25F19, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 36 6.6 4 ( FC918070 ) KN0AAQ12YD18RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi...( FC890508 ) IC0AAA2BE03RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementina cDNA clone... 38 6.8 2 ( FC898504 ) IC0AAA77BE05RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi... 6 ( CX673856 ) UCRCS10_2D04_b Madame Vinous Sweet Orange Multipl... 38 6.9 2 ( FC917210 ) IC0AAA29CB10RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi...na cDNA clon... 38 7.0 2 ( FC917554 ) IC0AAA69AD11RM1 IVIA1 Citrus clementi

  19. 蒸馏-萃取耦合法提取川芎挥发油的工艺优化研究%Process optimization study of coupled method of distillation-extraction for volatile oil of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵引利; 何燕宁; 胡春兰; 杨冬丽; 张东阁; 杨宇杰; 王春民; 雒佳莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To further optimize coupled method of distillation-extraction for volatile oil of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.. Methods Distillation and solvent extraction method were coupled to extract volatile oil of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort..Recovery rate of ligustilide was selected as an indicator to optimize the separation and purification of volatile oil of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.,which was mixed with extraction agent.The content of ligustilide was deter-mined by gas chromatography.AT-5 quartz capillary at size of 30 mí0.32 mmí0.25 μm was selected as capillary-col-umn chromatography.The basic conditions were flame ionization detector (FID),temperature of injection port being 250℃, temperature of detector being 250℃,and temperature programming. Results The optimized extraction process was paraffin wax solution extracted once by 1 ml ethyl alcohol,and 5 times by 0.5 ml ethyl alcohol,and salted out by 1.5 times of 30% sodium chloride solution before obtaining volatile oil of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.. Conclusion The opti-mized coupled method of distillation-extraction process is stable and can be applied to extract volatile oil of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort..%目的:对蒸馏原萃取耦合法进行进一步优化,用于提取川芎挥发油。方法将蒸馏法与溶剂萃取法耦合用于提取川芎挥发油,以藁本内酯回收率为指标优选混有萃取剂的川芎挥发油的分离、纯化过程。用气相色谱法检测藁本内酯含量,采用AT-5石英毛细管色谱柱(30 m×0.32 mm×0.25μm);FID检测器;进样口温度:250℃,检测器温度:250℃;程序升温。结果确定优化后的提取工艺,即蒸馏-萃取所得川芎挥发油的石蜡溶液经1 ml乙醇萃取1次,0.5 ml乙醇萃取5次,1.5倍量30%NaCl水溶液盐析等得到川芎挥发油。结论优化后的蒸馏原萃取耦合法工艺稳定,可以用于提取川芎挥发油。

  20. The IDA peptide controls abscission in Arabidopsis and Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H Estornell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organ abscission is an important process in plant development and reproduction. During abscission, changes in cellular adhesion of specialised abscission zone (AZ cells ensure the detachment of infected organs or those no longer serving a function to the plant. In addition, abscission also plays an important role in the release of ripe fruits. Different plant species display distinct patterns and timing of organ shedding, most likely adapted during evolution to their diverse life styles. However, it appears that key regulators of cell separation may have conserved function in different plant species. Here we investigate the functional conservation of the citrus orthologue of the Arabidopsis peptide ligand INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (AtIDA, controlling floral organ abscission. We discuss the possible implications of modifying the citrus IDA orthologue for citrus fruit production.

  1. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  2. Analysis of SSR in Citrus Sequences from EMBL Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hai-jun; CAO Qing-qin; HU Zhi-yong; LIU Gao-ping; CHENG Yun-jiang; DENG Xiu-xin

    2005-01-01

    Abundance of simple sequence repeat (SSR) in Citrus sequences from EMBL database was investigated by using computer program MISA (MIcroSAtellite), which aimed to provide useful information for the development of SSR markers.Among 32 896 sequences of Citrus, 4987 SSRs were found in 4167 sequences and the average distance between SSRs was approximately 3.5 kb. Mononucleotide repeats (50.6%) were the most abundant repeats. And di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats were 22.8, 25.2, 1, 0.08, and 0.36%, respectively. The most abundant motif was A/T followed in descending order by AG/CT, AC/GT, AT/TA. AAT/ATT, AAG/CTT, AGC/CGT, ACG/CTG and C/G. They comprised about90% of all microsatellites. Ten primer pairs were designed, and three of them produced clear visible bands among Citrus and its related genera.

  3. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  4. Enhanced Acquisition Rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in the Presence of Vegetative Flush Growth in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V

    2016-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles.

  5. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Riaz, Azra

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are increasing worldwide, however these disorders may be managed by making healthier changes is dietary pattern, since there are evidences that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins help reduce anxiety and depression. Hence present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats at three different doses i.e. 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml/kg considered as low, moderate and high doses. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were specifically assessed twice during 15 days using open field test, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test. In open field test C. limon, revealed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at moderate dose, while in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be increased. Whereas in forced swimming test, there was decrease in duration of immobility and increase in duration of climbing. Thus results of present study suggest that C. limon at moderate dose have anxiolytic effect.

  6. In Vitro Propagation of Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was conducted to standardize a protocol for in-vitro propagation of citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Pectinifera and Troyer citrange. The shoot tip explant was found better for callus induction of these rootstocks than the nodal segment. Maximum callus formation (40.0% and 23.3% of shoot tip explants was obtained in Cleopatra mandarin, Pectinifera, and Rough lemon and Troyer citrange, respectively in treatment MS basal media + 0.5mg/l Kin, 2.0mg/l NAA, and 2.0mg/l 2, 4-D. Furthermore, the maximum number of shoots per explant was obtained through the callus in Pectinifera, Rough lemon and Cleopatra mandarin in MS basal media + BAP 1mg/l. Maximum rooting of shoots (1.11% was noted in rootstock Rough lemon followed by Cleopatra mandarin for the � MS media supplemented with 10mg/l IBA. Although the callus development and bud proliferation was recorded in rootstock Troyer citrange however, shoot and root formation did not occur. The potting media consisting of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume was better with maximum survival rate of hardened plants six weeks after transferring to the pots under greenhouse for Rough lemon followed by Pectinifera and Cleopatra mandarin rootstock.

  7. Chemical compounds effective against the citrus Huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Zhou, Lijuan; He, Zhenli; Stover, Ed; Duan, Yongping

    2011-09-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. As a possible control strategy for citrus HLB, therapeutic compounds were screened using a propagation test system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle and citrus plants. The results demonstrated that the combination of penicillin and streptomycin (PS) was effective in eliminating or suppressing the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium and provided a therapeutically effective level of control for a much longer period of time than when administering either antibiotic separately. When treated with the PS, 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings achieved 70% of regeneration rates versus citrus plants. This may provide a useful tool for the management of citrus HLB and other Liberibacter-associated diseases.

  8. Organic Acid Concentrations and the Relative Enzymatic Changes During the Development of the Citrus Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO An-cai; YANG Xiao-hong; DENG Ying-yi; LI Chun-fan; XIANG Ke-shu; LI Dao-gao

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in enzyme activities and citrate concentration during the development of citrus fruits were investigated. The result showed that the organic acid concentrations reached a peak in the 100 - 130days after anthesis and gradually declined during later stages of fruit maturation in most varieties of citrus,but declined only slightly thereafter in lemon [Citrus lin on (L.) Burm]; there is no relation between the activity of citrate synthetase(CS) and the different acid concentration in different citrus fruits; the increase of the activity of the cytosolic aconitase in the late period of the development of citrus fruits accelerated the degradation of citric acid in citrus fruits; the higher the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) and the ratio of NAD-dependent isocitrate hydrogenase(PEPC/NAD-IDH- ), the more the concentrations of organic acids in citrus fruit.

  9. Comunidades de malezas en cultivos hortícolas en la Provincia de Neuquén (Argentina Weed's communities in vegetable crops in Neuquen Province, (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Cerazo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La gran mayoría de los cultivos hortícolas son muy sensibles a la competencia de malezas, las cuales inciden en los rendimientos y calidad de los mismos y en ocasiones determinan la pérdida total del cultivo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo conocer la composición florística de las comunidades de malezas y su análisis sintaxonómico, ya que ambos constituyen un buen parámetro para medir el estado de los cultivos. La vegetación fue muestreada siguiendo la metodología de Braun Blanquet, en explotaciones de seis localidades de la provincia. A partir de esta información se determinaron ocho asociaciones, de las cuales seis están comprendidas en la clase Stellarietea mediae (Br. Bl. 1931 Tx., Prsg. et Lohm, 1950 y las dos restantes en Artemisietea vulgaris Lohm, Prsg et Tüxen 1950. El deficiente estado del cultivo está señalado por el desarrollo de malezas perennes de difícil control, incluidas en su mayoría en la clase Artemisietea vulgaris. Se inventariaron ochenta y nueve especies, para los periodos otoño- invierno y primavera - verano. Existe un claro predominio de Dicotiledóneas (79 % sobre Monocotiledóneas y de malezas anuales (66 % sobre perennes.Most vegetable crops are very sensitive to the weed competition, which affects the yields and quality and sometimes the total lost of the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the floristic composition of the weed communities and to analyse its sintaxonomy, because both are effective parameters for measuring the state of the crop. The vegetation was sampled following the Braun-Blanquet methodology on farms in six localities in the province. We determined eight associations from this information: six are included in the class Stellarietea mediae (Br. Bl. 1931 Tx., Prsg. et Lohm, 1950 and the other two in Artemisietea vulgaris Lohm, Prsg and Tüxen 1950. The deficient state of the crop resulted from the development of perennial and difficult to control weeds, most of

  10. 'Le Rouge et le Noir': A decline in flavone formation correlates with the rare color of black dahlia (Dahlia variabilis hort. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thill Jana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20,000 cultivars of garden dahlia (Dahlia variabilis hort. are available showing flower colour from white, yellow and orange to every imaginable hue of red and purple tones. Thereof, only a handful of cultivars are so-called black dahlias showing distinct black-red tints. Flower colour in dahlia is a result of the accumulation of red anthocyanins, yellow anthochlors (6’-deoxychalcones and 4-deoxyaurones and colourless flavones and flavonols, which act as copigments. White and yellow coloration occurs only if the pathway leading to anthocyanins is incomplete. Not in all cultivars the same step of the anthocyanin pathway is affected, but the lack of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity is frequently observed and this seems to be based on the suppression of the transcription factor DvIVS. The hitherto unknown molecular background for black colour in dahlia is here presented. Results Black cultivars accumulate high amounts of anthocyanins, but show drastically reduced flavone contents. High activities were observed for all enzymes from the anthocyanin pathway whereas FNS II activity could not be detected or only to a low extent in 13 of 14 cultivars. cDNA clones and genomic clones of FNS II were isolated. Independently from the colour type, heterologous expression of the cDNA clones resulted in functionally active enzymes. FNS II possesses one intron of varying length. Quantitative Real-time PCR showed that FNS II expression in black cultivars is low compared to other cultivars. No differences between black and red cultivars were observed in the expression of transcription factors IVS and possible regulatory genes WDR1, WDR2, MYB1, MYB2, 3RMYB and DEL or the structural genes of the flavonoid pathway. Despite the suppression of FHT expression, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT, synonym F3H enzyme activity was clearly present in the yellow and white cultivars. Conclusions An increased accumulation of anthocyanins establishes

  11. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  12. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    ) region using quantitative RT-PCR, revealed consistent differences in abundance for each of these RNAs among flowers, stems, young fruits and leaves of infected orange trees. CTV p23 RNAs accumulated at highest levels, reaching a maximum in the flowers and the lowest levels in the leaves, while POL RNAs......Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p33...

  13. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  14. In vivo Induction of Tetraploid in Tangerine Citrus Plants (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Use of Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surson, Suntaree; Sitthaphanit, Suphasit; Wongma, Nattapong

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings.

  15. AcEST: DK948060 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clementina x Citrus reticulata PE=2 SV=1 Length = 138 Score = 33.9 bits (76),... O... 34 7.1 tr|Q6QDC8|Q6QDC8_MOUSE Putative cyclooxygenase 3 OS=Mus musculus... 34 9.3 tr|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clemen...tina x Citrus retic... 34 9.3 tr|B8LFE2|B8LFE2_SOYBN Low temperature inducible SLTI

  16. HPLC法测定川芎中藁本内酯和欧当归内酯A的含量%Determination of Ligustilide and Levistolide A in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜仁龙; 郭璐; 潘明凤; 肖峰; 周先礼

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To determine ligustilide and levistolide A in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. . [Method] A HPLC analysis was performed on a SymmetryShield? RP-C18 Column(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm)with the detection wavelength at 280 nm and acetonitrile-water as mobile phase.The column temperature was 30℃ and the injection volume was 10 μl. [Result] The ligustilide and levistolide A showed a good relationship in the range of 3 - 11 μl (R =0.999 0 and 0.999 1,respectively) and the content of ligustilide and levistolide A in ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Was 15.97 - 18.71 mg/g and 0.67 -0.81 mg/g,respectively. [Conclusion] The method is easy to operate with high accuracy,precision and reproducibility, and can be used for the quality assessment of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.%[目的]测定川芎药材中的藁本内酯和欧当归内酯A的含量.[方法]采用HPLC法,色谱柱为SymmetryShieldTM RP-C18色谱柱(4.6mm×250 mm,5μm);以乙腈-水为流动相,梯度洗脱;检测波长为280 nm;柱温为30℃;进样量为10μl.[结果]藁本内酯和欧当归内酯A浓度在各自范围内与峰面积的线性关系良好,相关系数R分别为0.9990和0.9991;测得各样品中藁本内酯含量为15.97~18.71 mg/g,欧当归内酯A的含量为0.67 ~0.81 mg/g.[结论]该方法准确,操作较为简便易行,精密度及重现性良好,可用于川芎药材的质量评价.

  17. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  18. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  19. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  20. Citrus cyopreservation: viability of diverse taxa and histological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse citrus cultivars maintained clonally within gene banks serve as valuable resources for research and breeding programs worldwide. These critical collections are kept as trees within field, screenhouse, or greenhouse collections. These ex situ collections are at risk of being lost due to unfor...

  1. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  2. Efficiency of chemotherapy coupled with thermotherapy against citrus HLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six independent experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemotherapy coupled with the thermotherapy on pot-contained HLB-affected plants based on our previous results from graft-based methods. Three-year old potted HLB-affected citrus plants were exposed to 4 thermotherapy ...

  3. Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

  4. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  5. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41...

  8. Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation.

  9. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  10. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  11. GC-MS metabolomic differentiation of selected citrus varieties with different sensitivity to citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Futch, David B; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2012-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The rapid identification of tolerant varieties is considered a critical step towards controlling HLB. GC-MS metabolite profiles were used to differentiate HLB-tolerant citrus varieties 'Poncirus trifoliata' (TR) and 'Carrizo citrange' (CAR) from HLB-sensitive varieties 'Madam Vinous sweet orange' (MV) and 'Duncan' grapefruit (DG). PCR analyses revealed that MV was the most sensitive variety followed by DG and the tolerant varieties CAR and TR. Metabolomic multivariate analysis allowed classification of the cultivars in apparent agreement with PCR results. Higher levels of the amino acids l-proline, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, as well as the organic acids butanedioic and tetradecanoic acid, and accumulation of galactose in healthy plants were characteristic of the most sensitive variety MV when compared to all other varieties. Only galactose was significantly higher in DG when compared to the tolerant varieties TR and CAR. The tolerant varieties showed higher levels of l-glycine and mannose when compared to sensitive varieties MV and DG. Profiling of the sensitive varieties MV and DG over a 20-week period after inoculation of those with the HLB-containing material revealed strong responses of metabolites to HLB infection that differed from the response of the tolerant varieties. Significant changes of l-threonine level in the leaves from old mature flushes and l-serine, l-threonine, scyllo-inositol, hexadecanoic acid, and mannose in the leaves from young developing flushes were observed in MV. Significant changes in myo-inositol in old flushes and l-proline, indole, and xylose in new flushes were observed in DG.

  12. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  13. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water

  14. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  15. Evaluación de la abundancia y diversidad de lombrices de tierra en relación con el uso del suelo en el cinturón hortícola de Santa Fe (Argentina Monitoring of earthworms populations in the cinturón hortícola Santa fe (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Elisabet Masín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Las lombrices de tierra constituyen un componente importante en la fauna del suelo contribuyendo activa y beneficiosamente en su estructura y fertilidad. Estos organismos son sensibles ante distintos manejos y grados de perturbación del suelo respondiendo como bioindicadores de la «salud» del mismo. El Cinturón Hortícola Santafesino (Santa Fe, Argentina exhibe diferencias no sólo en tipos de cultivos sino también en sistemas de producción y condiciones de trabajo. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la abundancia y diversidad de la oligoquetofauna en los suelos con distintos tipos de manejo en las localidades de Ángel Gallardo y Monte Vera (Dpto. La Capital, Santa Fe - Argentina. Se seleccionaron tres agroecosistemas: labranza convencional (LC, siembra directa orgánica (SDO y siembra directa (SD. En cada campo se realizaron dos muestreos, correspondiendo uno a la estación verano y el otro a otoño de 2008. Se analizaron algunas propiedades físicas y químicas de los suelos como también residuos de plaguicidas. La densidad de oligoquetos presentó diferencias por estación y sistemas de producción (p = 0,001 destacándose el sitio de SDO con el mayor número de individuos en las dos estaciones muestreadas. La taxocenosis constó de dos familias: Lumbricidae y Megascolecidae, y tres especies: Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea trapezoides y Amynthas morrisi. La diversidad fue baja (H'= 0,33, siendo A. rosea la especie más común en los sitios muestreados y A. trapezoides la más abundante, incorporándose estaúltima a la lista de oligoquetos para la zona hortícola ya que en estudios anteriores no se hallaba registrada. La composición y estructura de la taxocenosis de lombrices de tierra se ve afectada no sólo por las condiciones ambientales y labores de producción, sino también por los parámetros físicos y químicos del suelo, que en conjunto condicionan la sensibilidad de la oligoquetofauna.Earthworms are an important

  16. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri are much lower than in citrus and citrus-reared psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of Ca. L. asiaticus an...

  17. First report of citrus exocortis viroid and two citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid on lemon in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  18. Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

  19. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, in Citrus Groves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15104-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 435278 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddv26k14, 3' ... 523 e-144 1 ( DY289485 ) IC0AAA72BH04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi... DY281567 ) IC0AAA54BC04RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 46 0.001 2 ( DY289185 ) IC0AAA71CH06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 46 0.001 2 ( DY296568 ) IC0AAA90BD09RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',....NCOURT_54977659 D. mojavensis EST Drosophila m... 50 0.19 1 ( DY295693 ) IC0AAA88DH05RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi

  1. 卡那霉素对川芎愈伤组织诱导和生长的影响%Effects of Kanamycin on the Induction and Growth of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卫东; 唐琳; 杨苍劲; 马逾英; 蒋桂华; 陈放

    2007-01-01

    以川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.)的根、茎、叶及其对应的愈伤组织为试验材料,研究不同浓度的卡那霉素对其诱导和生长的影响.不同的外植体对卡那霉素的敏感度不同,根的敏感度高于茎,茎的敏感度高于叶片.方差分析和总体观察的结果表明,在川芎的遗传转化中,卡那霉素的最佳抗性筛选浓度范围为20~40 mg/L.

  2. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  3. Converting citrus wastes into value-added products: Economic and environmently friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds.

  4. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-15

    The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

  5. Construction and Evaluation of the Theoretical Model of Citrus Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the general overview of cooperative economic organizations of citrus industry at home and abroad,theoretical model of the modernization,industrialization and marketization of Citrus Cooperative Organization is established.After selecting the indices,such as the scale of production,the scale of management,the rate of encouraged farmers,and the market competitiveness,quantitative evaluation index system for modernization,industrialization and marketization is established.Then,Citrus Cooperative Organization is divided into three stages,such as primary stage,intermediate stage and senior stage.After evaluating the modernization,industrialization and marketization of citrus industry in the United States,Spain and South Africa,it is pointed out that the Citrus Cooperative Organization in China at present is at the primary stage.Finally,policy direction of the development of Citrus Cooperative Organization in China is pointed out.

  6. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens Larsen;

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90. days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial...... concentrate with 60% barley (Control, n=8), (2) concentrate with 35% barley and 24% citrus pulp (Cp24, n=9), or (3) concentrate with 23% barley and 35% citrus pulp (Cp35, n=9). Slices from the longissimus thoracis et lomborum muscle were packed aerobically and stored for up to 6. days at 4°C in the dark....... The citrus pulp groups, Cp24 and Cp35, significantly decreased protein radicals and carbonyls, and preserved more thiols within six days of storage compared to the Control group. The citrus pulp groups significantly slowed down the rate of protein oxidation, indicating that dietary citrus pulp reduced...

  7. Control system for forced-air cooling of horticultural products Sistema de controle para o resfriamento com ar forçado de produtos hortícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. T. R. da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of the implementation of a classical controller using a tuning method referred to as IMC (Internal Model Control and aimed at the reduction of electrical energy consumption by the appropriate relation between energy consumption and the cooling time with forced air. The supervisory system installed was able to manipulate the variable of frequency of the signal power of the exhaust fan engine (forced air module, to accelerate or decelerate the loss of heat from the product to be cooled by airflow variation that passes through the mass of the produce. The results demonstrated a reduction in energy consumption from 64% and an increase of only 8% in the cooling time to the system using PI/IMC (Proportional - Integral with IMC tuning method compared with the system in its operating nominal condition. This PI/IMC control may be implemented directly in a frequency converter, without the need to purchase a computer or PLC (programmable logic controller to run the dedicated application, increasing its economical viability.Este trabalho consiste no estudo da implementação de um controlador clássico utilizando o método de sintonia denominado por Controle de Modelo Interno, visando à redução do consumo de energia elétrica que decorra na adequada relação entre este consumo e o tempo de resfriamento do processo de resfriamento com ar forçado de produtos hortícolas. Para isto, o sistema supervisório instalado manipulou a variável de frequência do sinal de alimentação do motor de indução trifásico do exaustor (módulo de ar forçado, para acelerar ou desacelerar a perda de calor do produto a ser resfriado por intermédio da variação da vazão de ar que perpassava a massa deste produto. Obteve-se como resultado uma redução no consumo de energia elétrica de 64% e um acréscimo de apenas 8% no tempo de resfriamento para o sistema utilizando um controle proporcional e integral associado ao método de sintonia promovido

  8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Essential Oil from Dry Rhizome of Ligu-sticum chuanxiong Hort and Their Characterizationby GC/MS%超临界流体萃取川芎挥发油及其成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪战英; 汪学昭; 乐健; 张东春; 柴逸峰; 柳正良

    2002-01-01

    建立超临界流体萃取技术(Supercritical fluid extraction,SFE)提取川芎根茎挥发油的方法,并采用气相色谱-质谱法(GC/MS),对所得挥发油进行化学成分分离和鉴定.通过标准图谱对照确定化合物名称,鉴定了44种成分.同时采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取川芎根茎挥发油,比较得油率,考察超临界流体萃取技术的萃取效率;SFE和水蒸汽蒸馏法的得油率分别为4.16%和0.8%.结果表明SFE比水蒸汽蒸馏法萃取效率高,操作简单,省时快速,对热不稳定性物质尤为适用,是提取、研究中药化学成分的有效方法.%Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of essential oil from dry rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort was de-veloped. GC/MS was used for the determination of the composition of essential oil. Forty-four compounds were identified. Theconventional extraction method was conducted in parallel for comparison. The extracts were qualitatively compared by GC/MS.The yields of SFE and steam distillation-extraction were 4.16%(v/w) and 0.8%(v/w), respectively. Application of SFE ofessential oil from dry rhizome ofLigusticum chuanxiong Hort was preferable.

  9. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  10. Kinetics study of oil extraction from Citrus auranticum L. by solvent-free microwave extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Septya Kusuma; Prilia Dwi Amelia; Cininta Admiralia; Mahfud Mahfud

    2016-01-01

    Citrus and its oil are of high economic and medicinal value because of their multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of solvent-free microwave extraction for the extraction of essential oils from Citrus auranticum L. peels. Specifically, this study verifies the kinetics based on second-order model and mechanism of solvent-free microwave extraction of Citrus auranticum L. peels. Solvent-free microwave extra...

  11. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Luis eGálvez Sola; Francisco eGarcía Sánchez; Juan Gabriel ePérez Pérez; Vicente eGimeno; Josefa eNavarro; Raul eMoral; Juan José eMartínez Nicolás; Manuel eNieves

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last 5 years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the ...

  12. Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh; S.J. Hosseinimehr; M. Mahmodi; M.R. Gayekhloo; M. Hoseiani

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected...

  13. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chunxian; Gmitter Jr, Fred G

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. Results In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for...

  14. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  15. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  16. COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRIC AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THREE CITRUS L. SPECIES (RUTACEAE FRUITS

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    Rodica BERCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the morphometric and anatomical features of three species of Citrus L. fruits: Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus× sinensis Osbeck and Citrus maragarita Lour. Morphometrically were determined the length, width, area and volume for 10 fruits of each species. Anatomically, were analyzed the exocarp and mesocarp tissues, including the secretory cavities and endocarp components, respectively the number of carpels (segments and the length of the juice vesicles. The studied species fruits disclose both similarities and differences concerning their morphometric and anatomical features.

  17. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  18. Analysis of Major Carotenoid Composition and Its Content of Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jun; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; XU Jian-guo; LIU Chun-rong

    2003-01-01

    a-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein content of fruits in53 citrus cultivars were determined using HPLC. In both peel and pulp of citrus fruit, the major carotenoidswere lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. β-carotene content was relatively low and extremely low was theamount of or-carotene. Among the 53 cultivars tested, lycopene was detected only in pulp of Cara Cara navelorange. Carotenoid content in both peel and pulp of citrus fruit was the highest in Citrus reticulata Blanco andlowest in Citrus grandis Osbeck. Consequently, as far as the health protection value is considered, fruit ofCitrus reticulata Blanco ranks probably higher than other citrus fruits. In fruit of most Citrus retieulatavarities, β-cryptoxanthin was the main carotenoid component in pulp and its amount approximated that of lu-tein in peel. Content of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin in peel was about 2.5 - 15 times that in pulp onthe basis of fresh weight. Thus peel was inferred to be the principal location for the carotenoid stock in citrus fruit.

  19. Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul J.; Gebelein, Jennifer L.

    The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making it especially suitable for the detection of land cover change in agriculture and horticulture, plant health status, soil and moisture conditions, and effects of crop management practices. In this study, we analyzed land cover of citrus crops in Florida using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery from the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). We hypothesized that an interdisciplinary approach combining citrus production (economic) data with citrus land cover area per county would yield a correlation between observable spectral reflectance throughout the year, and the fiscal impact of citrus on local economies. While the data from official sources based on aerial photography were positively correlated, there were serious discrepancies between agriculture census data and satellite-derived cropland area using medium-resolution satellite imagery. If these discrepancies can be resolved by using imagery of higher spatial resolution, a stronger correlation would be observed for citrus production based on satellite data. This would allow us to predict the economic impact of citrus from satellite-derived spectral data analysis to determine final crop harvests.

  20. Expressão gênica diferencial de laranja Pêra Rio (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e Lima Ácida 'Galego' (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) em resposta à infecção por Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallini, Juliana da Silva [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The citrus agribusiness is very important to the Brazilian economy, but the increase of diseases in the last decade has caused great economic losses to the sector. The citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac), is a serious disease that attacks all citrus species economically important worldwide and there is not an effective method for its control. In this study, RNASeq was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of two contrasting citrus genotypes regar...

  1. Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have comp

  2. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eNavarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy. Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO, employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.

  3. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  4. Micronutrient Contents of Citrus Orchard Soils in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the micronutrient contents,of major citrus orchard soils (involving seven soil great groups in 8 provinces and an autonomous region of southern China),and an evaluation on the abundance and deficiency of available micronutrients in these soils was made in this paper.In southern China,citrus orchard soils derived from sandstone,sandy shale,Quaternary red clay,diluvial deposit,granite gneiss and neritic deposit were deficient in available Mo and B and low in Zn.Those developed on purple sandy shale,limestone and slope deposit were all in short supply of available Zn,B and Mo.Coastal solonchak was fairly abundant in B,but its available Fe,Zn and Mo contents were rather low.

  5. Characterization of a Proposed Dichorhavirus Associated with the Citrus Leprosis Disease and Analysis of the Host Response

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Cruz-Jaramillo; Roberto Ruiz-Medrano; Lourdes Rojas-Morales; José Abel López-Buenfil; Oscar Morales-Galván; Claudio Chavarín-Palacio; José Abrahán Ramírez-Pool; Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares

    2014-01-01

    The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing, a virus associated with citrus leprosis was identified, belonging to the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. The virus was termed Citrus Necrotic Spot Virus (CNSV) and contains two negative-strand RNA component...

  6. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

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    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  7. New excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G

    2013-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease.

  8. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Hao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri. In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer twelve months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker.

  9. The genetics of tolerance to tristeza disease in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled pollinations between four elite citrus rootstocks, Citrus limonia - 'Limeira' rangpur lime (Cravo, C. sunki - 'Sunki' mandarin (Sunki, C. aurantium - 'São Paulo' sour orange (Azeda and Poncirus trifoliata - 'Davis A' trifoliate orange (Trifoliata, resulted in 1614 nucelar and 1938 hybrid plants identified by the isozyme loci Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Aps-1, Me-1, Prxa-1 and or by the morphological markers broadness of leaf petiole wing or trifoliolate leaves. Tolerance to the citrus tristeza virus (CTV was evaluated under nursery and field conditions for several years by the reaction of Valencia orange infected with a severe strain of CTV and grafted onto the hybrids and nucellar clones. Genetic analyses indicated that tolerance was controlled by at least two loci designated here as Az and t interacting in dominant-recessive epistasis. Genotypes Az__ __ __ and __ __ tt were tolerant while azaz T__ was intolerant. The intolerant Azeda was azaz TT, the tolerant rootstocks Sunki and Cravo were Azaz tt and the Trifoliata was Azaz TT. The different degrees of intolerance seen in some hybrids may reflect the inability of segregating modifiers from parental clones to overcome the epistatic interaction that controls the major tolerance reaction.

  10. The Lebanese Citrus Aurantium: A Promising Future in Medicinal Phytochemistry

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    Salim Makhoul

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The West Bekaa region of Lebanon is mostly an agricultural land where traditional herbal medicine is a common practice. Many medicinal applications are especially attributed to the Citrus aurantium plant mainly used in the food and drink industry. In this work, the essential oil of Citrus aurantium is studied in an attempt to find an explanation for the different medical applications of this plant extract which is widely known among locals. Using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry, twenty-six different chemicals were identified and quantified. These include the major constituent, Linalool, (29.99%, Bergamol (14.94%, Farnesol (9.86% and D-Limonene (8.42%. The latter as well as Linalool are known to have anticancer effects, thus representing major components in anticancer treatments. Their proportions in the studied essential oil and the presence of the other components (a-thujene, apinene, Camphene, Sabinene, b-pinene, b-Myrcene, p-Cymene, Ocimene (E, Linalool oxide (Trans, Linalool oxide (Cis, Terpinen-4-ol, Terpineol, Nerol (Or Cis-Geraniol, Neral, Geranial, Neryl acetate, Geranyl acetate, Nerolidol, Farnesal, Eicosane, Tetracosane, Pentacosane have amplified the importance of Citrus aurantium as a scientifically-proven medicinal plant thus justify its diverse medical applications

  11. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

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    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  12. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  13. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

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    Benito F. García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  14. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

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    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  15. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  16. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Benito F; Torres, Ascensión; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-11-06

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical) radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones) showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  17. Localized autoinoculation and dissemination of Isaria fumosorosea for control of the Asian citrus psyllid in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the causal organism of citrus greening disease. Integrated strategies are needed to control D. citri in south Texas. Control approaches involving entomopathogenic fungi may be useful on ornamental and abandoned citrus and other rutaceous...

  18. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-A Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×10⁷ cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D₁₀ value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits.

  19. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis cytolytic toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  20. Analysis of full-length sequences of two Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus isolates infecting Citrus jambhiri (Rough Lemon) and Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange) from a nursery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I

    2012-12-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed.

  1. Leaf-disc grafting for the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in citrus (Citrus sinensis; Rutaceae) seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabay Zambon, Flavia; Plant, Karen; Etxeberria, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: The search for resistance/tolerance to the devastating citrus huanglongbing disease (syn. HLB or citrus greening) is generating an increasing number of new plants of diverse genetic makeup. As the increasing number of new plants require more space, resources, and time, the need for faster and more efficient HLB screening tests becomes crucial. Methods and Results: The leaf-disc grafting system described here consists in replacing a disc of leaf tissue with a similar disc from an infected plant. This can be performed in young seedlings not yet big enough to endure other types of grafting. Graft success and infection rates average approximately 80%. Conclusions: We describe the successful adaptation of leaf-disc grafting as a powerful screening tool for HLB. The system requires minimal plant material and can be performed in seedlings at a very young age with increased efficiency in terms of time, space, and resources. PMID:28090406

  2. Genome editing of the disease susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in citrus confers resistance to citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongge; Zhang, Yunzeng; Orbović, Vladimir; Xu, Jin; White, Frank F; Jones, Jeffrey B; Wang, Nian

    2016-12-09

    Citrus is a highly valued tree crop worldwide, while, at the same time, citrus production faces many biotic challenges, including bacterial canker and Huanglongbing (HLB). Breeding for disease-resistant varieties is the most efficient and sustainable approach to control plant diseases. Traditional breeding of citrus varieties is challenging due to multiple limitations, including polyploidy, polyembryony, extended juvenility and long crossing cycles. Targeted genome editing technology has the potential to shorten varietal development for some traits, including disease resistance. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA technology to modify the canker susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in Duncan grapefruit. Six independent lines, DLOB 2, DLOB 3, DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12, were generated. Targeted next-generation sequencing of the six lines showed the mutation rate was 31.58%, 23.80%, 89.36%, 88.79%, 46.91% and 51.12% for DLOB 2, DLOB 3, DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12, respectively, of the cells in each line. DLOB 2 and DLOB 3 showed canker symptoms similar to wild-type grapefruit, when inoculated with the pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). No canker symptoms were observed on DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12 at 4 days postinoculation (DPI) with Xcc. Pustules caused by Xcc were observed on DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12 in later stages, which were much reduced compared to that on wild-type grapefruit. The pustules on DLOB 9 and DLOB 10 did not develop into typical canker symptoms. No side effects and off-target mutations were detected in the mutated plants. This study indicates that genome editing using CRISPR technology will provide a promising pathway to generate disease-resistant citrus varieties.

  3. Development of a full-genome cDNA clone of Citrus leaf blotch virus and infection of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, María Carmen; Martín, Susana; Ambrós, Silvia; Renovell, Agueda; Navarro, Luis; Pina, Jose Antonio; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2008-11-01

    Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV), a member of the family Flexiviridae, has a ~9-kb single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA encapsidated by a 41-kDa coat protein. CLBV isolates are associated with symptom production in citrus including leaf blotching of Dweet tangor and stem pitting in Etrog citron (Dweet mottle disease), and some isolates are associated with bud union crease on trifoliate rootstocks, but Koch's postulates for this virus were not fulfilled. A full-genome cDNA of CLBV isolate SRA-153, which induces bud union crease, was placed under the T7 promoter (clone T7-CLBV), or between the 35S promoter and the Nos-t terminator, with or without a ribozyme sequence downstream of the CLBV sequence (clones 35SRbz-CLBV and 35S-CLBV). RNA transcripts from T7-CLBV failed to infect Etrog citron and Nicotiana occidentalis and N. benthamiana plants, whereas agro-inoculation with binary vectors carrying 35SRbz-CLBV or 35S-CLBV, and the p19 silencing suppressor, caused systemic infection and production of normal CLBV virions. Virus accumulation was similar in citron plants directly agro-infiltrated, or mechanically inoculated with wild-type or 35SRbz-CLBV-derived virions from Nicotiana, and the three sources incited the symptoms characteristic of Dweet mottle disease, but not bud union crease. Our results show that (1) virions derived from an infectious clone show the same replication, movement and pathogenicity characteristics as the wild-type CLBV; (2) CLBV is the causal agent of Dweet mottle disease but not of the bud union crease syndrome; and (3) for the first time an RNA virus could be successfully agro-inoculated on citrus plants. This infectious clone may become a useful viral vector for citrus genomic studies.

  4. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus causes damage to citrus fibrous roots before visual decline of Huanglongbing-infected citrus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J. H.; Johnson, E.G.; Gottwald, T. R.; Irey, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), was first detected in Florida in late 2005 and is now widely distributed throughout the commercial citrus-growing regions. In recent seasons, concurrent with freeze and drought episodes, symptomatic HLB-infected trees were much more affected by the extremes of temperature and moisture than trees without HLB. Symptoms exhibited by the stressed trees were excessive leaf loss and premature fruit drop even when HLB-infe...

  5. Postharvest decay control of citrus fruit by preharvest pyrimethanil spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Preharvest infections or conidia load on fruit surface by Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, Alternaria citri and other filamentous fungi can cause important postharvest losses of citrus fruit. Reduction in pruning frequency occurred in the last decade together with un-picked yield that eventually rots on the trees have increased the risk of postharvest decay especially when environmental conditions at picking time are favourable to pathogens' development. Sanitation procedures in the packinghouses, alternate use of postharvest fungicides with different modes of action, along with fungicide application before harvest could be an effective approach to minimize postharvest decay in citrus fruit. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a preharvest treatment with pyrimethanil (PYR), a broad spectrum fungicide, recently registered in different citrus-producing countries for postharvest treatments of citrus fruit and widely used worldwide as a preharvest treatment to control various diseases in different crops. PYR (750 mg/L) was sprayed by a hand-back sprayer at run-off on 'Fremont' mandarins. The day after the treatment, half of the trees were sprayed with a 10(4) conidial suspension of P. digitatum at run-off. Fruit were harvested following 2 or 4 weeks from treatments. Sound or either wounded 2-mm-deep and 2-mm-wide or superficial wound-scratched fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 90% RH and inspected for decay after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of storage. In fruit harvested after 2 weeks from field treatment, PYR remarkably reduced decay development during two weeks of storage in sound fruit and in wound-scratched fruit and was fairly effective even after 4 weeks from treatment, but was ineffective in fruit wounded 2 mm deep and 2 mm wide. PYR was also effective in reducing preharvest decay incited by P. digitatum, P. italicum and Botrytis cinerea, but not by other pathogens. Results show that preharvest treatment with PYR could be a feasible approach to reduce

  6. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  7. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  8. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi using digital gene expression (DGE profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  9. Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

  10. Monitoring Citrus Soil Moisture and Nutrients Using an IoT Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chongqing mountain citrus orchard is one of the main origins of Chinese citrus. Its planting terrain is complex and soil parent material is diverse. Currently, the citrus fertilization, irrigation and other management processes still have great blindness. They usually use the same pattern and the same formula rather than considering the orchard terrain features, soil differences, species characteristics and the state of tree growth. With the help of the ZigBee technology, artificial intelligence and decision support technology, this paper has developed the research on the application technology of agricultural Internet of Things for real-time monitoring of citrus soil moisture and nutrients as well as the research on the integration of fertilization and irrigation decision support system. Some achievements were obtained including single-point multi-layer citrus soil temperature and humidity detection wireless sensor nodes and citrus precision fertilization and irrigation management decision support system. They were applied in citrus base in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the system could help the grower to scientifically fertilize or irrigate, improve the precision operation level of citrus production, reduce the labor cost and reduce the pollution caused by chemical fertilizer.

  11. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  12. Involvement of an ethylene response factor in chlorophyll degradation during citrus fruit degreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...

  13. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  14. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests.

  15. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  16. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Fruit. DATES: Effective Date: January 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Hoffmann, Director... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop... corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that published on Friday, December...

  17. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees. 301.75-15 Section 301.75-15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations...

  18. Citrus pulp as an ingredient in ostrich diet: effects on meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Fasone, V; Galofaro, V; Barbagallo, D; Bella, M; Pennisi, P

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of citrus pulp inclusion in ostrich diets on meat quality, evaluated on iliofibularis and gastrocnemius muscles. M. iliofibularis had a lower ultimate pH (Piliofibularis. M. gastrocnemius had a lower proportion of C14:0 (Piliofibularis. Citrus pulp diet increased (P<0.05) meat ultimate pH and reduced cooking losses (P<0.05) as compared to the control diet. Meat from animals given citrus pulp had lower crude fat (P<0.05) and ash percentages (P<0.05) in comparison to that from the control group. The proportions of intramuscular saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were lower (P<0.05) in the citrus pulp group as compared to the control one. Meat from the citrus pulp treatment group had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids than meat from the control treatment. In particular, meat from ostriches given citrus pulp diet exhibited higher C18:2ω6 (P<0.05) and C20:4ω6 (P<0.05) contents that accounted for a higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. Overall, the use of a citrus pulp-included diet in ostrich feeding did not adversely affect meat quality and, therefore, citrus pulp seems to be a possible ingredient to reduce feeding costs.

  19. Genome Assembly of Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear Type Reveals a Close Association with Orchid Fleck Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Shao, Jonathan; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K.; Hollingsworth, Charla R.; Hartung, John S.; Schneider, William L.; Brlansky, Ronald H.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) was identified by small RNA sequencing utilizing leprosis-affected citrus samples collected from the state of Querétaro, Mexico. The nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that CiLV-N is very closely related to orchid fleck virus, which typically infects Cymbidium species.

  20. HLB/ACP Resistance or Tolerance in Non-transgenic Citrus Scion Varieties: Potential Commercial Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncirus trifoliata hybrids grown in the USHRL variety block on Sun Chu Sha (a unifoliate mandarin rootstock similar to Cleopatra) were tested for CLas 16S rDNA and Citrus dehydrin (as an internal standard to permit expression of data in CLas genomes/citrus genomes) by qPCR, assessing random quadran...

  1. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...

  2. First report of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas citri, causal agent of citrus canker, has been reported in several countries in Africa, but not Somalia. During 2006 and 2007, hyperplasia-type lesions, often surrounded by a water-soaked margin and yellow halo, typical of citrus canker caused by X. citri, were found on 8-10 year-old gr...

  3. Correlation of an electrical penetration graph waveform with walking by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring is being used to study how feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) changes in response to insecticides, in an effort to improve the efficacy of widespread insecticide treatments against the insect in Florida citrus....

  4. Citrus (Rutaceae): a review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabberley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The naming, introduction and classification of citrus crops and their allies is outlined. Traditional medicinal use and ‘Western’ applications in the treatment of scurvy and obesity, the prevention of AIDS, and in contraception is reviewed. Names for the commercially significant citrangequat (Citrus

  5. Monitoring Citrus Soil Moisture and Nutrients Using an IoT Based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Zhang, Jianwu; Li, Lin; Zhang, Yuzhu; Yang, Guocai

    2017-02-23

    Chongqing mountain citrus orchard is one of the main origins of Chinese citrus. Its planting terrain is complex and soil parent material is diverse. Currently, the citrus fertilization, irrigation and other management processes still have great blindness. They usually use the same pattern and the same formula rather than considering the orchard terrain features, soil differences, species characteristics and the state of tree growth. With the help of the ZigBee technology, artificial intelligence and decision support technology, this paper has developed the research on the application technology of agricultural Internet of Things for real-time monitoring of citrus soil moisture and nutrients as well as the research on the integration of fertilization and irrigation decision support system. Some achievements were obtained including single-point multi-layer citrus soil temperature and humidity detection wireless sensor nodes and citrus precision fertilization and irrigation management decision support system. They were applied in citrus base in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the system could help the grower to scientifically fertilize or irrigate, improve the precision operation level of citrus production, reduce the labor cost and reduce the pollution caused by chemical fertilizer.

  6. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB. Laboratory and field studies were cond...

  7. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, M.A.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard

  8. Survey of citrus tristeza virus populations in Central California that react with MCA13 monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Citrus Pest Detection Program (CPDP) of the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency monitors Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Central California. MCA13 is a severe strain discriminating monoclonal antibody used to screen for potentially virulent CTV isolates. MCA13-reactive CTV isolates are...

  9. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties.

  10. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a nematode survey in 2012-2013 in EL-Nobarria, EL-Behera governorate, northern Egypt, specimens of dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.) were collected from soil around the rhizosphere of citrus trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) exhibiting poor growth and low yield. The morphology of females esta...

  11. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on Citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Gentile, A.; La Malfa, S.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  12. Occurrence, molecular characterisation, and pathogenicity of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on citrus in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polizzi, G.; Aiello, D.; Castello, I.; Vitale, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009, a new disease was noticed in eastern Sicily (Italy) in two re-grafted citrus orchards (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) on sour orange rootstock. Symptoms consisted of blight of vigorously growing shoots and a sooty canker on shoots and rootstock trunks. A Scytalidium-like fungus w

  13. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... treatment schedules to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual for certain species of citrus... \\2\\ to amend the regulations by adding new treatment schedules for sweet cherries and certain species... Treatment Manual to include the new treatment schedules for certain species of citrus fruit from...

  14. Occurrence of fludioxonil resistance in penicillium digitatum from citrus in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, the most important postharvest disease of citrus (Citrus spp.). Fludioxonil is marketed as either a solo product or in combination with azoxystrobin for control of green mold and other postharvest diseases. Baseline sensitivity to fludioxonil ...

  15. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section 301.75-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of...

  16. Monitoring Citrus Soil Moisture and Nutrients Using an IoT Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Zhang, Jianwu; Li, Lin; Zhang, Yuzhu; Yang, Guocai

    2017-01-01

    Chongqing mountain citrus orchard is one of the main origins of Chinese citrus. Its planting terrain is complex and soil parent material is diverse. Currently, the citrus fertilization, irrigation and other management processes still have great blindness. They usually use the same pattern and the same formula rather than considering the orchard terrain features, soil differences, species characteristics and the state of tree growth. With the help of the ZigBee technology, artificial intelligence and decision support technology, this paper has developed the research on the application technology of agricultural Internet of Things for real-time monitoring of citrus soil moisture and nutrients as well as the research on the integration of fertilization and irrigation decision support system. Some achievements were obtained including single-point multi-layer citrus soil temperature and humidity detection wireless sensor nodes and citrus precision fertilization and irrigation management decision support system. They were applied in citrus base in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the system could help the grower to scientifically fertilize or irrigate, improve the precision operation level of citrus production, reduce the labor cost and reduce the pollution caused by chemical fertilizer. PMID:28241488

  17. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects.

  18. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy swine fed different citrus pulp levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Watanabe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.

  19. Visible Light Image-Based Method for Sugar Content Classification of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source.

  20. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  1. Sodium hydroxide-mediated hydrogel of citrus pectin for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin

    2014-11-01

    The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future.

  2. Comparison of citrus orchard inventory using LISS-III and LISS-IV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niti; Chaudhari, K. N.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    In India, in terms of area under cultivation, citrus is the third most cultivated fruit crop after Banana and Mango. Among citrus group, lime is one of the most important horticultural crops in India as the demand for its consumption is very high. Hence, preparing citrus crop inventories using remote sensing techniques would help in maintaining a record of its area and production statistics. This study shows how accurately citrus orchard can be classified using both IRS Resourcesat-2 LISS-III and LISS-IV data and depicts the optimum bio-widow for procuring satellite data to achieve high classification accuracy required for maintaining inventory of crop. Findings of the study show classification accuracy increased from 55% (using LISS-III) to 77% (using LISS-IV). Also, according to classified outputs and NDVI values obtained, April and May months were identified as optimum bio-window for citrus crop identification.

  3. Construction of citrus gene coexpression networks from microarray data using random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongliang; Rawat, Nidhi; Deng, Zhanao; Gmitter, Fred G

    2015-01-01

    After the sequencing of citrus genomes, gene function annotation is becoming a new challenge. Gene coexpression analysis can be employed for function annotation using publicly available microarray data sets. In this study, 230 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) microarrays were used to construct seven coexpression networks, including one condition-independent and six condition-dependent (Citrus canker, Huanglongbing, leaves, flavedo, albedo, and flesh) networks. In total, these networks contain 37 633 edges among 6256 nodes (genes), which accounts for 52.11% measurable genes of the citrus microarray. Then, these networks were partitioned into functional modules using the Markov Cluster Algorithm. Significantly enriched Gene Ontology biological process terms and KEGG pathway terms were detected for 343 and 60 modules, respectively. Finally, independent verification of these networks was performed using another expression data of 371 genes. This study provides new targets for further functional analyses in citrus.

  4. Quantification of applied dose in irradiated citrus fruits by DNA Comet Assay together with image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Nurcan; Ercin, Demet; Özvatan, Sümer; Erel, Yakup

    2016-02-01

    The experiments were conducted for quantification of applied dose for quarantine control in irradiated citrus fruits. Citrus fruits exposed to doses of 0.1 to 1.5 kGy and analyzed by DNA Comet Assay. Observed comets were evaluated by image analysis. The tail length, tail moment and tail DNA% of comets were used for the interpretation of comets. Irradiated citrus fruits showed the separated tails from the head of the comet by increasing applied doses from 0.1 to 1.5 kGy. The mean tail length and mean tail moment% levels of irradiated citrus fruits at all doses are significantly different (p Comet Assay may be a practical quarantine control method for irradiated citrus fruits since it has been possible to estimate the applied low doses as small as 0.1 kGy when it is combined with image analysis.

  5. Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar I. Khaskheli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study As (V was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO and hydroxyl (OH groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradisi peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples.

  6. Huanglongbing:An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world’s citrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John V da Graa; Greg W Douhan; Susan E Halbert; Manjunath L Keremane; Richard F Lee; Georgios Vidalakis; Hongwei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) has become a major disease and limiting factor of production in citrus areas that have become infected. The destruction to the affected citrus industries has resulted in a tremendous increase to support research that in return has resulted in significant information on both applied and basic knowledge concerning this important disease to the global citrus industry. Recent research indicates the relationship between citrus and the causal agent of HLB is shaped by multiple elements, in which host defense responses may also play an important role. This review is intended to provide an overview of the importance of HLB to a wider audience of plant biologists. Recent advances on host-pathogen interactions, population genetics and vectoring of the causal agent are discussed.

  7. AcEST: DK950113 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PA Maturation-associated SRC1-like protein O... 34 7.6 tr|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus clementina x C...HPPPQYAGDY 188 +M KI + LH+GG +KEEEH ++ G++ Sbjct: 4 IMHKIEDALHIGGRKKEEEHKGEHHGEHKGEH 35 >tr|Q6VTH3|Q6VTH3_9ROSI COR15 OS=Citrus cleme...ntina x Citrus reticulata PE=2 SV=1 Length = 138 Score = 33.9 bits (76), Expect = 9

  8. Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary; R. Bruce (Santa Fe, NM); Stubben, Christopher J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-03-22

    The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14430-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2.TJ RPCI-24 Mus musculus genomic cl... 46 0.23 1 ( ET107366 ) QM0AAC14AG01RM1 CCH3 Citrus clementi...52 12-DrosW-std-1P6Kb Drosophila willi... 46 0.23 1 ( CX291778 ) C04004G04SK FlavFr1 Citrus clementina cDNA

  10. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus induced by a viral vector based on Citrus leaf blotch virus: a new tool for genetics and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Karelia; Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María C; Aleza, Pablo; Pina, José A; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Guerri, José

    2016-10-01

    The long juvenile period of citrus trees (often more than 6 years) has hindered genetic improvement by traditional breeding methods and genetic studies. In this work, we have developed a biotechnology tool to promote transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in juvenile citrus plants by expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana or citrus FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes using a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector (clbvINpr-AtFT and clbvINpr-CiFT, respectively). Citrus plants of different genotypes graft inoculated with either of these vectors started flowering within 4-6 months, with no alteration of the plant architecture, leaf, flower or fruit morphology in comparison with noninoculated adult plants. The vector did not integrate in or recombine with the plant genome nor was it pollen or vector transmissible, albeit seed transmission at low rate was detected. The clbvINpr-AtFT is very stable, and flowering was observed over a period of at least 5 years. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus plants after vector infection provides a helpful and safe tool to dramatically speed up genetic studies and breeding programmes.

  11. Caracterização fisiológica da redução de crescimento de mudas de citros micorrizadas em altas doses de fósforo Physiological characterization of growth depression in arbuscular mycorrhizal citrus seedlings under high P levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. A. Sena

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a redução de crescimento de mudas de citros micorrizadas, instalou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação com seis doses de P (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mg kg-1, sem e com inoculação do Fungo Micorrízico Arbuscular (FMA Glomus intraradices. Como porta-enxerto, usou-se tangerineira ' Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni. O substrato usado foi uma mistura de amostra de terra (Neossolo e areia, na proporção de 3:1, com baixa concentração de P disponível. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, disposto em um fatorial 6 x 2, com cinco repetições. Seis meses após o transplantio, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio das seguintes variáveis: altura de plantas, matéria seca da parte aérea, transpiração, resistência estomática e área foliar. Nas doses mais altas de P, as plantas micorrizadas apresentaram redução na altura, na matéria seca da parte aérea e na área foliar, menor taxa de transpiração e maior resistência estomática, quando comparadas com o controle não micorrizado. Considerando estes resultados, a redução no crescimento de mudas micorrizadas em alta dose de P pode estar relacionada, em parte, com a existência de forte dreno de carboidratos na raiz.An experiment was installed under greenhouse conditions to study growth depression in mycorrhizal citrus rootstocks at six P levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg-1, with and without (controls inoculation of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF (Glomus intraradices. The rootstock used was Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tanaka, cv. Cleópatra, grown in an autoclaved, limed mixture (3:1 of a soil with low available P and washed sand. There were five replicates per treatment, in a random 6 x 2 factorial design. Six months after transplanting the seedlings, the plants were harvested and analyzed. The following characteristics were considered: plant growth, shoot dry matter, leaf area, transpiration and stomatal resistance. At the

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12462-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EY693483 ) CS00-C3-700-015-B02-CT.F Sweet orange fruit, deve... 40 0.33 2 ( DY282607 ) IC0AAA57AH03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementi...na cDNA 5',... 40 0.35 2 ( DY273545 ) IC0AAA34BA07RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',.....0.37 5 ( BJ325552 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:dda1j07, 5' e... 36 0.38 3 ( DY294570 ) IC0AAA85DF03RM1 CitNFL Citrus clement...ina cDNA 5',... 40 0.39 2 ( DY289046 ) IC0AAA71BC06RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDN...A 5',... 40 0.42 2 ( DY262968 ) IC0AAA10BH02RM1 CitNFL Citrus clementina cDNA 5',... 40 0.43 2 ( DD010736 )

  13. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  14. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  15. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  16. Pollen–pistil interactions and early fruiting in parthenocarpic citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, G.; Gentile, A.; Herrero, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims An intense pollen–pistil interaction precedes fertilization. This interaction is of particular relevance in agronomically important species where seeds or fruits are the edible part. Over time some agronomically species have been selected for the ability to produce fruit without seeds. While this phenomenon is critical for commercial production in some species, very little is known about the events behind the production of seedless fruit. In this work, the relationship between pollen–pistil interaction and the onset of fruiting was investigated in citrus mandarin. Methods Pistils were sequentially examined in hand-pollinated flowers paying attention to pollen-tube behaviour, and to cytochemical changes along the pollen-tube pathway. To evaluate which of these changes were induced by pollination/fertilization and which were developmentally regulated, pollinated and unpollinated pistils were compared. Also the onset of fruiting was timed and changes in the ovary examined. Key Results Conspicuous changes occurred in the pistil along the pollen-tube pathway, which took place in a basipetal way encompassing the timing of pollen-tube growth. However, these changes appear to be developmentally regulated as they happened in the same way and at the same time in unpollinated flowers. Moreover, the onset of fruiting occurred prior to fertilization and the very same changes could be observed in unpollinated flowers. Conclusions Pollen–pistil interaction in citrus showed similarities with unrelated species and families belonging to other taxa. The uncoupling of the reproductive and fruiting processes accounts for the parthenocarpic ability of unpollinated flowers to produce fruit in citrus. However, the maintenance of a functional reproductive process reflects the potential to produce seeded fruits, providing a basis for the understanding of the production of seeded or unseeded fruits and further understanding of the process of parthenocarpy in other

  17. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  18. Citrus Black Rot is Caused by Phylogenetically Distinct Lineages of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, T L; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W; Carris, L M; Bhatia, A

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates of Alternaria alternata causing black rot of citrus were associated with six well-supported evolutionary lineages. Isolates recovered from brown spot lesions on Minneola tangelo, leaf spot lesions on rough lemon, and healthy citrus tissue and noncitrus hosts were related closely to isolates from black-rotted fruit. Phylogenies estimated independently from DNA sequence data from an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and two anonymous regions of the genome (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1) had similar topologies, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the combined data set. In the combined phylogeny, isolates from diverse ecological niches on citrus and noncitrus hosts were distributed in eight clades. Isolates from all lineages, regardless of ecological or host association, caused black rot in fruit inoculation assays, demonstrating that small-spored Alternaria isolates associated with different ecological niches on citrus and other plant hosts are potential black rot pathogens. These data also indicated that the fungi associated with black-rotted fruit do not form a natural evolutionary group distinct from other Alternaria pathogens and saprophytes associated with citrus. The use of the name A. citri to describe fungi associated with citrus black rot is not justified and it is proposed that citrus black rot fungi be referred to as A. alternata.

  19. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  20. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.

  1. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ashraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the leading fruit of Pakistan and famous worldwide especially kinnow cultivar because of its pleasant taste and remarkable quality. The yield of citrus per hectare in Pakistan is almost half of potential due to non-adoption of recommended horticultural practices by citrus growers. Adopting a decision regarding the improvement of practices is usually influenced by various factors including farmers' socio-economic attributes. In order to determine the relationship between socio-economic aspects and the awareness and adoption of recommended citrus production practices the present study was carried out in Sargodha district from central Punjab, Pakistan. The Study was based upon cross sectional survey research design due to availability of sampling frame, probability (random sampling was applied for sample selection. Through random sampling, 120 citrus growers were selected as sample. Structured questionnaire administered through interview was used as a research instrument. Analysis of the data collected from the targeted citrus growers revealed a highly significant influence of education on awareness and adoption. Moreover, significant association was found between citrus cultivation area and awareness and adoption of improved practices. Age also showed significant association with awareness and adoption. Moreover, dominancy of middle aged farmers and illiteracyin the study area strongly point the need of provision of formal and non-formal education and training program for farmers. Young generation needs to be focused and reorientation of youth clubs may help in better way to gain the utmost outcome.

  2. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  3. Inserción de la inmigración boliviana en la actividad hortícola del Departamento Lules (Tucumán, Argentina a mediados de la década de los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Rivas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración de trabajadores agrícolas de origen boliviano hacia el departamento Lules ha pasado de ser una inmigración temporal inscrita en circuitos que les llevaban a trabajar en diferentes provincias de la República, a otra de carácter permanente, ligada a la horticultura; el paso de obrero golondrina a productor hortícola ha sido posible por las peculiares condiciones por las que atravesaba la horticultura luleña en la década de los ochenta, y ha traído consigo la conversión en arrendatarios, y aún en propietarios, de una fracción de los antiguos braceros bolivianos. Pero la presencia de horticultores bolivianos no se limita a Lules, sino que, desde la década de los noventa, están produciendo hortalizas en Vipos, al norte de Tucumán, reproduciendo las estrategias productivas previamente puestas en práctica en Lules. El análisis tanto de estas corrientes migratorias de bolivianos hacia Lules, como el estado del proceso de su inserción en la estructura productiva del departamento a mediados de los noventa, se resuelven como el objetivo de la presente investigación.

  4. Gestão de compra de produtos hortícolas por varejistas: análise de estratégias empresariais Retailers horticultural supply chain strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Zanon Pelição

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever e analisar três casos (envolvendo seis empresas de relação entre varejistas e produtores de hortícolas, com base no referencial teórico de alianças estratégicas proposto por GATTORNA & WALTERS (1996. Para isto estas seis empresas foram visitadas e foram entrevistadas em profundidade para se entender como se dá a transação, as alternativas ao formato em execução, os riscos, fatores de estabilidade e outros considerados no Modelo.This research analyses three case studies of transactions between horticultural producers and retailers in their supply management process of horticultural products. The first transaction studied is what can be called an strategic alliance where both retailers and producers depend highly on each other, with several advantages for both, mainly related to transaction cost reducing and chain coordination. The second is a case where the retailer is the coordinator of the transaction, using mostly the price mechanism to buy horticultural products, and the third is a case where a company of producers coordinate the transaction. These three cases are discussed under the model of GATTORNA & WALTERS (1996 for strategic alliances.

  5. Study of the components of essential oil of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort by supercritical fluid extraction%超临界流体萃取法对川芎挥发油成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广通; 石力夫; 余建国

    2001-01-01

    @@ 川芎(Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.)为伞形科藁本属植物,是我国传统中药之一, 有行气、活血、化瘀之功效.挥发油是其重要的活性成分,主要含有内酯类化合物,其中含量最高的是藁本内酯,但传统的水蒸汽蒸馏提取法会引起某些成分的破坏和丢失,而超临界流体萃取(SFE)具有萃取效率高,时间短,在低温、低氧条件下操作,对热不稳定和易氧化的物质尤为适用,因此SFE技术在挥发油的化学成分研究中得到广泛应用[1].

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Penjor

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions

  7. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  8. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manosh Kumar Biswas

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02% are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21% polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  9. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  10. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  11. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  12. Temporal responses of peak citrus flowering to climate change in Iran: 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p markets.

  13. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  15. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  16. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6 h and up to 72 h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120 h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (XccΔfliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker.

  17. 沙田柚无机焦磷酸酶基因的 cDNA 克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of inorganic pyrophosphatase gene from Citrus grandis var.shatianyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新民; 万珊; 李惠敏; 覃屏生; 张渝

    2015-01-01

    植物自交不亲和性是植物生殖过程中普遍存在的一种现象,是植物特异性识别并拒绝自身花粉或亲缘关系很相近的花粉的一种遗传机制。无机焦磷酸酶(inorganic pyrophosphatase,IPPase)在植物生长发育方面起重要作用。该研究根据沙田柚花柱消减文库中 EST 序列(无机焦磷酸酶基因内部片段),设计了2对特异引物5′-GSP1,5′-nGSP1,3′-GSP2 and 3′-nGSP2,通过 SMART-RACE PCR 技术从所构建的沙田柚花柱抑制性消减文库中克隆了沙田柚无机焦磷酸酶基因的 cDNA 全长序列,利用 Blastn、DNAman 和 Expasy 软件对所克隆的基因进行同源性分析,以及基因编码的氨基酸的分子量、等电点、疏水性等理化性质分析。结果表明:IPPase 基因 cDNA 全长为1136 bp(GenBank 登录号为 KF990474),开放阅读框(ORF)全长为654 bp,共编码217个氨基酸,包括170 bp 5′UTR 和312 bp 的3′UTR;编码的蛋白质的分子量为24.4 kDa,等电点为5.96;蛋白结构域分析显示沙田柚 IPPase 与焦磷酸酶具有相同的保守结构域;对沙田柚 IPPase 蛋白质序列进行疏水性分析,结果表明沙田柚 IPPase 基因编码的肽链中疏水性最大值约为3.21,最小值约为-2.98,属于亲水性蛋白,无跨膜区域;Blastn 搜索的结果显示,沙田柚 I P Pase 基因序列与多种植物的 I P P 基因高度同源;序列分析表明,沙田柚 I P Pase 基因核苷酸的同源性与毛果杨(Populus trichocarpa )和橡胶树(Hevea bra-siliensis )I P Pase 基因均为87%;氨基酸序列与克莱门柚(Citrus clementina )无机焦磷酸酶完全一致。该研究结果可为深入研究无机焦磷酸酶在沙田柚自交不亲和中的作用机理提供基础。%Self-incompatibility (SI)is the prevalence of phenomenon in the process of plant reproduction,it is an in-traspecific reproductive barrier adopted by angiosperms that allows the pistil to distinguish between self (genetically

  18. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

  19. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Algahtani, Hussein A

    2014-11-01

    Memory is greatly influenced by factors like food, stress and quality of sleep, hence present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Citrus limon and Pomegranate juices on memory of mice using Harvard Panlab Passive Avoidance response apparatus controlled through LE2708 Programmer. Passive avoidance is fear-motivated tests used to assess short or long-term memory of small animals, which measures latency to enter into the black compartment. Animals at MCLD showed highly significant and significant increase in latency to enter into the black compartment after 3 and 24 hours respectively than control, animals at HCLD showed significant increase in latency only after 3hours. Animals both at low and moderate doses of pomegranate showed significant increase in test latency after 3 hours, while animals at high dose showed highly significant and significant increase in latency after 3 and 24 hours respectively. There was highly significant and significant increase in latency in animals at CPJ-1 combination after 3 and 24 hours respectively; however animals received CPJ-2 combination showed significant increase in latency only after 3 hours as compare to control. These results suggest that Citrus limon and Pomegranate has phytochemicals and essential nutrients which boost memory, particularly short term memory. Hence it may be concluded that flavonoids in these juices may be responsible for memory enhancing effects and a synergistic effect is observed by CPJ-1 and CPJ-2 combinations.

  20. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.

  1. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF Brevipalpus phoenicis IN CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALTER MALDONADO JR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the pests of citrus, one of the most important is the red and black flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, which transmits the Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C.When a rational pest control plan is adopted, it is important to determine the correct timing for carrying out the control plan. Making this decision demands constant follow-up of the culture through periodic sampling where knowledge about the spatial distribution of the pest is a fundamental part to improve sampling and control decisions. The objective of this work was to study the spatial distribution pattern and build a sequential sampling plan for the pest. The data used were gathered from two blocks of Valencia sweet orange on a farm in São Paulo State, Brazil, by 40 inspectors trained for the data collection. The following aggregation indices were calculated: variance/ mean ratio, Morisita index, Green’s coefficient, and k parameter of the negative binomial distribution. The data were tested for fit with Poisson and negative binomial distributions using the chi-square goodness of fit test. The sequential sampling was developed using Wald’s Sequential Probability Ratio Test and validated through simulations. We concluded that the spatial distribution of B. phoenicis is aggregated, its behavior best fitted to the negative binomial distribution and we built and validated a sequential sampling plan for control decision-making.

  2. Discrimination of Five Citrus Diseased Leaves by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxiang; ZHAO; Gang; LIU; Weixing; LI; Xiaohua; Wang; Jianming; HAO; Xiangping; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,citrus brown spot,huanglongbing,canker,fuliginous,Cercospora sp. and healthy leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FTIR) combined with statistical analysis. The results showed that the spectra of the samples were similar,whereas there were obvious differences in the second derivatives of infrared spectra in the range of 1 500- 700 cm- 1. The correlative analysis were evaluated,results showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0. 918 between healthy leaves,and between the same diseased leaves. However,the values were all decreased between healthy and diseased leaves,and among different diseased leaves. The preprocessed original,first derivative and second derivative spectra in the range of 1 200- 700 cm- 1were chosen to evaluated principal component analysis( PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),respectively. The performance of the overall accuracy of PCA was 92.5%,which were better than original dataset and first derivative dataset. HCA by selecting second derivative dataset yield about 90% accuracy. This study proved that FTIR spectroscopy could be detected citrus diseases quickly and accurately.

  3. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Might Citrus Flavonoids Play a Protective Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Cirmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases (ND result from the gradual and progressive degeneration of the structure and function of the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system or both. They are characterized by deterioration of neurons and/or myelin sheath, disruption of sensory information transmission and loss of movement control. There is no effective treatment for ND, and the drugs currently marketed are symptom-oriented, albeit with several side effects. Within the past decades, several natural remedies have gained attention as potential neuroprotective drugs. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have suggested that dietary intake of vegetables and fruits can prevent or delay the onset of ND. These properties are mainly due to the presence of polyphenols, an important group of phytochemicals that are abundantly present in fruits, vegetables, cereals and beverages. The main class of polyphenols is flavonoids, abundant in Citrus fruits. Our review is an overview on the scientific literature concerning the neuroprotective effects of the Citrus flavonoids in the prevention or treatment of ND. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of nutraceuticals, food supplements or complementary and alternative drugs to maintain and improve the neurophysiological status.

  4. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR, the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

  5. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars Indução de calos embriogênicos a partir de nucelos de variedades de Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.Nucelos de sete variedades de Citrus foram introduzidos em três meios de cultura para produção de calos embriogênicos. Os meios de cultura testados foram: EME [MT, modificado pela adição de extrato de malte (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio MT + 1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio BH3 + 500 mg.L-1 extrato de malte + 1,55 g.L-1 de glutamina]; e EBA [EME + 0,44 miM 6-benziladenina + 0,04 miM 2,4 D]. Calos friáveis foram obtidos nas variedades tangerinas 'Cravo' e 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, tangor 'Murcote' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, laranja 'Valencia

  6. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host.

  7. Pathotypes and Genetic Diversity of Chinese Collections of Elsinoë fawcettii Causing Citrus Scab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin; HUANG Feng; ZHANG Tian-yuan; XU Jian-guo; Hyde D Kevin; LI Hong-ye

    2014-01-01

    Two scab diseases are currently recognized on citrus:citrus scab, caused by Elsinoë fawcettii, and sweet orange scab, caused by E. australis. Although these pathogens are economically important, there is no molecular data on these species in China. Here we use internal transcribed spacer sequence data to report on host-speciifcity and genetic relationships among 46 isolates collected from the main citrus varieties grown across China. All strains isolated were E. fawcettii. Based on pathogenicity testing on 9 different citrus species, isolates were divided into 11 pathotypes (SM, FBHR, SJCR, SPOJCR, SR, SOJG, SPOJC, SRGC, Lemon and two unnamed pathotypes). SM is a new pathotype, and two isolates did not ift into any of the known pathotypes of E. fawcettii. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR-PCR) assays separated the E. fawcettii isolates into 10 subgroups;the groupings basically corresponded to the pathogenicity test.

  8. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.

  9. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  10. Candidate gene markers for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-06-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' and 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed.

  11. Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donna, Leonardo; De Luca, Giuseppina; Mazzotti, Fabio; Napoli, Anna; Salerno, Raffaele; Taverna, Domenico; Sindona, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl neohesperidosides of hesperetin (brutieridin, 1) and naringenin (melitidin, 2) were isolated and detected from the fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  12. Bioactive molecules as authenticity markers of Italian Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) fruits and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Valle, Francesco; Poli, Ferruccio; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Mercolini, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) is a uncommon fruit belonging to the Citrus genus, mainly cultivated in small areas of the Italian territory, where the main use concerns the eponymous drink, marketed with the name of "Chinotto". The lack of information about this fruit highlights the usefulness of nutraceutical compound characterization, as well as the need to identify genuineness markers in derived commercial products. An analytical strategy based on SPE-HPLC-F was developed to identify and quantify different bioactive compounds in Chinotto (Citrus×myrtifolia) fruits and commercial beverages. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to the analysis of nutraceutical compounds in Chinotto fruits of Italian origin and in some Chinotto-based beverages, granting reliable and consistent data. The obtained results provided preliminary key information about the bioactive profiling of Citrus×myrtifolia and proved the suitability of the selected compounds as authenticity markers of derived commercial soft drinks.

  13. Candidate gene markers for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao; Mike Irey; Stephen M Garnsey; Siddarame Gowda

    2013-06-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across `Ca. Liberibacter africanus’ and `Ca. Liberibacter americanus’ were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed.

  14. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  15. MS fragment isotope ratio analysis for evaluation of citrus essential oils by HRGC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Atsushi; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Takao; Ukeda, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the origin of citrus essential oils, the isotope ratio of fragment peaks on HRGC-MS of the volatile compounds from various citrus oils was measured. The MS fragment ratio was found by the ratio of fragment peak intensity, m+1/m (m/z). This ratio reflects the isotope effect of volatile compounds, that is, it provides information about locality, quality, and species for essential oils. Multivariate analysis based on the MS fragment ratio of monoterpene hydrocarbons clearly distinguished three citrus species, yuzu, lemon, and lime. The carbonyl fractions were also extracted from citrus essential oils by the sodium hydrogensulfite method. The isotope ratio of MS fragments of octanal, nonanal, and decanal was also examined. The results suggest that there was no significant difference in the individual fragment isotope ratios of the three aldehydes.

  16. Isotope ratio analysis by HRGC-MS of monoterpene hydrocarbons from citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Atsushi; Une, Akitoshi; Ueno, Takao; Ukeda, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2003-03-01

    The isotope ratio of monoterpene hydrocarbons in citrus essential oils of different origins was measured by ordinary high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isotope ratio (Ir) was determined by the ratio of the isotope peak intensity (m/z 137) to the molecular mass peak intensity (m/z 136) of the monoterpene hydrocarbons. The accuracy of Ir was examined by measuring monoterpene hydrocarbon standards and 13C-labeled compounds. The isotope fingerprints based on the values of monoterpene hydrocarbons from lemon, lime and yuzu essential oils were determined. These citrus essential oils were also discriminated by a principal component analysis of their Ir data. The characteristic vectors showed that alpha-terpinene, beta-pinene and beta-phellandrene were important components for distinguishing between the citrus species. It is suggested that this technique will be applicable to evaluate the quality, genuineness and origin of citrus fruits and their products.

  17. Sequencing and computational analysis of complete genome sequences of Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus from acid lime and pummelo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Basanta K; Johnson, A M Anthony; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2009-08-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus, is the causative agent of Citrus mosaic disease in India. Although the virus has been detected in several citrus species, only two full-length genomes, one each from Sweet orange and Rangpur lime, are available in publicly accessible databases. In order to obtain a better understanding of the genetic variability of the virus in other citrus mosaic-affected citrus species, we performed the cloning and sequence analysis of complete genomes of CMBV from two additional citrus species, Acid lime and Pummelo. We show that CMBV genomes from the two hosts share high homology with previously reported CMBV sequences and hence conclude that the new isolates represent variants of the virus present in these species. Based on in silico sequence analysis, we predict the possible function of the protein encoded by one of the five ORFs.

  18. 川芎水蒸气蒸馏和超临界CO2提取物化学成分的GC-MS分析鉴别%GC-MS Analysis and Determination of Chemical Components of the Extracts from Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort.by Steam Distillation and Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志; 谢润乾; 谭丽贤; 张涛

    2011-01-01

    The chemical components of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Were extracted by steam distillation and supercritical C02 extraction, and analyzed by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Thirty and thirty four compounds were identified, respectively, and their relative contents were determined. This study revealed that the major components of L chuanxiong Hort. By steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction were (Z) -ligustilide. The chemical components from L chuanxiong Hort. Extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction possessed more bioactive substances such as butylphthalide, butylidene phthalide, senkyunolide A, (Z)-ligustilide, (E)-ligustilide and senkyunobde I. However, the components from L chuanxiong Hort. Extracted by steam distillation contained more terpenes except for the bioactive substances. Therefore, supercritical CO2 extraction has more productivity than steam distillation for the extraction of the bioactive substances from L chuanxiong Hort. Through the interpretation and summarization of the regular patterns of the lactones with unsaturated and saturated side chains from L. Chuanxiong Hort. , the structures of the lactones with unsaturated side chain such as (Z)-ligustilide, (E)-ligustilide, butylidene phthalide and senkyunolide I as well as the lactones with saturated side chain such as butylphthalide and senkyunolide A have been determined.%用水蒸气蒸馏和超临界CO2提取方法对川芎药材中的化学成分进行提取,用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对提取物进行分析,分别鉴定出30和34个化合物,测定了其相对含量.结果表明,水蒸气蒸馏和超临界CO2提取物的主要成分均为(Z)-藁本内酯.超临界CO2提取方法能提取出较多的川芎药效物质,如丁基酞内酯、丁烯基酞内酯、川芎内酯A、(Z)-藁本内酯、(E)-藁本内酯和川芎内酯I.而水蒸气蒸馏提取物中除了川芎药效物质外,还含有较多的萜烯类化

  19. Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product

  20. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Omani Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and Comparative Analysis within the Rosids

    OpenAIRE

    Huei-Jiun Su; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Chih-Horng Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains many economically important fruits that are grown worldwide for their high nutritional and medicinal value. Due to frequent hybridizations among species and cultivars, the exact number of natural species and the taxonomic relationships within this genus are unclear. To compare the differences between the Citrus chloroplast genomes and to develop useful genetic markers, we used a reference-assisted approach to assemble the complete chloroplast genome of Omani lime (C....

  1. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Y Folimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  2. Shock absorbing reception surfaces for collecting fruit during the mechanical harvesting of citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Sánchez, María Coral; Blasco, J; Balasch Parisi, Sebastià; Torregrosa Mira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Damage to fresh citrus caused by impact of fruits onto collecting surfaces has restricted the adoption of mechanical harvesting. Two different experiments were carried out: investigating free-falling citrus and investigating the shock absorbing capacity of various surfaces. In free-falling experiment damage to mandarin, orange and lemon was studied. Three collecting surfaces were studied: a concrete floor, an elevated canvas provided with a frame and wheels, and a concrete floor covered with ...

  3. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF MITES IN A MANDARIN CITRUS ORCHARD IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi Affandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most destructive pests in citrus orchards are spider mites. Monitoring prior applied pest control is a standard procedure for integrated pest management (IPM. The study aimed to survey and determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of phytophagous, predatory, and detritivorous mites at different stages of development of arboreal plant parts, weeds and litter in the citrus orchard. A periodical sampling survey method was conducted on six growth stages of mandarin citrus, weeds and litter of the Indonesian Fruits Research Institute experimental field in Solok, West Sumatra in December 2003 to June 2004. All mites attached on each growth stage of citrus, weeds and litter were trapped and mounted on slide for identification purposes. Identification of the mites was conducted in the Acarology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos in July-October 2004. The results showed that a very rich mite fauna of 130 species was found in the arboreal parts of citrus crops, weeds and litter below the canopy of the citrus orchard. Among the trophic groups, detritivorous mites were the most abundant, followed by the predators, phytophages, and those unknown feeding habit. Among the habitats, weeds harbored the most mite species followed by litter and arboreal parts of the citrus trees. The flush growth stage had the least diverse mite fauna with index diversity (H’ of 1.27, while the most diverse (H’ = 2.01 was found at fruit development phase II. Result of this research was useful in determining proper time for controlling phytophagous mites. Besides, the result also provides important information on potential predatory mites that can be used as biological control agents. Furthermore, the study implies the importance of maintaining cover crops of weeds and litter beneath the citrus trees as refuge and source of alternate prey for predators which suppressed populations of phytophagous mites.

  4. Description of the airflow produced by an air-assisted sprayer during pesticide applications to citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Salcedo; Cruz Garcera; Rafael Granell; Enrique Molto; Patricia Chueca

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric drift of plant protection products is considered a major source of air pollution during pesticide applications. Citrus protection against pests and diseases usually requires application of these products using air-blast sprayers. Many authors have emphasized the influence of vegetation on the risk of spray drift. The aim of this work was to describe in detail how the airflow from an air-blast sprayer behaves when it reaches citrus trees and, in particular, the effect that the tree...

  5. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossat Carole; Ollitrault Patrick; Courtois Brigitte; Argout Xavier; Legaz Francisco; Götz Stefan; Iglesias Domingo J; Brumos Javier; Soler Guillermo; de Andres Fernando; Alós Enriqueta; Agustí Javier; Tadeo Francisco; Cercos Manuel; Colmenero Jose M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, r...

  6. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gadea Jose; Forment Javier; Santiago Julia; Marques M Carmen; Juarez Jose; Mauri Nuria; Martinez-Godoy M Angeles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-...

  7. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Godoy, M Angeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juarez, Jose; Marques, M Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-wide cDNA...

  8. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Godoy, M. Ángeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juárez, José; Marqués, M. Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea Vacas, José

    2008-01-01

    Background: Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genomewide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results: We have designed and constructed a publicly available ...

  9. Intensification of citrus production and soil loss in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Burguet, M.; Giménez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    After land abandonment for five decades (Arnáez et al., 2010; Belmonte Serrato et al., 1999) as a widespread process in Spain, agriculture intensification is taken place. This is changing the nature of the soil erosion processes as they were known (Cerdà, 1997; Cammeraat and Imeson, 1999; Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010; Zavala et al., 2010). Citrus production are being reallocated on slopes due to the new irrigation systems (drip-irrigation), the thermic inversion on the bottom of the valley and then the frost affecting the plantations, the high prices of the bottom valley lands and the investment in agriculture from other economic sectors such as tourism and industry. Those new plantations are based on intense pesticides and herbicides use, and erosion processes are triggered due to the sloping surface developed (Cerdà et al., 2010). Five study sites were selected in the Montesa Municipality research zone, where an increase in the orange and clementines plantations were found during the last 20 years. Measurements were perfomed by a simple method, which consist in measuring the surface characteristics: stoniness, crust, herbs, bare soil, sheet flow, rills and gullies. One thousand meters were monitored at each of the study sites and measurements were done in January and August with a precision of 1 cm. The results show that the erosion rates are controlled by the sheet erosion (78,4 %), although rill and gullies exist (< 1 %) and they are active and contribute to high erosion rates. Stones and vegetation cover was found to by low. The infiltration rates of the soils were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments and cylinder infiltrometer. The results show that the new citrus plantations results in low infiltration rates, and high erosion rates. This is contributing to a non-sustainable agriculture production due to the high erosion rates. And also a lack in soil services as the surface runoff and then the soil erosion is enhanced; and soil infiltration

  10. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between t...

  11. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere; Suphitchaya Chanthachum; Sumonrat Chanthaphon

    2008-01-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated-essential oils from peels of Citrus spp. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against food related microorganisms by broth microdilution assay. Overall, ethyl acetate extracts from all citrus peels showed stronger antimicrobial activities than their essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation. The ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) peel showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, ...

  12. Guidelines for Selection of Tissues for Electron Microscopy Confirmation of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in Huanglongbing-affected Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Achor, Diann; Davis, Craig L.; Brlansky, Ronald H.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the pathogen-specific primers and electron microscopy are the two techniques of choice that have been used for detection and identification of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in the Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus. Due to the low population and uneven distribution of Liberibacter in the diseased citrus trees finding the bacteria with transmission electron microscopy has been a challenge. Work with samples from HLB-affected citrus during the past 5 years h...

  13. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  14. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  15. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit.

  16. History and Diversity of Citrus leprosis virus Recorded in Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, John S; Roy, Avijit; Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-09-01

    Leprosis refers to two diseases of citrus that present similar necrotic local lesions, often surrounded by chlorotic haloes on citrus. Two distinct viruses are associated with this disease, one that produces particles primarily in the nucleus of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type [CiLV-N]; Dichorhavirus) and another type that produces particles in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type [CiLV-C]; Cilevirus). Both forms are transmitted by Brevipalpid mites and have bipartite, single-stranded, RNA genomes. CiLV-C and CiLV-N are present in South and Central America and as far north as parts of Mexico. Although leprosis disease was originally described from Florida, it disappeared from there in the 1960s. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service maintains preserved citrus specimens identified at inspection stations 50 or more years ago with symptoms of citrus leprosis. We isolated RNA from these samples and performed degradome sequencing. We obtained nearly full-length genome sequences of both a typical CiLV-C isolate intercepted from Argentina in 1967 and a distinct CiLV-N isolate obtained in Florida in 1948. The latter is a novel form of CiLV-N, not known to exist anywhere in the world today. We have also documented the previously unreported presence of CiLV-N in Mexico in the mid-20th century.

  17. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides.

  18. THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF CITRUS DERIVED FROM SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS PLANTLET AND SCION STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Friyanti Devy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE of callus culture in vitro is one of citrus propagation ways for producing free virus and genetically true-to-type plantlets. To induce growing of plantlets derived from this technology, they should be grafted ex vitro onto a citrus rootstock. The research aimed to evaluate the growth performance of citrus plants cv. Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis L. that used both plantlets and scions as their stocks. The research was conducted at Tlekung Research Station, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute from June 2011 to December 2012. The treatments were done at nursery house by grafting a plantlet and budding a scion onto an eight-month-old Japanese Citroon (JC rootstock plant. The grafted and budded plants of one-year old were maintained at nursery house then transplanted into the field. In the field, the research was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and used 15 plants as unit samples. The results showed that the vegetative growth of Siam Kintamani seedling derived from SE or grafted plant was faster than that of budded plant started from 10 to 12 months after treatment in the nersery house. In the field, the growth of SE grafted plant was only significantly different up to 6 months after transplanting. Plantlets produced from SE in vitro propagation can be used as a good alternative stock material for producing healthy citrus plants. Therefore, a further research is required especially on varieties used, reproductive growth and massive planlets production.

  19. 柑桔砧木育种研究进展%Advances in Citrus Rootstock Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世平; 江东; 洪棋斌; 龚桂芝; 刘小丰; 赵晓春

    2013-01-01

    柑桔主要通过嫁接进行繁殖.柑桔砧木对接穗生长势、产量、果实大小、品质和抗性等都有直接的影响.砧木遗传改良是保持柑桔产业具有较强竞争力和较高生产力的重要步骤,世界各国都在致力于柑桔优良砧木的培育.本文就近几十年来柑桔砧木育种进展进行简要综述.%Citrus is mainly propagated by grafting. The rootstock directly affects the growth vigor, production, fruit size and quality, and stress-responsiveness of the scion. The health and productivity of citrus industry is greatly dependent on the performance of the rootstocks. The genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks has become a vital step towards the industry being more productive and competitive. In most of citrus growing countries, selecting and creating superior rootstock is one of the most important practices in citrus breeding. In this paper, the progresses in citrus root-stock breeding in the past decades will be briefly reviewed.

  20. Analysis of the Components in Callus and Cell Suspension Cultures of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. By Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%川芎愈伤组织及悬浮培养物化学成分气相色谱-质谱联用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹玉莲; 马小军; 戴均贵; 刘德华

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyze the components in callus and cell suspension cultures of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods Initiate the callus and cell suspension cultures of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.. Collect the callus and three sequent generations cell suspension cultures, and the components in callus and cell suspension cultures were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The callus and cell suspension cultures of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. contained similar constituenents, but the components in callus and cell suspension cultures were quite different from those of the plant, and the main bioactive constituentes of the plant were not found in callus and cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The characteristics of callus and cell suspension cultures were different from those of the plant.%目的用气相色谱-质谱联用法分析川芎愈伤组织及悬浮培养物中的化学成分.方法建立川芎愈伤组织及悬浮培养体系,收集愈伤组织及连续三代的悬浮培养物,采用气相色谱-质谱联用法进行川芎愈伤组织及悬浮培养物化学成分的分析.结果川芎愈伤组织及悬浮培养物含有相似的成分,但与原植物中的成分区别很大,原植物中的主要活性成分在愈伤组织及悬浮培养物中也未发现.结论愈伤组织及悬浮培养物的特性与原植物有很大的区别.