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Sample records for citrus active germplasm

  1. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  2. Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus isolates from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. accessions of Citrus Active Germplasm Bank Caracterização de isolados do vírus da tristeza dos citros de acessos de pomelos (Citrus paradisi Macf. do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros

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    Maria Júlia Corazza-Nunes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates from 35 grapefruit accessions belonging to Citrus Active Germplasm Bank of the "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" located at the "Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira", Cordeirópolis, São Paulo state, Brazil, were characterized and evaluated through symptoms in the trees, biological indexing, immunological diagnosis with different monoclonal antibodies and SSCP analysis (single-strand conformation polymorphism of the coat protein gene. Symptomatology indicated that, in general, the group of plants with smaller canopy volume and severe stem pitting differed significantly from the group that presented greater vegetative development and mild to moderate stem pitting. However, the isolates from most of the accessions induced mild reaction on Mexican lime. The serological evaluation through the DAS-ELISA using monoclonal antibodies did not reveal any association between virus titer in the plant tissue and symptoms. The reaction with different monoclonal antibodies and the distinct electrophoresis patterns obtained through SSCP showed that there is a high degree of diversity among the isolates that infect these grapefruit accessions. High complexity within the same isolate was also observed in the SSCP profiles. This finding indicates that the CTV isolates from these plants are a complex mixture of CTV haplotypes. Similar SSCP banding patterns were observed among some plants with strong stem pitting symptoms, and among some plants with weak or moderate stem pitting symptoms.Isolados do vírus da tristeza dos citros (CTV de 35 acessos de pomelos que fazem parte do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros, localizado no Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Cordeirópolis, São Paulo, Brasil, pertencente ao Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, foram caracterizados através dos sintomas observados nas árvores, indexação biológica, diagnóstico imunológico e análise SSCP (polimorfismo de conformação de fita simples

  3. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FROM LOCAL CITRUS GERMPLASMS AVAILABLE IN THE SOUTH WESTERN REGION OF BANGLADESH

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    M. S. Akhter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the physico-chemical characteristics of 20 selected citrus fruits germplasm of South Western region of Bangladesh during July 2010 to January 2012. There was significant variation among the germplasms in relation to fruit characteristics and organolaptic evaluation. Better performance was found in germplasm No. 20 in respect of total fruit weight, weight of seed and skin thickness of fruits. Germplasm No.1 showed better performance in respect of percentage of edible portion and germplasm No. 6 in respect of percentage of non edible portion. The total soluble solids found higher in germplasm No. 20 (12.23 % and titratable acidity in germplasm No. 16 (49.33 %. Vitamin C and carotenoids found maximum in germplasm No. 20 (442.70 mg/100g. Germplasm No. 4 and 12 was better in respect of anthocyanin (0.10 mg/100gm and flavonoids (0.19 gm content of fruit pulp. Considering desired fruit characteristics germplasam No. 20 (pummelo was found better. Citrus fruits' squash was successfully prepared by using 60 g sugar containing treatment consisting 50-80 g of sugar with 10 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jelly was successfully prepared by using 300 g sugar containing treatment consisting 250-350 g of sugar with 50 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jarok was successfully prepared by using 55 g salt containing treatment consisting 50-60 g of salt with 5 g variation of salt in three treatments without changing other ingredient.

  5. Apparent tolerance to huanglongbing in citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a Ft. Pierce, Florida field planting, growth and huanglongbing (HLB) severity were assessed as indicators of HLB-tolerance on progenies of 83 seed-source accessions of citrus and citrus-relatives from the Riverside, California genebank. The HLB-pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) and vec...

  6. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE TANGERINAS DE BANCO ATIVO DE GERMOPLASMA DE CITROS DO CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MANDARIN FRUITS FROM CITRUS GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK OF `CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC'

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    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O número de variedades de tangerinas utilizadas economicamente é muito restrito, apesar da importância comercial deste grupo de citros. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC possui em torno de 383 acessos de tangerineiras e híbridos, os quais têm sido estudados sob o ponto de vista botânico, genético e agronômico. Este trabalho visa descrever por meio de 38 caracteres morfológicos, os frutos das tangerineiras Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará e Mexerica-do-Rio. Foram coletados 30 frutos maduros de cada acesso, sendo 10 frutos por planta, num total de 3 plantas por acesso. As tangerineiras, enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra e espaçadas de 7,5 m entre linhas por 5,5 m entre plantas, foram estudadas com 8 anos de plantio (safra 1994. Foi observada variabilidade fenotípica acentuada entre os acessos estudados, para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados e verificou-se que muitos caracteres agronômicos desejáveis encontram-se dispersos entre os acessos analisados, podendo vir a ser aproveitados em programas de melhoramento. A análise de agrupamento dos acessos através dos caracteres avaliados quantitativamente pode fornecer indicativos sobre as distâncias filogenéticas entre os diferentes genótipos.The number of mandarin varieties economically explored is very restricted, in spite of their commercial importance. The Active Citrus Germplasm Bank, of the `Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC' holds around 383 accessions of mandarins and hybrids, which are analyzed in botanical, genetic and agronomic aspects. As a part of this program, this work aims the fruit morphological description through 38 characters of the following mandarins: Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará and Mexerica-do-Rio. The mandarin trees are about 8 years old spaced 7

  7. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

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    Snoussi Hager

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the

  8. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  9. RAPD analysis of genetic relationship among citrus germplasms in Fujian%福建柑桔种质的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆莲; 刘礼仕; 吴少华

    2006-01-01

    从100条随机引物中筛选出21条能扩增出清晰的具有多态性DNA谱带的引物,通过RAPD分析,在分子水平上对福建54份柑桔种质进行鉴定、分类和亲缘关系分析.结果表明:这些种质的相异系数为0. 01493-0. 48172,说明它们之间的亲缘关系较近;在遗传相似系数为0. 45的水平上,54份柑桔种质被分为三大类,其中,太田芦柑(Citrus reticulata Blanoo cv.Tiantianlugan)和晚熟芦柑(Citrus reticulata Blanoo cv.Wanshulugan)的亲缘关系最近,柠檬(Citrus limon Burm. F.)与枳(Poncirus trifoliate Raf.)的亲缘关系最远,与形态学观察及传统分类结果相吻合.此外,还对福建引进的一些杂柑品种的遗传多样性进行了探讨.

  10. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

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    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  12. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

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    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  14. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Fang, Bo; Zhao, Qiyang; Jiao, Bining; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-10-15

    China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  15. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

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    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  16. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

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    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  17. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

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    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  18. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CITRUS PARADISI (GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS

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    Faleye, F J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The seeds and the seeds extract of Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae have been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as ulcers, cataracts, urinary and alimentary tract infections. The juice is taken mainly for its medicinal properties in large area of sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. This study investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the seeds extract. The structures of the isolated compounds were established using spectroscopy studies and identified as obacunone (1, nomilin (2, limonin (3, nomilinic acid (4 and obacunone-17-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Their antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay. None of the isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activities but nomilinic acid showed a weak antioxidant property. It scavenged 13.09 % of the DPPH free radical at the highest concentration of 200 µM tested.Oil of the seeds of C. paradisi investigated using gas chromatographic analysis was found to contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major saturated fatty acids present were lauric and stearic acids with percentage composition of 2.61 and 0.07 respectively while the major unsaturated fatty acids present in the seed were linoleic and linolenic acids with percentage compositions of 5.02 and 3.84 respectively.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere; Suphitchaya Chanthachum; Sumonrat Chanthaphon

    2008-01-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated-essential oils from peels of Citrus spp. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against food related microorganisms by broth microdilution assay. Overall, ethyl acetate extracts from all citrus peels showed stronger antimicrobial activities than their essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation. The ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) peel showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, ...

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  2. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  3. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  4. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

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    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  5. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

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    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  6. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

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    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  7. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced.

  8. Caracterización mediante microsatélites de 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de Corpoica-Palmira Genetic characterization using microsatellites of 34 accessions of the orange, Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank of Corpoica-Palmira

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    Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 19 marcadores microsatélites para caracterizar 34 accesiones de naranja Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck del Banco de Germoplasma de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica-Palmira. Seis marcadores fueron polimórficos, los de mayor heterocigosidad fueron CCSM- 19 (0.4097 y CCSM-3 (0.3254. Se diferenciaron 33 accesiones y al 85% de similitud, con el índice de Nei-Li y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA, se conformaron cuatro grupos. En el primero se situaron dos accesiones blancas (Lerma y Valencia Olinda 2, en el segundo la mayoría de las blancas (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1 junto con García Valencia y Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington, New Hall y dos sanguinas (Rudy Blood, Moro Blood, en el tercero accesiones blancas (Joppa, Salerma, Cuban Queen, Rico, Galicia, Star Calyx, Valencia Cutter, Valencia Frost, Valencia Campbell y Valencia Variegado y una sola accesión sanguina (Morocco Blood. En el cuarto grupo se situaron dos accesiones blancas, (Jaffa y Valencia 1-D-E. Finalmente, la variedad Sanguinella no hizo parte de grupos. Con los marcadores microsatélites no se encontró relación entre los grupos genéticos, formación y las características morfológicas del grupo.To characterize 34 orange accessions Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck from the Germplasm bank Corpoica- Palmira, 19 microsatellite markers were used. Six markers were polymorphic; the highest heterozygosity was obtained by CCSM-19 (0.4097 and CCSM-3 (0.3254. Thirty-three accessions were differentiated; with 85% of similarity, Nei-Li´s index and the UPGMA clustering method were formed fi ve groups. In the first one, two accessions were white (Lerma and Valencia Olinda 2, in the second one most of the white (Indian River, Valencia Olinda, Wialua, Lima Dulce, Pera del Río, St. Michael, Enterprise, Cafetera No. 1, García Valencia and Navel (Lane Late, Valle Washington

  9. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-07-14

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  10. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

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    Emily H. Kuhns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Activators of ERK/MAPK from Citrus Plants

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    Takashi Yoshida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascade, have been recently shown to be involved in synaptic plasticity and in the development of long-term memory in the central nervous system (CNS. We therefore examined the ability of Citrus compounds to activate ERK1/2 in cultured rat cortical neurons, whose activation might have a protective effect against neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Among the samples tested, extracts prepared from the peels of Citrus grandis (Kawachi bankan were found to have the greatest ability to activate ERK1/2. The active substances were isolated by chromatographic separation, and one of them was identified to be 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF. HMF significantly induced the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, a downstream target of activated ERK1/2, which appears to be a critical step in the signaling cascade for the structural changes underlying the development of long-term potentiation (LTP. In addition, the administration of HMF into mice treated with NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 restored the MK-801-induced deterioration of spatial learning performance in the Morris mater-maze task. Taken together, these results suggest that HMF is a neurotrophic agent for treating patients with memory disorders.

  12. The Effect of Citrus Aurantium, Foeniculum Vulgare and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils on Peroxidase Activity

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    Maryam Mohajerani (PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Peroxidases catalyze protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The activity of these enzymes in nerve cells is involved in causing disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study investigated the effect of Citrus aurantium, Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils on activity of peroxidase enzyme. Methods: All three medicinal plants were dried at room temperature. Their essential oil was extracted by steam distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. Optimal reaction conditions were determined in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and guaiacol as substrate and hydrogen donor, respectively. Enzyme kinetics of zucchini peroxidase were evaluated by increasing the amount of essential oils in optimal reaction conditions. Enzyme reaction rate for each of the essential oils and the Km and Vmax values were determined. Results: The results indicated concentration-dependent effect of the extracted essential oils on enzyme kinetics at optimum temperature of 50 °C and optimal pH of 6.5. The essential oil of Citrus aurantium had non-competitive inhibitory effects on the enzyme with Km of 6.25 mM, while the enzyme’s Vmax significantly reduced by increasing the concentration. Foeniculum vulgare showed mixed inhibition effect with Km of 7.14 mmol per 20 μl of the essential oil, but had a decreasing effect on the Vmax in smaller amounts. Finally, Rosmarinus officinalis showed activating effects by reducing the Km to 4-5.88 mM. Conclusion: The essential oils of Citrus aurantium and Foeniculum vulgare are inhibitors of the peroxidase enzyme and can be further studied as natural herbal medicines.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, S.; Santhanalakshmi, J.; Viswanathan, B.; Muthumary, J.; Srinivasan, K.

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels

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    Susana Johann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp., two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis, and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin from C. limon.

  16. Neurotrophic Effect of Citrus Auraptene: Neuritogenic Activity in PC12 Cells

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    Mitsunari Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK leads to a number of cellular changes associated with the development of long-term memory. Using cultured cortical neurons, we previously showed that the n-hexane extract prepared from the peels of Citrus grandis (Kawachi bankan induces the activation of ERK1/2 and that one of the compounds with this ability in the extract is 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF, a Citrus polymethoxyflavone. In fact, we found that HMF has the ability to rescue mice from drug-induced learning impairment. This hexane extract contains auraptene (AUR, a coumarin derivative with a monoterpene unit, together with HMF. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of AUR in vitro. Our results show that 1 AUR had the ability to induce the activation of ERK1/2 in not only cortical neurons but also the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells, which is a model system for studies on neuronal proliferation and differentiation; and 2 AUR had the ability to promote neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells.

  17. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Citrus aurantium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Hong; Shu, Zun Peng; Xu, Bing Qing; Xing, Na; Jiao, Wen Juan; Yang, Bing You; Kuang, Hai Xue

    2014-06-01

    Three polysaccharide fractions were obtained from Citrus aurantium L. (CAL) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and 1.0M NaOH, respectively. The fractions were denoted CALA, CALB, and CALC. Structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Antioxidant activities in vivo and in vitro were also evaluated. CALB, which showed the highest activity, was further isolated to afford four purified polysaccharides (CALB-1-4) by various ion exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Meanwhile, the purified polysaccharides were subjected to composition analysis and screened by antioxidant activity in vitro. Among the four purified polysaccharides, CALB-3 had the highest antioxidant activity and its structure was analyzed by FTIR, SEM and AFM microscopy. Overall, these results indicated that polysaccharides from CAL had potential therapeutic applications in the medical and food industries because of their antioxidant activities.

  18. Effect of dietary high- and low-methylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langhout, D.J.; Schutte, J.B.; Leeuwen, P. van; Wiebenga, J.; Tamminga, S.

    1999-01-01

    1. A study was conducted with broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary high-methylated citrus pectin (HMC) or low-methylated citrus pectin (LMC) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, morphology of the small intestinal wall and ileal microbial activity. 2. Both pectin products were tes

  19. Quality and bioactive compounds in fruit of foreign accessions of mango conserved in an Active Germplasm Bank1

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    Thalita Passos Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the quality and levels of bioactive compounds in the fruit of 22 foreign accessions of the mango belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semiárido. Sixty fruits from each of the accessions: Florigon, Haden, 65, Irwin, M 13269, Momi-K, Scuper Many, Simmonds, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Winter, Zill, Amrapali, Olour, Aplle DCG 406, Mon Amon DCG 407, Black Java, Kensington, Chené, Manila, Manzanillo and Maya, were harvested upon reaching physiological maturity, one half being analysed when harvested and the other half stored at ambient temperature (25.4 ± 2.9 ºC and 41 ± 9% RH until ripe. The experimental design was completely randomised in a 22 x 2 factorial (accession x maturity stage, with three replications of ten fruits. The accessions Chene, Momi-K and Van Dyke stood out for their physical attributes: weight, length, diameter and firmness of pulp, and for their good post-harvest conservation. The accession Amrapali was different because of its high levels of soluble solids, total soluble sugars, starch, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, suggesting a high potential for insertion into a breeding program aimed at the quality of the mango.

  20. Synthesis of Oxylipin Mimics and Their Antifungal Activity against the Citrus Postharvest Pathogens

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    Jimei Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine oxylipin mimics were designed and synthesized starting from d-mannose. Their antifungal activity against three citrus postharvest pathogens was evaluated by spore germination assay. The results indicated that all the compounds significantly inhibited the growth of Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Aspergillus niger. The compound (3Z,6Z,8S,9R,10R-octadeca-3,6-diene-8,9,10-triol (3 exhibited excellent inhibitory effect on both Penicillium digitatum (IC50 = 34 ppm and Penicillium italicum (IC50 = 94 ppm. Their in vivo antifungal activities against citrus postharvest blue mold were tested with fruit inoculated with the pathogen Penicillium italicum. The compound (3R,4S-methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-octyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylate (9 demonstrated significant efficacy by reducing the disease severity to 60%. The antifungal mechanism of these oxylipin mimics was postulated in which both inhibition of pathogenic mycelium and stimuli of the host oxylipin-mediated defense response played important roles.

  1. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the total phenolic and antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Q; Chen, J-C; Liu, D-H; Ye, X-Q

    2008-10-01

    Application of ultrasound to extract a variety of biologically active compounds from plant materials has been widely investigated. However, there are few reports on the local effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the yields of these compounds. In the present article, the local effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (ATT) of extracts from citrus peels was investigated. To optimize the extraction process, a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic variables including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature on extracts from penggan (Citrus reticulata) peel. The results showed that TPC and ATT increased on increasing ultrasonic time and temperature. The maximum of TPC and ATT by ultrasonic treatment was observed in near ultrasonic irradiation surface, in which ultrasonic power appeared to be positive effect. Furthermore, when the effect of the 3 independent variables was evaluated simultaneously using RSM, the optimal ultrasonic conditions for responses were determined as: 42 to 45 W, 23 to 25 min, 31 to 34 degrees C. The results presented here emphasized that application of ultrasound should be considered both the optimization of ultrasonic variables and available ultrasonic device.

  2. Comparison of the Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities by Infusions from Green Tea and Some Citrus Peels

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    Ayokunle O. Ademosun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, and orange (Citrus sinensis] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe2+ chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3 mg/g and total flavonoid (16.4 mg/g contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6 mg/g, total flavonoid (6.5 mg/g], shaddock [total phenol (16.3 mg/g, total flavonoid (5.2 mg/g], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7 mg/g, total flavonoid (5.9 mg/g]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78 mg/mL had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56 mg/mL. Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43 mg/mL when compared to the citrus peels’ infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions.

  3. Different Citrus rootstocks present high dissimilarities in their antioxidant activity and vitamins content according to the ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Arenas, Francisco; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    "Lane Late" sweet orange grafted on six different citrus rootstocks and grown in the Guadalquivir valley (Seville, Spain) were picked at different ripening stages in two consecutive seasons to characterize their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and quantify their main antioxidant compounds (vitamin E and vitamin C). Linear discriminant analysis and 2-way ANOVA were applied to compare the effects induced by citrus rootstock and ripening stage. The results showed that differences in antioxidant activity and related compounds are mainly dependent on the citrus rootstock, despite ripening stage had also some particular effects. Changes observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the citrus rootstock. Nevertheless, Cleopatra rootstock showed the highest antioxidant activity in both years, indicating that an increase in its cultivation might be a good solution to sweet orange farmers. Concerning the ripening stage, samples collected in January presented higher vitamin contents, while those collected in April showed higher antioxidant activity. This result allows deciding the harvesting period according to the desired effect.

  4. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

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    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  5. Effect of leguminous cover crops on soil biological activity in pots of Citrus unshiu Marcovitch

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    Cristina Abbate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of cover crops on soil properties in citrus orchards. To fill this gap, this work was aimed to determine the effects of leguminous cover crops on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and on the structure of the microbial community in pots of Citrus unshiu (Marcovitch. After amendment with cover crops, an increase in total organic C (TOC, total extractable C (TEC, and total N (TN contents were observed irrespective of the type of soil. Substrate induced respiration (SIR, and potentially mineralisable nitrogen (PMN, tested three times in one year, were higher in soils with leguminous cover crops while no significant differences were observed in protease and deaminase activity. The effect on the chemical and biochemical properties of the soil was more evident in plots containing Trifolium subterraneum. No changes were observed in the microbial communities studied (_-proteobacteria, _-proteobacteria, nitrogen-fixing, and ammonia oxidizers irrespective of the kind of cover crop or type of soil, neither were variations noted during the trial.

  6. Polyamines and transglutaminase activity are involved in compatible and self-incompatible pollination of Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Alessandra; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Pollination of pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pistils has been studied in planta by adding compatible and self-incompatible (SI) pollen to the stigma surface. The pollen germination has been monitored inside the pistil by fluorescent microscopy showing SI altered morphologies with irregular depositions of callose in the tube walls, and heavy callose depositions in enlarged tips. The polyamine (PA) content as free, perchloric acid (PCA)-soluble and -insoluble fractions and transglutaminase (TGase) activity have been analyzed in order to deepen their possible involvement in the progamic phase of plant reproduction. The conjugated PAs in PCA-soluble fraction were definitely higher than the free and the PCA-insoluble forms, in both compatible and SI pollinated pistils. In pistils, pollination caused an early decrease of free PAs and increase of the bound forms. The SI pollination, showed highest values of PCA-soluble and -insoluble PAs with a maximum in concomitance with the pollen tube arrest. As TGase mediates some of the effects of PAs by covalently binding them to proteins, its activity, never checked before in Citrus, was examined with two different assays. In addition, the presence of glutamyl-PAs confirmed the enzyme assay data and excluded the possibility of a misinterpretation. The SI pollination caused an increase in TGase activity, whereas the compatible pollination caused its decrease. Similarly to bound PAs, the glutamyl-PAs and the enzyme activity peaked in the SI pollinated pistils in concomitance with the observed block of the pollen tube growth, suggesting an involvement of TGase in SI response.

  7. Microarray analysis of Etrog citron (Citrus medica L.) reveals changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities in response to viroid infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Serena; Conesa, Ana; Juarez, José; Catara, Antonino; Navarro, Luis; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Ancillo, Gema

    2012-10-01

    Viroids are small (246-401 nucleotides), single-stranded, circular RNA molecules that infect several crop plants and can cause diseases of economic importance. Citrus are the hosts in which the largest number of viroids have been identified. Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease, induces considerable losses in citrus crops. Changes in the gene expression profile during the early (pre-symptomatic) and late (post-symptomatic) stages of Etrog citron infected with CEVd were investigated using a citrus cDNA microarray. MaSigPro analysis was performed and, on the basis of gene expression profiles as a function of the time after infection, the differentially expressed genes were classified into five clusters. FatiScan analysis revealed significant enrichment of functional categories for each cluster, indicating that viroid infection triggers important changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities.

  8. Major phytochemical composition of 3 native Korean citrus varieties and bioactive activity on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Hwang, In Kyeong; Park, Ji Hyun; Moon, BoKyung

    2009-08-01

    Three citrus varieties grown in Korea, namely, Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck), were evaluated for their dietary fiber, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids as well as individual flavonoids composition. The biochemical characteristics of citrus varieties were examined by the antioxidant capacity (731 to 1221 micromol of Trolox equivalent/g), total phenolic (334 to 411 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/100 g), total flavonoid contents (214 to 281 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), and total carotenoid contents (63 to 84 mg/100 g). Six flavonoids, including naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, hesperetin, neohesperidin, and luteolin, were tentatively identified. Naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in 3 citrus varieties. Among the citrus varieties studied, Yuza showed higher antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total carotenoids, and lower superoxide radical scavenging assay (SRSA) IC(50) values than other varieties. Furthermore, Korean citrus showed higher protective effect on gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) as compared to vitamin C and luteolin.

  9. Enzymatic modification enhances the protective activity of citrus flavonoids against alcohol-induced liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Choi, Hee-Don; Eom, Hyojin; Choi, Inwook

    2013-08-15

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) can be developed by a prolonged or large intake of alcohol in a short period of time. ALD is considered as a leading cause for a liver injury in modern dietary life. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of orally administrated citrus flavonoids (CFs) and their enzymatically modified ones (EM-CFs) to prevent ALD. Hesperidin and narirutin were extracted from peels of Citrus unshiu by ultra-sonication and purified further. These CFs were modified enzymatically through glycosylation and de-rhamnosylation by the actions of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) and hesperidinase, respectively. CFs and EM-CFs were fed to ICR mouse along with ethanol for 8 weeks, and changes in lipid contents, lipid peroxidation, GSH, antioxidant enzymes activity and proinflammatory cytokines in hepatic tissues were observed. Administration of CFs and EM-CFs along with alcohol significantly suppressed increases in prognostic parameters of a hepatocellular injury. Especially, EM-CFs fed groups maintained malondialdehyde, GSH levels and catalase activity in hepatic tissues close to those of the normal diet fed group. Abrupt increases in proinflammatory cytokines such as IκB-α, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in hepatocytes due to a chronic alcohol uptake were significantly suppressed by co-administration of EM-CFs. These results indicate that although the administration of CFs can alleviate ALD through preventing excessive lipid formation, protecting the antioxidant system and suppressing induction of inflammation in hepatocytes, their effectiveness can be further improved by glycosylation and de-rhamnosylation.

  10. Changes in Soil Enzyme Activities at Different Ages of Citrus Stands in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

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    ZHANG Hai-ling

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzyme catalyzes soil nutrient cycles and control the function of ecosystem. The changes in activities of catalase, invertase and urease in 0~20 cm and 20~40 cm soil depths were determined at different ages (ie. 10-, 20-, and 30-years old of citrus stands in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that catalase activity in 0~20 cm soil depth were lower in 30-year-old than those of 10-and 20-year-old sites which had no significant difference. Invertase and soil urease activities in 0~20 cm soil depth increased gradually, and tende to be highest under 20-year old site, and thenafter it decreased again. Soil catalase, invertase and urease activities decreased with soil depth at each citrus stand age. Soil urease and invertase activities showed significant relationship with soil organic C, microbial biomass C, and microbial biomass N whereas soil catalase activity had no significant relationship with soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. The results of principal components analysis showed that invertase activity, urease activity, organic C, microbial biomass C, and microbial biomass N were the major contributors in the first principal component due to more high factorial loads. Therefore, the results indicated that soil urease and invertase activities might be sensitive indicators for the change in soil quality in citrus stand.

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

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    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest bacterial growth inhibitory effect had direct antibacterial activity and strongly reduced the development of canker disease and bacterial population of lime plants.

  12. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  13. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  15. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  16. Flavonoids and a Limonoid from the Fruits of Citrus unshiu and Their Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Lee, Dahae; Lee, Seulah; Noh, Hyung Jun; Hyun, Jae Wook; Yi, Pyoung Ho; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-09-28

    The fruits of Citrus unshiu are one of the most popular and most enjoyed fruits in Korea. As we continue to seek for bioactive metabolites from Korean natural resources, our study on the chemical constituents of the fruits of C. unshiu resulted in the isolation of a new flavonoid glycoside, limocitrunshin 1, along with seven other flavonoids 2-8 and a limonoid 9. All structures were identified by spectroscopic methods, namely 1D and 2D NMR, including HSQC, HMBC, and (1)H-(1)H COSY experiments, HRMS, and other chemical methods. Compounds 3, 5, and 9 are reported to be isolated from this fruit for the first time. The isolated compounds were applied to activity tests to verify their inhibitory effects on inflammation and nephrotoxicity. Compounds 6 and 9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity on renal cell damage and nitric oxide production, respectively. Thus, the fruits of C. unshiu could serve as a valuable natural source of bioactive components with health benefits for potential application in functional foods.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated-essential oils from peels of Citrus spp. were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against food related microorganisms by broth microdilution assay. Overall, ethyl acetate extracts from all citrus peels showed stronger antimicrobial activities than their essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation. The ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC. peel showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and molds including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. sake and Aspergillus fumigatus TISTR 3180. It exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 0.28 and 0.56 mg/ml against Sac. cerevisiae var. sake and B. cereus, respectively while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values against both microbes were 0.56 mg/ml. The MIC values of the extract against L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus TISTR 3180 and S. aureus were 1.13 mg/ml while the MBC values against L. monocytogenes as well as A. fumigatus TISTR 3180 and S. aureus were 2.25 and 1.13 mg/ml, respectively. The major components of the ethyl acetate extract from kaffir lime were limonene (31.64 %, citronellal (25.96 % and b-pinene (6.83 % whereas b-pinene (30.48 %, sabinene (22.75 % and citronellal (15.66 % appeared to be major compounds of the essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation.

  18. Spasmolytic and Antibacterial Activity of Two Citrus sinensis Osbeck Varieties Cultivated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Recillas, Amanda; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana Ly; Araujo-León, Jesús Alfredo; Hernández Núñez, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial activity on ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella choleraesuis and spasmolytic effect on contraction on rat ileum trips were determinate. Eight organic extracts (hexanic and methanolic) of albedo (mesocarp) and flavedo (pericarp) of two varieties (Valencian and National) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck of Yucatán, México, were studied. Additionally, chromatographic fingerprints were obtained and correlated with their pharmacological effects. MAN, MAV, and HFN extract caused inhibition against S. choleraesuis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL) and S. enteritidis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL). Regarding the spasmolytic effect, the Valencian extracts variety was more efficient on spontaneous contraction, HAV (Emax = 51.98 ± 1.98%), MAV (Emax = 35.98 ± 1.42%), HFV (Emax = 68.91 ± 4.14%), and MFV (Emax = 51.28 ± 2.59%), versus National variety, HAN (Emax = 43.80 ± 6.32%), MAN (Emax = 14.62 ± 1.69%), HFN (Emax = 64.87 ± 3.04%), and MFN (Emax = 31.01 ± 3.92%). Chromatographic fingerprints of HFV and HFN were found to have some similar signals that belong to monoterpenes, whereas for HAN and HAV similar signals were found belonging to fatty acids and triterpenoids. Methanolic extracts showed signals of (1) furfural, (2) furfural acetone (3) furfuraldehyde and (4) β–sitosterol compounds. Flavedo portion of C. sinensis possessed spasmolytic effect on rat ileum strips and antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains. This species is source for obtaining bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:28356916

  19. Domain swapping of Citrus limon monoterpene synthases: impact on enzymatic activity and product specifity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamer, el M.K.; Lucker, J.; Bosch, D.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Schwab, W.; Tunen, van A.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Maagd, de R.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Monoterpene cyclases are the key enzymes in the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway, as they catalyze the cyclization of the ubiquitous geranyl diphosphate (GDP) to the specific monoterpene skeletons. From Citrus limon, four monoterpene synthase-encoding cDNAs for a P-pinene synthase named Cl(-)betaPIN

  20. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Johann; Vetúria Lopes de Oliveira; Pizzolatti,Moacir G.; Jan Schripsema; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Alexsandro Branco; Artur Smânia Jr

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from pe...

  1. Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2012-10-01

    Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (pessential oils, especially from lime, at both glycerol levels showed the lower TS but higher EAB than the control films (without incorporated essential oil) (pessential oils was lower than that of control films for both glycerol levels (pessential oils had varying ΔE(*) (total colour difference), where the highest value was observed in that added with bergamot essential oil (pessential oils exhibited higher hydrophobicity with higher amplitude at wavenumber of 2874-2926 cm(-1) and 1731-1742 cm(-1) than control film. Film incorporated with essential oils exhibited slightly lower thermal degradation resistance, compared to the control film. Varying effect of essential oil on thermal degradation temperature and weight loss was noticeable, but all films prepared using 20% glycerol had higher thermal degradation temperature with lower weight loss, compared with those containing 30% glycerol. Films added with all types of essential oils had rough cross-section, compared with control films, irrespective of glycerol levels. However, smooth surface was observed in all film samples. Film incorporated with lemon essential oil showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (pessential oils and glycerol levels directly affected the properties of gelatin-based film from fish skin.

  2. Adsorption Kinetics for the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Adsorbents Derived from the Peels of Selected Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chakrapani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared from the peels of Citrus documana, Citrus medica and Citrus aurantifolia fruits. Adsorption of fluoride onto these activated carbons was investigated. Effect of contact time in the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution at neutral pH was studied. Five kinetic models; the pseudo first- and second-order equations, intraparticle diffusion, pore diffusion and the Elovich equation, were selected to follow adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride onto adsorbents could be described by pseudo second-order equation. Kinetic parameters; rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and correlation coefficients, for each kinetic equation were calculated and discussed. The good fitting of kinetic data to pore diffusion and Elovich equations indicate that pore diffusion plays a vital role in controlling the rate of the reaction.

  3. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs: orange (Citrus sinensis L., lemon (Citrus limonum L. and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37% for orange essential oil (EO; linalyl acetate (37.28%, linalool (23.36%, for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%, β-pinene (17.04% and γ-terpinene (13.46% for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  4. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs): orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limonum L.) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L.) from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37%) for orange essential oil (EO); linalyl acetate (37.28%), linalool (23.36%), for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%), β-pinene (17.04%) and γ-terpinene (13.46%) for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus) experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  5. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  6. Variation in major antioxidants and total antioxidant activity of Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) during maturation and between cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jae Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Hwang, In Kyeong

    2004-09-22

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  8. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizam Uddin; Md. Rakib Hasan; Md. Monir Hossain; Arjyabrata Sarker; A.H.M. Nazmul Hasan; A.F.M. Mahmudul Islam; Mohd. Motaher H. Chowdhury; Md. Sohel Rana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro) and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo). Methods: Fruits of Citrus macroptera without rind was extracted with pure methanol following cold extraction and tested for presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats.Results:showed that fruit extract had moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50 value=(3.638±0.190) mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. Moreover at 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg doses fruit extract significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) reduced fasting blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). In oral glucose tolerance test, 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.05) at 2 h but 1000 mg/kg dose significantly reduced blood glucose level at 2 h and 3 h (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) whereas glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose level at every hour after administration. Overall time effect is also considered extremely significant with F value=23.83 and P value=0.0001 in oral glucose tolerance test.Conclusion:These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source for the development Presence of saponin, steroid and terpenoid were identified in the extract. The results of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  9. Seasonal variations of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from three Citrus limon L. Burm. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, L; Randazzo, W; Palazzolo, E; Moschetti, M; Aleo, A; Guarrasi, V; Mammina, C; San Biagio, P L; Marra, F P; Moschetti, G; Germanà, M A

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the seasonal variations of antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs), three different cultivars of Citrus limon L. Burm. spp. (Femminello Santa Teresa, Monachello and Femminello Continella) were collected at 6-week intervals, from December 2012 to April 2013, for a total of four harvests. The EOs were extracted from lemon peel by hydro-distillation. The antimicrobial activity, tested by paper disc diffusion method, was evaluated against common food-related pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter spp.). EOs were more effective against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria at each collection time, but a strong strain dependence was evidenced. Monachello EOs showed the highest inhibition power. The chemical characterisation of the EOs performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified from 36 to 42 molecules. The chemical difference registered among samples and seasons may explain the different antimicrobial efficacies recorded.

  10. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika Warikoo; Ankita Ray; Jasdeep Kaur Sandhu; Roopa Samal; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results: The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions:The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  11. Citrus leprosis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  12. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand?

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    Nadia Ferlazzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases affect a large portion of the worldwide population, and chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for several dangerous pathologies. To limit the side effects of both synthetic and biological anti-inflammatory drugs, the use of herbal medicines, nutraceuticals and food supplements has increased tremendously as alternative and/or complementary medicine to treat several pathologies, including inflammation. During the last decades, the biological properties of Citrus bergamia (bergamot derivatives have obtained important scientific achievements, and it has been suggested their use in a context of a multitarget pharmacological strategy. Here, we present an overview of the anti-inflammatory properties of bergamot extracts that could represent the scientific basis for develop novel and alternative strategies to improve health status and attenuate inflammatory conditions.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Calapai, Gioacchino; Ventura-Spagnolo, Elvira; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Navarra, Michele

    2016-09-23

    Inflammatory diseases affect a large portion of the worldwide population, and chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for several dangerous pathologies. To limit the side effects of both synthetic and biological anti-inflammatory drugs, the use of herbal medicines, nutraceuticals and food supplements has increased tremendously as alternative and/or complementary medicine to treat several pathologies, including inflammation. During the last decades, the biological properties of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) derivatives have obtained important scientific achievements, and it has been suggested their use in a context of a multitarget pharmacological strategy. Here, we present an overview of the anti-inflammatory properties of bergamot extracts that could represent the scientific basis for develop novel and alternative strategies to improve health status and attenuate inflammatory conditions.

  15. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  16. Sodium hydroxide-mediated hydrogel of citrus pectin for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin

    2014-11-01

    The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future.

  17. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai Y.; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  18. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  19. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyo-Nam Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD- fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control. PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p<0.05. These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  20. Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Citrus Plants Is Associated to Sensitivity to Combined Drought and High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I.; Sales, Carlos; Beltrán, Joaquim; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Drought and heat stresses are two of the most frequent environmental factors that take place simultaneously in the field constraining global crop productivity. Metabolism reconfiguration is often behind the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to tolerate combined heat and drought conditions, showed different metabolite patterns. Increased levels of phenylpropanoid metabolites were observed in Cleopatra in response to stress, including scopolin, a metabolite involved in defense mechanisms. Tolerant Carrizo accumulated sinapic acid and sinapoyl aldehyde, direct precursors of lignins. Finally, Cleopatra showed an accumulation of flavonols and glycosylated and polymethoxylated flavones such as tangeritin. The activation of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cleopatra could be aimed to mitigate the higher oxidative damage observed in this genotype. In general, limonoids were more severely altered in Cleopatra than in Carrizo in response to stress imposition. To conclude, all metabolite changes observed in Cleopatra suggest the activation of energy metabolism along with metabolic pathways leading to the accumulation of photoprotective and antioxidant secondary metabolites, oriented to mitigate the damaging effects of stress. Conversely, the higher ability of Carrizo to retain a high photosynthetic activity and to cope with oxidative stress allowed the maintenance of the metabolic activity and prevented the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites. PMID:28119698

  1. Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Citrus Plants Is Associated to Sensitivity to Combined Drought and High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Sales, Carlos; Beltrán, Joaquim; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Drought and heat stresses are two of the most frequent environmental factors that take place simultaneously in the field constraining global crop productivity. Metabolism reconfiguration is often behind the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to tolerate combined heat and drought conditions, showed different metabolite patterns. Increased levels of phenylpropanoid metabolites were observed in Cleopatra in response to stress, including scopolin, a metabolite involved in defense mechanisms. Tolerant Carrizo accumulated sinapic acid and sinapoyl aldehyde, direct precursors of lignins. Finally, Cleopatra showed an accumulation of flavonols and glycosylated and polymethoxylated flavones such as tangeritin. The activation of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cleopatra could be aimed to mitigate the higher oxidative damage observed in this genotype. In general, limonoids were more severely altered in Cleopatra than in Carrizo in response to stress imposition. To conclude, all metabolite changes observed in Cleopatra suggest the activation of energy metabolism along with metabolic pathways leading to the accumulation of photoprotective and antioxidant secondary metabolites, oriented to mitigate the damaging effects of stress. Conversely, the higher ability of Carrizo to retain a high photosynthetic activity and to cope with oxidative stress allowed the maintenance of the metabolic activity and prevented the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites.

  2. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel

    2015-06-05

    Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs): orange (Citrussinensis L.), lemon (Citruslimonum L.) and bergamot (Citrusaurantium L.) from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37%) for orange essential oil (EO); linalyl acetate (37.28%), linalool (23.36%), for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%), β-pinene (17.04%) and γ-terpinene (13.46%) for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed a range of 0.25-0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus) experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  3. Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects.

  4. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Essential Oils

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    Fatemeh Azhdarzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils. Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.

  6. Anti-degranulating activity in rat basophil leukemia RBL-2H3 cells of flavanone glycosides and their aglycones in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Takano, Seiya; Masuda, Megumi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-07-01

    The anti-degranulating activity of flavonoids present in Citrus fruits was comprehensively evaluated. Among these, hesperetin and naringenin, respectively aglycones of hesperidin and narirutin, showed significant activity. The targets of hesperetin and naringenin were found: hesperetin inhibited phosphorylation of Syk and Akt, while naringenin suppressed the expression of Lyn and inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest that hesperetin and naringenin inhibit degranulation by suppression of pathway signals and reduce the symptoms of allergy by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, which leads to the suppression of cytokines. In addition, hesperetin showed inhibitory activity against the degranulation induced by calcium ionophores, indicating that hesperetin exerts its inhibitory activity by stabilizing the membrane structure.

  7. Evaluation of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Citrus limon essential oil and its application in margarine preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza HIMED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic oil liquids obtained from various plant parts. The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic antioxidant agents by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and the screening of plant materials in order to identify new compounds. The study aims to evaluate the use of essential oil extract by cold pression of Citrus limon (Lisbon variety as a substitute of Tocoblend (mixture of α, β, γ and δ-tocopherol used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The major constituents of the essential oil extract Identified were Limonene (66.75% followed by β-Pinene (13.92% and γ-Terpinene (3.10%. In both DPPH scavenging and bleachability of β-carotene in linoleic acid system assays, the essential oil extract exhibited the highest activity compared to the Tocoblend. Tests conducted at pilot scale showed that the margarine elaborated with essential oil extract was more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with Tocoblend. In addition, the physicochemical properties were not modified.

  8. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the world’s important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

  9. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  10. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  11. HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Brito

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16 and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22 three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36, five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29 four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40, seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39, seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 7–9, 17, 21, 31 and 37, three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30, and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38 were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay. The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products.

  12. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

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    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  13. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  14. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  15. Rapid and reproducible determination of active gibberellins in citrus tissues by UPLC/ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Matías; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2015-09-01

    Phytohormone determination is crucial to explain the physiological mechanisms during growth and development. Therefore, rapid and precise methods are needed to achieve reproducible determination of phytohormones. Among many others, gibberellins (GAs) constitute a family of complex analytes as most of them share similar structure and chemical properties although only a few hold biological activity (namely GA1; GA3; GA4 and GA7). A method has been developed to extract GAs from plant tissues by mechanical disruption using ultrapure water as solvent and, in this way, ion suppression was reduced whereas sensitivity increased. Using this methodology, the four active GAs were separated and quantified by UPLC coupled to MS/MS using the isotope-labeled internal standards [(2)H2]-GA1 and [(2)H2]-GA4. To sum up, the new method provides a fast and reproducible protocol to determine bioactive GAs at low concentrations, using minimal amounts of sample and reducing the use of organic solvents.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Avicennia marina extracts ethanol, methanol & glycerin against Penicillium digitatum (citrus green mold

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    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding natural antimicrobial compound with minimum side effects on health the is important because of microorganisms are more antibiotics resistance. Avicenniaceae family is a member of true mangrove plants which has one genus, 11 species and several sub species. Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh is the most current species among these plants in Iranian mangrove forest. In this study, mangrove leaves were dried in shadow and appropriate condition. After extraction with ethanol 96 degree, methanol 96 degree and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by "screening antimicrobial activity" and "disk agar diffusion test" in 20, 40, 60 and 80 Percent concentration of the extract against Penicillium digitatum. The results showed that mangrove leaf extract in screening antimicrobial activity method in 2000 μg/ml, were inhibited Penicillium digitatum of growth. In "disk agar diffusion test, mangrove extract, in 20, 40, 60 and 80 Percent concentration, the mentioned extract were shown inhibition effect on mold pathogen growth. Ethanol 96 degree extract was more effective than methanol 96 degree and 20% glycerin extract as antimicrobial against on Penicillium digitatum (p Results showed extract of mangrove can be used as natural antimicrobial in food products.

  17. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  18. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  19. 柑橘类柠檬苦素抗癌活性研究进展%Anticancer Activities of Citrus Limonoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉付; 沈媛媛; 周志钦; 王福俤

    2011-01-01

    Citrus, as one of the worldwide favorite fruits, draws more attention recently due to its therapeutic potentials. Limonoids, citrus secondary metabolites, have multiple bioactive functions, including anticancer, reducing cholesterol, anti-anxiety, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. In last decades, people are struggling to seek for nontoxic chemo-preventing and chemo-therapeutic agents derived from foods. Mounting evidences support limonoids possesses potent anticancer activities among all sorts of fruits. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how limonoids eliminating free radicals, activating glutathione transferase (GST) enzymatic activity, inactivating carcinogen, and inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. It may pave a way to better understand the precise molecular mechanisms of limonoids anticancer activities.%柑橘作为受人喜爱的第一大果品,其主要次生代谢产物类柠檬苦素具有抗癌、降低胆固醇、镇静、催眠、抗焦虑、抑菌、抗病毒等多种生物活性.近年来,柑橘类柠檬苦素抗癌活性已成为国际研究热点并广受社会关注.该文从清除自由基、激发谷胱甘肽转移酶、降低致癌物质致癌活性以及抑制肿瘤细胞增殖等四个方面综述了柑橘类柠檬苦素抗癌国际最新研究进展,并对柑橘类柠檬苦素抗癌活性及其构效关系进行了讨论.

  20. Aproveitamento da casca de citros na perspectiva de alimentos: prospecção da atividade antibacteriana Utilization of citrus by-products in food perspective: screening of antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Gerhardt

    2012-05-01

    export of orange juice. The State of Rio Grande Do Sul is an important producer of citrus. During farming and processing of citrus, tons of residues are generated, with low commercial value and great potential for use in the field of food production. These residues possess many nutrients, pigments and bioactive compounds, as well as low toxicity and cost. There is evidence that the peel of citrus have antibacterial and antifungal activity. In this work, we aim to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of citrus peels in the perspective of disinfection and preservation of food, presenting sustainable and natural alternatives directed at consumers concerned with health. Ethanolic extracts of crude peel of ripe ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco, pomelo (Citrus maxima (Burm. Merr. and rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck were obtained from ecological family farms. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated regarding Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC against five different bacterial strains. The rangpur lime extract presented the best antibacterial activity, with about 24 mg.mL-1 MIC and 42 mg.mL-1 MBC for the most resistant strain. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive strain. All ethanolic extracts inhibited or inactivated all tested strains, indicating they could be used as natural alternatives in food disinfection and preservation.

  1. Organic Acid Concentrations and the Relative Enzymatic Changes During the Development of the Citrus Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO An-cai; YANG Xiao-hong; DENG Ying-yi; LI Chun-fan; XIANG Ke-shu; LI Dao-gao

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in enzyme activities and citrate concentration during the development of citrus fruits were investigated. The result showed that the organic acid concentrations reached a peak in the 100 - 130days after anthesis and gradually declined during later stages of fruit maturation in most varieties of citrus,but declined only slightly thereafter in lemon [Citrus lin on (L.) Burm]; there is no relation between the activity of citrate synthetase(CS) and the different acid concentration in different citrus fruits; the increase of the activity of the cytosolic aconitase in the late period of the development of citrus fruits accelerated the degradation of citric acid in citrus fruits; the higher the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) and the ratio of NAD-dependent isocitrate hydrogenase(PEPC/NAD-IDH- ), the more the concentrations of organic acids in citrus fruit.

  2. Aluminum-induced decrease in CO{sub 2} assimilation in citrus seedlings is accompanied by decreased activities of key enzymes involved in CO{sub 2} assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L-S.; Liu, X-H. [Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, College of Horticulture, Fuzhou (China); Qi, Y-P. [Fujian Provincial Institute of Medical Sciences, Fuzhou (China); Smith, B. R. [Cornell University, Dept. of Horticulture, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Many previous studies provided evidence that heavy metals affect the carbon dioxide assimilation of plants by inhibiting different enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle. Other studies have shown little or no change in the activities of Calvion cycle enzymes accompanying a heavy metal-induced decline in carbon dioxide assimilation. This study reexamined aluminium toxicity in leaf carbohydrate metabolism by determining responses in citrus leaves to aluminium, specifically in terms of carbon dioxide assimilation, key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, starch and sucrose syntheses, non-structural carbohydrates, and photosynthetic intermediates. Based on results in each of these areas, it was concluded that aluminium decreases carbon dioxide assimilation, but in so doing either increases or has no effect on the activities of enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle. The decrease in carbon dioxide assimilation induced by aluminium is suspected to be the result of increased photorespiration. 41 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiwan Buachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  4. C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Sanguinello and Tarocco blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice: Identification and influence on antioxidant properties and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Sanguinello and Tarocco are the blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) cultivars most diffused worldwide. Reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with MS-MS analysis showed that these two varieties have a similar chromatographic pattern, characterised by the presence of C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids. Of the two, Sanguinello was found to be far richer in flavonoids than Tarocco. In the juices, twelve individual components were identified for the first time, namely, four C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), three flavonol derivatives (quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-glycoside), an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activity of these juices has been evaluated.

  5. Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2012-11-14

    In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol α, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol λ, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols α and λ and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications.

  6. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

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    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  7. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  8. Conservation of Allium germplasm collection by cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zámečník, Jiří; Grospietsch, Martin; Kotková, Renata; Faltus, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Allium is important crop in the Czech Republic. Allium sativum L. germplasm is maintained in the field collection and this fact increases risk of accidental lost of genotype. Conservation of Allium sativum L. germplasm by means cryopreservation decreases risks of genotype lost. Allium sativum L. samples are stored at ultralow temperature that stopped all biochemical processes and the samples are stored without any changes for many years. This methodology describes procedure of material prepar...

  9. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

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    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  10. Physiological Mechanism on the Difference of Sugar Accumulation in Four Citrus Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-zhong; ZHANG Shang-long; LIU Shuan-tao; CHEN Jun-wei; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of sucrose,glucose,fructose,titratable acid,ABA and the activity of acid invertase(AI)were measured injuice sacs of Bendizao mandarin(Citrus succosa Hort),Ponkan(Citrus reticulata Blanco),Miyagawa wase(Citrus unshiu Marc)and Meyer lemon(Citrus,meyeri Y).The acid hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro was also studied.The results showed that the sugar content,the ratio of different sugars,titratable acidity,ABA content and the activity of AI were obviously different in four citrus varieties.The sugar content inj uice sacs of citrus fruit was related to that of ABA at the late stage of fruit development.The result suggested that ABA played an important role in sugar accumulation in juice sacs of citrus fruit.Bendizao mandarin and Miyagawa wase mainly accumulated sucrose inj uice sacs of citrus fruit.Meyer lemon accumulated hexose,and Ponkan citrus was the sucrose-hexose accumulating type variety.In Meyer lemon with high acid degree,the composition of sugar inj uice sacs was determined by acid-hydrolysis of sucrose.In Bendizao mandarin,Ponkan citrus and Miyagawa wase with low acid degree,the composition of sugars at the late stage of fruit development was obviously affected by the AI activity.

  11. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  12. Exploiting BAC-end sequences for the mining, characterization and utility of new short sequences repeat (SSR) markers in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Chai, Lijun; Mayer, Christoph; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a large set of microsatellite markers based on publicly available BAC-end sequences (BESs), and to evaluate their transferability, discriminating capacity of genotypes and mapping ability in Citrus. A set of 1,281 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the 46,339 Citrus clementina BAC-end sequences (BES), of them 20.67% contained SSR longer than 20 bp, corresponding to roughly one perfect SSR per 2.04 kb. The most abundant motifs were di-nucleotide (16.82%) repeats. Among all repeat motifs (TA/AT)n is the most abundant (8.38%), followed by (AG/CT)n (4.51%). Most of the BES-SSR are located in the non-coding region, but 1.3% of BES-SSRs were found to be associated with transposable element (TE). A total of 400 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and their transferability and polymorphism tested on a set of 16 Citrus and Citrus relative's species. Among these 333 (83.25%) were successfully amplified and 260 (65.00%) showed cross-species transferability with Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella sp. These cross-species transferable markers could be useful for cultivar identification, for genomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella sp. Utility of the developed SSR marker was demonstrated by identifying a set of 118 markers each for construction of linkage map of Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among 40 Citrus and its related species were conducted with the aid of 25 randomly selected SSR primer pairs and results revealed that citrus genomic SSRs are superior to genic SSR for genetic diversity and germplasm characterization of Citrus spp.

  13. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-Qin; Ye, Xing-Qian; Fang, Zhong-Xiang; Chen, Jian-Chu; Xu, Gui-Hua; Liu, Dong-Hong

    2008-07-23

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract phenolic compounds from Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels (SMP), and maceration extraction (ME) was used as a control. The effects of ultrasonic time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min), temperature (15, 30, and 40 degrees C), and ultrasonic power (3.2, 8, 30, and 56 W) on phenolic compounds were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used for the analysis of phenolic acids after alkaline hydrolysis (bound phenolic acids) and flavanone glycosides. The contents of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid) and two flavanone glycosides (narirutin and hesperidin) in extracts obtained by ultrasonic treatment were significantly higher than in extracts obtained by the maceration method. Moreover, the contents of extracts increased as both treatment time and temperature increased. Ultrasonic power had a positive effect on the contents of extracts. However, the phenolic acids may be degraded by ultrasound at higher temperature for a long time. For example, after ultrasonic treatment at 40 degrees C for 20 min, the contents of caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid decreased by 48.90, 44.20, 48.23, and 35.33%, respectively. The interaction of ultrasonic parameters probably has a complex effect on the extracts. A linear relationship was observed between Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values and total phenolic contents (TPC); the correlation coefficient, R(2), is 0.8288 at 15 degrees C, 0.7706 at 30 degrees C, and 0.8626 at 40 degrees C, respectively. The data indicated that SMPs were rich sources of antioxidants. Furthermore, UAE techniques should be carefully used to enhance the yields of phenolic acids from SMPs.

  14. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  15. Ethno medicinal values of Citrus genus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Citrus genus play an important role as a dietary supplement and therapeutic assent as well since ages. The present review summarizes some such attributes of Citrus genus. Literature review was done through published works to gather information on nutritional and ethnic values, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Citrus. Information about the plant and phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities were collected from the published reports. The plant was found to possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, and hypolipidemic properties. They are found to be significant antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic activity. The phytoconstituents which are present in the plant are mainly coumarins and flavonoids which are responsible for the actions. The phytochemical constituents and isolated bioactive compounds of Citrus can be investigated further to develop novel herbal drugs by using reverse pharmacological approaches especially in the treatment of liver diseases, arthritis, malignancies, and other inflammatory diseases.

  16. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J.Z.; Zhu, Li; Crous, P.W.; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isol

  17. 甜瓜种质鉴定的高效引物(引物组合)适用性分析%Suitability Analysis on Highly Active Primers ( Primer Combinations) of Germplasm Identification in Cucumis melo L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王掌军; 王建设; 刘生祥; 蒋全熊; 张晓岗; 马宏玮

    2012-01-01

    以30份甜瓜种质资源为材料,采用RAPD(random amplified polymorphic DNA)、DAMD(directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA)和SRAP(sequence-related amplified polymorphism)3 种分子标记构建各自的DNA指纹图谱.针对图谱上扩增的条带分子量大小和分布,用统计软件逐一聚类,根据不同引物(引物组合)所得聚类图鉴别的品种数目,筛选出高分辨率的4个RAPD引物、3个DAMD引物和6个SRAP引物组合.同时,利用高效引物(引物组合)评价了甜瓜遗传多样性,将30份甜瓜分为薄皮和厚皮两类,厚皮甜瓜包括网纹和无网纹两种类型.%The study constructed each DNA fingerprint map by RAPD, DAMD and SRAP molecular markers in 30 melon germplasms. Statistical software was used to cluster one by one in collection with the dimension and distribution of the molecular weight in the map amplified. Based on the cultivar numbers identified by the clustering map from different primers (primer combinations) , four RAPD primers, three DAMD primers and six SRAP primer combinations with highly distinguished rate were screened. At the same time,the genetic diversity of melons were evaluated by these high active primers (primer combinations) ,30 melons were divided to two kinds, ie,C. melo sp. cono-mom and C. melo sp. melo, C. melo sp. melo included C. melo cantalupo and C. melo reticulatus.

  18. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  19. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Faraco de Oliveira Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  20. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; Ashour, Mohamed L; Mulyaningsih, Sri; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The volatile secondary metabolites of essential oils from fruit peel and leaves of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon) were investigated using GLC and GLC-MS (gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Altogether 141 compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.59% and 96.33% of the total hydrodistilled peel and leaf oil, respectively. Limonene occurred in higher amounts in fruit peel (52.73%) than in leaf oil (29.13%). Neral (12.72%), neryl acetate (8.53%), p-menth-1-en-7-al (4.63%), beta-pinene (6.35%), and nerol (4.42%) were the most abundant constituents in leaf oil, whereas gamma-terpinene (9.88%), beta-pinene (7.67%), geranial (4.44%), and neral (3.64%) dominated in the fruit peel oil. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimicrobial activities of the fruit peel essential oil were evaluated. The oil had a low antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of (26.66 +/- 2.07) mg/ml as compared to the efficient antioxidant ascorbic acid [IC50 (16.32 +/- 0.16) microg/ml]. The oil moderately inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with an IC50 value of (32.05 +/- 3.91) microg/ml and had moderate antitrypanosomal activity [IC50 (60.90 +/- 0.91) microg/ml]. In addition, moderate antimicrobial activities were detected against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus capitis, Micrococcus luteus), one Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida parapsilosis).

  2. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  3. Construction of Transgenic Crop Germplasm Effective Function and Characteristic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guangzhou; WANG Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    Germplasm effect reflects the quantitative relation between production ability of gennplasm elements and yield (quality) of a certain crop, which can be shown by mathematic function, namely, germplasm effect function. Germplasm effect of a crop variety is an aggregation of many effective factors, and is restrained by different effective factors;constant increase of any one effect of germplasm elements would lead to law of effect decline, therefore, possible modes of transgenic crops effect function were deduced according to the law of effect decline. The possible modes of single transgenic germplasm effect function and multi-transgenic germplasm effect regression equation were discussed, and the characteristics of germplasm effect regression equation were analyzed in this paper.

  4. A citrus flavonoid, 6-demethoxytangeretin, suppresses production and gene expression of interleukin-6 in human mast cell-1 via anaplastic lymphoma kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mi; Chae, Hee-Sung; Lee, Eun Joo; Yang, Min Hye; Park, Jin Hee; Yoon, Kee Dong; Kim, Jinwoong; Ahn, Hee Chul; Choi, Young Hee; Chin, Young-Won

    2014-01-01

    Citrus species has been traditionally used in Korea for the treatment of coughing, sputum and dyspepsia. Of the known citrus flavonoids, 6-demethoxytangeretin was reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity. In order to determine the anti-allergic activity of 6-demethoxytangeretin, we examined whether or not 6-demethoxytangeretin was able to suppress activation of the human mast cell line, HMC-1, induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Interleukin-6 production and relevant gene expression in activated HMC-1 cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Also, the involvement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in activated HMC-1 cells were studied. 6-Demethoxytangeretin suppresses interleukin-6 production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression, ALK and MAPKs in HMC-1 cells stimulated by PMA plus A23187. Therefore, it was evident that 6-demethoxytangeretin suppressed activation of HMC-1 cells by PMA plus A23187 by inhibiting the activity of ALK and MAPKs and subsequently suppressing gene expression, which suggest that 6-demethoxytangeretin may be involved in the regulation of mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses.

  5. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  6. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  7. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  8. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  10. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... propagative seed of several Rutaceae (citrus family) genera from certain countries where citrus greening or... Rutaceae may be a pathway for the introduction of those diseases. The interim rule was necessary in order...), we amended the regulations to prohibit the importation of propagative seed of several...

  11. Study on antimicrobial activity and stability of citrus peel pigment%桔皮色素的抑菌性及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洪涛

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and stability of citrus peel pigment were studied. Determine orange peel pigment's antimicrobial activity and stability on used food additives and light illumination by single-factor. The pigment had active resistance to familiar microbe such as staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, hansenula sp and as-pergillus flavus ,having good resistance against native light in room and heat,in 100 1C thermostatic lh pigment save ratio was 88%;Ox-idant H2Ozhad biggish effecton pigment stability while reducer Naz SO3 had lesser effect; Expert Mg2+ , Cuz+ and Fe3+ ,other metal ion including Na+,Ca2+ .Zn2+and K+ had no adverse effect on pigment stability. Food composition and additive such as Sugar, Vc and antiseptic had no negative effects on the pigment stability.%探讨桔皮色素的抑菌性和稳定性.通过单因素试验确定桔皮色素对常见微生物的抑菌效果以及常用的食品添加剂和光照对色素稳定性的影响.结果表明:桔皮色素对常见的致病性细菌、酵母和霉菌均有不同程度的抑制作用;色素在室内自然光下稳定,在强光照射下易破坏,对热稳定,在100℃恒温1h色素保存率为88%;氧化剂H2O2对色素的稳定性影响较大,还原剂Na2SO3对色素的稳定性影响较小;色素抗Na+、Ca2+、Zn2+和K+的干扰能力强,抗Mg2+、Cu2+和Fe3+的干扰能力较弱;Vc、幕甲酸钠、蔗糖、葡萄糖等食品成分和添加剂对色素的影响不大.

  12. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  14. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  15. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  16. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  17. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Warikoo

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  18. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  19. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

  20. Study on the antibacterial activity of water extract from leaf of Citrus unshiu Marc%温州蜜柑叶片水提取液的抑菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰; 陈新朝

    2004-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the water extract form leaf of Citrus unshiu Marc was strdied. The resulte indicated that 0.17-0.50g·mL-1 leaf extract form C. unshiu had different antibacterial activities to Escherichia coli (Migula)Castellani et Chalmers,Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach,Candida albicans (Robin)Berkhout and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn,diameters of antibacterial zone weere 0.14-0.39cm. The antibacterial activity to E.coli was the best with the water estract,the diameters of antibacterial zone were 0.22-0.38cm. With the concentration of the leaf extract increased,the antibacterial activity to the tested bacteria and yeast gradually increased.

  1. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  2. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  3. Analysis of Antimicrobial Activities and Biological Characters of Citrus Antagonism Endophytic Bacteria%柑橘拮抗内生细菌的抑菌活性及生物学性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲莉; 涂娟; 王彦波; 曾明; 杜玉标

    2015-01-01

    From Nanfeng orange leaves and healthy onion’s plant tissue extracts, 3 endophytic strains with antagonism against citrus bacterial canker disease [Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri (Hasse) Dye] were screened as strains Bb1, Bb2 and YC1. Through antimicrobial activity tests of antagonistic strains, it was obtained that 3 strains had very good inhibitory effects on citrus canker, and finally, their biological characters were studied.%从南丰蜜桔叶片和洋葱的健康植物组织提取液中筛选出3株对柑橘溃疡病[Xanthomonas campestris pv.Citri(Hasse)Dye]有拮抗作用的内生菌株Bb1、Bb2和YC1,通过拮抗菌株的抑菌活性试验得出3株菌株对柑橘溃疡病均有较好的抑制效果,并对其生物学性状进行研究分析。

  4. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  5. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., clones, cultivars, strains, varieties, or hybrids of the genera Citrus and Fortunella, and all clones... in agricultural products and other commodities that pose a risk of harboring plant pest in ways...

  6. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  7. Resposta diferencial de espécies e de híbridos de citros à leprose Differential response of citrus species and hybrids to leprosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Freitas-Astúa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi buscar novas fontes de resistência à leprose-dos-citros, no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma do Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronômico, em Cordeirópolis, SP. Foram utilizadas plantas obtidas por sementes de 26 acessos, infectadas com o vírus da leprose-dos-citros (Citrus leprosis virus - CiLV, por meio do seu vetor Brevipalpus phoenicis. O aparecimento de lesões, a partir de 21 dias após a inoculação, foi observado em 11 dos genótipos testados (42,3%. Quinze espécies, entre elas Citrus pennivesiculata e C. celebica, comportaram-se como altamente resistentes, enquanto outras, como C. keraji, foram mais suscetíveis que o padrão C. sinensis. Os dados mostraram grande variação de respostas de Citrus spp. à leprose, com elevado número de espécies resisentes, que podem ser utilizadas como fonte de resistência à doença em programas de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to prospect for new sources of resistance to leprosis in the Citrus Germplasm Bank of Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronômico, in Cordeirópolis, SP, Brazil. Plants obtained through seeds from 26 citrus accessions were mite-infected with Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Typical lesions started to appear in 11 genotypes (42.3% of the tested accessions 21 days after inoculation. Fifteen species, among them Citrus pennivesiculata and C. celebica, behaved as highly resistant, while other genotypes, as C. keraji, were more susceptible than the standard C. sinensis. The data showed a wide variation in the response of Citrus spp. to leprosis, with a large number of resistant species, wich can be used as source of resistance to this disease, in breeding programs.

  8. Survey for Citrus diseases in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Thermoz, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The presence on the continent of major threats for Citrus orchards has required a survey to assess the situation of Citrus pathogens in the French territory of Guiana. Agriculture in French Guiana is located on the coast (about 300 Kms from west to east and 50 Km wide). There are 1200 Ha of Citrus orchards (Ministry of Agriculture). Citrus are grown either for export (Tahiti lime) or for local consumption : sweet oranges, tangerines and hybrids. Trees are grafted on Carrizo citrange, Rough le...

  9. Overexpression of citrus polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in citrus black rot pathogen Alternaria citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Nalumpang, Sarunya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (RlemPGIPA) was overexpressed in the pathogenic fungus Alternaria citri. The overexpression mutant AcOPI6 retained the ability to utilize pectin as a sole carbon source, and the overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein did not have any effect on the growth of AcOPI6 in potato dextrose and pectin medium. The pathogenicity of AcOPI6 to cause a black rot symptom in citrus fruits was also unchanged. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein was secreted together with endopolygalacturonase into culture filtrates of AcOPI6, and oligogalacturonides were digested from polygalacturonic acid by both proteins in the culture filtrates. The reaction mixture containing oligogalacturonides possessed activity for induction of defense-related gene, RlemLOX, in rough lemon leaves.

  10. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  11. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  12. HPLC-PDA-MS and NMR characterization of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara peel with antiedematogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencherini, Teresa; Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Mesa, Milagros García; Sánchez, Dulce María; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2013-02-27

    The phytochemical profile of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantium var. amara L. peel, used as herbal medicine, was characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS. Two di-C-glycosyl flavones (vincenin II and diosmetin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), a series of flavones (luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, rhoifolin, and neodiosmin), and flavanone (neoeriocitrin, naringin, and neohesperidin) 7-O-neohesperidosides and two methoxyflavones (nobiletin and tangeretin), commonly present in Citrus, were identified. Furthermore, brutieridin and melitidin, two 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavanone glycosides, were also characterized along with rhoifolin 4'-glucoside and three coumarins (8,3'-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2'-hydroxy-3'-methylbutyl-7-methoxycoumarin, merazin hydrate, and isomerazin). A preparative isolation procedure followed by NMR spectroscopy confirmed the proposed structures of the major flavonoids and identified the coumarins. The phenolic content was found to be 14.8 mg mL(-1), and naringin and neohesperidin were the compounds present in the highest concentration (3.6 and 2.6 mg mL(-1)). The extract of C. aurantium peel inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) both histamine- and dextran-induced edema in rats in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 119.6 and 118.3 mg kg(-1), respectively), providing evidence for the therapeutic use of C. aurantium var. amara peel.

  13. Atividade do acaricida etoxazol sobre a mortalidade e reprodução do ácaro-da-leprose Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, em citros Activity of the etoxazole acaricide on the mortality and reproduction of the citrus leprosis mite Brevipalpus Phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Juari Celoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade do acaricida etoxazol, no controle e reprodução do ácaro B. phoenicis. Para tanto, foram demarcadas com cola adesiva arenas de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em frutos de citros com alta infestação do ácaro. O ensaio foi delineado em parcelas inteiramente casualizadas, com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Em cada arena foram contados o número de ácaros adultos, jovens e ovos. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes acaricidas e doses em g i.a./100 L de água: etoxazol 110 SC (1,1; 1,65; 2,75 e 5,5; hexitiazoxi 500 PM (0,75; flufenoxuron 100 CE (3; cihexatina 500 PM (25, aplicados diretamente sobre as arenas. Os frutos foram mantidos em câmara de germinação tipo BOD. com temperatura de 25 ± 2 ºC e fotofase de 12 horas. Diariamente, foram contados o número de ácaros adultos, jovens e ovos, com auxílio de microscópio esteroscópio. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a atividade ovicida, esterilização de fêmeas e efeito sobre formas jovens. Constatou-se que o etoxazol provocou mortalidade de formas jovens do ácaro-da-leprose superior a 95%, nas doses a partir de 1,1 g i.a. /100 L de água. Ovos tratados com etoxazol, nas doses a partir de 1,65 g i.a. /100 L de água, apresentaram inviabilidade média de 60%. O etoxazol apresentou efeito esterilizante sobre fêmeas nas doses a partir de 2,75 g i.a./100 L de água, inviabilizando 95% dos ovos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of the etoxazole acaricide, on the mortality and reproduction of the citrus leprosies mite, B. phoenicis. A five centimeter diameter arena were demarcated with adhesive glue, in citrus fruits with high infestation of the mite. The design was entirely randomized plots with eight treatments and four replications. In each arena were counted the number of adults, young and eggs of B. phoenicis. The treatments consisted the following acaricides and doses in g a.i./100 L of water: etoxazole

  14. Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus in lemon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spread of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was monitored in different lemon varieties derived from shoot tip grafted (STG selections proven to be free of CTV before planting. The trial was planted in November, 2007, with a randomized four-block design with four replications. This experiment was originally established to compare selected clones with their duplicates recovered by STG. The selected clones were originally nucellar clones kept in the germplasm bank in the field for 30 to 40 years, so the plants were naturally infected with CTV. The lemon varieties tested were two lines of both Frost Eureka and Limoneira 8A Lisbon and one line of Feminello Santa Teresa and Genoa EEAT. Plants were grafted on Poncirus trifoliata Flying Dragon, except for Eureka lemon, which was grafted on 79 AC [Citrus reshni x (C. paradisi x P. Trifoliata]. Direct immunoprinting-ELISA with 3DF1+3CA5 monoclonal antibodies (Plant Print Diagnostics, Valencia was used to determine the presence of CTV in field samples. Each sample was composed of four young shoots collected from the four sides of each tree. Two diagnoses were performed, one in September 2009 and another in September 2010. STG trees showed significant differences in CTV infection among them. The variety most infected with CTV was Limoneria 8 A and the least infected was Feminello Santa Teresa. Infected plants were found in a random distribution in the plot. All selected lemon trees were CTV positive. CTV spread will be monitored until 100% of all varieties show positive.

  15. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was ...

  16. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  17. In vitro/in vivo effect of Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.) juice on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mirza, Talat; Mustansir, Tazeen; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-07-01

    The genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae includes many species e.g. Citrus indica, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus limon, among which Citrus limon L. Burm. f. has been reported to have highest antimicrobial activity. It is used as antidote against certain venom, due to its platelet inhibitory effect and also reported to have hypocholesterolemic effect. However its anticoagulant and thrombolytic effect were not been investigated, hence a prospective in-vitro/in-vivo study was designed to determine the effect of Citrus limon on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors. In-vitro tests revealed highly significant increase in thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time by Citrus limon, whereas fibrinogen concentration was significantly reduced in comparison to control, however prothrombin time was not affected significantly. In-vivo testing of Citrus limon was done at three different doses i.e. 0.2ml/kg, 0.4ml/kg and 0.6ml/kg in healthy rabbits. Significant changes were observed in hematological parameters such as erythrocytes, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Bleeding time and thrombin time was significantly prolonged and there was increase in protein C and thrombin antithrombin complex levels. These results may be due to inactivation of thrombin because it significantly decreases fibrinogen concentration and inhibit platelet aggregation. Citrus limon showed maximal anticoagulant effect at 0.4ml/kg, which suggest that Citrus limon possesses an anti-thrombin component and could prevent thrombosis playing a cardio protective role.

  18. Molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus historically associated with Meyer lemon trees: complete genome sequence and development of biologically active in vitro transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Afunian, Mohammad R; Hilf, Mark E; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O; Garnsey, Stephen M

    2009-04-01

    Citrus tatter leaf virus isolated from Meyer lemon trees (CTLV-ML) from California and Florida induces bud union incompatibility of citrus trees grafted on the widely used trifoliate and trifoliate hybrid rootstocks. The complete genome sequence of CTLV-ML was determined to be 6,495 nucleotides (nts), with two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a poly (A) tail at the 3' end. The genome organization is similar to other capilloviruses, with ORF1 (nts 37 to 6,354) encoding a putative 242-kDa polyprotein which contains replication-associated domains plus a coat protein (CP), and ORF2 (nts 4,788 to 5,750), which is located within ORF1 in a different reading frame and encodes a putative movement protein. Although the proteins encoded by CTLV-ML possesses 84 to 96% amino acid sequence identity with strains of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), we observed two strikingly different regions in ORF1: variable region I (amino acids 532 to 570) and variable region II (amino acids 1,583 to 1,868), with only 15 to 18 and 56 to 62% identities, respectively, with the corresponding regions of ASGV strains. Conditions for a herbaceous systemic assay host were optimized in which the wild-type virus induced systemic infection in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Light Red Kidney (LRK) bean plants at 19 or 22 degrees C but not at higher temperatures. In vitro transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones induced systemic symptoms on LRK bean plants similar to that of the wild-type virus. Replication of the recombinant virus was confirmed by hybridization of a 5' positive-stranded RNA-specific probe to a genome-sized RNA and by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  19. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  20. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  1. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  2. Collection,Evaluation,and Utilization of Cotton Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong-ming; ZHOU Zhong-li; SUN Jun-Ling; PAN Zhao-e; JIA Yin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ A total of 8193 accessions,including 6822 Gossypium hirsutum,350 G.hirsutum race (sub-spe-cies),385 of G.barbadense,378 of G.arboreum,17 of G.herbaceum and 41 wild species,of cotton germplasm are now maintained in China.This germplasm is kept in Beijing National Long-term Genebank and Anyang Cotton Medium-term Genebank.Live plants of the wild species are kept in Cotton garden at Hainan Island.

  3. The Citrus Sanitation Center of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucumán, Argentina El Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres de Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Stein

    Full Text Available In October 2004, the Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (Tucumán, Argentina founded its Citrus Sanitation Center. The goal of this center is to establish and keep a group of the most important citrus varieties and rootstocks true to type and free of graft-transmissible pathogens. These will be used as primary sources of propagating material for citrus growers and researchers in northwestern Argentina. Mother trees of the main commercial citrus varieties were selected from the germplasm bank of the experiment station and were recovered through the standard procedure of shoot tip grafting (STG. Healthy plants are carefully and periodically indexed by biological, serological and molecular methods for tristeza, psorosis, exocortis, cachexia, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker and huanglongbing. The Citrus Sanitation Center will maintain a supply of healthy propagation material and will continue a program initiated in 1966, consting in introducing, producing and releasing nucellar clones.La Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC creó en el año 2004 el Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus (CSC para la ejecución de tareas de limpieza y diagnóstico de virus en cítricos. El objetivo de este centro es establecer y mantener un plantel de plantas madres cítricas, de variedades copa y portainjertos, de alta calidad genética y libre de plagas y enfermedades transmisibles por injerto. Este grupo de plantas se constituye como fuente primaria de material de propagación para productores, viveristas e investigadores del noroeste argentino. Las plantas madres de las principales variedades comerciales de cítricos se seleccionaron del banco de germoplasma de la EEAOC y se recuperaron por la técnica de microinjerto de ápices caulinares, procedimiento estándar utilizado en la limpieza de plantas cítricas. Periódicamente se verifica su sanidad por métodos biológicos, serológicos y moleculares para las

  4. Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation.

  5. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  6. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  7. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  8. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... infected plants, which render the fruit unmarketable, and cause infected fruit to drop from the trees... of the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening. In... disease that is caused by a complex of Xanthomonas spp. bacteria and that affects plants and plant...

  9. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  10. Molecular Characterization of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The medicinal value of opium poppy (2n = 22, Papaver somniferum L. is due to presence of more than two dozen alkaloids. The genetic origin and diversity of cultivars used in the breeding collection is not fully known. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the 24 germplasm currently cultivated in the state to provide genetic information about heterogeneity, using RAPD and ISSR markers. Approach: Isolated genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification using either random or ISSR markers. The amplified fragments were scored and matrix was prepared. Jaccard similarity coefficients were calculated and dendogram was generated. Results: RAPD with 12 primers gave 46 scorable fragments out of which 32 bands were polymorphic (69.52% with 2.6 polymorphic band per primer, while in ISSR analysis 9 primer gave good amplification with DNA of 24 opium poppy germplasm. They gave 27 scorable polymorphic with 3.0 bends per primer. Dendrogram constructed revealed that the based on RAPD the germplasm cultivated comprised of one major group A and one minor group B, while two clusters of two germplasm each stands apart, on the basis of ISSR they fall into one major group A and one minor groups B, while one germplasm clusters of UOP-60 stands apart. Based on combined RAPD and ISSR analysis these germplasm were divided into 1 major group A and 3 minor group B, C, D whereas one genotype UOP-6 stood apart. Conclusion: These results showed that the majority of cultivated germplasm fall in one cluster and have low genetic diversity.

  11. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  12. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water

  13. Biological Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 Isolated from Elite Citrus nobilis Cultivar Ham Yen of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thi Hong-Thao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ham Yen orange (Citrus nobilis Lour is the highly valuable commercial fruit of Vietnam. With the blooming of fruit production and farming area, this specialty crop is facing threats from several serious diseases; therefore the search for new effective biocontrollers is required to prevent the existing excessive use of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Endophytic actinomycetes are of great scientific interest due to their high potential of application in agriculture and pharmaceutical research. In this work, endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from a native orange species of Northeast mountainous province Tuyen Quang. Among 49 isolates obtained, the isolate TQR12-4 strongly inhibited test pathogens Colletotrichum truncatum, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. udum. This isolate gave comparatively high biomass yields on different substrates, for example, carboxy methyl cellulose, starch, protein, and chitin, within a wide range of temperature from 15 to 45°C and pH from 4 to 10. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene showed that TQR12-4 shared 99% similarity to Streptomyces prasinopilosus; however, it slightly differed from the latter in spore morphology and hence was named as Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4. A thermostable antifungal substance of nonpeptide nature produced by Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 had MIC against Fusarium udum of 100 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL respective to extract fractions X4 and X5.

  14. Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product

  15. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  16. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi De Masi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  17. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit.

  18. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  19. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito F. García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  20. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Benito F; Torres, Ascensión; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-11-06

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical) radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones) showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  1. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  2. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  5. Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KRATCHANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange and lemon peels were used for obtaining pectic polysaccharides. Citrus peels were previously treated with 96% ethanol, and the obtained alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS were subjected to a sequential extraction with hot distilled water and hot 0.5% HCl. Water- and acid-extracted orange (WEOP and AEOP and lemon (WELP and AELP pectins were obtained. Acid extraction gave higher yields of pectin than water extraction and lemon peels were richer in pectin. Comparative investigations were carried out with chromatographically purified commercial citrus pectin (CPCP. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of all pectins was accomplished. It was found that pectins were similar in anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC, 69-81%, but differed in their degree of methylesterification (DM, 55-81%. Generally water-extracted pectins were with higher DM. Both orange pectins were with higher DM and degree of acetylation (DA, 2%, in comparison with the corresponding lemon pectins. Water-extracted pectins were with higher degree of feruloylation (DF, 0.12-0.34%. To our knowledge this is the first report on the estimation of ester-linked ferulic acid in orange and lemon peel pectins. Pectic polysaccharides differed in molecular weight and homogeneity. WELP was with the highest molecular weight and homogeneity. The pectins contained D-galacturonic and D-glucuronic acids, L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose and D-xylose. All investigated pectins showed immunostimulating activity by complement activation in the classical pathway at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL. Pectic polysaccharides were modified with endopolygalacturonase. Enzyme-modified CPCP and WEOP had higher anti-complementary activity than the corresponding initial pectins.

  6. Evaluation and characterization of sunflower germplasm accessions for quantitative characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kulkarni, I.Shankegoud and M.R. Govindappa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower germplasm accessions (143 were evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters to study the extentof variation for different quantitative traits. The germplasm accessions were also characterized on qualitative traits. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for seed yield per plant (53.4 % and 46.9% respectively followed by head diameter, test weight, plant height,volume weight and oil content. High heritability was noticed for all the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean has been recorded for seed yield per plant (77 and 65.1 followed by head diameter, test weight and plant height. It was noticed that sunflower germplasm accessions exhibited wide range of variability for all the morphological characters studied like leaf shape, leaf color, leaf serrations, leaf hairiness, stem hairiness, indicator leaf, petiole anthocyanin, branching, leaf angle, petiole length, stem pigmentation and pollen color.

  7. Worker exposure to ethion in Florida citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojeck, G A; Nigg, H N; Stamper, J H; Bradway, D E

    1981-11-01

    Dermal and respiratory exposure to ethion was determined for 17 men in eight spray crews in Florida citrus spray operations. Respiratory exposure was less than 1% of the total exposure. Hands represented 42% of the total body exposure for applicators and 76% for suppliers. At one location, suppliers exhibited a larger decrease in ChE activity than applicators. This difference appeared related to the higher mean dermal ethion exposure to suppliers. Acute symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning were not observed. The total percent/hr of the probable human dermal LD50 was very low in all cases. These data indicate a relatively low potential acute hazard to workers applying ethion with air blast equipment under the conditions of this study.

  8. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  10. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  11. Microsatellite variation in Avena sterilis oat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Chong, James; Fetch, Tom; Wang, Ming-Li

    2007-04-01

    The Avena sterilis L. collection in the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) consists of 11,235 accessions originating from 27 countries and is an invaluable source of genetic variation for genetic improvement of oats, but it has been inadequately characterized, particularly using molecular techniques. More than 35 accessions have been identified with genes for resistance to oat crown and stem rusts, but little is known about their comparative genetic diversity. This study attempted to characterize a structured sample of 369 accessions representing 26 countries and two specific groups with Puccinia coronata avenae (Pc) and Puccinia graminis avenae (Pg) resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Screening of 230 SSR primer pairs developed from other major crop species yielded 26 informative primer pairs for this characterization. These 26 primer pairs were applied to screen all the samples and 125 detected alleles were scored for each accession. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.28. More than 90% of the SSR variation resided within accessions of a country. Accessions from Greece, Liberia, and Italy were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Egypt, Georgia, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, and Kenya were most distinct. Seven major clusters were identified, each consisting of accessions from multiple countries and specific groups, and these clusters were not well congruent with geographic origins. Accessions with Pc and Pg genes had similar levels of SSR variation, did not appear to cluster together, and were not associated with the other representative accessions. These SSR patterns are significant for understanding the progenitor species of cultivated oat, managing A. sterilis germplasm, and exploring new sources of genes for oat improvement.

  12. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  13. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  14. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  15. Strategic Conservation of Orchard Germplasm Based on Indigenous Knowledge and Genetic Diversity: a Case Study of Sour Orange Populations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ming; Qi-Kun Liu; Jin-Lel Shi; Wei Wang; Bao-Rong Lu

    2009-01-01

    To effectively conserve sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) germplasm on two Islands at the estuary of the Yangtze River In China, we estimated genetic variation and relationships of the known parental trees and their proposed descendents (young trees) using the fingerprinta of random amplified polymorphic DHA (RAPD). Results based on RAPD analyses showed considerable genetic diversity In the parental populations (H = 0.202). The overall populations including the parental and young trees showed slightly higher genetic diversity (H = 0.298) than the parents, with about 10% variation between populations. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis dendrogram based on cluster analysis of the Jaccard similarity among individuals demonstrated a more complicated relationship of the parental and young trees from the two islands, although the young trees showed a clear association with parental trees. This indicates a slgnificant contribution of parental trees in establishing the sour orange populations on the two islands. According to farmers' knowledge, conservation of only one or two parental trees would be sufficient because they believed that the whole populations were generated from a single mother tree. However, this study suggests that preserving most parental trees and some selected young trees with distant genetic relationships should be an effective conservation strategy for sour orange germplasm on the two islands.

  16. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  17. Identification of Tsuga Germplasm by Morphological Characters and RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROH Mark S; DE BENEDETTI Laura; JOUNG Young Hee; LEE Nam Sook

    2007-01-01

    Germplasm collection is important to preserve and maximize genetic diversity for germplasm conservation. Tsuga dumosa (D. Don) Eichler in Engler & Prantl. and T. chinensis var. forrestii (Downie) Silba germplasm was collected from three localities in China: Mt. Yulong, Wenfeng Temple and Mt. Dishiergu, Yunnan Province. Accessions were identified based on morphological characters and RAPD markers. The shapes of the apices and margins of needles were examined, and the length and width of needles, cones and seeds from accessions of mature plants were used to compare the morphological differences and to identify the germplasm. Molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were also used to characterize the taxa. Although the clustering based on RAPD markers was inconsistent with the morphological characters of the needles, based on the overall morphological characters and on RAPD markers, the accessions from Mt. Yulong and Wenfeng Temple were identified as T. chinensis var. forrestii, and those from Mt. Dishiergu identified as T. dumosa. Taxonomic identification of the accessions was made based on morphology and by RAPD markers concurred. The results indicate that the shapes of the apices and margins of needles particularly from young plants could not be used as a possible key to identify T. dumosa and T. chinensis var. forrestii. Fig 6, Tab 3, Ref 24

  18. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  19. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  20. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars Indução de calos embriogênicos a partir de nucelos de variedades de Citrus

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    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.Nucelos de sete variedades de Citrus foram introduzidos em três meios de cultura para produção de calos embriogênicos. Os meios de cultura testados foram: EME [MT, modificado pela adição de extrato de malte (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio MT + 1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio BH3 + 500 mg.L-1 extrato de malte + 1,55 g.L-1 de glutamina]; e EBA [EME + 0,44 miM 6-benziladenina + 0,04 miM 2,4 D]. Calos friáveis foram obtidos nas variedades tangerinas 'Cravo' e 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, tangor 'Murcote' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, laranja 'Valencia

  1. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  2. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  3. Selection of Small Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Inhibiting Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Causing Citrus Canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeahyuk; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Hyun, Jae-Wook; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Citrus canker disease decreases the fruit quality and yield significantly, furthermore, emerging of streptomycin-resistant pathogens threatens the citrus industry seriously because of a lack of proper control agents. Small synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be a promising alternative. Fourteen hexapeptides were selected by using positional scanning of synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries. Each hexapeptide showed different antimicrobial spectrum against Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and Candida species. Intriguingly, BHC10 showed bactericidal activity exclusively on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), while BHC7 was none-active exclusively against two Pseudomonas spp. at concentration of 100 μg/ml suggesting potential selectivity constrained in hexapeptide frame. Three hexapeptides, BHC02, 06 and 11, showed bactericidal activities against various Xcc strains at concentration of 10 μg/ml. When they were co-infiltrated with pathogens into citrus leaves the disease progress was suppressed significantly. Further study would be needed to confirm the actual disease control capacity of the selected hexapeptides. PMID:28167892

  4. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  5. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. ‘Liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘Rugosa’ Cultivated in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aliberti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus medica cv. ‘liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. ‘liscia’, accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’, accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. ‘liscia’ (79.1% and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ (80.2%. In both oils, limonene (67.2%–62.8% and camphene (8.5%–10.9% are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384, Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071, and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579. Low concentrations of C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384 and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1 was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  6. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  7. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  8. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-cyclase Gene Promoter from Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Suwen; Zhang, Yin; Zheng, Xiongjie; Zhu, Kaijie; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene β-cyclases are key enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of LCYb1 in citrus with abundant carotenoid accumulation are still unclear. To understand the molecular basis of CsLCYb1 expression, we isolated and functionally characterized the 5' upstream sequences of CsLCYb1 from citrus. The full-length CsLCYb1 promoter and a series of its 5' deletions were fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred into different plants (tomato, Arabidopsis and citrus callus) to test the promoter activities. The results of all transgenic species showed that the 1584 bp upstream region from the translational start site displayed maximal promoter activity, and the minimal promoter containing 746 bp upstream sequences was sufficient for strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the CsLCYb1 promoter activity was developmentally and tissue-specially regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis, and it was affected by multiple hormones and environmental cues in transgenic citrus callus under various treatments. Finer deletion analysis identified an enhancer element existing as a tandem repeat in the promoter region between -574 to -513 bp and conferring strong promoter activity. The copy numbers of the enhancer element differed among various citrus species, leading to the development of a derived simple sequence repeat marker to distinguish different species. In conclusion, this study elucidates the expression characteristics of the LCYb1 promoter from citrus and further identifies a novel enhancer element required for the promoter activity. The characterized promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and seeking of upstream trans-acting elements.

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene β-cyclase gene promoter from citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwen Lu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene β-cyclases are key enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of LCYb1 in citrus with abundant carotenoid accumulation are still unclear. To understand the molecular basis of CsLCYb1 expression, we isolated and functionally characterized the 5’ upstream sequences of CsLCYb1 from citrus. The full-length CsLCYb1 promoter and a series of its 5’ deletions were fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene and transferred into different plants (tomato, Arabidopsis and citrus callus to test the promoter activities. The results of all transgenic species showed that the 1584 bp upstream region from the translational start site displayed maximal promoter activity, and the minimal promoter containing 746 bp upstream sequences was sufficient for strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the CsLCYb1 promoter activity was developmentally and tissue-specially regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis, and it was affected by multiple hormones and environmental cues in transgenic citrus callus under various treatments. Finer deletion analysis identified an enhancer element existing as a tandem repeat in the promoter region between -574 to -513 bp and conferring strong promoter activity. The copy numbers of the enhancer element differed among various citrus species, leading to the development of a derived simple sequence repeat (SSR marker to distinguish different species. In conclusion, this study elucidates the expression characteristics of the LCYb1 promoter from citrus and further identifies a novel enhancer element required for the promoter activity. The characterized promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and seeking of upstream trans-acting elements.

  10. The Impact of US and CGIAR Germplasm on Maize Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-ming; HU Rui-fa; ZHANG Shi-huang

    2006-01-01

    Wide adoption of a few kinds of homogeneous germplasm would reduce crop genetic diversity, increase crop vulnerability to stresses, and reduce the stability of crop production. The introduction and utilization of foreign germplasm is a sustainable solution for broadening the genetic diversity and promoting periodical replacement of varieties. The genetic contribution and economic impact of foreign germplasm, particularly those of US and CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, referred to as the CG system) materials, on China's maize production are evaluated on the basis of an analysis of variety pedigree information from 20 major maize-producing provinces in China from 1982 to 1997. The results indicated that the contribution of US and CG germplasm to Chinese maize production continues to increase, particularly CG germplasm, which has shown a rapid increasing trend since the 1990s. If the genetic contribution of US germplasm is increased by 1%, maize yield will gain by 0.2% (0.01 t ha-1). If contribution of CG germplasm, which has greater production potential, is increased by 1%, maize yield will gain by 0.025 t ha-1. A policy should be implicated by the government in this direction to encourage breeders to focus more on the use and improvement of CG germplasm. The US germplasm has been utilized extensively in China so that it can offer germplasm resources for maize breeding efforts.

  11. Chemical Composition of Hexane Extract of Citrus aurantifolia and Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activity of Some of Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of Citrus aurantiifolia, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (1; 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (2; 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (3; 5-methoxypsoralen (4; and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (5. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract allowed the identification of 44 volatile compounds, being 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15.79%, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (8.27%, 1-methoxy-ciclohexene (8.0%, corylone (6.93%, palmitic acid (6.89%, 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (6.08%, a-terpineol (5.97%, and umbelliferone (4.36%, the major constituents. Four isolated coumarins and 16 commercial compounds identified by GC-MS were tested against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and three multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The constituents that showed activity against all strains were 5 (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL, 1 (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, palmitic acid (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL, linoleic acid (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, oleic acid (MICs = 100 mg/mL, 4-hexen-3-one (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, and citral (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL. Compound 5 and palmitic acid were the most active ones. The antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of C. aurantifolia could be attributed to these compounds.

  12. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi using digital gene expression (DGE profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  13. PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN PEMBIBITAN JERUK BEBAS PENYAKIT CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration DI DESA KATUNG KINTAMANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiartayasa W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The community service in the form of training about free orange seed of disease CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degenaration was conducted in Katung village, district of Kintamani, Bangli regency on 10 August 2007. The training activity aimed to improve knowledge of farmers about CVPD disease, symptom, transmission, insect vector, and integrated pest management. The topics covered were disease symptoms, and pathogen bacteria, Diaphorina citri are as insect vector infection mechanism, election of free orange mains crops CVPD, disease distribution and integrated management of CVPD. The training was attended by 25 participants from local groups of Katung village. The methods used in this activity were lectures, demonstration and practical work in the citrus field. All participants enthusiastically took part and hoped to have the next intensive training of citrus culture.

  14. Risk assessment of various insecticides used for management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri in Florida citrus, against honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue Dong; Gill, Torrence A; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-01-23

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus trees worldwide. A wide variety of insecticides are used to manage D. citri populations within citrus groves in Florida. However, in areas shared by citrus growers and beekeepers the use of insecticides may increase the risks of Apis mellifera  L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) loss and contaminated honey. The objective of this research was to determine the environmental toxicity of insecticides, spanning five different modes of action used to control D. citri, to A. mellifera. The insecticides investigated were imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, spinetoram and diflubenzuron. In laboratory experiments, LD50 values were determined and ranged from 0.10 to 0.53 ng/μl for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate and spinetoram. LD50 values for diflubenzuron were >1000 ng/μl. Also, a hazard quotient was determined and ranged from 1130.43 to 10893.27 for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, and spinetoram. This quotient was mellifera 3 and 7 days after application. Spinetoram and imidacloprid were moderately toxic to A. mellifera at the recommended rates for D. citri. Diflubenzuron was not toxic to A. mellifera in the field as compared with untreated control plots. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity of A. mellifera was higher than in untreated controls when A. mellifera were exposed to 14 days old residues. The results indicate that diflubenzuron may be safe to apply in citrus when A. mellifera are foraging, while most insecticides used for management of D. citri in citrus are likely hazardous under various exposure scenarios.

  15. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  16. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  17. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  18. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  19. Expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in citrus guard cells controls stomatal aperture and reduces transpiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitsan eLugassi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hexokinase (HXK is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1 under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  20. Reasoned opinion on the setting of an import tolerance for didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Exponent International Ltd (on behalf of ICA International Chemicals (PTY Ltd to set an import tolerance in citrus from South Africa for the active substance didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC at the level of 6 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the data require the setting of an import tolerance of 6 mg/kg for citrus. However, additional information on the typical South African post-harvest treatment practice should be provided to decide whether the submitted trials are representative of the authorised GAP. A sufficiently validated analytical method to enforce the proposed MRL of DDAC on citrus is available. EFSA concludes that the consumer risk assessment did not identify a consumer health risk resulting from the post harvest uses of DDAC on citrus fruits. However it should be noted that the risk assessment is affected by a high degree of uncertainties which result from data gaps identified in the dossier. Finally, EFSA concludes that risk managers have to decide whether the setting of an import tolerance of 6 mg/kg is acceptable since the MRL currently into force for citrus in South Africa is 2 mg/kg only.

  1. Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, van E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus Hirsutellathompsonii Fisher and partly through a decline in feed qual

  2. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus harvested domestically. We made... variety. Total citrus production in Uruguay in 2011 was 270,367 metric tons, which is less than 3 percent... metric tons, respectively, which is less than 3.2 percent of U.S. production and 1 percent of total...

  3. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; Gruyter, de J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  4. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range o

  5. Detection of non-typhoid Salmonella infection by citrus and citrus extracts in Lao PDR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Midorikawa; Satoshi Nakamura; Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh; Manivanh Vongsouvaht; Kaoru Midorikawa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To know the current state of non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Laos. To examine the usefulness of new screening methods for Salmonella using citrus. Methods: Non-typhoidSalmonella infection of person in Lao PDR was studied in this research (2004-2009). The site was Vientiane capital city in 2004. Research from rural villages locating suburb of Vientiane during 2005-2008 was carried out. Rural villages in Attapu province where ethnic minorities were living was searched for this study in 2009. During this research, to detect Salmonella strain, a new method using citrus and citrus extract named MY phenomenon that observing black ring (MIDO ring) on DHL agar was tried. The slice lemon and lime were used for this trial in 2004. After 2005, disk of ascorbic acid and citric acid were used for the device instead of citrus fruits itself. Results: During this research, 65 of 272 human samples (23.9%) were infected with non-typhoid Salmonella. Conclusions: During this study, the method using citrus and citrus extracts was accepted for the detection of Salmonella. This study shows that with citrus and citrus extract, detection of Salmonella is possible using only DHL media. Results suggest that infectious rate of non-typhoid Salmonella was high.

  6. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Yanes Paz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  7. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  8. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified.

  9. Application of Refractometry in Purification Technology of Active Ingredients from Citrus aurantium by Macroporous Resin%折光法在树脂精制枳实中有效成分的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文雪; 姚珍珍; 涂瑶生; 陈银芳; 宋小玲; 王跃生

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨折光法在大孔树脂纯化工艺中应用的可行性.方法:选取枳实提取物为研究对象,经AB-8型大孔吸附树脂精制有效部位,用水与50%乙醇洗脱,间隔取样,在线监测洗脱液的折光率并分析其变化规律,同时以HPLC和UV检测作为参比,判断洗脱过程中始点和终点.结果:枳实有效部位精制过程中水洗终点为第4 BV(折光率0),亦即50%乙醇洗脱始点,50%乙醇洗脱终点为第9 BV(折光率16).结论:折光法准确可靠、便捷快速,具有较强的实践指导意义.%Objective: To explore application feasibility of refractometry in purification technology of macroporous resin. Method: Taking extract of Citrus aurantium as research object, active ingredients in it was refined by AB-8 macroporous resin, washed with water and 50% ethanol, interval sampled, refractive ratio of eluent was monitored on line and analyzed its regularity. At the same time, HPLC and UV spectrophotometric method was used to determine hesperidin as references, and to judge initiation point and terminal point during elution. Result: In purification process of active ingredients from C. aurantium, water elution terminal point 4 BV ( refractive index 0) of which was the initiation point by 50% ethanol, 9 BV (refractive index 16) of 50% ethanol elution was the terminal point. Conclusion: Refractometry was accurate, reliable, convenient, quickly in purification technology of active ingredients of TCM, it had a strong practical significance.

  10. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus.

  11. TENACITY AND PERSISTENCE OF COPPER FUNGICIDES IN CITRUS SEEDLINGS UNDER SIMULATED RAINFALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO EDUARDO FONSECA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of fungicide that adheres to the leaf during spraying and the amount that remain on the leaf after weathering are the main factors that defines the amount of active residue on the leaf surface to effectively control plant pathogens. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the tenacity and persistence of copper in citrus seedling leaves under simulated rainfall in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The evaluated variables were copper content, solution retention, surface tension and drop spectrum. A significant and inversely proportional linear relationship to drops <100 μm was found. The percentage of copper retained in leaves of citrus seedlings with copper fungicides of suspension concentrate (SC formulations after simulated rainfall was greater than 80%. Copper fungicides of SC formulations presented the lowest surface tension, allowing greater tenacity and persistence of copper on seedlings of citrus leaves after simulated rainfall and increased contact between the drops and leaf surface.

  12. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  13. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  14. Current California Drought: Impact on Citrus Trees and Potential Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    California is in another cycle of extended drought. The article reviews and discusses likely impact of the current drought on citrus growers and potential mitigation techniques. Citrus physiological responses to water stress is briefly reviewed. The direct impact of drought on citrus is reduced frui...

  15. Biological Indexing of Graft Transmissible Diseases of Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological indexing for the detection of graft transmissible diseases of citrus is essential for maintaining a citrus certification program. Many of the graft transmissible diseases of citrus are harbored as latent infections in the scions, but when propagated on a susceptible rootstock that allow...

  16. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  17. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry R Jacob

    Full Text Available Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607 are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73% have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744 of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More

  18. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly

  19. SCREENING DES ACTIVITES ANTIOXYDANTE, ANTIBACTERIENNE ET ANTIFONGIQUE DE L’HUILE ESSENTIELLE EXTRAITE DU ZESTE DE PAMPLEMOUSSE (Citrus paradisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M.Arohalassi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oil extracted from grapefruit peel (Citrus paradisi. Extraction has been made by water distillation. Antioxidant activity was obtained by using DPPH and β-carotene blanching. Results showed a high antioxidant activity (48.81% relatively to E vitamin (47.21% when antibacterial and antifungal activities have been made by disc diffusion method, results showed some inhibition activity of essential oil of grapefruit (Citrus paradise on some micro-organism.

  20. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, K.; Xu, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Venema, K.; Liu, Y.; Niu, Y.; Lu, J.; Bensoussan, L.; Seeram, N.P.; Heber, D.; Henning, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determi

  1. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Riaz, Azra

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are increasing worldwide, however these disorders may be managed by making healthier changes is dietary pattern, since there are evidences that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins help reduce anxiety and depression. Hence present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats at three different doses i.e. 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml/kg considered as low, moderate and high doses. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were specifically assessed twice during 15 days using open field test, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test. In open field test C. limon, revealed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at moderate dose, while in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be increased. Whereas in forced swimming test, there was decrease in duration of immobility and increase in duration of climbing. Thus results of present study suggest that C. limon at moderate dose have anxiolytic effect.

  2. The functional evaluation of waste yuzu (Citrus junos) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Mayumi; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Uzawa, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    We have succeeded in extracting a large amount of expensive limonoids and the high total antioxidant capability yuzu seed oil from waste yuzu seed by simple methods. Yuzu seeds contain higher amounts of fat-soluble limonoid aglycone (330.6 mg g(-1) of dry seed), water-soluble limonoid glycoside (452.0 mg g(-1) of dry seed), and oil (40 mg g(-1) of green seed) than other citrus fruits. The antioxidant activities of yuzu seed aglycone, glycoside, and seed oil were evaluated in vitro. The potential antioxidant activity in oil solution, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity effects of the seed extracts were also investigated. The antioxidant activity of yuzu seed oil was two times that of grapefruit seed oil, which has high activity. Yuzu glycoside produced the same high antioxidant activity as Luo Han Guo glycoside.

  3. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-11-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater.

  4. A novel trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative from Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Ito, Chihiro; Itoigawa, Masataka

    2012-12-15

    Isolation and structural elucidation of a new trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative from Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri hort. ex Y. Tanaka) was carried out. The derivative exhibited the antioxidative activity by ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay and was found in the flavedo and alvedo of Meyer lemon peel.

  5. Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degu, A.; Hatew, B.; Nunes-Nesi, A.; Shlizerman, L.; Zur, N.; Fernie, A.R.; Blumwald, E.; Sadka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development

  6. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Chilaka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is responsible for these actions.

  9. Fungitoxic activity of 12 essential oils against four postharvest citrus pathogens: chemical analysis of thymus capitatus oil and its effect in subatmospheric pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, G; Usai, M

    2001-07-01

    The fungitoxic activity against Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, Botrytis cinerea, and Alternaria citri of 12 essential oils (EOs) distilled from medicinal plants is reported. The results of the in vitro trials show strong fungitoxic activity of Thymus capitatus (L.) Hofmgg EOs, which inhibited the growth of the four fungi at a concentration of 250 ppm (vol/vol). The other 11 essences reduced the development of the fungi from 95 to 9% at 250 ppm (vol/vol). The fungitoxic activity of T. capitatus EOs (75, 150, and 250 ppm) on healthy orange fruits, inoculated with P. digitatum (10(8) conidia ml(-1)) by spraying and placed in 10-liter desiccators, was weak at atmospheric pressure (3 to 10% inhibition at all three concentrations), while in vacuum conditions (0.5 bar), conidial mortality on the exocarp was high (90 to 97% at all three concentrations). These data proved not to be statistically different from treatments with thiabendazole-TBZ (2,000 ppm). Scanning electron microscope observations showed that T. capitatus EO vapors altered the morphology of P. digitatum hyphae and conidia. The gas-chromatographic analyses of thyme EO indicated that carvacrol was present at 81 to 83%, p-cymene at 4.5 to 5%, gamma-terpinene at 2.6 to 3.3%, caryophyllene at 1.5 to 1.6%, beta-myrcene at 1.6%, and linalool at 1.1 to 1.2%. Carvacrol proved to be the most important fungitoxic compound among the thyme EO constituents, but, unlike thyme EO, it caused alterations to the fruit at the concentration of 75 ppm.

  10. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  11. Determining redundancy of short-day, onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) accessions in a germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is one of the world’s largest national genebank networks focusing on preserving the genetic diversity of plants by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop-related germplasm to researchers worldwide. Maintaining viable germplasm co...

  12. A new method to select the drought resistance azuki bean germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Peerasak Srinives

    2006-01-01

    120 azuki bean germplasms from different regions of China were selected for drought-resistance. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between drought-resistance and photooxidation-resistance. So, the detecting technique for photooxidation-resistance should be suggested as a reference method to select the drought-resistance germplasms in azuki bean.

  13. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  14. Spacial analysis of avocado sunblotch disease in an avocado germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first visual symptoms of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) were observed in a few plants of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the germplasm collection at the National Germplasm Repository at Miami in the early 1980s. However, the extent of the infection was unknown because infected trees can re...

  15. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  16. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between UV-irradiated Citrus unshiu and C. sinensis: regeneration and characterization of hybrid shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Li, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ji-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper, attempts were made to explore the possibility of employing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in citrus asymmetric fusion for transfer of limited amount of favorable traits from a desirable cultivar to a target one. Exposure of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) embryogenic protoplasts to UV at an intensity of 300 muW cm(-2) led to reduced viability, especially under long irradiation duration. The protoplasts could not grow during culture when they were irradiated for over 30 s. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed extensive DNA fragmentation in the UV-irradiated protoplasts compared with those without UV treatment. Electrofusion between UV-irradiated protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin (donor) with those of Jincheng (C. sinensis Osbeck, recipient), a local cultivar of superior quality, gave rise to regeneration of several lines of shoots, which failed to root despite enormous endeavors. Ploidy analysis via flow cytometry and chromosome counting showed that four selected shoots were either diploid, triploid or tetraploid. Random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) confirmed the shoots, irrespective of their ploidy level, as putative somatic hybrids. Cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (CAPS) demonstrated that the shoots predominantly got their cytoplasmic components, in terms of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrion DNA, from Jincheng, along with possible recombination of cpDNA in some shoot lines. The current data indicated that UV-based asymmetric fusion could also be employed in citrus somatic hybridization with the intention of creating novel germplasms, which may provide an alternative approach for cultivar improvement.

  17. Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. malesy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldahshan, Omayma A; Halim, Ahmed F

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 33 and 24 compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0% and 97.9%, respectively, of the total detected constituents. The major ones were sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen-4-ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ-3-carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans-ocimene (6.7; 6.1%), and β-myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method toward three representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil.

  18. Characterization of aroma active compounds in fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi

    2008-06-12

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  19. Genetic divergence among Brazilian turmeric germplasm using morpho-agronomical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Sigrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a vegetatively-propagated crop which is used as a natural dye in the food industryand also presents many biological active compounds. Turmeric conventional breeding is difficult and often limited to germplasmselection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among turmeric accessions available in Brazil using sevenmorpho-agronomical descriptors. Overall genetic divergence was low, although some divergent genotypes were identified. Fourmain groups of genotypes were identified and could be further used in breeding programs. Canonical variable analysis suggestedthat some descriptors were more important to discriminate accessions and also that one of the descriptors could be discarded. Theresults provided useful insights for better management of the germplasm collection, optimizing conservational and breeding efforts.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Citrus flavonoids on starch digestion and antihyperglycemic effects in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2012-09-26

    Flavonoids are a class of important bioactive natural products and are being extensively used in functional foods. In the present study, the effects of four Citrus flavonoids (i.e., hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) on amylase-catalyzed starch digestion, major digestive enzyme activities (e.g., pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and glucose use in HepG2 cells were investigated. The results showed that all of the tested Citrus flavonoids significantly inhibited amylase-catalyzed starch digestion. Moreover, naringin and neohesperidin mainly inhibited amylose digestion, whereas hesperidin and nobiletin inhibited both amylose and amylopectin digestion. However, these flavonoids showed weak inhibitory activities against digestive enzymes. Furthermore, glucose consumption, glycogen concentration, and glucokinase activity were significantly elevated, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity was markedly decreased by Citrus flavonoids. These results demonstrate that Citrus flavonoids play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by binding to starch, increasing hepatic glycolysis and the glycogen concentration, and lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis. This work suggests that Citrus flavonoids might be potentially used for the prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia.

  1. Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon ( Citrus limon ) Essential Oil%柠檬精油的抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海燕; 张泽鹏; 索志荣

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究柠檬精油的抗菌活性.[方法]将柠檬精油作为抑菌活性物质制作成固体栓剂,以穿刺肺叶注射菌液的方法建立小白鼠肺炎模型,利用柠檬精油固体栓剂自然挥发的特性对肺炎小白鼠进行治疗,同时设立空白对照与保护伞阳性对照,观察各组小鼠存活及死亡情况,重复3次.[结果]柠檬精油实验组、保护伞阳性对照组、空白对照组小白鼠平均存活率分别为62.5%、75%、13.3%.[结论]柠檬精油对小白鼠肺炎具有恢复治疗作用.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the antimicrobial activity of the lemon essential oil in vivo. [ Method] Lemon essential oil was taken as antibacterial substance to make into solid suppository. Mice pneumonia model was established by injecting bacilli into the mice' s lung, then, mice with pneumonia were treated with solid suppository. Moreover, blank control and umbrella positive control were set up to observe the survival and death of mice of each group, and repeated three times. [ Result ] Average survival rates of mice in lemon essential oil test group, umbrella positive control group and blank control group were 62.5% , 75% and 13. 3% , respectively. [ Conclusion] Lemon essential oil has curative effect on pneumonia of mice.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  4. Nutritional Value Evaluation of Saccharum spontaneum L. Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianle LIU; Changjun BAI; Linling YAN; Shimeng CHEN; Yu ZHANG; Hubiao YANG

    2014-01-01

    The contents of dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude ash, Ca and P in 43 Saccharum spontaneum L. germplasms during the vegetative period were determined. Among them, the crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, P and Ca contents were treated as the judging indicators. The nutritional value evaluation was carried out with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed A49 (Guangxi) had the highest nutritional value. Its dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Ca and P contents were 32.35%, 7.20%, 4.06%, 8.07%, 75.81%, 50.72%, 0.23% and 0.16% respectively. While A3 (Guangdong) had the lowest nutritional value. Its dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Ca and P contents were 32.24%, 4.62%, 0.51%, 6.38%, 46.40%, 40.02%, 0.15% and 0.09% respectively. The crude protein content differed significantly among different germplasms. A48 had the highest crude protein content (9.11%), and A14 had the lowest crude protein content (3.72%). Based on the evaluation results, the 43 Saccharum spontaneum L. germplasms were divided into 3 groups: high-nutritional value type, moderate-nutri-tional value type and low-nutritional value type. We hoped to provide a theoretical reference for the application of Saccharum spontaneum L. as a forage grass.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jong Walter S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence data for additional cultivars. When coupled with the advent of high throughput genotyping methods, an opportunity now exists for potato breeders to incorporate considerably more genotypic data into their decision-making. Results To identify a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in elite potato germplasm, we sequenced normalized cDNA prepared from three commercial potato cultivars: 'Atlantic', 'Premier Russet' and 'Snowden'. For each cultivar, we generated 2 Gb of sequence which was assembled into a representative transcriptome of ~28-29 Mb for each cultivar. Using the Maq SNP filter that filters read depth, density, and quality, 575,340 SNPs were identified within these three cultivars. In parallel, 2,358 SNPs were identified within existing Sanger sequences for three additional cultivars, 'Bintje', 'Kennebec', and 'Shepody'. Using a stringent set of filters in conjunction with the potato reference genome, we identified 69,011 high confidence SNPs from these six cultivars for use in genotyping with the Infinium platform. Ninety-six of these SNPs were used with a BeadXpress assay to assess allelic diversity in a germplasm panel of 248 lines; 82 of the SNPs proved sufficiently informative for subsequent analyses. Within diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market and processing cultivars. Nevertheless, the russet and round

  6. Diversity in global maize germplasm: characterization and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, B M

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. 'Seeds of Discovery' (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this is

  7. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Prasanna

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in Mexico and other countries highlighted the genetic variability in the maize germplasm. Applications of molecular markers, particularly in the last two decades, have led to new insights into the patterns of genetic diversity in maize globally, including landraces as well as wild relatives (especially teosintes) in Latin America, helping in tracking the migration routes of maize from the centers of origin, and understanding the fate of genetic diversity during maize domestication. The genome sequencing of B73 (a highly popular US Corn Belt inbred) and Palomero (a popcorn landrace in Mexico) in the recent years are important landmarks in maize research, with significant implications to our understanding of the maize genome organization and evolution. Next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping platforms promise to further revolutionize our understanding of genetic diversity and for designing strategies to utilize the genomic information for maize improvement. However, the major limiting factor to exploit the genetic diversity in crops like maize is no longer genotyping, but high-throughput and precision phenotyping. There is an urgent need to establish a global phenotyping network for comprehensive and efficient characterization of maize germplasm for an array of target traits, particularly for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality. ‘Seeds of Discovery’ (SeeD), a novel initiative by CIMMYT with financial support from the Mexican Government for generating international public goods, has initiated intensive exploration of phenotypic and molecular diversity of maize germplasm conserved in the CIMMYT Gene Bank; this

  8. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  9. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citrus limon Fruit Extract against Carbofuran Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jaiswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol methylcarbamate, is known to induce oxidative stress and to cause inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The present work was envisaged to evaluate the effect of carbofuran on redox indices and its interactions with hepatic markers in rat. The ameliorating effect of Citrus limon fruit extract on carbofuran induced toxicity was also monitored. The results indicated that carbofuran treatment caused significant alterations in the levels of activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver tissues and serum. The levels of enzymatic oxidative stress markers such as SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic redox molecules such as total thiol, GSH, and protein thiol also showed significant perturbations in rat liver due to carbofuran treatment. The administration of Citrus limon fruit extract, however, was able to markedly ameliorate the toxicity of carbofuran by protecting the levels of aforesaid biomarkers to near normal levels. The ameliorative effect of Citrus limon fruit extract may be due to the presence of different antioxidants in it which may neutralize the ROS and RNS generated in the body tissue due to pesticide stress. These results suggested that Citrus limon fruit extract may be utilized as a potential supplement in proper management of pesticide intoxication in association with relevant therapeutics.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Copia-like Retrotransposons from 12 Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-Guo TAO; Juan XU; Yun-Jiang CHENG; Liu HONG; Wen-Wu GUO; Hua-Lin YI; Xiu-Xin DENG

    2005-01-01

    As the largest transposable element in the plant genome, retrotransposons are thought to be involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution, especially in sweet orange, which is prone to bud mutation. In the present study, the presence of copia-like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity, genomic distribution, and transcriptional activities in Citrus were investigated in 12 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cultivars using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT)sequences. Twelve amplification products from each cultivar were cloned and sequenced. The cloned sequences showed great heterogeneity, except "Dream" navel and "Hamlin", both of which shared the same sequence. Frame shifting, termination, deletion, and substitution accounted for the heterogeneity of RT sequences. Southern blot hybridization using the RT1 clone from the "Cara Cara" navel as a probe showed that multiple copies were integrated throughout the sweet orange genomes, which made the retrotransposon possible an effective molecular marker to detect citrus evolution events and to reveal its relationship with bud mutation. No transcriptional activities of the retrotransposon were detected by RT-PCR and Northern analysis in the fruits and leaves of either "Cara Cara" or "Seike" navels.

  12. 桂枝抑制柑橘采后两种病原菌活性物质研究%Antifungal Activity of Ramulus cinnamomi extracts against two key Citrus Postharvest Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万春鹏; 周梦娇; 刘洋; 陈金印

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen Chinese herbal medicine with potential antifungal activity from Chinese herb -al medicine extracts against two key Citrus postharvest pathogens ,namely Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.Solvent extract and silica gel chromatography were used to determine the antifungal materials from the active herb extracts .The results suggested that Ramulus cinnamomi,Cinnamomum cassia,Asarum sieboldii, Herba Moslae,Cortex Moutan and Artemisia apiacea had powerful inhibitive effects on the two pathogens and the inhibition zones were all over 20 mm.Moreover,the antifungal materials of Ramulus cinnamomi,Cinnamo-mum cassia and Asarum sieboldii all existed in the ethyl acetate fraction .Ramulus cinnamomi showed the best inhibitive effects on the two pathogens ,and the inhibitive zones were 34.57 mm and 31.56 mm,respectively. While the MIC were 3.125 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL,respectively;the MFC were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL,respectively.The inhibition zones of the ethyl acetate fraction of Ramulus cinnamomi were 45.33 mm and 40.53 mm,respectively.Four subfractions (Fr.1-Fr.4) were obtained from the ethyl acetate fraction by the silica gel chromatography .Fr.1 showed the best antifungal activity and cinnamaldehyde was the main antifungal material in Fr.1 detected by HPLC .%从中草药提取物中筛选对引起柑橘采后主要病害的两株真菌---意大利青霉( Penicillium italicum)和指状青霉( Penicillium digitatum)有抑菌活性的中草药;采用溶剂萃取和硅胶柱色谱对具有较好抑菌活性的中草药提取物进一步分离纯化,确定其抑菌活性物质。结果表明:桂枝、桂皮、细辛、香薷、牡丹皮和青蒿6种提取物对这两株真菌均有较好的抑菌效果,抑菌圈直径均达20 mm以上。其中桂枝、桂皮和细辛的抗菌活性物质主要存在于乙酸乙酯部位,且桂枝的抑菌活性最强,对意大利青霉和指状青霉的抑菌圈直径分别为34.57 mm和31

  13. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  14. Computational identification of citrus microRNAs and target analysis in citrus expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Jia, Q; Fang, J; Li, F; Wang, C; Zhang, Z

    2010-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new family of small RNA molecules found in plants and animals. We developed a comprehensive strategy for identifying new miRNA homologues by mining the repository of available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs). By adopting a range of filtering criteria, we identified a total of 38 potential miRNAs--nine, five, nine and 15 miRNAs in Citrus trifoliata (ctr-miRNAs), C. clementina (ccl-miRNAs), C. reticulata (crt-miRNAs) and C. sinensis (csi-miRNAs), respectively--from more than 430,000 EST sequences in citrus. Using the potential miRNA sequences, we conducted a further BLAST search of the mRNA database and found six potential target genes in these citrus species. Eight miRNAs were selected in order to verify their existence in citrus using Northern blotting, and the functions of several miRNAs in miRNA-mediated gene regulation are experimentally suggested. It appears that all these miRNAs regulate expression of their target genes by cleavage, which is the most common situation in gene regulation mediated by plant miRNAs. Our achievement in identifying new miRNAs in citrus provides a powerful incentive for further studies on the important roles of these miRNAs.

  15. 柚子皮中柠檬苦素提取工艺及其抑菌活性研究%Study on extraction and antibacterial activities of limonin in peel of Citrus maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彪; 施蕊; 熊智; 叶敏; 华燕; 孙浩

    2012-01-01

    采用正交实验法对柚子皮柠檬苦素的提取工艺进行优化,并用所获得的柠檬苦素对几种农作物病害病原菌进行了抑菌实验。结果表明,柚子皮柠檬苦素的最佳提取工艺路线是采用二氯甲烷为提取溶剂,回流提取2次,每次回流提取2h,提取温度为50℃,料液比为1:12。抑菌实验结果表明,按上述工艺获得的柠檬苦素对小麦纹枯病原菌、水稻纹枯病原菌、花椒落叶病原菌、小麦赤霉病原菌和玉米大斑病原菌的生长有一定抑制作用。%The extraction technology of limonin from Citrus maxima peel was optimized through orthogonal test,and used the limonin to inhibit five crop pathogenic bacteria from growing.The results showed that the dichloromethane was best extractant for extracting limonin from Citrus maxima peel and the optimal extracting technological conditions were as follows:the ratio of solid to liquid at 1:12,refluxed for 2 times and 2 hours each time at fifty Celsius degree.The results of antibacterial experiment showed the limonin from Citrus maxima peel had antibiotic effects on the growth of Rhizoctonia cereal,Rhizoctonia solani,Marssonina zanthoxyl,Fusarium graminearum,Exserohilum turcicum in some extent.

  16. Preliminary Studies on Species and Distribution of Citrus Viroids in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Chang-yong; TANG Ke-zhi; LAN Jian-qiang; ZHOU Yan; LI Zhon-gan

    2008-01-01

    Citrus viroids are the small but economically important RNA pathogens.For investigating their occurrence and distribution in China,65 viroid samples collected from 8 major citrus cultivated regions were evaluated using one-step or multiplex one-step RT-PCR and biological indexing for specifically detection of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd),Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd),Hop stunt viroid (HSVd),Citrus viroid-ⅢI (CVd-Ⅲ) and Citrus viroid-Ⅳ (CVd-Ⅳ).The results showed that there were at least 4 kinds of citrus viroids (CEVd,CBLVd,HSVd,and CVd-Ⅲ) on citrus trees in China.Most of the infected citrus plants harbored more than one viroid species,and two plants were infected with up to 4 citrus viroids.Sweet orange was more frequently infected by viroids than other citrus varieties.It is the preliminary report on the species and distribution of citrus viroids in China.

  17. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination. Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.01-0.001 increase in pH, decrease in acidity and ulcer index against indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress, along with histological evidence of cytoprotection. Glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and mucin levels increased significantly at 450 mg/kg (p <0.05-0.001 after indomethacin ulceration, whereas hypothermic restrain stress only increased glutathione and mucin levels. Hesperidin prevents oxidative cell injury by significant rise of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase levels in gastric mucosa. Hesperidin allowed the regeneration of ulcerated tissue, and prevented hemorrhagic injury of gastric mucosa. The potential anti-ulcer effect of hesperidin may be due to antioxidant, mucoprotective and cytoprotective activities.

  18. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of Chinese Waxy Maize Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongjian; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hua; Wu, Jinhong; Shi, Biao; Cai, Run; Xu, Yunbi; Wu, Aizhong; Luo, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh), with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima’s D and Fu and Li’s F*) were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection. PMID:23818949

  20. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvas J. Prince; Henry T. Nguyen; Mackensie Murphy; Raymond N. Mutava; Zhengzhi Zhang; Na Nguyen; Yoon Ha Kim; Safiullah M. Pathan; Grover J. Shannon; Babu Valliyodan

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germ-plasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments.

  1. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Chinese waxy maize germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Zheng

    Full Text Available Waxy maize (Zea mays L. var. certaina Kulesh, with many excellent characters in terms of starch composition and economic value, has grown in China for a long history and its production has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, the evolution and origin of waxy maize still remains unclear. We studied the genetic diversity of Chinese waxy maize including typical landraces and inbred lines by SSR analysis and the results showed a wide genetic diversity in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. We analyzed the origin and evolution of waxy maize by sequencing 108 samples, and downloading 52 sequences from GenBank for the waxy locus in a number of accessions from genus Zea. A sharp reduction of nucleotide diversity and significant neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's F* were observed at the waxy locus in Chinese waxy maize but not in nonglutinous maize. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese waxy maize originated from the cultivated flint maize and most of the modern waxy maize inbred lines showed a distinct independent origin and evolution process compared with the germplasm from Southwest China. The results indicated that an agronomic trait can be quickly improved to meet production demand by selection.

  2. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  3. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  4. Rheology and composition of processed citrus fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    While fibrous byproducts are abundant in supply, using them in food products in such a way to not degrade taste or texture can be challenging. Citrus fibers have been shown to have high water holding and viscous properties. However, to better incorporate dried orange pulp into foods, their propert...

  5. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  6. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  7. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    , Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena 85, 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia 64, 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery

  8. Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

    2009-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest

  9. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  10. Expression profile of oxidative and antioxidative stress enzymes based on ESTs approach of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Peroni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only evolve but also reduce oxygen in photosynthesis. An inevitable consequence of this normal process is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants are adequately protected by the presence of multiple antioxidative enzymes in the cytosol and also in the different cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Traditionally, ROS were considered to be only a toxic byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, recently it has become apparent that plants actively produce these molecules which may control many different physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress response, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. The search results using the Citrus Genome Program in Brazil (CitEST for oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in Citrus Sinensis variety ‘Pera IAC’ indicated that the multiple ROS-scavenging enzymes were expressed throughout all citrus tissues. The analyses demonstrated the ubiquitous expression of metallothioneins, probably indicating a constitutive expression pattern. Oxalate oxidase has been identified as the most abundant expressed gene in developing fruits, which suggests a specific function in the ripening of citrus fruit. Moreover, infected leaves with Xylella fastidiosa and Leprosis citri showed a massive change in their ROS gene expression profile which may indicate that the suppression of ROS detoxifying mechanisms may be involved in the induction of the diseases.

  11. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Dawson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably from that of well-studied viruses of herbaceous plants where movement occurs largely through adjacent cells. In contrast, CTV systemically infects plants mainly by long-distance movement with only limited cell-to-cell movement. The virus is transported through sieve elements and occasionally enters an adjacent companion or phloem parenchyma cell where virus replication occurs. In some plants this is followed by cell-to-cell movement into only a small cluster of adjacent cells, while in others there is no cell-to-cell movement. Different proportions of cells adjacent to sieve elements become infected in different plant species. This appears to be related to how well viral gene products interact with specific hosts. CTV has three genes that are not necessary for infection of most of its hosts, but are needed in different combinations for infection of certain citrus species. These genes apparently were acquired by the virus to extend its host range. Some specific viral gene products have been implicated in symptom induction. Remarkably, the deletion of these genes from the virus genome can induce large increases in stem pitting symptoms. The p23 gene, which is a suppressor of RNA silencing and a regulator of viral RNA synthesis, has been shown to be the cause of seedling yellows symptoms in sour orange. Most isolates of CTV in nature are populations of different strains of CTV. The next frontier of CTV biology is the understanding how the virus variants in

  12. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  13. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  14. Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker.

  15. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  16. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C. de; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  17. The Cytotoxic Effect of Essential Oil of Syrian Citrus limon Peel on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (Lim1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eyad Chatty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils are the volatile fraction of aromatic and medicinal plants created after extraction by steam or water distillation. Species of the genus Citrus(Rutaceae have been widely used in traditional medicine as volatile oils and are currently the subject of numerous research. Citrus essential oil consists of different terpens that have antitumor activities. This study determines the cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Citrus limon L. peels on a colorectal cancer cell line (LIM1863.Methods: We harvested four samples from four locations in Syria. Essential oils were prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.Various concentrations ofessential oils (0.5-48 μg/ml were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated byMTT-basedcytotoxicity assay.Results: We noted 18 components that represented 98.81% of the total oil content. The major components were: limonene (61.8%-73.8%, γ-terpinene (9.4%-10.4%, β-pinene (3.7%-6.9%, O-cymene(1%-2.4%,and citral (0.8%-5.4%.The obtained IC50 value range of Citrus limon essential oils was 5.75-7.92 μg/ml against LIM1863.Conclusion: This study revealed that Syrian Citrus limon essential oil has a cytotoxic effect on the human colorectalcarcinoma cell line LIM1863 when studied in vitro.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  19. Reduction of Legionella spp. in water and in soil by a citrus plant extract vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Katie; Kurzbach, Elena; Score, Jodie; Tejpal, Jyoti; Chi Tangyie, George; Phillips, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by Legionella spp., organisms often isolated from environmental sources, including soil and water. Legionella spp. are capable of replicating intracellularly within free-living protozoa, and once this has occurred, Legionella is particularly resistant to disinfectants. Citrus essential oil (EO) vapors are effective antimicrobials against a range of microorganisms, with reductions of 5 log cells ml(-1) on a variety of surfaces. The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of a citrus EO vapor against Legionella spp. in water and in soil systems. Reductions of viable cells of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii, and an intra-amoebal culture of Legionella pneumophila (water system only) were assessed in soil and in water after exposure to a citrus EO vapor at concentrations ranging from 3.75 mg/liter air to 15g/liter air. Antimicrobial efficacy via different delivery systems (passive and active sintering of the vapor) was determined in water, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the antimicrobial components (linalool, citral, and β-pinene) was conducted. There was up to a 5-log cells ml(-1) reduction in Legionella spp. in soil after exposure to the citrus EO vapors (15 mg/liter air). The most susceptible strain in water was L. pneumophila, with a 4-log cells ml(-1) reduction after 24 h via sintering (15 g/liter air). Sintering the vapor through water increased the presence of the antimicrobial components, with a 61% increase of linalool. Therefore, the appropriate method of delivery of an antimicrobial citrus EO vapor may go some way in controlling Legionella spp. from environmental sources.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates of Wild Type Citrus in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Long; ZHOU Chang-yong

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from Chinese wild type citrus were analyzed by comparing the sequences of nine genomic regions (p23, p20, p13, p18, p25, p27, POL, HEL and k17) with the CTV isolates of cultivated citrus from different countries. The results showed that the divergence pattern of genomic RNA of the CTV isolates from wild type citrus was similar to that of other isolates from cultivated citrus, the 3´ proximal region was relatively conserved, and the 5´ proximal region had greater variability. The nine genomic regions of CTV isolates analyzed were found to have been under purifying selection in the evolution process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven Chinese wild CTV isolates were located at different clades and did not relfect their geographical origins, suggesting genetic diversity among the Chinese wild CTV populations. These results will aid in the understanding of molecular evolution of the Chinese CTV populations.

  1. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  2. Estimation of Fluoride Concentration of Various Citrus and Non-Citrus Fruits Commonly Consumed and Commercially Available in Mathura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Anand Ingle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since fluoride is available from various sources, the total ingestion of fluoride by a person should be estimated taking into consideration the fluoride consumed from all the sources including fruits. There are very few epidemiological studies carried out associated with fluoride estimation in fruit samplesand especially in the Indian scenario Objective: To estimate and compare the fluoride concentration of different commercially available citrus and non-citrus fruits in Mathura city. Materials & Method: Fifteen different types of fruits commercially available and consumed by people ofMathura City were collected. Out of the 15 fruit samples 5 were citrus fruits and 10 were non-citrus fruits. The fluoride estimation of fruit samples was done at Central Laboratory,Lucknow. Juices of all 15 fruit samples were prepared, from each sample 10 ml of juice was measured and fluoride testing of each sample was carried out by using Orion 4 star -ion electrode analyzer. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS, version 17. Results: The fluoride concentration in citrus fruits ranged from 0.04ppm (Orange to 0.08 ppm (Tomato while in non-citrus fruits it ranged from 0.04ppm (chikoo to 0.18 ppm (Guava. No significant difference was observed between the mean fluoride concentration of citrus and non citrus fruits. Conclusions: Both citrus and non citrus fruits have fluorides. Guava was found to have the maximumamount of fluoridecontent (0.18 ppm among both the citrus and non citrus fruits.

  3. Screening for Rice Germplasms with Specially-Elongated Mesocotyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-guo; ZHANG Guang-heng; LIN Jian-rong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2005-01-01

    The lengths of mesocotyl in the seedlings of 84 lowland rice varieties and 12 upland rice varieties were measured following the treatments of daylight and darkness during germination. The elongation of mesocotyl in the varieties tested was inhibited under daylight condition, and the mesocotyl of all the varieties elongated variably under darkness condition. The elongated lengths of the mesocotyl in upland rice, ranging from 0.36 cm to 1.61 cm with an average of 0.81 cm, was obviously longer than those in lowland rice, ranging from 0.12 cm to 1.56 cm with an average of 0.42 cm. Among 14 rice varieties with over 1 cm of mesocotyl length, five belonged to upland rice, and nine to lowland rice. The possible utilization of the elongated-mesocotyl rice germplasm in varietal improvement, direct-seeded planting and seed purity testing were discussed.

  4. DEVELOPING THE iPBS STRATEGY FOR YAKON GERMPLASM EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two yacon varieties PER05 and ECU45 were used for iPBS method developing for yacon - Smallanthus sonchifolius, (Poepp. et Endl. germplasm evaluation. Because of high level of polyphenols in yacon, four DNA extraction methods were tested for the best results in the iPBS method. Using a set of universal primers that anneal to the conserved regions of retrotransposons, polymorphism of amplified fragments of DNA was analysed and for the development of iPBS protocol primers that produce PCR fragments within the whole possible range of PCR were chosen. Selected primers were subsequently used in a set of gradient PCR for finding of optimal annealing temperatures for each of them and three groups of primers according to the optimal annealing temperature were found - primers with a optimum at 53°C (1845, 1875 and 1886, at 56°C (1846 and 61 °C (1880 and 2078.

  5. Some traits of low temperature germplasm wheat under extremely unfavorable weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嵩午; 王长发; 冯佰利; 苗芳; 周春菊; 张荣萍

    2001-01-01

    Through a long-term observation on the canopy temperature and some traits of wheat the temperature germplasm of wheat was found to result in the wheats having either a high or a low plant temperature. Under normal weather conditions, the wheat having a low temperature germplasm (LTG) demonstrated several advantageous physiologi-cal and agronomic traits than those having a high temperature germplasm (HTG). Under the extremely unfavorableweather conditions, such as rainy weather or severe drought, LTG wheat still could maintain its superiority to HTG wheat in physiological and agronomic traits including leaf functional duration, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, root vitality and kernel plumpness. The wide adaptability of LTG wheat to awide range of meteoro-ecological conditions could provide a valuable germplasm in breeding of good strains with broad-spectrum stress resistance.

  6. Low temperature wheat germplasm and its leaf photosynthetic traits and structure characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Songwu; MIAO Fang; WANG Changfa

    2004-01-01

    Low temperature germplasm with constant low plant temperature was found in the nature through a long-time observation on wheat canopy temperature and traits; correspondingly, high temperature germplasm with constant high plant temperature also exists. Compared with the high temperature germplasm, the chlorophyll content and the net photosynthetic rate of the three functional leaves on the top of the low temperature wheat germplasm are higher and the structure tends to be more complicated, which is characterized by smaller mesophyll cells and more closely arranged cell layers, more and denser chloroplasts with thick stroma, more granas and well developed grana lamellae, a larger vascular bundle area with smaller interspace. All these characteristics embody the consistency of structure and function and provide the theoretical bases for looking for and cultivating the new low temperature materials in agricultural practice.

  7. Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L. in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chan Teck Leong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P≤0.05 in HMO-treated plots (8.4, followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6 and untreated plots (22.5. However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage.

  8. Vitamin C and the role of citrus juices as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Nuria; Mena, Pedro; Cánovas, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente; Saura, Domingo

    2009-05-01

    The literature on the content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) in citrus juices in relation to industrial practices is reviewed. The role of vitamin C from citrus juices in human diet is also reviewed. Citrus fruits and juices are rich in several types of bioactive compounds. Their antioxidant activity and related benefits derive not only from vitamin C but also from other phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids. During juice processing, temperature and oxygen are the main factors responsible for vitamin C losses. Non-thermal processed juices retain higher levels of vitamin C, but economic factors apparently delay the use of such methods in the citrus industry. Regarding packing material, vitamin C in fruit juice is quite stable when stored in metal or glass containers, whereas juice stored in plastic bottles has a much shorter shelf-life. The limiting step for vitamin C absorption in humans is transcellular active transport across the intestinal wall where AA may be oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), which is easily transported across the cell membrane and immediately reduced back to AA by two major pathways. AA bioavailability in the presence of flavonoids has yielded controversial results. Whereas flavonoids seem to inhibit intestinal absorption of AA, some studies have shown that AA in citrus extract was more available than synthetic ascorbic acid alone. DHAA is reported to possess equivalent biological activity to AA, so recent studies often consider the vitamin C activity in the diet as the sum of AA plus DHAA. However, this claimed equivalence should be carefully reexamined. Humans are one of the few species lacking the enzyme (L-gulonolactone oxidase, GLO) to convert glucose to vitamin C. It has been suggested that this is due to a mutation that provided a survival advantage to early primates, since GLO produces toxic H2O2. Furthermore, the high concentration of AA (and DHAA) in neural tissues could have been the key factor that caused

  9. SNP Typing for Germplasm Identification of Amomum villosum Lour. Based on DNA Barcoding Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Qionglin Huang; Zhonggang Duan; Jinfen Yang; Xinye Ma; Ruoting Zhan; Hui Xu; Weiwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Amomum villosum Lour., produced from Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China, is a Daodi medicinal material of Amomi Fructus in traditional Chinese medicine. This herb germplasm should be accurately identified and collected to ensure its quality and safety in medication. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism typing method was evaluated on the basis of DNA barcoding markers to identify the germplasm of Amomi Fructus. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 29 landraces represen...

  10. Selection of Antagonistic Bacteria against Citrus Green Mold and Its Inhibition Activity on Shatang Mandarin Fruit%柑桔绿霉病拮抗细菌的筛选、鉴定及其抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝卫宁; 李辉; 胡美英; 耿鹏; 杨柳

    2011-01-01

    A bacterial strain HC-03, isolated from rhizosphere soil of citrus fanns, exhibited extensive antagonistic effect on 12 fruit pathogens. The strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rDNA sequence homology, specific PCR detection, physiological and biochemical characteristics and morphological observation. Effect of different treatments of strain HC-03 against disease caused by Penicillium digitatum on inoculated shatang mandarin was also investigated. Results showed that citrus green mold incidence of shatang mandarin treated by cell culture, cell-free filtrate and cell suspension of strain HC-03 were all less than 20%, and lesion diameter were all below 10 mm.%从采集的柑桔园根际土壤中筛选得到1株对柑桔绿霉菌Penicillium digitatum具有较强拮抗活性的菌株HC-03.该菌株对柑桔绿霉菌、柑桔青霉菌Penicillium italicum、柑桔酸腐菌Geotrichum candidum等12种水果病原菌均有不同程度的拮抗作用,表现出广谱抗菌活性.菌落形态观察、生理生化特性分析及16S rDNA 序列测定和特异性PCR检测结果表明,该菌株为解淀粉芽孢杆菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.对沙糖桔的活体接种试验表明,菌株HC-03的发酵液、菌悬液及发酵滤液处理柑桔绿霉病的发生率均低于20%,病斑直径均在10mm以下.

  11. Huanglongbing Resistance and Tolerance in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stover, E.; McCollum, G.; Driggers, R.; Duan, Y; Shatters, Jr., R. G.; Ritenour, M.; Hall, D.G.; J. Chaparro

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-incidence. ‘Temple’ had the lowest HLB symptoms and Liberibacter (Las) titer, while ‘Murcott’ and ‘Minneola’ had the highest. The USDA Ft. Pierce, FL farm is managed to reveal genotype responses to ...

  12. A Discussion on Possible Indicators Related to Genetic Structure Changes in Plant Germplasm Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI Jun-yi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to study and develop indicators and procedures for the evaluation of genetic structure changes in germplasm conservation due to social and natural environment reasons.Some basic concepts in germplasm study were introduced at first. Then, six kinds of indicators for genetic diversity as a measure of genetic potential of a germplasm collection were presented, i.e.,numbers of different entities at certain level, evenness of the entity distribution, genetic similarityand genetic distance, genetic variance and genetic coefficient of variation, multivariate genetic variation indices, and coefficient of parentage. It was pointed out that genetic dispersion did not provide a complete concept of genetic diversity if without any information from genetic richness. Based on the above, the indicators for genetic erosion as the genetic structure changes of germplasm conservation due to social reasons, the indicators of genetic vulnerability as the genetic structure changes of germplasm conservation due to environmental stresses, the measurement of genetic drift and genetic shift as the genetic structure changes of germplasm collection during reproduction or seed increase were reviewed and developed. Furthermore, the estimation procedures of the indicators by using molecular markers were suggested. Finally, the case studies on suitable conservation sample size of self-pollinated and open-pollinated populations were given for reference.

  13. Polyembryony in non-apomictic citrus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo. PMID:20675656

  14. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  15. In vivo induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes, glutathione transferase and quinone reductase by citrus triterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hassan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cell culture and animal studies demonstrated that citrus bioactive compounds have protective effects against certain types of cancer. Among several classes of citrus bioactive compounds, limonoids were reported to prevent different types of cancer. Furthermore, the structures of citrus limonoids were reported to influence the activity of phase II detoxifying enzymes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate how variations in the structures of citrus limonoids (namely nomilin, deacetyl nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid and a mixture of limonoids would influence phase II enzyme activity in excised tissues from a mouse model. Methods In the current study, defatted sour orange seed powder was extracted with ethyl acetate and subjected to silica gel chromatography. The HPLC, NMR and mass spectra were used to elucidate the purity and structure of compounds. Female A/J mice were treated with three limonoids and a mixture in order to evaluate their effect on phase II enzymes in four different tissues. Assays for glutathione S-transferase and NAD(PH: quinone reductase (QR were used to evaluate induction of phase II enzymatic activity. Results The highest induction of GST against 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB was observed in stomach (whole, 58% by nomilin, followed by 25% isoobacunoic acid and 19% deacetyl nomilin. Deacetyl nomilin in intestine (small as well as liver significantly reduced GST activity against CDNB. Additionally isoobacunoic acid and the limonoid mixture in liver demonstrated a significant reduction of GST activity against CDNB. Nomilin significantly induced GST activity against 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO, intestine (280% and stomach (75% while deacetyl nomilin showed significant induction only in intestine (73%. Induction of GST activity was also observed in intestine (93% and stomach (45% treated with the limonoid mixture. Finally, a significant induction of NAD(PH: quinone reductase (QR activity was

  16. Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statti, Giancarlo A; Conforti, Filomena; Sacchetti, Gianni; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Agrimonti, Caterina; Menichini, Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Oil of bergamot is receiving renewed popularity in aromatherapy. The biovariability of Citrus bergamia grown wild in Calabria (Italy) was investigated as far as chemical markers (linalool, linalyl acetate and bergapten) content and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts. The average content in the markers presents slight variations with the altitude and more evident changes with the latitude of the areas of plant collection.

  17. Physicochemical Properties and Fungitoxicity of the Essential Oil of Citrus medica L. against Groundnut Storage Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal effect of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. on storage fungi of Arachis hypogea L. stored for 6 months was evaluated using the disc diffusion agar method. The oil exhibited a wide spectrum of fungitoxicity, inhibiting all 14 fungus species tested. Thus, the oil can be exploited as a fumigant against storage fungi for the preservation of stored legume seeds due to its wide range of activity, non-phytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of fungitoxicity.

  18. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  19. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  20. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  1. Water and nitrogen use efficiencies in citrus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Assinck, F.B.T.; Heinen, Marius; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors for citrus production. Reported effects of water and N inputs on citrus yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) vary greatly, mainly due to differences in cultivars, tree age, climate, soil types, and water and N input level

  2. Changes in anthocyanin production during domestication of citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are imortant fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varities of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon lme and grapefruit. Citron and it...

  3. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  4. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  5. Intensification of citrus production and soil loss in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Burguet, M.; Giménez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    After land abandonment for five decades (Arnáez et al., 2010; Belmonte Serrato et al., 1999) as a widespread process in Spain, agriculture intensification is taken place. This is changing the nature of the soil erosion processes as they were known (Cerdà, 1997; Cammeraat and Imeson, 1999; Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010; Zavala et al., 2010). Citrus production are being reallocated on slopes due to the new irrigation systems (drip-irrigation), the thermic inversion on the bottom of the valley and then the frost affecting the plantations, the high prices of the bottom valley lands and the investment in agriculture from other economic sectors such as tourism and industry. Those new plantations are based on intense pesticides and herbicides use, and erosion processes are triggered due to the sloping surface developed (Cerdà et al., 2010). Five study sites were selected in the Montesa Municipality research zone, where an increase in the orange and clementines plantations were found during the last 20 years. Measurements were perfomed by a simple method, which consist in measuring the surface characteristics: stoniness, crust, herbs, bare soil, sheet flow, rills and gullies. One thousand meters were monitored at each of the study sites and measurements were done in January and August with a precision of 1 cm. The results show that the erosion rates are controlled by the sheet erosion (78,4 %), although rill and gullies exist (< 1 %) and they are active and contribute to high erosion rates. Stones and vegetation cover was found to by low. The infiltration rates of the soils were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments and cylinder infiltrometer. The results show that the new citrus plantations results in low infiltration rates, and high erosion rates. This is contributing to a non-sustainable agriculture production due to the high erosion rates. And also a lack in soil services as the surface runoff and then the soil erosion is enhanced; and soil infiltration

  6. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivaion of Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima in East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 127-131. The demand for high-value commodities such as oranges continues to increase every year. One of the qualities of orange that can not be met by domestic manufacturers is the color of a citrus peel. Most consumers like citrus orange, like mandarin oranges and other citrus imports. Efforts to reduce the national citrus imports is to improve the productivity and quality of citrus orange in Indonesia. Citrus Tangerines Borneo Prima is one of the featured horticultural commodities in East Kalimantan, which has the advantage of being low lying tangerine with orange rind. It Is indispensable citrus cultivation technique is good and right, so that the citrus plant can develop optimally so that later can produce citrus fruit both in quality and quantity.

  7. In vivo anti-carcinogenic property of a formulated citrus peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Suzawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the two leading fatal diseases humans face. Synthesized drugs available for cancer intervention have many limitations in applications and effectiveness and are often associated with serious of side effects, which can further damage the patients’ quality of life. Recently, the development of natural-product-based and therapeutically sound anti-cancer agents have gained popularity in the fields of functional and medical foods, which may exhibit advantages of minimal toxicity and multiple active molecular components. Citrus peel or its extract has been reported to have potent pharmacological activities and health benefits because of abundant flavonoids present in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels. Results: The results of these studies demonstrated the efficacy of Gold Lotion (GL, an extract of multiple varieties of citrus peels that contains abundant flavonoids, including a high percentage of polymethoxylflavones (PMFs, which can protect against skin cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer in mice. These results are clearly promising and warrant a human trial with GL in future studies. Summary: Briefly, these data have demonstrated that GL is efficacious in preventing and treating cancer in several model systems. This review summarizes the results of currently available data regarding the in vivo anti-cancer activity of GL, and identifies opportunities for subsequent human clinical trials to assess preventive and therapeutic effects in the near future.

  8. Novel character impact compounds in Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Norio; Tomita, Naomi; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Akira; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

    2009-03-11

    Yuzu ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a tree-grown fruit similar to a kind of sour orange, is widely used in Japanese food/cooking for its pleasant flavor. To clarify the odor-active volatiles that differentiate yuzu from other citrus fruits, sensory evaluations were conducted on yuzu peel oil. The results revealed that the polar part of yuzu peel oil was the source of the characteristic aroma of fresh yuzu fruit. By aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar volatile part of yuzu peel oil, seven odorants were newly identified as odor-active volatiles in yuzu peel oil in the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors of 128 and 32: oct-1-en-3-one, (E)-non-4-enal, (E)-dec-4-enal, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, (E)-non-6-enal, (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (Yuzunone), and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-ol (Yuzuol). Among the most odor-active volatiles in yuzu, (E)-non-6-enal and Yuzunone were identified for the first time solely in yuzu peel oil and not in the peel of other citrus species, and Yuzuol was identified for the first time in nature. Sensory evaluation of yuzu aroma reconstitutions revealed that the newly identified compound, Yuzunone, contributes greatly to the distinct yuzu aroma.

  9. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  10. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  11. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

  12. Comparative in vitro toxicity of grape- and citrus-farm dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallyathan, Val; Pack, Donna; Leonard, Steve; Lawson, Robert; Schenker, Marc; Castranova, Vince

    2007-01-15

    Agricultural workers are exposed to a variety of airborne dusts, including crystalline silica and other inorganic minerals. This study was designed to characterize the organic and inorganic components of agricultural dusts in California grape- and citrus-farm fields and to compare their cytotoxicity using in vitro toxicity bioassays as predictors of pathogenicity. Aerosolized dusts collected from farm fields were characterized by scanning-electron-microscopic energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, trace metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. As indicators of cytotoxicity, cell viability, release of alveolar enzymes activities (lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (OH), and lipid peroxidation were monitored after exposure of cells to grape- and citrus-farm dusts or inorganic components of these dusts. In addition, activation of nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein-1 were evaluated at the peak time for response of 36 h postexposure. All toxicity studies were done in comparison with crystalline silica of similar particle size and diameter using the same mass concentrations as farm dusts. The results showed that inorganic minerals in the aerosolized farm dust fractions were mostly composed of aluminum silicates, crystalline silica, and free iron. Crystalline silica used in these studies was more cytotoxic than grape- and citrus-farm dusts. However, in general, citrus farm dust exhibited the greatest ability to generate ROS and induce lipid peroxidation. These results support human epidemiologic studies, reporting an increased incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in farm workers, by documenting the potential of farm dusts to induce oxidative stress and initiate disease development.

  13. 77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Effective October 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Program... Huanglongbing disease of citrus by the international taxonomic community. We are amending the definition to... issued under Sec. 204, Title II, Public Law 106-113, 113 Stat. 1501A-293; sections 301.75-15 and...

  14. Ant community structure in citrus orchards in the mediterranean basin: impoverishment as a consequence of habitat homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, X; Palacios, R; Retana, J

    2009-04-01

    This study analyzes the structure and composition of ant communities in citrus orchards in Catalonia (northeast Spain) and compares them with the ant fauna found in natural communities of the region. In the citrus orchards considered in this study, the most abundant species were Lasius niger and Pheidole pallidula, which are behaviorally dominant species. Two other dominant species, Linepithema humile and Tetramorium caespitum, were also abundant, although only in one orchard. Species richness and diversity in the studied orchards were low compared with natural communities: although in orchards, there were few species and low diversity values, in natural communities, the number of species was higher and diversity also increased. This reduction of species richness and diversity was not modified by edge effects: only light and local differences were found between the inner part of the orchards and the orchard margins, and differences among orchards were greater than differences between inner parts and edges. The activity peaks of the different ant species actively foraging on these citrus orchards were distributed throughout the whole activity period of ants. Overall, the composition of ant communities present in the citrus orchards of this study was extremely poor. This agrees with the fact that monocultures are ecosystems associated with an inevitable loss of biodiversity and abundance of insect populations.

  15. 76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... regulations to implement the PPA. Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing disease of citrus, is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world. Citrus greening is a bacterial disease... the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening...

  16. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weißleder Knuth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of

  17. Enantiomeric distribution of key volatile components in Citrus essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bonaccorsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric excesses of numerous samples of different Citrus species: C. deliciosa Ten., C. limon (L. Burm., C. bergamia, C. aurantifolia (Christm. Swing., C. latifolia Tan., C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, and C. aurantium L. The enantiomeric distribution is determined by direct esGC and, depending on the complexity of the essential oil, by MDGC with a chiral column in the second dimension. The research is focused on the determination of fourteen chiral components which present specific distribution in the essential oils investigated. Particular attention is given to the trend of the enantiomeric distribution during the productive season, so to identify useful parameters for quality assessment also in consideration of the wide range of variability often reported in literature. The components investigated were the following: α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. The use of MDGC allowed the separation of the enantiomers of camphor and citronellal, otherwise not separated by conventional esGC; however for the separation of the enantiomers of α-pinene it was preferable to use conventional esGC. The MDGC system allowed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of camphene, α- and β-phellandrene in lime essential oil for the first time. The results are discussed in function of seasonal variation and, when possible, in

  18. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  19. Germplasm of breeding Pseudosciaena crocea as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yumei; DING Lei; LI Mingyun; XUE Liangyi; LIANG Liqun; HE Jianguo; LEI Qingquan

    2008-01-01

    The germplasm of breeding large yellow croaker(Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson)was revealed using 12 microsatellite markers.The results showed that the genetic diversities were on a mediated level in the bred Daiqu and Min-Yue stocks and two hybrid groups,as represented by 4.83 of the mean number of alleles and 0.561 of the average observed heterozygosity.The value of pair-wise differentiation coefficient(Fst)was only 13.1% between Daiqu and Min-Yue stocks,demonstrating the low level of differcn-tiation and a close relationship.However,STRUCTURE simulations and phylogenetie tree based on the UPGMA method supported that they are geographically different populations of the same species with distinct genetic structures.Examinations of individual ad-mixture showed that Min-Yue stock had been contaminated by alien individuals.Moreover,the genetic structures of the two hybridgroups resembled those of their parents,especially affected more by their female parents.Finally,the values of average observed beterozygasity between parents and their ascendants were compared and tested,as a result of no detectable differences(P>0.05).

  20. Genetic diversity in a germplasm bank of Oenocarpus mapora (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E F; de Oliveira, M S P

    2012-11-26

    Oenocarpus mapora is an Amazonian palm species commonly used by native populations for food and in folk medicine. We measured genetic variability, using RAPD markers, of material kept in a germplasm bank composed of accessions sampled from the Brazilian Amazon. These included 74 individuals from 23 accessions sampled from 9 localities in three States of the Brazilian Amazon. Jaccard genetic similarities were calculated based on 137 polymorphic bands, amplified by 15 primers. Dendrograms constructed based on the genetic similarities among individuals and sample localities demonstrated genetic separation of Acre State from the States of Amazonas and Pará. Two models in three hierarchical levels were considered for AMOVA: one considering the grouping of sampling sites in each state, and the other considering sampling sites in each subgroup formed by the dendrograms. The first model showed no significant genetic variation among states. On the other hand, genetic variation among subgroups was significant. In this model, the within-sample-site genetic diversity was 47.15%, which is considered to be low, since O. mapora is allogamous. By means of Bayesian analysis, the sample sites were clustered into five groups, and their distribution was similar to what we found in the dendrograms based on genetic similarity.

  1. S-Genotype Profiles of Turkish Apricot Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ugurtan YILMAZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, gametophytic self-incompatibility, controlled by a single locus with several allelic variants, is one of the major problems preventing self-fertilization. Among fruit trees, apricots show to a high degree self-incompatibility, especially in Middle-Asian and Iranian-Caucasian eco-geographical groups. In the present study, self-(incompatibility characteristics of a total of 236 apricot genotypes (218 Turkish and 18 foreign found within the National Apricot Germplasms of Apricot Research Institute in Malatya, Turkey was studied. Analyses were carried out by using four primer pairs (SRc-F and SRc-R, EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD, AprSC8-R and PaConsI-F, AprFBC8-F and AprFBC8-R. A total of 11 S-RNase alleles (S2, S3, S6, S7, S8, S9, S11, S12, S13, S20 and Sc were determined in the 236 apricot genotypes. As Turkish and foreign apricot genotypes are determined mostly self-incompatible, the data obtained hereby might be of good use for apricot breeding programs and more practically, for apricot new plantations; thus pollinator cultivars should be considered when self-incompatible apricot cultivars are being used.

  2. 胡柚皮有效成分的分离鉴定及其药理活性%Isolation and identification of effective constituents from the peels of Citrus paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou and their pharmacological activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪梅; 叶兴乾; 席屿芳; 朱大元; 蒋山好

    2006-01-01

    为了进一步揭示常山胡柚(Citrus paradisi cv.Changshanhuyou)活性成分的药理作用,对胡柚皮进行综合开发利用,对其有效成分的药理活性进行了研究.利用柱层析和薄层层析及现代波谱法(IR、NMR、MS)分离鉴定了常山胡柚果皮中3种化学成分的结构,它们分别为柚皮素(Ⅰ,naringerin)、柚皮甙(Ⅱ,naringin)、柠檬苦素(Ⅲ,limonin),并在体外做了免疫生物活性筛选实验.结果表明这3种化学成分均为首次从该种植物中分离,并证明这3种化学成分对T、B淋巴细胞的增殖反应有较好的抑制作用,揭示了其免疫生物活性部位为氯仿部位.

  3. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  4. Large-Scale Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Low-Phosphorus Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Ruineng; Xie, Chuanxiao; Huang, Changling; Liao, Hong; Xu, Yunbi; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Wen-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Low-phosphorus (LP) stress is a global problem for maize production and has been exacerbated by breeding activities that have reduced the genetic diversity of maize. Although LP tolerance in maize has been previously evaluated, the evaluations were generally performed with only a small number of accessions or with samples collected from a limited area. In this research, 826 maize accessions (including 580 tropical/subtropical accessions and 246 temperate accessions) were evaluated for LP tolerance under field conditions in 2011 and 2012. Plant height (PH) and leaf number were measured at three growth stages. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fresh ear weight (FEW) were also measured. Genetic correlation analysis revealed that FEW and NDVI were strongly correlated with PH, especially at later stages. LP-tolerant and -sensitive accessions were selected based on the relative trait values of all traits using principal component analysis, and all the 14 traits of the tolerant maize accessions showed less reduction than the sensitive accessions under LP conditions. LP tolerance was strongly correlated with agronomic performance under LP stress conditions, and both criteria could be used for genetic analysis and breeding of LP tolerance. Temperate accessions showed slightly better LP tolerance than tropical/subtropical ones, although more tolerant accessions were identified from tropical/subtropical accessions, which could be contributed by their larger sample size. This large-scale evaluation provides useful information, LP-tolerant germplasm resources and evaluation protocol for genetic analysis and developing maize varieties for LP tolerance. PMID:25938641

  5. Genetic variability analysis of Byrsonima crassifolia germplasm collected in Pará State using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S M; Moura, E F; Ramos, G K S; Oliveira, M S P

    2016-10-17

    Native of the Amazon, the nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia) is a fruit cultivated by family farmers and used in cooking; as such, it represents an opportunity for regional agribusiness. The Embrapa Eastern Amazon set up an active germplasm bank (BAG) consisting of 22 accessions sampled in 11 municipalities of Pará State. Due to its economic potential, there is an interest to advance the genetic breeding program of this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the BAG nanche collection using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Accessions were genotyped using 23 pre-selected ISSR primers resulting in 109 amplified polymorphic and 51 monomorphic bands. With eight polymorphic bands each, the most polymorphic primers were UBC 809 and UBC 848. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on Jaccard's coefficient indicated that the individuals clustered into two distinct groups. Accessions Igarapé Açu-2 and Augusto Corrêa-Pl 1 were most similar. The genetic dissimilarity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.59. We conclude that the ISSR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms in the nanche accessions, and that it is possible to infer the genetic variability among accessions of the collection. This demonstrate the importance of using molecular markers in poorly studied species and the advantages that this information can bring to the genetic improvement of such species.

  6. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  7. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest. Analyses of RNAi-related genes in the Asian citrus psyllid genome showed an absence of sequences encoding R2D2, a dsRNA-binding protein that functions as a cofactor of Dicer-2 in Drosophila. Nevertheless, bioassays using an in Planta System showed that the Asian citrus psyllid was very sensitive to ingested dsRNA, demonstrating a strong RNAi response. A small dose of dsRNA administered through a citrus flush was enough to trigger the RNAi mechanism, causing significant suppression of the targeted transcript, and increased psyllid mortality. This study provides evidence of a functional RNAi machinery, which could be further exploited to develop RNAi based management strategies for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:27901078

  8. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2013-07-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious α-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments.

  9. The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis.

  10. INFLUENCE OF CITRUS LEPROSIS ON THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Citrus sinensis LEAVES

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    N. de L. Nogueira

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis is the main viral disease affecting citrus in Brazil. Viral diseases can affect the mineral composition of citrus leaves, inducing mineral deficiencies. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of citrus leprosis on the mineral composition of citrus leaves, cultivar Pera. Orange seedlings were grown in pots containing sterile soil, and kept under greenhouse conditions. When plants had 15 to 20 leaves, they were infested with the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, the leprosis vector, collected from infected citrus plants. Other plants were not infested, and were used as the control. Ninety days after infestation, all the infested plants presented leprosis lesions. The six upper leaves of each plant were collected and the determination of macro and micro-elements was performed. Leaves from the infected plants showed lower levels of N and higher levels of Ca, S and Fe, as compared to the control (= 0.05. Both treatments presented similar levels of P, K, Mg, Cu,Mn, Zn and B.A leprose dos citros é uma das principais doenças de citros no Brasil. As doenças causadas por vírus podem afetar a composição mineral de folhas de citros, induzindo deficiências minerais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência da leprose dos citros na composição mineral de folhas de citros, cultivar Pera. Seedlings de laranja foram crescidos em vasos contendo solo estéril e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Plantas com 15 a 20 folhas foram infestadas com ácaro da espécie Brevipalpus phoenicis, vetor da leprose dos citros, provenientes de plantas de citros com sintomas da doença. Outras plantas não foram infestadas, e serviram como controle. Após noventa dias, todas as plantas infestadas apresentavam lesões de leprose. Seis folhas da parte superior de cada planta foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de macro e micronutrientes. As folhas das plantas infectadas apresentaram níveis mais baixos de N e mais elevados de Ca, S

  11. Seasonal Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in Sarawak

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    Stephen L.C. Teck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Effective control of phytophagous pests requires a thorough understanding of their seasonal population dynamics, dispersion behavior, natural enemy activity and climate. To date, although very little detail information had been published on the ecology of Diaphorina citri. The objective of this investigation was to test through field experiment the hypothesis that the major factors influencing local D. citri populations particularly their seasonal population dynamics in Sarawak are (a flushing cycles, (b climate and (c the impact of the primary parasitoids namely Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis. Approach: Seasonal abundance D. citri was studied weekly from March 1998 to December 2000 in the 1-ha citrus honey mandarin (Citrus aurantium L. commercial orchard at Jemukan (1° 33'N, 110° 41'E, Kota Samarahan Division, Southwest Sarawak, in Malaysia. Results: Field studies on citrus trees showed that the D. citri population fluctuates throughout the year on citrus honey mandarin in Sarawak. Generations overlapped but adult and egg population peaks for a short period generally coincided with three annual flushing cycles, in August-September, February-March and June-July between March 1998 and December 2000. Conclusion: Psyllid population levels are positively related to the availability of new shoot flushes. Psyllid populations are adversely affected by weather conditions and parasitoids. Adult psyllid populations increased exponentially during periods of flush growth and migration and dispersal of the adults was also related to flushing cycles. Dispersal and colonization of new trees is greatest in September-October, at the onset of the rainy season.

  12. Complete genome sequence of citrus huanglongbing bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' obtained through metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G; Li, Wenbin; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Li; Vahling, Cheryl M; Gabriel, Dean W; Williams, Kelly P; Dickerman, Allan; Sun, Yijun; Gottwald, Tim

    2009-08-01

    Citrus huanglongbing is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. It is spread by citrus psyllids and is associated with a low-titer, phloem-limited infection by any of three uncultured species of alpha-Proteobacteria, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. L. americanus', and 'Ca. L. africanus'. A complete circular 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome has been obtained by metagenomics, using the DNA extracted from a single 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected psyllid. The 1.23-Mb genome has an average 36.5% GC content. Annotation revealed a high percentage of genes involved in both cell motility (4.5%) and active transport in general (8.0%), which may contribute to its virulence. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' appears to have a limited ability for aerobic respiration and is likely auxotrophic for at least five amino acids. Consistent with its intracellular nature, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' lacks type III and type IV secretion systems as well as typical free-living or plant-colonizing extracellular degradative enzymes. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' appears to have all type I secretion system genes needed for both multidrug efflux and toxin effector secretion. Multi-protein phylogenetic analysis confirmed 'Ca. L. asiaticus' as an early-branching and highly divergent member of the family Rhizobiaceae. This is the first genome sequence of an uncultured alpha-proteobacteria that is both an intracellular plant pathogen and insect symbiont.

  13. Citrus Flavanones Affect Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Acting as Prooxidant Agents

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    Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities and positive health effects on mammalian cells because of their antioxidant properties. However, they also act as prooxidants and thus may interfere with metabolic pathways. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of three citrus flavanones, hesperidin, hesperetin, and naringenin, on several parameters linked to fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and perfused livers of rats. When exogenous octanoate was used as substrate, hesperetin and naringenin reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and stimulated the citric acid cycle without significant changes on oxygen uptake or ketogenesis. When fatty acid oxidation from endogenous sources was evaluated, hesperetin and naringenin strongly reduced the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio. They also inhibited both oxygen uptake and ketogenesis and stimulated the citric acid cycle. Hesperidin, on the other hand, had little to no effect on these parameters. These results confirm the hypothesis that citrus flavanones are able to induce a more oxidised state in liver cells, altering parameters related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The prooxidant effect is most likely a consequence of the ability of these substances to oxidise NADH upon production of phenoxyl radicals in the presence of peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability.

  15. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.

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    Lucia Castro-Vazquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  16. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  17. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus.

  18. STUDY ON GERMPLASMIC RESOURCES OF LYCORIS LONGITUBA USING RAPD AND ISSR

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    Deng CHUANLIANG

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The perianth DNA extraction methods were discussed as Lycoris longituba for example. By means of RAPD and ISSR, germplasmic resources of Lycoris longituba were primarily studied. The results were as follow: by RAPD, a total of 77 discernible loci were obtained using 12 primers, of which 53 loci were polymorphic (PPB = 68.8%; by ISSR, 67 discernible loci were got using 9 primers, of which 62 loci were polymorphic (PPB = 92.5%. So, genetic diversity of Lycoris longituba was abundant, whose germplasmic resources could be stored for breeding. From UPGMA dendrogram of Lycoris longituba using RAPD or ISSR method, three Lycoris longituba types were supported with molecular evidence, which were originally distinguished by flower color. Therefore, in the future use of Lycoris longituba germplasmic resources, different varieties of Lycoris longituba could be cultivated.

  19. Phenylethanol promotes adhesion and biofilm formation of the antagonistic yeast Kloeckera apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Liu; Jingfan, Fang; Kai, Chen; Chao-an, Long; Yunjiang, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Kloeckera apiculata strain 34-9 is an antagonist with biological control activity against postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. In a previous study it was demonstrated that K. apiculata produced the aromatic alcohol phenylethanol. In the present study, we found that K. apiculata was able to form biofilm on citrus fruit and embed in an extracellular matrix, which created a mechanical barrier interposed between the wound surface and pathogen. As a quorum-sensing molecule, phenylethanol can promote the formation of filaments by K. apiculata in potato dextrose agar medium, whereas on the citrus fruit, the antagonist remains as yeast after being treated with the same concentration of phenylethanol. It only induced K. apiculata to adhere and form biofilm. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of the possible genes associated with K. apiculata adhesion, we identified nine genes possibly involved in triggering yeast adhesion. Six of these genes were significantly induced after phenylethanol stress treatment. This study provides a new model system of the biology of the antagonist-pathogen interactions that occur in the antagonistic yeast K. apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus caused by Penicillium italicum.

  20. 柑桔果实糖酸比及线粒体乌头酸酶活性的变化%CHANGES IN SUGAR/ACID RATIO AND ACTIVITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL ACONIDASE IN DEVELOPING CITRUS FRUIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗安才; 李道高; 李纯凡

    2004-01-01

    测定了尤力克柠檬(高酸Citrus limon Burm.F)、冰糖橙(低酸C. sinensis Osbeck)、锦橙(中酸C. sinensis Osbeck)、奉节脐橙(C.sinensis Osbeck)72-1及其低酸和晚熟芽变在果实发育过程中还原糖含量、糖酸比以及线粒体乌头酸酶(Aconitase,EC 4.2.1.3)和苹果酸脱氢酶(Malate dehydrogenase,MDH,EC 1.1.1.37)活性变化.结果表明:各类型柑橘果实发育过程中糖的含量,随着果实的生长而增加,奉节脐橙的低酸芽变还原糖含量和糖酸比的增长速度最快,与其说它是低酸还不如说是早熟更为合理.各类型柑橘果实线粒体乌头酸酶活性变化一致随果实发育降低,表明果实发育后期有机酸降解与线粒体乌头酸酶活性的降低无关,而较低的细胞质乌头酸酶活性有利于酸的积累;柠檬MDH活性一直较低,但其他柑桔MDH活性变化与果实柠檬酸含量差异没有发现有明显的关系.

  1. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  2. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Blanco, Michael H; Wilson, Jeffrey P

    2012-08-01

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern United States. Ten germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 10 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. Four types of insect damage and smut disease (Ustilago maydis) infection, as well as gene X environment (G X E) interaction, was assessed on corn ears under field conditions. Insect damage on corn ears was further separated as cob and kernel damage. Cob penetration rating was used to assess corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] feeding on corn cobs, whereas kernel damage was assessed using three parameters: 1) percentage of kernels discolored by stink bugs (i.e., brown stink bug [Euschistus serous (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and green stink bug [Chinavia (Acrosternum) hilare (Say)]; 2) percentage of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)-damaged kernels; and 3) percentage of kernels damaged by sap beetle (Carpophilus spp.), "chocolate milkworm" (Moodna spp.), and pink scavenger caterpillar [Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) rileyi (Walsingham)]. The smut infection rates on ears, tassels, and nodes also were assessed. Ear protection traits (i.e., husk tightness and extension) in relation to insect damage and smut infection also were examined. Significant differences in insect damage, smut infection, and husk protection traits were detected among the germplasm lines. Three of the 20 germplasm lines were identified as being multiple insect and smut resistant. Of the three lines, entries 5 and 7 were derived from DKXL370, which was developed using corn germplasm from Brazil, whereas entry 14 was

  3. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

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    Suping Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8% of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp., and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus. Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region.

  4. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

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    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  5. Citrus unshiu flower inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 via MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of Citrus unshiu flower on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) involved in immunological activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of Citrus unshiu flower (CUF-EA) downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore,...

  6. The protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by aspirin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Talarmin, Hélène; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-10-01

    Citrus limon is a member of the large Rutaceae family characterized by its therapeutic proprieties and has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. This study investigates the protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil against a high dose of aspirin-induced acute liver and kidney damage in female Wistar albino rats. Twenty-eight adult female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group; (2) a group of rats which was kept untreated for 56days then treated with aspirin (A) (600mg/kg) for 4 days; (3) a group fed with essential oil of Citrus limon for 56days then (A) for 4 days; and (4) a group of rats receiving essential oil of Citrus limon for 56 days, then given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidas (GPx) activities in liver and kidney was determined. A histopathological study was done. Under our experimental conditions, aspirin induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters and it resulted in an oxidative stress in both liver and kidney. This was evidenced by significant increase in TBARS in liver and kidney by 108% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. On the other hand, a decrease in the activities of SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively. Administration of EOC to rats attenuated the induced an effect of the high dose of aspirin induced in the afore mentioned serum biochemical parameters. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with essential oil of Citrus limon prevented the liver and kidney damage induced by aspirin.

  7. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Causing Proteomic and Enzymatic Changes in Sweet Orange Variety “Westin”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Milena Santos; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Barbosa, Cristiane de Jesus; Costa, Márcio Gilberto Cardoso; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Souza, Regina Martins; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus Tristeza disease, caused by CTV (Citrus tristeza virus), committs citrus plantations around the world and specifically attacks phloem tissues of the plant. The virus exists as a mixture of more or less severe variants, which may or may not cause symptoms of Tristeza. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes caused by CTV in the proteome of stems of sweet orange, as well as in the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The CTV-infected sweet orange displayed mild symptoms, which were characterized by the presence of sparse stem pitting throughout their stems. The presence of virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Proteomic analysis by 2DE-PAGE-MS / MS revealed the identity of 40 proteins differentially expressed between CTV- infected and -non-infected samples. Of these, 33 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in CTV-infected samples. Among the proteins identified stands out a specific from the virus, the coat protein. Other proteins identified are involved with oxidative stress and for this their enzymatic activity was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in CTV-infected samples, as catalase (CAT) showed higher activity in uninfected samples. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) did not vary significantly between samples. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was more active in the infected samples. The relative expression of the genes encoding CAT, SOD, APX and GPX was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). The CTV-infected samples showed greater accumulation of transcripts, except for the CAT gene. This gene showed higher expression in the uninfected samples. Taken together, it can be concluded that the CTV affects the protein profile and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in plants infected by this virus. PMID:26207751

  8. 基于基因组学的作物种质资源研究:现状与展望%Genomics-Based Crop Germplasm Research: Advances and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎裕; 李英慧; 杨庆文; 张锦鹏; 张金梅; 邱丽娟; 王天宇

    2015-01-01

    样性分析、新基因发掘和种质创新等方面的应用情况及其发展趋势.提出了今后的发展方向和工作重点,强调把基因组学理论和方法与作物种质资源研究紧密结合,为种质资源的有效保护和高效利用提供强有力的理论、技术、材料与信息支撑.%The scale of activities related to crop germplasm is massive, including basic work (germplasm collecting, documentation, multiplication, conservation, regeneration, distribution and information system establishment, etc.), basic research (studies on crop origin, domestication and dispersal, germplasm classification, ethnobotany, indigenous knowledge, etc.), and applied basic research (genetic diversity assessment, precise phenotypic evaluation of important traits, germplasm genotyping, gene discovery and allele mining, germplasm enhancement etc.). With the efforts in the last century, the basic work on crop germplasm has been very fruitful and the system of crop germplasm conservation and utilization has been established in the world. Because the traditional ideas and methodologies based on morphology had their innate disadvantages, however, the basic research and the applied basic research had developed along at an agonizingly slow pace before genomics appeared. With rapid development of molecular marker technology and next-generation sequencing technology, theories and techniques of genomics have extended to multi-faceted germplasm research, resulting in revolutionary changes of conception and methodology in germplasm conservation, in-depth research and utilization. The achievements made in genomics provide not only theoretical guidance to collecting and conservation of crop germplasm, but also core theories and techniques to clarify crop origin and evolution. Meanwhile, genomics has the power to promote the efficiency of gene discovery and germplasm enhancement. Especially, the rapid development of whole genome sequencing, genome re-sequencing and

  9. PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN PENGENDALIAN TERPADU PENYAKIT CVPD (CITRUS VEIN PHLOEM DEGENERATION PADA PERTANAMAN JERUK DI DESA PELAGA, KECAMATAN PETANG, KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ADIARTAYASA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Education and training on integrated pest management (IPM of CVPD (Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration was held at Pelaga village, Badung regency on 22 September 2005. The activities aimed to improve knowledge of the farmers about CVPD and factors influencing the intensity, insect vector and integrated pest management of CVPD. The topics convered were disease symptons, and pathogen bacteria, Diaphorina citri are as vector insect infection mechanism, disease distribubution and integrated management of CVPD. The training was attended by 26 participants from local groups of Pelaga village. The method used in activities were lectures, demonstration and practical work in the citrus field. All participants enthusiastically took part and hoped to have the next intensive traning of citrus culture.

  10. Study on Diversity of Soybean Germplasm with Drought Resistance in Huang-Huai-Hai Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Gui-he; LIU Xue-yi; REN Xiao-jun; SHI Hong

    2002-01-01

    Fifty soybean germplasms with drought resistance selected from Huang-Huai-Hai Region were studied under field drought condition. The results showed that there was a diversity of drought resistance at different growth stages. Some varieties had drought resistance in whole growing period, but some only at one stage or several stages. Some varieties had both drought resistance and higher yield characters, some with drought resistance but lower yield. It was also found in present study that some drought resistant germplasms showed higher yield potentials under irrigation condition.

  11. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO

    2015-01-01

    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  12. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Almeida Coelho Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10: C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05. C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7% was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  14. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  15. Citrus phytophtorose in humid subtropical zone of West Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mziuri Gabaidze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials about harmfulness of phytophtorose, which is one of the significant disease of citrus, its spread, time of emergency and effective means of its control are given in the article.

  16. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Bare-Earth Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  17. Citrus residues isolates improve astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

    2010-01-01

    The wild strain and two astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strains, W618 and GNG274, of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were analyzed in order to assess their ability to grow and synthesize astaxanthin in a minimal medium containing (per liter): 2 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g MgSO4, 2 g KNO3, and 1 g yeast extract, and supplemented with citrus residues isolates as a carbon source (citrus medium). The selected strain W618 was evaluated under various contents of citrus juice. At the content of 20% (v/v), the highest astaxanthin production reached 22.63 mg L(-1), which was two-fold more than that observed in yeast malt medium. Addition of 8% (v/v) n-hexadecane to the citrus medium was found to be optimal, increasing the astaxanthin yield by 21.7%.

  18. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia epicotyl segments

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    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for genetic transformation of Valencia and Natal sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck. Epicotyl segments of germinated in vitro plantlets (three weeks in darkness and two weeks in a 16-h photoperiod were used as explants. These were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA-105 and different experiments were done to evaluate the transformation efficiency: explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for one, three or five days; explants were incubated with Agrobacterium suspension for 5, 10, 20 or 40 minutes; co-cultivation medium was supplemented with acetosyringone at 0, 100 or 200 mmol L-1; Explants ends had a longitudinal terminal incision (2-3 mm; co-cultivation temperatures of 19, 23 or 27degreesC were imposed. The experimental design was completely randomized in all experiments with five replications, each consisted of a Petri dish (100 x 15 mm with 30 explants and resulted in a total of 150 explants per treatment. Longitudinal terminal incision in the explant ends did not improve shoot regeneration. However, transgenic plants of all three cultivars were confirmed from explants that had been subjected to inoculation time of 20 minutes, co-culture of three days at 23-27degreesC, in the absence of acetosyringone.

  20. Citrus pectin: structure and application in acid dairy drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhatan Naseri, Abrisham; Thibault, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Pectin, a plant cell wall polysaccharide, is mainly used in food industries for its gelling and stabilizing properties. In industrial applications, pectin is usually widely extracted from citrus peels, and in some intances, apple pomace is also used. Lime and lemon are the preferred citrus species used in the extraction of pectin, while orange and grapefruit are used less often. In the food industry, pectin is widely employed in the production of jams and jellies, confectionary products a...

  1. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  2. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  3. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman; Muhammad Aizam Hassan; Lutfun Nahar; Norazah Basar; Shajarahtunnur Jamil; Sarker,Satyajit D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citru...

  4. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control.

  5. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  6. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail.

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  8. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron eShalom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees, known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting, inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed.

  9. Antioxidant and Antinociceptive Effects of Citrus limon Essential Oil in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidianne Mayra Lopes Campêlo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of Citrus limon essential oil (EO were assessed in mice or in vitro tests. EO possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays. Moreover, it presented scavenger activity against all in vitro tests. Orally, EO (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of writhes, and, at highest doses, it reduced the number of paw licks. Whereas naloxone antagonized the antinociceptive action of EO (highest doses, this suggested, at least, the participation of the opioid system. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the action mechanisms of EO.

  10. Identification and characterization of volatile components of the Japanese sour citrus fruit Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Mei; Ikeda, Yukinori; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2008-07-01

    A total of 39 aroma compounds were detected in the essential oil of Citrus nagato-yuzukichi Tanaka (nagato-yuzukichi) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons (12 components, 90.52%). The composition pattern of essential oil in C. nagato-yuzukichi was fairly similar to that of Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Sudachi). Principal component analysis (PCA) of data obtained with an electronic nose indicated a variation of each oil along PC1. The oils of Citrus junos Tanaka (Yuzu) and Citrus sphaerocarpa Tanaka (Kabosu) showed a clear upward displacement as compared with those of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi. However, in PC2, the oils of C. nagato-yuzukichi and C. sudachi showed a displacement in a negative direction and a positive one respectively.

  11. Quality Analysis and Comparison of Citrus aurantium Linn.from Different Varieties and Types%不同品种和类型酸橙质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 马鹏; 彭锐; 莫让瑜; 孙年喜; 江东

    2012-01-01

    The quality of Citrus aurantium Linn, collected from three main produced areas (Chongqing, Hunan and Jiangxi) and from germ-plasm nursery of citrus was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ). The analysis of neohesperidin and namgin showed good linearity between 0.102 - 2.040 μg( r = 0.9991) and between 0.094 -1.880 μg( r = 0.9996), respectively. The average recovery was 102.24 % with RSD 1.65 % , 99.08 %with RSD 1.36 % respectively. The content of neohesperidin was between 0. 89 % -10.42 % , and namgin between 2. 43 % - 14. 1 % from three habitats. The analysis of neohesperidin and narngin also showed that the differences existed among species or types in Citrus aurantium, which could provide the basis for breeding of Citrus aurantium Linn.%采用高效液相色谱法对重庆、湖南、江西3个主要道地产区的30个不同品种的酸橙资源进行质量品质分析.新橙皮苷在0.102 ~2.040μg范围内线性关系良好(r =0.9991),回收率为102.24%,RSD为1.65%;柚皮苷在0.094 ~1.880 μg范围内线性关系良好(r =0.9996),回收率为99.08%,RSD为1.36%.3个主要产地的枳壳药材新橙皮苷的含量在0.89%~10.42%,柚皮苷的含量在2.43%~14.1%,不同品种或类型的酸橙中柚皮苷和新橙皮苷含量有明显的差异,可为今后枳壳优质种源选育提供材料,为枳壳药材良种选育和资源利用提供参考依据.

  12. Global gene expression of Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus sunki and their hybrids under infection of Phytophthora parasitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takita Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R, and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible hybrids in comparison with their parents 48 hours after P. parasitica inoculation. We proposed that genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible parents and between their resistant and susceptible hybrids provide promising candidates for identifying transcripts involved in disease resistance. A microarray containing 62,876 UniGene transcripts selected from the CitEST database and prepared by NimbleGen Systems was used for analyzing global gene expression 48 hours after infection with P. parasitica. Results Three pairs of data comparisons (P. trifoliata/C. sunki, Pool R/C. sunki and Pool R/Pool S were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 3.0, 21 UniGene transcripts common to the three pairwise comparative were found to be up-regulated, and 3 UniGene transcripts were down-regulated. Among them, our results indicated that the selected transcripts were probably involved in the whole process of plant defense responses to pathogen attack, including transcriptional regulation, signaling, activation of defense genes participating in HR, single dominant genes (R gene such as TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4 and switch of defense-related metabolism pathway. Differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant plants and between inoculated and uninoculated control plants Conclusions Twenty four UniGene transcripts were identified as candidate genes for Citrus response to P. parasitica. UniGene transcripts were likely to be involved in disease resistance, such

  13. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  14. 潮州柑果皮挥发油的组分分析及其抑菌性和抗氧化性的研究%Study on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Ability of Essential Oil from Chaozhou Citrus Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王忠合; 刘谋泉; 陈雪纯; 黄帆帆; 李桂丽; 吴悦婷

    2014-01-01

    利用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取潮州柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Jiao gan’)果皮中的挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱联用法对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定,并利用比重瓶法等测定挥发油的相对密度等理化性质;以金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌等为受试菌株,观察潮州柑果皮挥发油对各菌的体外抑制作用;以清除DPPH自由基的能力考察挥发油的抗氧化性.结果表明,潮州柑果皮精油共鉴定出66种化学成分,其含量占挥发油总量的98.89%,主要为:D-柠檬烯(93.75%)、β-月桂烯(2.46%)、β-芳樟醇(1.55%)、α-蒎烯(0.57%)、乙酸乙酯(0.34%)、3-蒈烯(0.14%),α-水芹烯(0.05%),4,5-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯(0.03%).理化性质结果表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油的相对密度为0.83,折光率为1.47,酸价为7.29,过氧化值为8.33 meq/kg,含皂量0.07%.抑菌试验结果表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油可抑制金黄色葡萄球菌、藤黄微球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌等细菌的生长.抗氧化性分析表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油可有效清除DPPH自由基,其IC50值为50.16μg/mL.上述实验结果表明,潮州柑果皮精油可作为一种食品防腐剂或抗氧化剂应用.%The essential oil was extracted from Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Jiao gan’ peel by steam distil-lation, and the constituents were separated and identified by capillary GC-MS method, and the relative density was determined by pycnometer method. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against a panel of 4 bacteria and 2 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods, and the antioxidant ability was also studied based on DPPH-scavenging model. Results showed that 66 different com-ponents were identified in the essential oil. Among them, the major components detected were: D-limonene (93.75%), beta-myrcene (2.46%), beta.-Linalool (1

  15. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite barley breeding germplasm from the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHOU; Gary MUEHLBAUER; Brian STEFFENSON

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated barley is known to have a complex population structure and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD).To conduct robust association mapping (AM) studies of economically important traits in US barley breeding germplasm,population structure and LD decay were examined in a complete panel of US barley breeding germplasm (3840 lines) genotyped with 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Nine subpopulations (sp1-sp9) were identified by the program STRUCTURE and subsequently confirmed by principle component analysis (PCA).Out of the nine subpopulations,seven were very similar to the respective subpopulations identified by Hamblin et al.(2010)which were based on half of the germplasm and half of the SN P markers,but two subpopulations were found to be new.One subpopulation was dominated by six-rowed spring lines from Utah State University (UT) and the other was composed of six-rowed spring lines from multiple breeding programs (USDA-ARS Aberdeen (AB),Busch Agricultural Resources Inc.(BA),UT,and Washington State University (WA)).LD was found to decay across a range from 4.0 to 19.8 cM.This result indicates that the germplasm genotyped with 3072 SNPs would be robust for mapping and possibly identifying the causal polymorphisms contributing to disease resistance and perhaps other traits.

  16. Developing maize germplasm lines with multiple insect and disease resistance and low aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield and quality losses caused BY insects, diseases, and mycotoxin contaminations are the critical impediments for maize production under warm climate. In order to develop maize germplasm lines with resistance to multiple insect pests and aflatoxin accumulation, a set of 13 reciprocal breeding cro...

  17. Evaluation of African-bred maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, contaminate maize grain and threatens human food and feed safety. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Six maize germplasm lines, TZAR101-TZAR106, were released by the IITA-SRRC maize breeding col...

  18. Evaluation of tribenuron-methyl on sulfonylurea herbicide tolerant lettuce germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene for sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide resistance discovered in a prickly lettuce population in Idaho was transferred to domestic lettuce by University of Idaho researchers. California researchers acquired the Idaho lettuce germplasm, “IDBR-1” and transferred the SU resistance gene to five common ...

  19. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  20. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  1. Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

  2. Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Chaoyou; DU Xiongming; MA Zhiying

    2006-01-01

    In this research, 155 cotton introgressed lines from interspecific hybridization have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the effects of enhancement of new upland cotton germplasm by interspecific hybridization, screening for elite germplasm and improving cotton breeding. Through identification of various agricultural traits, we found that different wild cotton species had different capacities in terms of fiber quality, disease resistance, tolerance of abiotic stress, pest resistance and so on. SSR molecular marker technology has been used to detect the exotic genetic elements in interspecific hybrids, and 25 SSR specific loci that can be classified into two groups were found among 15 pairs of SSR primers. Results also showed that 8 exotic germplasm (Gossypium barbadense, G. arboreum and G. thurberi, etc) had genetic transmission toward upland cotton. A strategy of screening elite germplasm with exotic genes based on the molecular marker-assisted breeding techniques was suggested, and 18 lines with high-quality fiber and 4 lines with resistance to Fusanrium wilt and Verticillium wilt have been obtained.

  3. Initial experiences utilizing exotic landrace germplasm in an upland cotton breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical objective of plant breeding programs is accessing new sources of genetic variation. In upland cotton, one of the relatively untapped sources of genetic variation is maintained in the USDA-ARS cotton germplasm collection and is the exotic landrace collection. Photoperiod sensitivity is a m...

  4. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  5. Results of the 2009 ASBVd survey of avocado accessions in the national germplasm collection in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) infection among the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) accessions in the National Germplasm Repository at Miami (NGR-Mia) was established in previous studies. An ASBVd specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was used t...

  6. Germplasm Management in the Post-genomics Era-a case study with lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genotyping platforms and next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized our ways in germplasm characterization. In collaboration with UC Davis Genome Center, we completed a project of genotyping the entire cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) collection of 1,066 accessions ...

  7. Performance of five cooking banana accessions at the National Germplasm Repository under limestone soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of cooking bananas from the National Germplasm Repository in Miami were used for evaluation under local edaphic and environmental conditions. The number of pseudostems per mat, height at fruiting, and cycling time were determined during the first fruiting cycle, and bunch number and b...

  8. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  9. Screening a diverse soybean germplasm collection for reaction to purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple seed stain (PSS), caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a prevalent soybean disease that causes latent seed infection, seed decay, purple seed discoloration, and overall quality deterioration. The objective of this research was to screen soybean accessions from the USDA germplasm collection for r...

  10. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  11. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  12. Confirming resistance in bottle gourd germplasm by quantifying powdery mildew conidia using a cellometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, an important foliar disease affecting cucurbit crops grown in the United States, commonly occurs on foliage, petioles, and stems. We have developed two highly resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) germplasm (USVL351 and USVL482) for use in o...

  13. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy calibrations to measure quality characteristics in intact Brassicaceae germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining seed quality parameters is an integral part of cultivar improvement and germplasm screening. However, quality tests are often time cnsuming, seed destructive, and can require large seed samples. This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to mea...

  14. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  15. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  16. Atividade antioxidante do extrato de sementes de limão (Citrus limon adicionado ao óleo de soja em teste de estocagem acelerada Antioxidant activity of lemon seed extract (Citrus limon added to soybean oil in accelerated incubator-storage test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate antioxidant activity of lemon seeds added to soybean oil, submitted to accelerated incubator-storage test and to determine its synergistic effect with the synthetic antioxidant TBHQ. The treatments Control, TBHQ (50 mg/kg, LSE (2,400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract, Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ were prepared and subjected to the accelerated incubator-storage test at 60 ºC for 12 days; samples were taken every 3 days and analyzed regarding peroxide value and conjugated dienes. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the tested treatments were: TBHQ = Mixture 1 = Mixture 2 > LSE > Control.

  17. Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J; Maccheroni, jr., W.; Elsas, van, J.D.; Vuurde, van, M.; Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by ...

  18. Inhibitory effects of Citrus hassaku extract and its flavanone glycosides on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Hirata, Noriko; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from the unripe fruit of Citrus hassaku exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The CH-ext showed antioxidant activity, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext indicated that flavanone glycoside-rich fractions showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Further examination revealed that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the CH-ext were attributable to naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. The CH-ext showed inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure. The topical application of the CH-ext to the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs showed in vivo preventive effects against UVB-induced pigmentation.

  19. Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Luiz R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH, identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly

  20. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Fortunella japonica var. margarita and Citrus sunki essential oils on nitric oxide production and skin pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Sang Suk; Moon, Ji-Young; Oh, Tae-Heon; Baik, Jong Seok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2010-03-01

    A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called 'Jin-Pi', is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and beta-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.

  2. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, W.L.; Marcon, J.; Maccheroni, jr. W.; Elsas, van J.D.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Azevedo, de J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independen

  3. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... States. Citrus canker is a plant disease that affects plant and plant parts, including fresh fruit of... Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit From Quarantined Areas... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We...

  4. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  5. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... documents for each fruit type and age of trees, within a citrus fruit crop, times the coverage level percent... temperatures. Harvest. The severance of mature citrus fruit from the tree by pulling, picking, shaking, or any... the fruit type; (2) Produced by citrus trees that have not reached the fifth growing season...

  6. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished...

  7. Protocol for introducing new and licensed citrus varieties into California. A Florida case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the light of the current Huanglongbing (HLB) threat to the California (CA) citrus industry, and preliminary data indicating that some citrus varieties in Florida (FL) may possess some degree of tolerance to HLB, the California citrus growers indicated a strong interest in proactively introducing ...

  8. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  9. Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing by Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening disease) was discovered in Florida in 2005 and is spreading rapidly amongst the citrus growing regions of the state. Detection via visual symptoms of the disease is not a long term viable option. New techniques are being developed to test fo...

  10. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified citrus... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus...

  11. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

  12. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waewruedee Waewthongrak

    Full Text Available Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU, chitinase (CHI, peroxidase (POX and lipoxygenase (LOX in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  13. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  14. Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Antioxidative activity of flavonoids in fruit and leaf of Citrus Bergamot in vitro%金佛手果叶黄酮的体外抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继; 陆国权

    2012-01-01

    Citrus Bergamot's fruit and leaf were used as materials for determination of flavonoids' clearance of super-oxide anton free radiral, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical in order lo investigate the antioxidant capacity in vitro. The results showed that the scavenging capacity of DPI'H radical of fruit and leaf flavonoids' IC50 were 8. 25 and 9. 03 mg·L-1 respectively, which were lower than Vc and rutin. Their superoxide anion free radical scavenge capacity IC50 were 17. 74 and 20. 77 mg·L-1 respectively, which were higher than rutin, but lower than Vc. Their hydroxyl radical scavenge capacity IC50 were 17.06 and 15. 86 mg·L-1 respectively, which were higher than Vc, and as much as rutin. The results of variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference in scavenging rate of superoxide anion free radical and hydroxyl radical among different concentrations of fruit aud leaf flavonoids. With the increasing concentration of fruit and leaf flavonoids in the reaction solution, the scavenging rate of superoxide anion free radical showed an increasing trend. But when the concentration reached a certain one, the increasing trend of scavenging rate became slower. The best dose for scavenging hydroxyl radical of fruit and leaf flavonoids was 18 mg·L-1.%为了测定金佛手果叶黄酮的体外抗氧化能力,以金佛手果、叶为试材,测定果叶黄酮对O2-,·OH和DPPH的清除率.结果表明,果、叶黄酮对DPPH的清除能力IC50分别为8.25,9.03mg·L-1,稍弱于Vc和芦丁;对O2-清除能力IC50分别为17.74,20.77mg·L1,但强于芦丁,弱于Vc;对·OH清除能力IC50分别为17.06,15.86mg·L-1,清除能力强于Vc,与芦丁相差无几.方差分析显示,不同浓度果叶黄酮对O2-,·OH清除率差异极显著,且随着在反应液中浓度的增加,果叶黄酮对O2-清除率呈上升趋势,但达一定浓度时,清除率趋于平缓.果叶黄酮对·OH体系最佳作用剂量为18mg·L-1.

  16. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M. Sanzani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses—were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg, pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13% control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI, i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%–40% and 85%–70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  17. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  18. Biotransformations of terpenes by fungi from Amazonian citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Rueda, Maria Gabriela; Guerrini, Alessandra; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Medici, Alessandro; Grandini, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Gianni; Pedrini, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The biotransformations of (RS)-linalool (1), (S)-citronellal (2), and sabinene (3) with fungi isolated from the epicarp of fruits of Citrus genus of the Amazonian forest (i.e., C. limon, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium, and C. paradisiaca) are reported. The more active strains have been characterized, and they belong to the genus Penicillium and Fusarium. Different biotransformation products have been obtained depending on fungi and substrates. (RS)-Linalool (1) afforded the (E)- and (Z)-furanlinalool oxides (7 and 8, resp.; 39 and 37% yield, resp.) with Fusarium sp. (1D2), 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one (4; 49%) with F. fujikuroi, and 1-methyl-1-(4-methypentyl)oxiranemethanol (6; 42%) with F. concentricum. (S)-Citronellal (2) gave (S)-citronellol (12; 36-76%) and (S)-citronellic acid (11; 5-43%) with Fusarium species, while diastereoisomeric p-menthane-3,8-diols 13 and 14 (20 and 50% yield, resp.) were obtained as main products with Penicillium paxilli. Finally, both Fusarium species and P. paxilli biotransformed sabinene (3) to give mainly 4-terpineol (19; 23-56%), and (Z)- and (E)-sabinene hydrates (17 (3-21%) and 18 (11-17%), resp.).

  19. 75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... canker is a plant disease that affects plant and plant parts, including fresh fruit of citrus and citrus... Information Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit from... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker and to request...

  20. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodi

  1. The Role of Image Enhancement in Citrus Canker Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padmavathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is employed in numerous areas of biology to identify and analyse problems. This approach aims to use image processing techniques for citrus canker disease detection through leaf inspection. Citrus canker is a severe bacterium-based citrus plant disease. The symptoms of citrus canker disease typically occur in the leaves, branches, fruits and thorns. The leaf images show the health status of the plant and facilitate the observation and detection of the disease level at an early stage. The leaf image analysis is an essential step for the detection of numerous plant diseases. The proposed approach consists of two stages to improve the clarity and quality of leaf images. The primary stage uses Recursively Separated Weighted Histogram Equalization (RSWHE, which improves the contrast level. The second stage removes the unwanted noise using a Median filter. This proposed approach uses these methods to improve the clarity of the images and implements these methods in lemon citrus canker disease detection.

  2. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries were queried and all bona fide and putative photoreceptor gene families were found in citrus species. We have identified 53 orthologs for several families of transcriptional regulators and cytoplasmic proteins mediating photoreceptor-induced responses although some important Arabidopsis phytochrome- and cryptochrome-signaling components are absent from citrus sequence databases. The main gene families responsible for phototropin-mediated signal transduction were present in citrus transcriptome, including general regulatory factors (14-3-3 proteins, scaffolding elements and auxin-responsive transcription factors and transporters. A working model of light perception, signal transduction and response-eliciting in citrus is proposed based on the identified key components. These results demonstrate the power of comparative genomics between model systems and economically important crop species to elucidate several aspects of plant physiology and metabolism.

  3. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  4. Detection of Citrus leprosis virus C using specific primers and TaqMan probe in one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Wei, G; Govindarajulu, A; Roy, Avijit; Li, Wenbin; Picton, Deric D; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2015-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent of the leprosis disease in citrus, is mostly present in the South and Central America and spreading toward the North America. To enable better diagnosis and inhibit the further spread of this re-emerging virus a quantitative (q) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay is needed for early detection of CiLV-C when the virus is present in low titer in citrus leprosis samples. Using the genomic sequence of CiLV-C, specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized to amplify a 73 nt amplicon from the movement protein (MP) gene. A standard curve of the 73 nt amplicon MP gene was developed using known 10(10)-10(1) copies of in vitro synthesized RNA transcript to estimate the copy number of RNA transcript in the citrus leprosis samples. The one-step qRT-PCR detection assays for CiLV-C were determined to be 1000 times more sensitive when compared to the one-step conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) CiLV-C detection method. To evaluate the quality of the total RNA extracts, NADH dehydrogenase gene specific primers (nad5) and probe were included in reactions as an internal control. The one-step qRT-PCR specificity was successfully validated by testing for the presence of CiLV-C in the total RNA extracts of the citrus leprosis samples collected from Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Implementation of the one-step qRT-PCR assays for CiLV-C diagnosis should assist regulatory agencies in surveillance activities to monitor the distribution pattern of CiLV-C in countries where it is present and to prevent further dissemination into citrus growing countries where there is no report of CiLV-C presence.

  5. Genetic diversity of pomegranate germplasm collection from Spain determined by fruit, seed, leaf and flower characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Martinez-Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Miguel Hernandez University (Spain created a germplasm bank of the varieties of pomegranate from different Southeastern Spain localities in order to preserve the crop’s wide genetic diversity. Once this collection was established, the next step was to characterize the phenotype of these varieties to determine the phenotypic variability that existed among all the different pomegranate genotypes, and to understand the degree of polymorphism of the morphometric characteristics among varieties. Methods. Fifty-three pomegranate (Punica granatum L. accessions were studied in order to determine their degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities in their genotypes. Thirty-one morphometric characteristics were measured in fruits, arils, seeds, leaves and flowers, as well as juice characteristics including content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and maturity index. ANOVA, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that there was a considerable phenotypic diversity (and presumably genetic. Results. The cluster analysis produced a dendrogram with four main clusters. The dissimilarity level ranged from 1 to 25, indicating that there were varieties that were either very similar or very different from each other, with varieties from the same geographical areas being more closely related. Within each varietal group, different degrees of similarity were found, although there were no accessions that were identical. These results highlight the crop’s great genetic diversity, which can be explained not only by their different geographical origins, but also to the fact that these are native plants that have not come from genetic improvement programs. The geographic origin could be, in the cases where no exchanges of plant material took place, a key criterion for cultivar clustering. Conclusions. As a result of the present study, we can conclude that among all the parameters analyzed, those related to fruit and seed

  6. The IDA peptide controls abscission in Arabidopsis and Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H Estornell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organ abscission is an important process in plant development and reproduction. During abscission, changes in cellular adhesion of specialised abscission zone (AZ cells ensure the detachment of infected organs or those no longer serving a function to the plant. In addition, abscission also plays an important role in the release of ripe fruits. Different plant species display distinct patterns and timing of organ shedding, most likely adapted during evolution to their diverse life styles. However, it appears that key regulators of cell separation may have conserved function in different plant species. Here we investigate the functional conservation of the citrus orthologue of the Arabidopsis peptide ligand INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (AtIDA, controlling floral organ abscission. We discuss the possible implications of modifying the citrus IDA orthologue for citrus fruit production.

  7. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  8. Analysis of SSR in Citrus Sequences from EMBL Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hai-jun; CAO Qing-qin; HU Zhi-yong; LIU Gao-ping; CHENG Yun-jiang; DENG Xiu-xin

    2005-01-01

    Abundance of simple sequence repeat (SSR) in Citrus sequences from EMBL database was investigated by using computer program MISA (MIcroSAtellite), which aimed to provide useful information for the development of SSR markers.Among 32 896 sequences of Citrus, 4987 SSRs were found in 4167 sequences and the average distance between SSRs was approximately 3.5 kb. Mononucleotide repeats (50.6%) were the most abundant repeats. And di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats were 22.8, 25.2, 1, 0.08, and 0.36%, respectively. The most abundant motif was A/T followed in descending order by AG/CT, AC/GT, AT/TA. AAT/ATT, AAG/CTT, AGC/CGT, ACG/CTG and C/G. They comprised about90% of all microsatellites. Ten primer pairs were designed, and three of them produced clear visible bands among Citrus and its related genera.

  9. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  10. Protective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon against aspirin- induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2016-12-15

    Aspirin, one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is the most highly consumed pharmaceutical product in the world. However, it has several side effects in cells. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon (EOC) extracted from leaves against aspirin-induced damages in the rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6). Biochemical indicators were used to assess cytotoxicity and oxidative damages caused by aspirin treatment on IEC-6. Our results showed that the chemical characterization of EOC identified twenty five compounds representing 98.19% of the total oil. The major compounds from this oil were: z-citral (53.21%), neryl acetate (13.06%), geranyl acetate (10.33%) and limonene (4.23%). Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability as well as an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Contrariwise, the co-exposure of cells to aspirin and EOC alleviated every above syndrome by an increased in cell survival and decreased in SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, the essential oil of Citrus limon has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  11. Enhanced Acquisition Rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in the Presence of Vegetative Flush Growth in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V

    2016-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles.

  12. In Vitro Propagation of Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was conducted to standardize a protocol for in-vitro propagation of citrus rootstocks viz. Rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Pectinifera and Troyer citrange. The shoot tip explant was found better for callus induction of these rootstocks than the nodal segment. Maximum callus formation (40.0% and 23.3% of shoot tip explants was obtained in Cleopatra mandarin, Pectinifera, and Rough lemon and Troyer citrange, respectively in treatment MS basal media + 0.5mg/l Kin, 2.0mg/l NAA, and 2.0mg/l 2, 4-D. Furthermore, the maximum number of shoots per explant was obtained through the callus in Pectinifera, Rough lemon and Cleopatra mandarin in MS basal media + BAP 1mg/l. Maximum rooting of shoots (1.11% was noted in rootstock Rough lemon followed by Cleopatra mandarin for the � MS media supplemented with 10mg/l IBA. Although the callus development and bud proliferation was recorded in rootstock Troyer citrange however, shoot and root formation did not occur. The potting media consisting of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume was better with maximum survival rate of hardened plants six weeks after transferring to the pots under greenhouse for Rough lemon followed by Pectinifera and Cleopatra mandarin rootstock.

  13. Chemical compounds effective against the citrus Huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Zhou, Lijuan; He, Zhenli; Stover, Ed; Duan, Yongping

    2011-09-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. As a possible control strategy for citrus HLB, therapeutic compounds were screened using a propagation test system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infected periwinkle and citrus plants. The results demonstrated that the combination of penicillin and streptomycin (PS) was effective in eliminating or suppressing the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium and provided a therapeutically effective level of control for a much longer period of time than when administering either antibiotic separately. When treated with the PS, 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected periwinkle cuttings achieved 70% of regeneration rates versus citrus plants. This may provide a useful tool for the management of citrus HLB and other Liberibacter-associated diseases.

  14. Substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuka; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. One of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (Rha) after serial glycosylation steps. The linkage type of Rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. Such Rha residues are attached by either an α1,2- or an α1,6-rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT or 1,6RhaT). Although the genes encoding these RhaTs from pummelo (Citrus maxima) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have been functionally characterized, the details of the biochemical characterization, including the substrate preference, remain elusive due to the lack of availability of the UDP-Rha required as substrate. In this study, an efficient UDP-Rha in vivo production system using the engineered fission yeast expressing Arabidopsis thaliana rhamnose synthase 2 (AtRHM2) gene was constructed. The in vitro RhaT assay using the constructed UDP-Rha revealed that recombinant RhaT proteins (Cm1,2RhaT; Cs1,6RhaT; or Cm1,6RhaT), which were heterologously produced in fission yeast, catalyzed the rhamnosyl transfer to naringenin-7-O-glucoside as an acceptor. The substrate preference analysis showed that Cm1,2RhaT had glycosyl transfer activity toward UDP-xylose as well as UDP-Rha. On the other hand, Cs1,6RhaT and Cm1,6RhaT showed rhamnosyltransfer activity toward quercetin-3-O-glucoside in addition to naringenin-7-O-glucoside, indicating weak specificity toward acceptor substrates. Finally, naringin and narirutin from naringenin-7-O-glucoside were produced using the engineered fission yeast expressing the AtRHM2 and the Cm1,2RhaT or the Cs1,6RhaT genes as a whole-cell-biocatalyst.

  15. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  16. Physiological changes and expression characteristics of ZIP family genes under zinc deifciency in navel orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Fei; FU Xing-zheng; WANG Nan-qi; XI Jian-long; HUANG Yi; ZHOU Wei; LING Li-li; PENG Liang-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deifciency is widespread among citrus plants, but information about the mechanisms for Zn deifciency response in these plants is scarce. In the present study, different navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves with various yelowing levels were sampled in our experimental orchard, and upon estimation of nutrient contents, Zn deifciencies were diagnosed as mild, moderate, and severe. Further analysis of chlorophyl content, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expression levels ofZn/Iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family genes were conducted in the sampled Zn-deifcient leaves. The results showed that chlorophyl contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) seemed to decrease with reduced Zn contents. In addition, comparison of severe Zn-deifcient and normal leaves revealed that activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased signiifcantly, whereas that of Zn-containing enzymes such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) signiifcantly reduced with decreasing Zn contents. As expected, expression of the ZIP family genes,ZIP1,ZIP3, andZIP4, was induced by Zn deifciencies. These results deepen our understanding of Zn deifciency in citrus plants as wel as provide useful preliminary information for further research.

  17. Operational Irrigation Scheduling for Citrus Trees with Soil Moisture Data Assimilation and Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xujun; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Martínez Alzamora, Fernando; Ángel Jiménez Bello, Miguel; Chanzy, André; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural areas in the Mediterranean are expected to face more drought stress in the future due to climate change and human activities. Irrigation scheduling is necessary to allocate the optimal water amount at the right time period to avoid unnecessary water losses. An operational data assimilation framework was set-up to combine model predictions and soil moisture measurements in an optimal way for characterizing the soil water status of the root zone. Irrigation amounts for the next days are optimized on the basis of the soil water status of the root zone and meteorological ensemble predictions. In these experiments, the uncertainties of atmospheric forcings and soil properties were considered. The uncertain model forcings were taken from an ensemble of weather forecasts by ECMWF, and delivered by MeteoFrance in this project. The improved soil moisture profile was used to calculate the irrigation requirement taking into account the root distribution of citrus trees in the subsurface. The approach was tested operationally for the experimental site near Picassent, Valencia, Spain. Three fields were irrigated according to our approach in the years 2013 and 2014. Three others were irrigated traditionally, based on FAO-criteria. Soil moisture was measured by FDR probes at 10 cm and 30 cm depth at various fields and these real time data were assimilated by the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) into the Community Land Model (CLM) to improve the estimation of the soil moisture profile. The measured soil moisture was assimilated five times per day before the start of the next drip irrigation. The final results (total amount of irrigated water, stem water potential and citrus production) show that our strategy resulted in significantly less irrigated water compared to the FAO-irrigated fields, but without indications of increased water stress. Soil moisture contents did not decline over time in our approach, stem water potential measurements did not

  18. Insecticidal suppression of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae vector of huanglongbing pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawwad A Qureshi

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri vectors pathogens that cause 'huanglongbing' or citrus greening disease which poses a serious threat to citrus production worldwide. Vector suppression is critical to reduce disease spread. Efficacy is a main concern when choosing an insecticide. Insecticidal treatments of 49 products or 44 active ingredients (a.i labeled or experimental were field tested between 2005-2013 as foliar sprays (250 treatments, 39 a.i or soil applications (47 treatments, 9 a.i to control D. citri in citrus. A combined effect of nymphal and adult suppression in response to sprays of 23 insecticides representing 9 modes of action (MoA groups and 3 unknown MoA provided more than 90% reduction of adult D. citri over 24-68 days. Observable effects on nymphs were generally of shorter duration due to rapid maturation of flush. However, reduction of 76-100% nymphs or adults over 99-296 days was seen on young trees receiving drenches of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam or clothianidin (MoA 4A and a novel anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole (MoA 28. Effective products identified for foliar sprays to control D. citri provide sufficient MoA groups for rotation to delay evolution of insecticide resistance by D. citri and other pests. However, cyantraniliprole is now the only available alternative for rotation with neonicotinoids in soil application to young trees. Sprays of up to eight of the most effective insecticides could be rotated over a year without repetition of any MoA and little or no recourse to neonicotinoids or cyantraniliprole, so important for protection of young trees. Other considerations effecting decisions of what and when to spray include prevalence of huanglongbing, pest pressure, pre-harvest intervals, overall budget, equipment availability, and conservation of beneficial arthropods. Examples of spray programs utilizing broad-spectrum and relatively selective insecticides are provided to improve vector management and may vary

  19. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  20. Citrus Tristeza Virus on the Island of Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shegani, M.; Tsikou, D.; Velimirovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    ) region using quantitative RT-PCR, revealed consistent differences in abundance for each of these RNAs among flowers, stems, young fruits and leaves of infected orange trees. CTV p23 RNAs accumulated at highest levels, reaching a maximum in the flowers and the lowest levels in the leaves, while POL RNAs......Over a period of two years, more than 5,000 citrus trees were tested for the presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) on the island of Crete, resulting in thirty eight positives. Comparisons of the relative transcript levels of CTV p23, coat protein (CP), polymerase (POL) and an intergenic (POL/p33...

  1. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  2. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm from Provinces in Northeast China for Resistance to Phytophthora sojae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiu-hong; PAN Jun-bo; QU Juan-juan; YANG Qing-kai

    2004-01-01

    Soybean Phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora sojae) is a severe disease all over the world. Soybean germplasm from central and southern China for resistance has been evaluated by American researchers on a large scale. P. sojae has been found frequently in northeast of China in recent years, but not systematic evaluation of soybean germplasm for resistance has occurred there. By means of hypocotyl inoculation, 922 cultivars/lines from northeast of China were screened and evaluated for their response to race 1, and 25 of P. sojae. Generally resistance was less frequent in northeast of China than in central and southern China. Five cultivars/lines were identified that confer resistant responses to race 1, 3, 8, 25 and four additional isolates of P. sojae. These cultivars/lines may provide valuable sources of resistance for future breeding programs.

  3. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  4. New advances in study of extraction of citrus flavonoids%柑橘类黄酮提取方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽琼; 苏霞; 蒋国林; 吴厚玖; 田雪琴

    2012-01-01

    黄酮类化合物是一类具有广泛开发应用前景的天然植物成分,在柑橘属中含量丰富,因其具有多种生物活性.对人体有着重要的保健功能,故在食品行业和医药领域有着广阔的应用前景。本文介绍了柑橘类黄酮的种类、分布、生理活性,重点综述了柑橘类黄酮的几种常用提取方法,阐述了方法的基本原理,并比较了各自的优缺点。%Flavonoids are a kind of natural plant ingredients which have broad prospects for development and application. Citrus is a good resources of flavonoids. Because of its rich biological activities,citrus fiavonoids play a significant role in human's health protection,which have broad application prospects in the field of food industry and medicine. In this paper,the types,distribution and the physiological activities of citrus flavonoids were firstly introduced,the extraction techniques of citrus fiavonoids was summarized,the principles of these methods had been discussed ,and their advantages and disadvantages were compared.

  5. In vivo Induction of Tetraploid in Tangerine Citrus Plants (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Use of Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surson, Suntaree; Sitthaphanit, Suphasit; Wongma, Nattapong

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings.

  6. Analysis and Optimization of Bulk DNA Sampling with Binary Scoring for Germplasm Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Martínez, Octavio; Simpson, June; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Cortés-Romero, Celso

    2013-01-01

    The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus. PMID:24260321

  7. Screening of soybean germplasm for high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abirami, A. Kalamani and T. Kalaimagal

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid, is the major storage form of phosphorus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] which comprises 75% of total seed phosphorus. It decreases the availability of some essential elements via bonding between the negatively charged phytic acid and the positively charged elements. Thus, diets high in phytate may lead to nutrient deficiencies. So, identification of lines with low phytic acid is of paramount importance. A germplasm survey was conducted among 250 soybean accessions to identify...

  8. Analysis and optimization of bulk DNA sampling with binary scoring for germplasm characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Humberto Reyes-Valdés

    Full Text Available The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus.

  9. 棉属的种质资源%Gossypium Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. G. PERCY

    2002-01-01

    @@ The genetic variability residing in diploid and tetraploid species of the Gossypium genus represents a large, under-utilized resource in current cotton improvement efforts. Genetic diversity in elite germplasm is reported to be narrow. Actual diversity on the land is narrower, due to preferential mass planting of successful cultivars and breeding techniques that tend to promote an over-reliance on a few genotypes.

  10. Effect of amino acid application on induced resistance against citrus canker disease in lime plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasabi Vahideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far, the chemicals used to control this pathogen are either ineffective or harmful to the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia were treated with L-arginine, L-methionine, L-ornithine, and distilled water. Plants were inoculated with Xcc, 48 hours post treatment. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated four weeks after inoculation with a bacterial suspension. Changes in β-1,3-glucanase transcript levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were investigated at 48 hours post treatment and 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation. Based on the results of phenotypic, antioxidant enzyme activity and a molecular study of the stressed plants, it was found that those plants treated with the amino acid methionine significantly increased the plant induced resistance as well as decreased the severity of disease by reducing necrotic lesion size.

  11. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, María A.; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Garro, Oscar A.; Hours, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

  12. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Martos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.

  13. Satkara (Citrus macroptera Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae, an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  14. Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Cherifi, K; Lakhtar, H; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aqueous extracts obtained from eight Cistus plant species against the development of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. The results demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of all tested Cistus species aqueous extracts against G. citri-aurantii, the inhibition of mycelial growth ranged between 80 and 100%. Furthermore, Cistus aqueous extracts totally inhibited germination of G. citri-aurantii arthrospores at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Among the plant species tested, C. laurifolius, C. salviifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius displayed the best fungistatic activity since the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was rot was lowered to 8.33% when fruits were treated with aqueous extracts of C. populifolius and C. creticus compared to 100% in the control. Disease severity was lowered to 3.74, 4.47 and 5.13% when fruits were treated with C. creticus, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius aqueous extracts, respectively. Using such these biopesticides in a replacement for synthetic fungicides or in combination with other established disease management practices could help control citrus postharvest decay in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way.

  15. Identification of a cytotoxic molecule in heat-modified citrus pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cambier, Pierre; El Bkassiny, Sandy; Tikad, Abdellatif; Dieu, Marc; Vincent, Stéphane P; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2016-02-10

    Modified forms of citrus pectin possess anticancer properties. However, their mechanism of action and the structural features involved remain unclear. Here, we showed that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment displayed cytotoxic effects in cancer cells. A fractionation approach was used aiming to identify active molecules. Dialysis and ethanol precipitation followed by HPLC analysis evidenced that most of the activity was related to molecules with molecular weight corresponding to low degree of polymerization oligogalacturonic acid. Heat-treatment of galacturonic acid also generated cytotoxic molecules. Furthermore, heat-modified galacturonic acid and heat-fragmented pectin contained the same molecule that induced cell death when isolated by HPLC separation. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that 4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one was one cytotoxic molecule present in heat-treated pectin. Finally, we synthesized the enantiopure (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one and demonstrated that this molecule was cytotoxic and induced a similar pattern of apoptotic-like features than heat-modified pectin.

  16. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.

  17. Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid treated with nitrite in the presence of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, M; Yamato, H; Kinouchi, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1998-07-31

    It has been shown that the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCCA), a mutagen precursor in soy sauce treated with nitrite, was strongly increased when it was treated with nitrite in the presence of alcohols. We found that the mutagenicity of MTCCA treated with 50 mM nitrite at pH 3, 37 degrees C for 60 min in the presence of 7.5% ethanol was reduced by the addition of citrus fruits sudachi (Citrus sudachi), lemon (C. limon) and yuzu (C. junos), to the reaction mixture. The mutagenicity-reducing activity per weight of flavedos (outer colored portions of peel) of the citrus fruits was considerably higher than that of the juices. The juices of the other citrus fruits commercially available in Japan also had mutagenicity-reducing activity against the nitrite-treated MTCCA. Among the many components of citrus fruits, dietary fibers lignin and pectin showed strong antimutagenic activity in the reaction mixture, suggesting that the mixed fractions of these components including lignin, pectin, D-limonene, naringin, hesperidin, ascorbic acid and citric acid reduce the mutagenicity of MTCCA in the reaction mixture containing nitrite and ethanol.

  18. Molecular Identification and Cultivar Fingerprints of Prunus persica (L.)Batsch Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-xia; LI Jing; JIANG Guo-liang; CHEN Dong; XIE Hong-jiang; TU Mei-yan

    2010-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to study the molecular identification and cultivar fingerprints of Prunus persica(L.)Batsch germplasms.[Method]Sixty peach genotypes,representing China common local cultivars and European samples were screened by microsatellites(simple sequence repeats,SSRs)and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat(ISSR)markers.[Result]26 reproducible bands were amplified by Nine SSR primers,and 24 of which were polymorphic; 236 bands were amplified by 30 ISSR primers,and 113 of which were polymorphic.31 genotypes were discriminated with 1-3 distinct polymorphic bands generated from the primers ISSR and SSR.Seven cultivar-specific ISSR fragments and two SSR unique alleles obtained from this study were available to be converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region(SCAR)markers.The genetic similarity coefficient(GS)estimated from these molecular data averaged were 0.939(ranged from 0.856 to 0.983)for ISSR and0.646(ranged from 0.240 to 1.000)for SSR,respectively.The combined grouping association indicated that most local Chinese peach cultivars and exotic accessions were clustered together.This could be related to the mode of introduction and maintenance of the peach cultivars involving limited foundation germplasm,exchange of cultivars between plantations,and periodic development of new recombinant cultivars following sexual reproduction.[Conclusion]The results obtained in this work would help to improve the conservation,molecular identification and management of peach germplasm in breeding.

  19. High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition of Chinese Wheat Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling-li; LI Xiu-quan; YANG Xin-ming; LI Hong-jie; WANG Hui; LI Li-hui

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the high molecular glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition and the presence of 1B/1R translocation in newly developed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, which have one or more traits that are useful in wheat improvement. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and acid polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) were used to detect HMW-GS composition and the presence of 1B/1R wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome translocation in the wheat germplasm. Bread-making quality scores of these lines were determined. A high level of variations in HMW-GS encoded by Glu-1 locus was observed. Sixteen major HMW-GS, with 30 combinations, were detected. The percentage of cultivars with more than two desirable subunits was 38.7%. Thirteen cultivars had bread-making quality scores of 10 in combination with one or two desirable agronomical traits, such as high-yield potential, dwarfing stem, resistance to diseases, and/or tolerance to abiotic stress. Sixty-eight (36.6%) cultivars possessed 1B/1R translocation. The newly developed germplasm with HMW-GS for good quality can be promising resources for improving bread-making quality of wheat.

  20. Germplasm and breeding research of tea plant based on DNA marker approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage worldwide.Tea production contributes greatly to the economy and the job opportunities for many countries in Asia and Africa.Meanwhile,the germplasm of tea,with a huge potential for the future of the whole tea industry,is presently one of the most valuable and fundamental materials for tea breeding and tea biotechnology.DNA molecular markers have been proven to be robust and valuable approaches in the studies of genetic diversity and variation,molecular identification,molecular phylogenetics,genetic stability and integrity of tea germplasm,and the genetic linkage map for breeding of tea.In this paper,a brief prospect on the molecular marker studies of tea has been summarized.The purpose is to provide an effective way for undertaking a massive tea germplasm appraisal and evaluation,to develop new applicable and cheap DNA markers,to establish a high density genetic linkage map and analyze the agronomically important QTLs,and finally,to facilitate the marker assisted early selection and shorten breeding procedures in tea.

  1. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel Citrus sudachi extract powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Shikishima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus sudachi, an evergreen tree primarily found in the prefecture of Tokushima, Japan, is a widely used popular citrus fruit used in cooking and consumed as a juice. Citrus sudachi peels are rich in flavonoids including sudachitin (5,7,4’-trihydroxy- 6,8,3’- trimethoxyflavone, and exhibit potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic properties; additionally, several limonoids and their glucosides are found in its seeds. We examined the broad spectrum safety of a novel light yellow to golden yellow Citrus sudachi Extract Powder (CSEP, organic, nutritive from the dried fruit rind (25:1 herbs to extract ratio containing no less than 1% sudachitin in various toxicology models in GLP-approved laboratories. Methods: The acute oral toxicity study was conducted in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an up and down procedure. The single dose acute dermal LD 50 of CSEP was assessed in both male and female rats. The primary skin irritation toxicity of CSEP was assessed in female New Zealand Albino rabbits in order to determine the potential for CSEP to produce irritation after a single topical application, while primary eye irritation index of CSEP was conducted in female New Zealand Albino rabbits. Ames’ bacterial reverse mutation assay was conducted to determine the ability of CSEP to induce reverse mutation at selected histidine loci in five tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium viz. TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102 in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9 at the doses of 5000, 1500, 500, 150 and 50 mg/plate. The mutagenic potential of CSEP was also evaluated in an in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test using the thymidine kinase gene of L5178 Tk+/- 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line. Results: The acute oral LD 50 of CSEP was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. The single dose acute dermal LD 50 of CSEP was found to be greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats

  2. Effects of Low pH on Photosynthesis, Related Physiological Parameters, and Nutrient Profiles of Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, An; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Lai, Ning-Wei; Tan, Ling-Ling; Lin, Dan; Chen, Li-Song

    2017-01-01

    Seedlings of “Xuegan” (Citrus sinensis) and “Sour pummelo” (Citrus grandis) were irrigated daily with a nutrient solution at a pH of 2.5, 3, 4, 5, or 6 for 9 months. Thereafter, the following responses were investigated: seedling growth; root, stem, and leaf concentrations of nutrient elements; leaf gas exchange, pigment concentration, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and chlorophyll a fluorescence; relative water content, total soluble protein level, H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage in roots and leaves. This was done (a) to determine how low pH affects photosynthesis, related physiological parameters, and mineral nutrient profiles; and (b) to understand the mechanisms by which low pH may cause a decrease in leaf CO2 assimilation. The pH 2.5 greatly inhibited seedling growth, and many physiological parameters were altered only at pH 2.5; pH 3 slightly inhibited seedling growth; pH 4 had almost no influence on seedling growth; and seedling growth and many physiological parameters reached their maximum at pH 5. No seedlings died at any given pH. These results demonstrate that citrus survival is insensitive to low pH. H+-toxicity may directly damage citrus roots, thus affecting the uptake of mineral nutrients and water. H+-toxicity and a decreased uptake of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) and water were likely responsible for the low pH-induced inhibition of growth. Leaf CO2 assimilation was inhibited only at pH 2.5. The combinations of an impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and decreased uptake of nutrients and water might account for the pH 2.5-induced decrease in CO2 assimilation. Mottled bleached leaves only occurred in the pH 2.5-treated C. grandis seedlings. Furthermore, the pH 2.5-induced alterations of leaf CO2 assimilation, water-use efficiency, chlorophylls, polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and

  3. Pengaruh Ekstrak Kulit Jeruk Nipis (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle Konsentrasi 10% Terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenia Adindaputri U

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri yang berperan sebagai agen utama penyebab karies gigi, yang memiliki enzim glukosiltransferase (GTF. Enzim GTF akan mengubah sukrosa menjadi fruktosa dan glukan. Salah satu herbal tradisional yang dapat berperan sebagai antibakteri adalah kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle yang mengandung polifenol terutama flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle konsentrasi 10% terhadap aktivitas enzim GTF Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% sebagai perlakuan, chlorhexidine gluconate 0,12% sebagai kontrol positif, serta akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif. Metode penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap yaitu penyiapan ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10%, penyiapan enzim GTF dari supernatan Streptococcus mutans, dan pengujian aktivitas enzim GTF melalui analisis konsentrasi fruktosa dengan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Pembacaan luas area fruktosa dilakukan berdasarkan waktu retensi. Satu unit aktivitas enzim GTF di definisikan sebagai 1 µmol fruktosa/ml dari enzim/jam. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara statistik dengan one way ANOVA.Hasil perhitungan aktivitas enzim GTF dengan one way ANOVA menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok perlakuan dengan kelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05, dan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan dengan kontrol positif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak kulit jeruk nipis konsentrasi 10% dapat menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase Streptococcus mutans.  The Influence of 10% Concentrate of Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle on The Activities of Streptococcus Mutans Glucocyl Transferase Enzyme. Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria which has glucosyl transferase (GTF enzyme and acts as the main agent that causes dental caries. GTF enzyme will convert sucrose into fructose and glucan

  4. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus group, to 0.5 mg/kg in pome fruits and to lower the existing MRL to 0.04 mg/kg in rape seed. Spain drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.5 mg/kg for the proposed uses on citrus fruits and pome fruits. No modification of the existing MRL is proposed for rape seed. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of phosmet and phosmet oxon in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that according to the internationally agreed methodology for estimation of the consumer exposure, the intended uses of phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed will not result in an exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  5. Proteomics reveals the overlapping roles of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in the acclimation of citrus plants to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanou, Georgia; Job, Claudette; Rajjou, Loïc; Arc, Erwann; Belghazi, Maya; Diamantidis, Grigorios; Molassiotis, Athannasios; Job, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (*NO) are key reactive species in signal transduction pathways leading to activation of plant defense against biotic or abiotic stress. Here, we investigated the effect of pre-treating citrus plants (Citrus aurantium L.) with either of these two molecules on plant acclimation to salinity and show that both pre-treatments strongly reduced the detrimental phenotypical and physiological effects accompanying this stress. A proteomic analysis disclosed 85 leaf proteins that underwent significant quantitative variations in plants directly exposed to salt stress. A large part of these changes was not observed with salt-stressed plants pre-treated with either H(2)O(2) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a *NO-releasing chemical). We also identified several proteins undergoing changes either in their oxidation (carbonylation; 40 proteins) and/or S-nitrosylation (49 proteins) status in response to salinity stress. Both H(2)O(2) and SNP pre-treatments before salinity stress alleviated salinity-induced protein carbonylation and shifted the accumulation levels of leaf S-nitrosylated proteins to those of unstressed control plants. Altogether, the results indicate an overlap between H(2)O(2)- and *NO-signaling pathways in acclimation to salinity and suggest that the oxidation and S-nitrosylation patterns of leaf proteins are specific molecular signatures of citrus plant vigour under stressful conditions.

  6. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  7. Citrus cyopreservation: viability of diverse taxa and histological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse citrus cultivars maintained clonally within gene banks serve as valuable resources for research and breeding programs worldwide. These critical collections are kept as trees within field, screenhouse, or greenhouse collections. These ex situ collections are at risk of being lost due to unfor...

  8. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  9. Efficiency of chemotherapy coupled with thermotherapy against citrus HLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six independent experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemotherapy coupled with the thermotherapy on pot-contained HLB-affected plants based on our previous results from graft-based methods. Three-year old potted HLB-affected citrus plants were exposed to 4 thermotherapy ...

  10. Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

  11. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  12. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  13. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41...

  15. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  16. GC-MS metabolomic differentiation of selected citrus varieties with different sensitivity to citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Futch, David B; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2012-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The rapid identification of tolerant varieties is considered a critical step towards controlling HLB. GC-MS metabolite profiles were used to differentiate HLB-tolerant citrus varieties 'Poncirus trifoliata' (TR) and 'Carrizo citrange' (CAR) from HLB-sensitive varieties 'Madam Vinous sweet orange' (MV) and 'Duncan' grapefruit (DG). PCR analyses revealed that MV was the most sensitive variety followed by DG and the tolerant varieties CAR and TR. Metabolomic multivariate analysis allowed classification of the cultivars in apparent agreement with PCR results. Higher levels of the amino acids l-proline, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, as well as the organic acids butanedioic and tetradecanoic acid, and accumulation of galactose in healthy plants were characteristic of the most sensitive variety MV when compared to all other varieties. Only galactose was significantly higher in DG when compared to the tolerant varieties TR and CAR. The tolerant varieties showed higher levels of l-glycine and mannose when compared to sensitive varieties MV and DG. Profiling of the sensitive varieties MV and DG over a 20-week period after inoculation of those with the HLB-containing material revealed strong responses of metabolites to HLB infection that differed from the response of the tolerant varieties. Significant changes of l-threonine level in the leaves from old mature flushes and l-serine, l-threonine, scyllo-inositol, hexadecanoic acid, and mannose in the leaves from young developing flushes were observed in MV. Significant changes in myo-inositol in old flushes and l-proline, indole, and xylose in new flushes were observed in DG.

  17. Ocorrência do vírus "vein enation (woody gall" em limão verdadeiro (Citrus limon burm. cv siciliano em Santa Catarina Occurrence of the "vein enetion (woody gall" virus in lemon (Citrus limon Burm. cv siciliano in the Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. KOLLER

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência do vírus causador da doença "vein enation", também conhecida por "woody gall", em plantas de limão verdadeiro, em Santa Catarina, introduzido em pomar comercial através de mudas adquiridas em São Paulo. Limão `Volkameriano' enxertado com material contaminado desenvolveu os sintomas característicos de "woody gall", com grande intensidade no Alto Vale do Itajaí, e com menor intensidade no Litoral Norte de Santa Catarina. Constatou-se redução no desenvolvimento das plantas e na produção de frutos. Todo material sabidamente contaminado foi erradicado. Sugere-se às instituições oficiais de pesquisa a realização de testes de indexação para esta virose em seus bancos de germoplasma, uma vez que grande parte das variedades cítricas não desenvolve os sintomas da doença.The presence of the vein enation virus, also known as woody gall virus, in Citrus limon, in Santa Catarina State, is reported. The virus was introduced through contamined nursery plants acquired in the São Paulo State. `Volkamer' lemon budded with contamined buds has developed typical woody gall symptoms, more frequently in Alto Vale do Itajaí (High Itajaí River Valley, and less frequently in Santa Catarina's Northern Coast. A significant decrease in plant development and fruit yield was been observed. All known contaminated material was erradicated. It is suggested that official research institutions carry out indexing tests for this virosis at their germplasm banks, since part of the citrus varieties fail to develop symptoms of this disease.

  18. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  19. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Suk Kim; Min-Jin Kim; Young Hun Choi; Byung Kuk Kim; Kwang Sik Kim; Kyung Jin Park; Suk Man Park; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods:Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results: Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions:Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.

  20. Efficacy of Chaetomium Species as Biological Control Agents against Phytophthora nicotianae Root Rot in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Phung Manh; Wattanachai, Pongnak; Kasem, Soytong; Poeaim, Supattra

    2015-09-01

    Thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in Southeast Asia. Pathogenic infection by Phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. This study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (Citrus maxima) in Thailand as Phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium lucknowense, Chaetomium cupreum and their crude extracts as biological control agents in controlling this P. nicotianae strain. Represent as antagonists in biculture test, the tested Chaetomium species inhibited mycelial growth by 50~56% and parasitized the hyphae, resulting in degradation of P. nicotianae mycelia after 30 days. The crude extracts of these Chaetomium species exhibited antifungal activities against mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, with effective doses of 2.6~101.4 µg/mL. Under greenhouse conditions, application of spores and methanol extracts of these Chaetomium species to pomelo seedlings inoculated with P. nicotianae reduced root rot by 66~71% and increased plant weight by 72~85% compared to that in the control. The method of application of antagonistic spores to control the disease was simple and economical, and it may thus be applicable for large-scale, highly effective biological control of this pathogen.