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Sample records for citrullus lanatus watermelon

  1. Diversity of landraces and wild forms of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mujaju, Claid

    2011-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is commonly grown in traditional agrosystems throughout the drought-prone Southern Africa as a staple food (edible seeds), a dessert food (edible flesh), and for animal feed. Several morphotypes of watermelon are found in this area; sweet watermelon, cooking melon and seed melon landraces of the traditional agrosystems; and possibly introgressed types which are regarded as agronomic weeds. There has been little work on investigating the relationships between wil...

  2. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  3. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control i...

  4. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  5. Diversity of landraces and wild forms of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mujaju, Claid

    2009-01-01

    The genus Citrullus, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Among the four species in this genus, a single species Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum. & Nakai, commonly known as watermelon, is grown throughout the drought-prone southern Africa as a staple food (edible seeds), a dessert food (edible flesh), and for animal feed. The fruit can be eaten fresh or cooked and the seeds can be roasted. Its uses are however, multifaceted and vary depending on the customs of the humans growing this crop...

  6. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  7. Cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Okada, Rina; Harada, Yu; Ikushima, Kenji; Yamakawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 24-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,25-dien-3beta-ol (1) and 25-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,23-dien-3beta-ol (2), were isolated from a MeOH extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 33.4-52.4 microM against HL-60 (human leukemia), P388 (murine leukemia), and L1210 (murine leukemia) cells. Compound 1 showed melanogenesis inhibitory activity (melanin content 80.0 %) with low cytotoxicity (cell viability 97.6%) at a low concentration (10 microM). PMID:24354176

  8. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe;

    2013-01-01

    evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon chromosomes derived from a 7-chromosome paleohexaploid eudicot ancestor. Resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions representing three different C. lanatus subspecies produced numerous haplotypes and identified the extent of genetic diversity and......Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an...

  9. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  10. Expression in Arabidopsis of a nucellus-specific promoter from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique; Carman, John G

    2010-11-01

    Though many tissue-specific promoters have been identified, few have been associated specifically with the angiospermous megasporangium (nucellus). In the present study the 2000-bp regulatory region upstream to the watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, gene WM403 (GenBank accession no. AF008925), which shows nucellus-specific expression, was cloned from watermelon gDNA and fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting plasmid, WM403 Prom::GUS(+), which also contained NPTII, was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Co1-0. Seedlings were selected on kanamycin-containing medium, and transformants were confirmed by PCR. GUS assays of T(3) transformants revealed weak promoter activation in epidermal layers of the placenta and locule septum during premeiotic ovule development but strong activation in the nucellus, embryo sac and early embryo, from early embryo sac formation to early globular embryo formation. Expression in seeds was absent thereafter. These results indicate that the WM403 promoter may be useful in driving nucellus-specific gene expression in plants including candidate genes for important nucellus-specific traits such as apospory or adventitious embryony. PMID:21802614

  11. Characterization of seed oils from different varieties of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)] from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Z; Shahid, S. A.; Anwar, F.; Raziq, S.; Nadeem, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oils from different varieties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivated in Pakistan, namely Sugar Baby, Q-F-12, D-W-H-21 and Red Circle-1885. The oil and crude protein contents from watermelon seeds, within the range of 28.25 to 35.65% and 20.50 to 35.00%, respectively, varied significantly (p < 0.05) among the varieties tested. The levels of moisture, ash, and crude fiber in the seeds tested were found to be 2.16-3.24%, 1....

  12. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khairul Amran Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx and supplementation (Tx groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P<0.05. Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  13. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  14. Characterization of seed oils from different varieties of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.] from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Z.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oils from different varieties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in Pakistan, namely Sugar Baby, Q-F-12, D-W-H-21 and Red Circle-1885. The oil and crude protein contents from watermelon seeds, within the range of 28.25 to 35.65% and 20.50 to 35.00%, respectively, varied significantly (p -1 of oil, saponification index (190.20-205.57 mg KOH g-1 of oil, unsaponifiable matter (0.54-0.82% and color (1.12-4.30 R + 12.20-33.40 Y. The oils revealed a reasonable oxidative parameter range as depicted by the determinations of specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm (2.90-4.40 and 2.05- 3.09, respectively, p-anisidine value (5.60-7.70 and peroxide value (2.90-5.06 meqO2 kg-1 of oil. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid found in all the seed oils with contributions of 45.30-51.80% of the total fatty acids (FA. Other fatty acids detected were known to be oleic acid (20.2- 23.5%, palmitic acid (15.1-16.9% and stearic acid (11.5- 14.4%. The contents of α- and δ-tocopherol in the oils accounted for 120.6-195.6 and 9.1-58.3 mg kg-1, respectively. The physicochemical attributes of the watermelon seed oils showed a wider variation among the varieties tested. The results of the present study indicate that the seeds of the tested watermelon varieties from Pakistan are a potential source of high-linoleic oil and thus can be explored for commercial use and value addition.Se presentan las características físico-químicas de aceites de diferentes variedades de semillas de sandías (Citrullus lanatus cultivadas en Pakistán: Sugar Baby, QF-12, DWH-21 y Círculo rojo-1885. El aceite y el contenido de proteína cruda de las semillas de sandía están dentro de los rangos: 28,25-35,65% y 20,50-35,00%, respectivamente y varian significativamente (p -1 de aceite, índice de saponificación (190,20-205,57 mg de KOH g-1 de aceite, insaponificable (0,54-0.82% y color (1.12-4.30 de I + 12.20- 33.40 y

  15. The expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance in transgenic watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V

    2003-08-01

    An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species. PMID:12783167

  16. Analytical Characterization of Pure and Blended Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus oil: Impact of Blending on Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqar Azeem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of pure, blended watermelon (Citrulluslanatus oil and impact of blending on oxidative stability was investigated. Watermelon oil was added with mango (Mangiferaindica L. kernel oil at four different concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20% (B1, B2, B3 and B4 and referenced with a control (100% watermelon oil. All the blends were stored in transparent PET bottles at ambient temperature (25-28oC for 3 months; storage stability was assessed at the interval of 1 month. Free fatty acid, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, refractive index and iodine value of watermelon seed oil and mango kernel oil was 1.38%, 0.34%; 0.71%, 1.68%; 198, 193; 1.468, 1.457; 107.51, 54.62, respectively. The α tocopherol content of watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 127.49, 205.44, 135.24, 144.52, 156.81 and 169.34 mg/kg. δ tocopherol in watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 55.26, 34.81, 53.64, 51.27, 50.14 and 48.23 mg/kg. Concentration of linoleic acid decreased from 50.78% to 30.17% when 40% mango kernel oil was added to watermelon oil. Oleic acid increased from 22.89% in watermelon oil to 25.19%, 28.84% and 30.64% in B1, B2, B3 and B4. The increase in peroxide value of watermelon oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 10.07, 9.56, 7.62, 5.17 and 2.87 (meqO2/kg in a time dependent manner. Induction period of pure watermelon oil was less than mango kernel oil and blends. These results suggest that chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pure watermelon oil can be improved by blending with mango kernel oil.

  17. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, A. E.; Esnard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet...

  18. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, A E; Esnard, J

    1994-12-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm(3) of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  19. Effect of planting density on fruit size, light-interception and photosynthetic activity of vertically trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary The effect of planting density on fruit size of vertically trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plants was investigated with regard to light - interception characteristics and photosynthetic production. Watermelon plants, grafted on bottle gourd, were grown in a glasshouse at different planting densities. Two vines per plant were allowed to grow and trained vertically. One hand-pollinated fruit per plant was set around the 15th node on either vine. The solar radiation and photosynthetic rate of individual leaves during fruit development period were determined by an integrated solarimeter film and a portable photosynthesis system, respectively. Fruit size was significantly decreased as the planting density increased, whereas soluble solids content of the fruits was affected little. The solar radiation and the photosynthetic rate of the individual leaves gradually decreased as the leaf position became lower at all planting densities on account of shading; those at lower leaves tended to decrease as the planting density increased. Fruit size was closely related to both the total solar radiation and the photosynthetic production per plant. In conclusion, the difference in fruit size among the planting densities is attributed to the photosynthetic productivity of the whole plant, which is mainly a function of the total solar radiation. This paper appears to be the first trial relating the influence of light interception and photosynthetic rates in high density plantings of vertically trained watermelon plants on fruit size

  20. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries.

  1. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  2. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Korish, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ra...

  3. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  4. Skrining Fitokimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Sari Daging Buah Semangka (Citrullus Lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) Dengan Metode Dpph (1,1diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristin, Novia

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai ) is the plants fruit of the tropics areas which is generally widely grown in Indonesia; one of those areas that develop these plants is North Sumatra. Watermelon contains various nutrients such as vitamins (A, B and C), amino acid citrulline, lycopene, carotene, fructose, dextrose, and sucrose. Watermelon fruit flesh is composed of layers of white and red layers. The research objective was to determine the phytochemical screening and ant...

  5. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  6. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  7. 赤霉素处理对西瓜种子发芽率的影响%Influences of Gibberellin on the Germination Rate of Watermelon(Citrullus lanatus) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于延球; 杨谦

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of gibberellin on the germination rate of watermelon, and provide a scientific basis for good quality and high effective breeding during watermelon cultivation. [Method] Five kinds of watermelon seeds( Jingxin No. 2, Jinlongbao, Xinhongbao, Jinzhongguanlong, Kangbingsumi) were treated with 5 different concentration gibberellin solutions(0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L) under the constant temperature of 30℃ , and then determined their germination rate. [Result] The most suitable gibberellin solution of different watermelon variety seeds was different. Jinxing No. 2 seeds treated with 100 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 94.000% ; Jinlongbao seeds treated with 150 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 84. 667% ; Xinhongbao seeds treated with 50 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 94.667% ; Jinzhongguanlong seeds treated with 50 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 72.667% ; Kangbingsumi seeds treated with 150 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 81.333%. [ Conclusion ] Using suitable concentration gibberellin solution to treat watermelon seeds improves their germination rate, and 50 - 150 mg/L gibberellin solution is better.%[目的]研究赤霉素对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)种子发芽率的影响,为西瓜栽培过程中优质高效育苗提供科学依据.[方法]在恒温30℃条件下,分别用5种不同浓度的赤霉素溶液(0、50、100、150、200、250 mg/L)处理5个西瓜品种(京欣2号、金龙宝、新红宝、金钟冠龙、抗病苏蜜)种子,测定发芽率.[结果]不同西瓜品种的种子所需最适赤霉素溶液浓度不同.用浓度100 mg/L赤霉素对京欣2号种子进行处理发芽率最高,为94.000%;浓度150 mg/L赤霉素对金龙宝来说发芽率最高,为84.667%;浓度50 mg/L赤霉素对新红

  8. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu; Aiwansoba Raymond Osas; Osawaru Moses Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb) is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when ...

  9. Effect of Pre-Planting Land Flooding Durations on Growth, Yield and Anatomical Parameters of Three Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum.] Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel, C. G.; Bamerni, Karwan A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Three watermelon cultivars were grown on land flooded with an irrigation depth 10 cm which was sustained for 1, 2, and 3 week periods before planting date besides, unflooded control land. The obtained results revealed that growing watermelon on land flooded with 2 weeks period was the best, as compared to other flooding treatments. This treatment was exceeded that of unflooded in plant length (47.3%), plant stem diameter (26.9%), leaf area (43.7%), leaf area index (82.8%), fruit number per pl...

  10. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  11. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  12. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  13. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. PMID:25308777

  14. Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Cotyledons of Diploid Diyarbakır Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. "Sürme")

    OpenAIRE

    PİRİNÇ, Vedat

    2003-01-01

    Adventitious shoots were obtained from the diploid Diyarbakır watermelon cultivar "Sürme" by culturing cotyledons on shoot regeneration medium for 3 weeks. The effects of two cytokinins, benzyl amino purine (BA) and kinetine (Kin), on shoot organogenesis were examined. The number of shoots per explant were approximately more than 50% higher when 0.5 mg/l BA was used compared to the most effective kinetin concentration (1 mg/l). Plants were obtained by transferring 1 to 2 cm shoots t...

  15. Produtividade de sete genótipos de melancia em Dourados Yield of seven genotypes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus in Dourados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane A.K. Leonel

    2000-11-01

    a dystrophic Red Latosol of clay texture, after liming. Dourados county has an average altitude of 430 m and it is located at 22º 13' 16" S latitude and 54º 17' 01" W longitude. The climate of Dourados region is classified as Wet Mesothermic, with an annual average temperature varying from 20 to 24ºC and an annual average precipitation, ranging from 1,250 mm to 1,500 mm. About 90% of watermelon crop in Mato Grosso do Sul is basically cultivated with the 'Crimson Sweet' genotype. For this reason this research has had the objective to evaluate the yield and quality of the following watermelon genotypes: Crimson Glory, Jetstream, Madera, Rubi, Starbrite, Verona and Crimson Sweet. The trial was carried out in a randomized block with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of a crop row with five plants, spaced 2 m apart. The main crop parameters measured at harvest as a function of fruits weight and number were total yield; commercial and non-commercial yield, and total soluble solid contents (°Brix of all fruit classes. Total yield of Rubi and Jetstream hybrids were superior to the others and only Crimson Glory was significantly different. Rubi hybrid produced 87% of commercial fruits, the highest yield, and it was superior in 429% to Crimson Glory yield, which had the smallest yield. In general, hybrids presented higher commercial yield than Crimson Sweet variety. The Rubi hybrid produced 77% more commercial fruits and it provided 214% profit higher than the Crimson Sweet cv. The total soluble solid contents of the fruits were dependent on genotypes and fruit classes. Verona and Starbrite hybrids presented the sweetest pulp.

  16. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR, seed size (SS, and fruit shape (FS were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS, 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02, explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76. This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM. The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78. The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37 and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM. Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.

  17. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides. PMID:21989589

  18. In vitro pollen germination capacity of citrullus lanatus L., (cucurbitaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen germination capacity of Citrullus lanatus L., (Cucurbitaceae) in 'hanging drop' technique was evaluated up to 48 weeks. The collected pollen were stored at different temperatures (4 deg. C, -20 deg. C, -30 deg. C and -60 deg. C). The pollen were also treated in organic solvents (acetone, benzene and chloroform), in vacuum over silica gel and in freeze dryer (-60 deg. C) for 30 minutes. The study indicates that low temperature is far better than high temperature with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. In organic solvents benzene showed better results as compared to vacuum dried pollen. Freeze dryer (-60 deg. C) seems to be the best method to store pollen grains for a long period of time. (author)

  19. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  20. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  1. Morphological Diversity Analysis of Red-seed Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus ssp.vulgaris var.megalaspermus Lin et Chao) Germplasm Resources%红籽瓜种质资源形态学多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳唐镜; 张棵; 吴素萍

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the morphological diversity of redseed watermelon (Citrullus /anatus ssp.vulgaris var.megalaspermus Lin et Chao)germplasm resources.[Method] Multiple cluster analysis and principal components analysis on the morphological traits of 51 red-seed watermelon germplasm resources were carried out.[Result] The coefficient of variations (CVs) of 39 morphological traits in 51 red-seed watermelon idioplasm resources ranged from 5.37% to 66.95%,with an average of 22.87%.The average of Shannon diversity information indices was 1.55.Among them,the Shannon diversity information index of seed length was the highest (2.16) and that of seed shell figure pattern was the lowest (0.32).In addition,the morphological diversity information indices of quantity characters were higher than that of quality characters.The principal components analysis revealed that the variance contribution rates of the first,second and third principal components were 19.49%,15.32% and 9.55%,respectively.Cluster analysis divided the 51materials into three broad branches based on the morphological traits.There was only one material in the fist branch and two in the second branch,and all the three materials were wild.The other 48 materials were divided into the third branch and all of them were cultivars.[Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of red-seed watermelon resources.%[目的]旨在分析红籽瓜种质资源形态学多样性.[方法]对51份红籽瓜种质资源形态学性状进行聚类分析和主成分分析.[结果]红籽瓜种质资源39个形态性状变异系数为5.37%~66.95%,平均变异系数为22.87%.Shannon多样性信息指数平均值为1.55,种子长度Shannon多样性信息指数最高,为2.16;种皮覆纹最低,为0.32,数量性状多样性信息指数大于质量性状.通过主成分分析,第一主成分方差贡献率为19.49%,第二主成分方差贡献率为15.32%;第三

  2. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  3. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  4. Effects of Grafting Combinations on the Plant Growth and Fruit Quality in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)%不同嫁接组合对西瓜植株生长及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小军; 别之龙; 孙德玺; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 刘君璞

    2011-01-01

    采用优质中大果型西瓜品种中科1号为接穗,常规一段嫁接用抗生王、超丰F1、西嫁强生、京欣砧3号、野生西瓜1号、野生西瓜2号为砧木,二段嫁接采用西嫁强生作基砧、超丰F1作中间砧,研究了常规一段嫁接法与二段嫁接法对西瓜生长发育及果实品质的影响.结果表明,采用二段嫁接的西瓜植株生长势、抗枯萎病能力、单果质量、小区产量、中心可溶性固形物含量、瓜瓤果胶含量在所有嫁接组合中表现最佳,果实脆度与对照差异不显著.南瓜类砧木西嫁强生、京欣砧3号在生产上可大量推广,同时二段嫁接法具有一定的推广价值.%Two different grafting methods,one-stage(one rootstock + one scion)and two-stage(rootstock 1 + rootstock 1 + scion),were used to test the effects of grafting combinations on watermelon plant growth and fruit quality. Watermelon cultivar Zhongke No.l ,a high quality seeded watermelon with large fruit size,was the scion for all rootstock varieties and combination. For one-stage grafting, Kangshengwang, Chaofeng F1, Xijia Qiangsheng,Jingxinzhen No.3, Wild Watermelon No. 1 and Wild Watermelon No.2 were used as rootstocks. For two-stage grafting,Xijia Qiangsheng was used as the base rootstock and Chaofeng F1 was used as the inter-stock. The results showed that plant growth,disease resistance,fruit weight,yield,central sugar content,flesh pectin content of the two-stage grafted watermelon were the best among all grafting combinations. The flesh crispness of the two-stage grafted watermelon was not significantly different from other combinations tested. Interspecific squash rootstocks Xijia Qiangsheng and Jingxinzhen No.3 are recommended for watermelon grafting production,and two-stage grafting method has some value for watermelon production.

  5. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIPROLIFERATIVE POTENTIAL OF Citrullus lanatus (WATER MELON) FRUIT JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    ENEGIDE CHINEDU; AROME DAVID; Ameh, Solomon F; UGOCHI ILOMUANYA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the antiproliferative potential of Citrullus lanatus fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Method: The study was done using rapidly proliferating seeds of Sorghum bicolor. The mean lengths (mm) of radicle emanating from seeds of all the groups were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. Results: The growth of the methotrexate treated seeds radicle was retarded significantly (P

  7. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  8. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  9. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  10. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value.

  11. Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained tremendous interest, and plants and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources for this process because of their rich content of bioactive metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced utilizing the aqueous extract of watermelon rind (WRA), an agricultural waste material under photo exposed condition at room temperature, and tested for their antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities. The synthesized AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance at 425nm with an average size of 109.97nm. The morphology and elemental composition was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) confirmed that the bioactive compounds from the WRA extract were involved in the synthesis and capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallite nature of the AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against five different foodborne bacteria with zones of inhibition 9.12-14.54mm in diameter. When AgNPs were mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin the mixture exhibited strong antibacterial synergistic activity. The AgNPs also exerted strong synergistic anticandidal activity when they were combined with amphotericin b. The AgNPs had high antioxidant activity and reducing power. Overall, the results confirmed the bio-potentials of the synthesized AgNPs using WRA, which could have applications in the biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food preservation and packaging industries. PMID:27261701

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIPROLIFERATIVE POTENTIAL OF Citrullus lanatus (WATER MELON FRUIT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEGIDE CHINEDU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the antiproliferative potential of Citrullus lanatus fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Method: The study was done using rapidly proliferating seeds of Sorghum bicolor. The mean lengths (mm of radicle emanating from seeds of all the groups were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. Results: The growth of the methotrexate treated seeds radicle was retarded significantly (P<0.05 through-out the study. The rate of inhibition was 58.17, 77.64 and 88.81% after 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. C. lanatus fruit juice doses of 40 and 60% v/v gave a significant (P<0.05 radicle growth inhibition after 48 and 72 hours. At 40% v/v dose inhibition rate was 46.48 and 74.81%, while at 60% v/v dose inhibition was 52.01 and 79.33% respectively. C. lanatus fruit juice dose of 80% v/v showed a significant (P<0.05 inhibition of seeds radicle throughout the study. The inhibition rate was 71.24, 88.69 and 95.32% after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion: The study has unveiled the antiproliferative potential of C. lanatus fruit juice. We therefore propose that further studies on its antiproliferative effect should be carried-out on animal models.

  13. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T4 on Bacterial Community in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Rhizosphere Soil%生防菌哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum T4对西瓜根围土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 张于; 旭热; 王伟

    2013-01-01

      采用平板培养、末端限制性片段长度多态性(terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP)以及变性梯度凝胶电泳(denatured gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)的方法相结合探讨生防菌哈茨木霉 Trichoderma harzianum T4对大棚西瓜根围土壤细菌群落及氨氧化细菌群落的影响,为其在田间应用的生态安全性的评估提供支撑。末端限制性片段长度多态性以及变性梯度凝胶电泳的结果均表明哈茨木霉 T4施入田间约四周内对根围土壤细菌群落产生明显的影响,随后这种扰动现象逐渐减小。对 DGGE中受影响条带的测序结果表明,生防菌 T4促进了假单胞菌 Pseudomonas,芽孢杆菌 Bacillus,苍白杆菌Ochrobactrum 以及中慢生根瘤菌 Mesorhizobium 等细菌类群的生长,对短杆菌 Brevibacterium,克雷白氏肺炎杆菌 Klebsiella pneumoniae,根瘤菌 Rhizobium sp 等表现出抑制作用。生防菌 T4对根围土壤中氨氧化细菌群落并没有产生明显的影响。可见,生防菌木霉 T4引入初期对根围土壤中细菌群落产生明显的扰动,但这种干扰是短暂的,并没有对根围土壤细菌群落形成持续的影响。%The effects of biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum T4 on bacterial and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rhizosphere soil were studied using plate colony calculation, T-RFLP and DGGE method, in order to provide a theoretical basis and technique for assessing the microbial ecology risk of biocontrol agents application. Both T-RFLP and DGGE method demonstrated that T. harzianum T4 had short-term influence on rhizosphere soil bacterial communities which lasted about four weeks. Biocontrol strain T. harzianum T4 increased population of some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum and Mesorhizobium. Meanwhile population of other bacteria such as Brevibacterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae were

  14. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC finger printing analysis of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumam Varghese; R. Narmadha; D. Gomathi; M. Kalaiselvi; K. Devaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To find out the secondary metabolites present in the various extracts ofCitrullus lanatus(C. lanatus)(Thunb.) and mineral content present in the plant material.Methods:The powdered plant material was extracted using different solvents.Phytochemical screening and HPTLC fingerprinting analysis were then carried out.Result:The ethanolic seed extract of C. lanatusshowed the presence of majority of secondary metabolites when compared to other solvent system.The quantitative analysis of the plant material also revealed the presence of various amount of carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, proteins, fibre, phosphorus and irons. TheHPTLC fingerprinting analysis was carried for flavonid and phenolic compounds by using CAMAGLINOMAT5 instrument which revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compound especially quercetin in the ethanolic seed extract ofC. lanatus.Conclusions:The results scientifically validate the use ofC. lanatusin the traditional medicine and it can be used to treat various disorders caused by free radical and chemical substances due to presence of secondary metabolites.

  15. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lalitha govindaraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt respectively. Consequently, the watermelon proved as a good source of antioxidant, could be used as a raw material in drug formulation.

  16. Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

  17. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okunrobo O Lucky; Uwaya O John; Imafidon E Kate; Osarumwense O Peter; Omorodion E Jude

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals;flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg). The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001). Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds ofCitrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  18. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when IAA and lead were used. About 100 % germination was recorded after seven days. This suggests that water melon seeds can initiate growth even in lead polluted environment. Optimum level of 5 ppm IAA with the different levels of lead treatments may be recommended. Most important was that higher concentrations of Pb in the control (without IAA did not inhibit seedling shoot nor root growth. Longest seedling shoot length (cm was 10.33 ± 1.24 and 12.13 ± 2.06 on the seventh and eighth day respectively with the combined treatment levels of 1 ppm IAA and 15 ppm Pb. On the ninth day, 15.27 ± 0.96 was obtained from 1 ppm IAA and 20 ppm Pb. Longest seedling root length (cm values were recorded from the combined treatment levels of 0 ppm IAA and 10 ppm Pb for the seventh (9.10 ± 0.47 and ninth (10.37 ± 1.81 day respectively and 0 ppm and 15 ppm Pb on the eighth (9.37 ± 0.84 day. Significant means were also obtained with the treatment level of 0 and 20 ppm IAA. This present study suggest the germination of C. lanatus under Pb polluted environment may be rescued with optimum IAA.

  19. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  20. LSW-177 and LSW-194: Red-fleshed watermelon lines with low-total soluble solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing fruit total soluble solids (TSS) content has been a priority of many breeding programs, and the TSS content of modern watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai)] cultivars is considerably higher than their heirloom counterparts (12-14% TSS compared to ~10% TSS re...

  1. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长发育及产量的影响%Effects of Different Rootstock on the Yield and Development of Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常高正; 张慎璞; 杨红丽; 赵卫星; 徐小利; 李晓慧; 张四普; 杨帆

    2009-01-01

    研究了豫园砧木王(Citrullus lanatus var.citroides cv.Yuyuanzhenmu)、超丰F1(Lagenaria siceraria cv.Chaofeng F1)、新土佐(Cucurbita maxima xC.moschata,Sintozwa)3个西瓜砧木嫁接对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus)生长发育、根系的分布及产量的影响.结果表明,3种不同砧木西瓜嫁接苗与自根苗相比,根系发达,茎叶生长旺盛,且有增产作用.其中豫园砧木王和新土佐砧木的嫁接效果最好,其能明显增强嫁接苗的长势,可分别使西瓜增产21.4%和25.0%.因此,建议选择豫园砧木王和新土佐嫁接西瓜为好,以达到丰产的目的.%Effects of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides cv. Yuyuanzhenmu,Lagenaria siceraria cv. Chaofeng Fl and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) on the development,distinction of the roots and the yield of C. lanatus var. lanatus were studied. The results showed that,compared with non-grafted seedling,the roots and shoots of the grafted seedlings with three rootstocks developed faster,and the yield increased. Of the three rootstocks,the grafting effect of C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) was better. The growth vigor and yields of grafted seedlings increased by 21.4% and 25.0% respectively. So,to grain high production,C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) were recommended to be used as rootstocks of C. lanatus var. lanatus.

  2. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  3. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  4. The influence of rootstock selection on fruit quality attributes of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to control Fusarium wilt has been practiced in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East for decades. Until recently, grafting watermelon has not been practiced in the United States due to labor costs and land availability. There is some disagreement in the ...

  5. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  6. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-12-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

  7. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected ...

  8. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    lalitha govindaraj; Suseela vivek

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt) respe...

  9. EFFECTS OF HIGH AND LOW MANAGEMENT INTENSITY ON PROFITABILITY FOR THREE WATERMELON GENOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Merritt J.; Lu, Wenhua; Duthie, James A; Roberts, B. Warren; Edelson, Jonathan V.

    2003-01-01

    A replicated, small plot study on watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai] in 1997, 1999, and 2000 revealed that production management intensity affected yields and profitability of watermelon, in Oklahoma. Management intensity was based on a combination of cultural practices and levels of use of production methods. Low intensity management (LM) consisted of use of soil fertilization and weed control. High intensity management (HM) included the same weed control and ferti...

  10. Seed germination and seedling growth of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Mansf. in relation to certain growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. BHANDARI

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cycocel, gibberellic acid and kinetin was investigated on the seed germination and seedling growth of C. lanatus. Cycocel favoured germination in total darkness and largely inhibited it in diffuse light. The growth of radicule and hypocotyl was promoted only in total darkness. Gibberellic acid accelerated the pace of germination in total darkness more than diffuse light in the firs 24 hours. The growth of the radicule as well as the hypocotyl was more in diffuse light, whereas only the radicule indicated an enhanced growth in total darkness in low concentration. The known influence of this chemical on the shoot elongation largely remained ineffective. In kinetin cent percent germination was obtained in total darkness which was not so in diffuse light , except for high concentration. It enhanced the pace of germination in total darkness in the first 24 hors. The seedling growth was promoted in diffuse light, while it was inhibited in total darkness. The increase in the size of the cotyledons took place only in diffuse light. It became apparent that kinetin and gibberellic acid could partly substitute the requirements of total darkness for seed germination in this species.

  11. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  12. 西瓜藤的化学成分研究(Ⅰ)%Study on Chemical Constituents of Citrullus lanatus Vine (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王硕; 龚小妹; 周丹丹; 戴航; 周小雷; 邓家刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents of Citrullus lanatus vine in extracting with petroleum ether. Method; Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chfomatography. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties, and spectral data. Result; Ten compounds were isolated from C. lanatus vine andelucidated as β-sitosterol, daucosterol, stigmasterol, monomyristin, palmitic acid, monopalmitin, monobehenin, ursolic acid, monoheneicosanoin, stearic acid. Conclusion; Compounds of 1-10 were obtained from C. lanatus vine for the first time.%目的:研究西瓜藤石油醚部位的化学成分.方法:硅胶色谱、聚酰胺色谱分离纯化,根据理化性质和核磁共振结构数据鉴定化合物结构.结果:从西瓜藤乙醇提取物的石油醚萃取部分中共分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,1)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,2)、豆甾醇(stigmasterol,3)、肉豆蔻酸甘油酯(monomyristin,4)、十六烷酸(palmitic acid,5)、棕榈酸甘油酯(monopalmitin,6)、二十二烷酸甘油酯(monobehenin,7)、熊果酸(ursolic acid,8)、二十一烷酸甘油酯(monoheneicosanoin,9)、硬脂酸(stearic acid,10).结论:化合物1~10均为首次从西瓜藤中分离得到.

  13. Amelioration of Chilling Injuries in Watermelon Seedlings by Abscisic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    A greenhouse study, designed in a randomized complete block design with five replications, was carried out at Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA, in the spring of 1997. The objective of the study was to investigate whether abscisic acid (ABA) would mitigate chilling damages in the watermelon, a chilling-sensitive plant. 'Crimson Sweet' [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum. & Nakai.] watermelon seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with a temperature regime of 25ºC (day) and 20ºC...

  14. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

  15. Deficit irrigation influences yield and lycopene content of diploid and triploid watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovar, D.I.; Bang, H.; Kolenda, K.; Perkins Veazie, Penélope; Franco Leemhuis, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Many vegetable production regions in the southwestern US are strictly regulated on water use. In addition, demand for high quality and nutritious vegetables has increased. This study was performed to explore the effects of deficit irrigation on yield, fruit quality and lycopene content of red-fleshed diploid and triploid watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai) cultivars. Irrigation treatments were 1.0, 0.75 and 0.5 evapotranspiration (ET) rates. Cultivars used ...

  16. Genotype Main Effect and Genotype x Environment (GGE Bi-Plot Model of Multi-Environmental Trial of Melon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Olaniyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of yield data of eighteen accessions of "egusi" melon across four environments was determined. Genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE biplot method has been described as a very efficient tool for the analyses of multi-environment yield trial of crop varieties, especially where there exists a genotype x environment interaction. Thus, eighteen accessions of “egusi” melon (Citrullus lanatus were evaluated in four environments in Southwest Nigeria. Strong genotype x environment interaction was confirmed. Among the accessions, DL99/75, DL 99/76 and DD98/506 performed best in Abeokuta 2 environment while L1, DD98/4, DD98/3, 131DA and L4 performed best in Abeokuta 1, Ilaro 1 and Ilaro 2. Accession DD98/550, DD98/7, DD98/533, DD98/511, DD95/549, L3, DL99/71, V2, L2 and L6 did not perform well in all the environments. GGE biplot also ranked the accessions in their order of greater value. Accession DL99/75 was ranked first followed by DD98/506 and the least performed accession was DD98/511.

  17. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  18. Effects of Watermelon Seed Extract (Citrullus Vulgaris) on Spermatogenesis in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Nouri; Fatemeh Fathiazad; Arash Khaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Citrullus vulgaris is an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Worldwide studies have been done in order to use as herbal medicine in different fields of medicine. Based on ancient Persians traditional books use of herbal medicine has positive effect on treatment of different diseases. Previous studies confirmed antioxidants have significant effect on infertility by their role on reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to see effect of this herb on ...

  19. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  20. Antifungal effect of eugenol and carvacrol against foodborne pathogens Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium roqueforti in improving safety of fresh-cut watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela and #352;imovi and #263;; Frane Dela and #353;; Vedran Gradvol; Dragana Kocevski; Hrvoje Pavlovi and #263;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Essential oil components eugenol and carvacrol (ranging between 100 and 200 ppm for carvacrol and between 250 and 750 ppm for eugenol) were tested for antifungal activity against foodborne pathogenic fungal species Aspergillus carbonarius A1102 and Penicillium roqueforti PTFKK29 in in vitro and in situ conditions. Materials and Methods: In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol and carvacrol was evaluated by macrobroth method, while watermelon Citrullus lanatus L. Sorento slices wer...

  1. Assesing the Efficacy of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Some Botanicals for Control of Field Insects of Watermelon (Citrillus lanatus In Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ndor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season to assess the efficacy of leaf extract of some botanicals for production of watermelon (Citrillus lanatus in Southern Guinea Savanna Nigeria. The treatments consisted of leaf extracts from 3 botanicals: Bush tea (Hyptis suaveolens, Moringa (Moringa oleifera and Pawpaw (Carica papaya and one synthetic insecticide Labdacyalothrin (karate. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated 3 times to form fifteen plots. The results showed that, there was significant effect among the different botanicals used on all the parameters assessed except on the vinelength of watermelon, at various stages of growth in both years. Application of leaf extract of pawpaw gave better performance in all the parameters assessed when compared to the other botanicals in both years. Application of karate produced the best results in both years; while poor result were obtained from the control plots. Application of pawpaw leaf extract conferred high protection on the fruit when compared to other botanicals, which is statistically similar with result of karate in both 2009 and 2010 cropping season. Pawpaw leaf extracts appears to be a better botanical option in watermelon production.

  2. Effects of Watermelon Seed Extract (Citrullus Vulgaris on Spermatogenesis in Rat

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    Mohammad Nouri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrullus vulgaris is an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Worldwide studies have been done in order to use as herbal medicine in different fields of medicine. Based on ancient Persians traditional books use of herbal medicine has positive effect on treatment of different diseases. Previous studies confirmed antioxidants have significant effect on infertility by their role on reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to see effect of this herb on spermatogenesis.Material and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=20 were allocated into two groups, control group (n=10 and citrullus vulgaris (C.V group (n=10 that received 55mg.kg-1.day-1 C.V by gavage method for 4 weeks; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 28th day, testicle tissues were collected then prepared for sperm analysis.Results: sperm parameters significantly increased in experimental group in comparison to control group (PConclusion: Since in our study 55mg.kg-1 (C.V has significantly increased sperm population, motility and viability,it seems that using it in infertile patients has beneficial effects.

  3. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

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    Patra JK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea Abstract: Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones. ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%, nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%, ABTS scavenging (29.42%, and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16% could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a

  4. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  5. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

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    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  6. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon 'Royal Sweet' or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R(2) = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R(2) = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R(2) = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm(3) soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm(3) of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  7. Rhizosphere microbial communities from resistant and susceptible watermelon cultivars showed different response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), a soil-borne pathogen of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), can cause substantial production losses worldwide. In this study, plate culture and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods were used to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum on rhizosphere microbial communities of different watermelon cultivars to FON. Two methods indicated that the effects of watermelon rhizosphere microbial community of different resistance cultivars to FON were much different. Populations of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of susceptible watermelon cultivar were significantly lower than in the resistant cultivar after inoculation (P<0.05), but the opposite result was observed for fungi. Principal component analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure also showed that the cultivar of FON-inoculated soil treatment were separated from the non-inoculated controls after inoculation, and there was clear discrimination between the susceptible cultivars and the resistant cultivars. Sequence analysis of specific bands from DGGE profiles showed that specific rhizosphere bacterial and fungal groups differed between watermelon cultivars after inoculation . Both methods demonstrated that different resistant watermelon cultivars occupied different rhizosphere microbial communities, and and disease suppression might be correlated with high microbial diversity. F. oxysporum f. sp. Niveum alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with watermelon rhizosphere. (author)

  8. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-mediated Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩波; 高秀武; 郭金华; 黄群策; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 ℃ for 5 hours. By twogenerations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  9. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  10. Fruit and seed characteristics of diploid seedless watermelon (citrullus lanatas) cultivars produced by soft-X-irradiated pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Keita; Morishita, Masami [National Research Insti. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Fukuoka (Japan). Kurume Branch

    2000-11-01

    We compared the differences in number of seeds, size of normal and empty seeds, and fruit quality of seedless fruit induced by soft- X- irradiated pollen to determine which cultivars are best suited for breeding and producing high quality seedless watermelon. Two wild types, eleven Japanese, one Chinese, and three American watermelon cultivars were studied. We also observed the effect of soft- X- rays on pollen germination and elongation of the pollen tube. The germination rates of pollen treated with 1000 to 2000 Gy of soft-X-ray were almost the same as those of the control, whereas the rate was significantly reduced at 3000 Gy. Soft-X- irradiated pollen germinated on a stigma, and the pollen tube elongated in the embryo sac. Watermelon fruit pollinated with pollen irradiated with 800 Gy of soft-X-ray had no normal seeds but only empty ones. To delineate the varietal differences by the number of empty seeds and seed size in seedless fruit, wild types, Japanese, Chinese, and American watermelon cultivars were investigated. The number and size of empty seeds varied among cultivars. A low correlation (r=0.272) existed between the total number of seeds in the control fruit and the number of empty seeds in the seedless fruit. Whereas, a high correlation (seed length: r=0.943, P<0.001, seed width: r=0.883, P < 0.001) was found between the size of normal seeds in control fruit and empty seeds in seedless fruit. Diploid seedless fruit was similar to control fruit in size, shape, color, rind thickness, sugar content, and days from pollination to maturity. (author)

  11. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis transcriptome during water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R; McElroy, J Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress.

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaogui Guo

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  14. EVALUATION OF THE REACTION OF WATERMELON PARENT AND F1 PLANTS TO Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉIA SANTOS DAMACENO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of progenies from Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (cultivated watermelons when crossed with progenies from C. lanatus var. citroides (fodder watermelon with a historic of resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii. The parents and their F1s were evaluated for resistance to this nematode. In the initial stages of eleven treatments, watermelon seedlings plantlets were transplanted to plastic bags of six kilograms once the first leaves developed. Ten inoculated plants with 5,200 eggs in the soil near the stem of the plant and four non-inoculated ones were used in each treatment, in a complete block design. Sixty-two days after sowing, the following characteristics were evaluated: the length of the aerial part of the plant (LAP, in m, fresh mass of the aerial part (FMAP, in g, root fresh mass (RFM, in g, egg number (EN and reproduction factor (RF. A comparison between the averages of inoculated and non-inoculated plants was performed using Scott-Knott test at 5% and the diallelic analysis was performed using the GENES program. The morphological characteristics did not allow for the identification of the parent plants or the F1s with respect to nematode resistance, but the variables EN and RF were useful for such identification. The analyses of the general and specific combining abilities indicate highly significant effects with respect to this resistance, showing additive gene effects as well as dominance and epistatic gene effects, allowing for identification of parents and F1s that can be used in watermelon breeding programs to improve resistance to the M. enterolobii.

  15. Studies on Exgenous Hormones Inducing Parthenocarpy of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Mansfeld)%外源激素诱导西瓜单性结实的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世琦; 邢禹贤; 王冰林

    2003-01-01

    通过5因子(1/2)二次通用旋转回归设计与分析,探明了各外源激素对西瓜子房发育的影响程度,依次是NAA>2,4-D>CPPU>BA>GA3;在NAA 116~118 μg*g-1、2,4-D 27 μg*g-1、GA3 25 μg*g-1、CPPU 110~116 μg*g-1、BA 21~22 μg*g-1时,对西瓜子房发育效应最大.外源激素处理西瓜诱导单性结实的适宜时期为子房开花当天及花后1 d,以微滴喷雾法于开花当天及花后1 d各处理1次,可有效促进西瓜子房发育成正常商品无籽果实.外源激素诱导早、中熟西瓜单性结实,其坐果率(95%~100%)及商品果率(90%~95%)均比晚熟品种高,但平均单果重小于晚熟品种.外源激素诱导子房所发育的果实,可溶性固形物含量较高,达9.87%~11.10%.

  16. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  17. Research Progress on Watermelon Allelopathy%西瓜化感作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小红; 赵依杰

    2013-01-01

    西瓜连作引起化感物质积累,导致产量下降,研究西瓜化感作用对揭示西瓜连作障碍机理、克服西瓜连作障碍具有重要的意义。本文对西瓜化感作用的研究进展进行了综述,包括西瓜化感现象的研究现状、化感物质及其释放途径、化感物质的作用特点、以及化感作用在西瓜生产实践中的应用,并提出西瓜化感作用未来的研究方向,旨在为制定增强西瓜抗逆性能和提高西瓜产量、品质的科学途径提供一定理论参考。%The continuous cropping of watermelon〔Citrullus lanatus(Thunb.)Matsum. et Nakai〕leads to the accumulation of allelochemicals,and causes the decrease of yield.It is of important significance to reveal the obstacle mechanism of allelopathic on watermelon continuous cropping,and overcome this obstacle.The paper reviewed the research progress on watermelon alle-lopathy,including the current research status on watermelon allelopathy,the allelochemicals and their releasing way,and the function characteristics of allelochemicals,and allelopathy application in pro-duction.The paper also prospected the future research directions on watermelon allelopathy,aiming at providing theoratical references for developing a scientific way to enhance watermelon resistance,and improving the yield and quality of watermelon.

  18. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  19. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  20. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of conserved and novel microRNAs in grafted watermelon by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and

  1. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants. PMID:27749935

  2. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  3. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  4. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  5. Exposure Effects on the Productivity of Commercial Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Quads During Bloom in Watermelon Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, J I; Johnson, G J; Delaney, D A

    2015-08-01

    In light of population declines of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), research has refocused attention on alternative pollinators and their potential to fulfill pollination services within economically important agricultural crops. Bumble bees are one such alternative, and within the past 20 yr, these pollinators have been reared and sold as commercial pollinators. Investigation into their use has been limited and more research is needed to improve pollinator effectiveness in field settings. Quad pollination units of the commercially reared native bumble bee species, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson), were monitored and evaluated for productivity during peak watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai] bloom in southern Delaware. Differing colony exposures including various shade structure designs and natural shade were compared to assess the quality of the shade in regards to bumble bee activity during watermelon bloom. Quads receiving different nest treatments were evaluated on the basis of foraging activity and colony weight gain. Results indicated that colonies within quads provided with artificial or natural shade had significantly more foraging activity, weighed more, and produced more cells than colonies in quads placed in the field with no shade. Colonies within quads provided with artificial and natural shade peaked later in terms of foraging and weight gain, suggesting that growers could extend harvest to take advantage of later markets and possible movement into fields that were planted later. PMID:26470323

  6. AFLP Fingerprint and SCAR Marker of Watermelon Core Collection%西瓜核心种质的AFLP指纹图谱和SCAR标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车克鹏; 许勇; 梁春阳; 宫国义; 翁曼丽; 张海英; 金德敏; 王斌

    2003-01-01

    西瓜(Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.)种质资源的鉴定与评价是对其有效利用的基础.以往的研究表明, 西瓜是一种遗传资源特别狭窄的作物,在用同工酶、RAPD及SSR技术对西瓜种质资源进行鉴定时,发现很难将品种完全区分开来.本研究利用高效可靠的AFLP技术,对30个西瓜核心种质材料进行了遗传分析,最终建立了这30个材料的DNA指纹图谱.在该图谱中,每个材料均有其独特的"指纹",材料之间可以相互区分开来.为了进一步利用AFLP分子标记,将重要抗病种质材料"PI296341"的AFLP特异带转化成了生产上可以直接利用的SCAR标记.%The identification of germplasm is an important step for effective utilization of the available germplasm. In previous studies, isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR techniques had been used to conduct the genetic identification of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.), but their effectiveness was limited due to the extremely narrow genetic background among watermelon genotypes. In this research, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), which was reported as a reliable technique with high efficiency in detecting polymorphism, was used to conduct genetic analysis and variety identification of thirty genotypes of watermelon core collection that represent a wide range of breeding and commercially available germplasm. As a result, a DNA fingerprint based on 15 bands amplified with four primer combinations was developed. In this fingerprint, each genotype has its unique fingerprint pattern and can be distinguished from each other. Furthermore, in order to facilitate the utilization of AFLP marker in practice, one specific AFLP band of genotype "PI296341" coming from fragment amplified by primer combination E-AT/M-CAT was successfully converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker.

  7. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  8. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  9. Effect of Different Concentrations of Garland Chrysanthemum Organ Water Extract on Seed Germination Characteristics of Watermelon%不同浓度茼蒿器官水浸提液对西瓜种子发芽特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 肖旭峰; 熊春晖; 倪晓春; 吴才君

    2011-01-01

    采用0.001、0.01、0.1 g·mL-1的干茼蒿根、茎叶、花水浸提液处理西瓜种子,测定其发芽势、发芽率及胚根鲜质量,研究茼蒿水浸提液对西瓜种子的化感抑制率.结果表明:不同浓度茼蒿器官(根、茎叶、花)水浸提液对西瓜种子萌发有较强的抑制作用,随处理浓度升高,抑制作用越强,发芽势、发芽率、胚根鲜质量均低于对照,因此,茼蒿水浸提液浓度在0.001~0.1 g·mL-1对西瓜种子萌发存在明显的化感作用.%In order to study the effects of different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum organ water extract on seed germination characteristics of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 g · mL-1 organ water extracts from garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower were used to treat watermelon seeds and to test seed germination characteristics.The results showed that different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower water extracts could inhibit seed germination of watermelon.The inhibitory effect increased along with the concentration rise.The germinability, germination percentage, radicle quality were all lower than the control.Therefore, 0.001-0.1 g · mL-1 garland chrysanthemum organ water extracts has distinct allelopathy effect on watermelon germination.

  10. 蚯蚓粪对西瓜品质和产量的影响%Effects of Vermicompost on Quality and Yield of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 任亚丽; 史庆华; 王秀峰; 魏珉; 杨凤娟

    2011-01-01

    The effects of vermicompost in different volume ratios on watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai ] yield and quality were studied. The results showed that the additional vermicompost could significantly increase available N, available P, available K, organic matter contents in soil, and increase the contents of N, P, K in watermelon plants and fruit. The concentrations of fructose,glucose, sucrose, VC, lycopene, and soluble protein were also enhanced. The fruit quality was improved and its yield was remarkably heightened. But the effect of treatment was greatly depended on the applying ratio of vermicompos. In this experiment, treatment with 50 % vermicompost showed the best results, and the full vermicompost treatment had less effect than that of 50 % treatment. But it was still better than other treatments.%采用露地栽培方式研究了蚯蚓粪不同添加量对土壤肥力以及西瓜产量和品质的影响.结果表明:添加蚯蚓粪明显提高了土壤碱解N、速效P、速效K和有机质含量以及西瓜植株和果实全N、全P、全K含量,有效地提高了西瓜果实中果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖、VC、番茄红素和可溶性蛋白含量,改善了果实品质,同时还能显著提高产量.施用蚯蚓粪的效果与其施用比例有密切关系,本试验中添加50%蚯蚓粪的效果最好,全部蚯蚓粪处理比50%蚯蚓粪处理的效果有所降低,但仍好于其他处理.

  11. Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope M

    2005-06-17

    Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) is a natural and rich source of the non-essential amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is used in the nitric oxide system in humans and has potential antioxidant and vasodilatation roles. A method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to separate citrulline from glutamic acid, which co-elute when analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Watermelons were analyzed by GC-MS to determine the citrulline content among varieties, types, flesh colors, and tissues. Citrulline content ranged from 3.9 to 28.5 mg/g dry weight (dwt) and was similar between seeded and seedless types (16.6 and 20.3 mg/g dwt, respectively). Red flesh watermelons had slightly less citrulline than the yellow or orange flesh watermelons (7.4, 28.5 and 14.2 mg/g dwt, respectively). Rind contained more citrulline than flesh on a dry weight basis (24.7 and 16.7 mg/g dwt, respectively) but a little less on a fresh weight (fwt) basis (1.3 and 1.9 mg/g fwt, respectively). These results indicate that watermelon rind, an underutilized agricultural waste, offers a source of natural citrulline. PMID:16007998

  12. 1-甲基环丙烯和氯化钙处理对鲜切西瓜果实脂质水解酶的作用%1-Methylcyclopropene and CaCl2 Treatments Affect Lipolytic Enzymes in Fresh-cut Watermelon Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅林春; 阙斐; Huber J DONALD

    2004-01-01

    无籽西瓜(Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Mansfeld,cv.Millionaire)果实在10μL/L 1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)或正常空气中预贮18 h后,切取内果皮肉柱(直径7 mm,长40 mm),再用2%CaCl2或去离子水冲淋肉柱,然后将肉柱贮藏于10℃.测定贮藏过程中的果肉硬度、电导率、磷脂酶D(PLD)、磷脂酶C(PLC)和脂氧合酶(LOX)的活性变化.结果显示,2%CaCl2刺激PLD、PLC和LOX的活性,维持果肉的硬度.单独用CaCl2处理并不足以维持切割西瓜的品质,还可能因刺激脂质水解酶而发生不良的作用.1-MCP能够抵抗CaCl2对PLD、PLC和LOX的刺激作用.与对照相比,1-MCP与CaCl2结合处理能延缓西瓜果肉的衰老过程,表现出较高的果肉硬度和较低的脂质水解酶活性.%Having been held in 10 μL/L 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) or air for 18 h, seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Mansfeld, cv. Millionaire) fruit was cut to obtain pericarp cylinders (7 mm in diameter, 40 mm thick), which were rinsed with 2% CaCl2 or deionized water and then stored at 10 ℃.Tissue firmness, electrolyte leakage and activities of phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Results suggested that 2% CaCl2 stimulated activities of phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase C (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX), but maintained tissue firmness throughout storage. CaCl2 alone may not be sufficient to maintain quality of fresh-cut watermelon and even would exert negative effects for stimulating lipolytic enzymes. 1-MCP counteracted CaCl2 in regulation of PLC,PLD and LOX. Combination of 1-MCP and CaCl2 retarded the ripening process, as illustrated by higher firmness and lower activities of lipolytic enzymes in relative to the control.

  13. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  14. Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, I.J. van der; Faber, K.N.; Keizer-Gunnink, I.; Gietl, C.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector downstr

  15. Níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira em dietas para ovinos Levels of forage watermelon meal in diets for sheep

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    Raimundo Luiz Nunes Vaz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a inclusão de 20, 35, 50, 65 ou 80% de farelo de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus cv. citroides (FMF em dietas à base de feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, foi realizado um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 20 cordeiros com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo de 11,2 ± 1,2 kg. O experimento constou de 20 dias de adaptação e 5 de coleta total de sobras e de fezes. O farelo de melancia forrageira e o feno de guandu apresentaram 95,3 e 95,75% de matéria seca (MS, 18,7 e 16,8% de proteína bruta (PB e 38,8 e 64,3% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira determinaram aumento quadrático nos consumos de MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA, hemicelulose e carboidratos totais. O consumo de extrato etéreo não foi alterado, mas o consumo de CNF teve aumento linear conforme aumentaram os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS (58%, PB (69%, FDN (41% e EE (85% não foram influenciados pelo nível de farelo de melancia forrageira. As digestibilidades de MO (54 a 62%, FDA (36 a 49% e carboidratos totais (47 a 58% variaram linear e positivamente, enquanto a digestibilidade da hemicelulose teve comportamento inverso. As dietas proporcionaram consumo de matéria seca que atendeu a exigência dos animais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade observados foram satisfatórios. O farelo de melancia forrageira pode ser indicado para compor dietas à base de feno de guandu em níveis de 35 a 66% da matéria seca.In order to study the inclusion of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides meal (FWM in pigeon pea hay based diets (Cajanus cajan (PPH, a digestibility trial in sheep was carried out for testing five levels of FWM (20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%. Twenty lambs with an average age of six months and live weight of 11.2 kg (± 1.2 were used. The experimental period was twenty days for adaptation and five days for total refuses and feces collection. The chemical

  16. Effect of nitrogen doses on disease severity and watermelon yield Influência de doses de nitrogênio na severidade de doenças e na produtividade da melancia

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    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de

  17. Effects of Different Storage Factors on Pollen Viability of Watermelon Variety‘Zaojia’%不同保存因子对早佳西瓜花粉活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燚; 杨瑜斌; 王驰; 杨景华; 张明方

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied watermelon〔Citrullus lanatus(Thunb.)Matsum. et Nakai〕pollen cryopreservation methods and pollination technique.The result indicated that pollens of ‘Zaojia’ water-melon can be stored at -18 ℃ or -25 ℃under vacuum condition for 186 to 223 days with over 50% ac-tivity. Pollen activity can be varied under different storage conditions,of which -25 ℃ can have longer storage time than -18 ℃,and the pollen vitality is higher.The stored pollens should be activated at 25 ℃ for 30 min before usage,so as to achieve higher fruit setting rate.The application of stored pollen will not influence the quality of watermelon.%研究了西瓜花粉低温保存及授粉技术,结果表明:早佳西瓜花粉在-18℃或-25℃的温度下,真空保存186~223 d仍有50%以上的活力。花粉活力因花粉保存条件不同有较大差异,-25℃比-18℃保存的时间长、活力高。保存花粉使用前应在25℃条件下放置30 min激活活力,以取得较高的坐果率。使用保存花粉授粉不影响西瓜品质。

  18. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e espessura da casca. O teor de sólidos solúveis aumentou à medida que se aumentou a dose de potássio, enquanto a relação SST/ATT reduziu. A acidez titulável não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. A maior espessura da casca foi obtida ao se utilizar a dose de 202 kg ha-1 de K2O na forma de KNO3, seguida pela dose de 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl.The experiment was carried out in the Borborema region, State of São Paulo, in the period of February the April to 2002, with the objective to evaluate the quality of seedless watermelon fruits (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai as a function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titrable acidity (TTA, ratio TSS/TTA and rind thickness were evaluated. Soluble solids increased and ratio TSS/TTA decreased with increment of K dose. Sources and doses of potassium did not affect total titrable acidity. The biggest rind thickness was achieved with 202 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O of KNO3 and KCl, respectively.

  19. In vitro organogenesis in watermelon cotyledons Organogênese in vitro em cotilédones de melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziela Zagatto Krug

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in vitro organogenesis of Citrullus lanatus, by the induction of adventitious buds in cotyledon segments cultured in medium supplemented with cytokinin. Explants were collected from one, three and five-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings, considering the distal and proximal cotyledon regions. The data obtained showed that in vitro organogenesis of watermelon occurred with higher efficiency, when cotyledon segments from the proximal region collected from three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in medium MS, supplemented with BAP (1 mg L-1 and coconut water (10%. The histological study showed that the organogenesis occurs directly, without callus formation, on epidermal and subepidermal layers of the explants. Adventitious shoots were characterized by the development of shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. The formation of protuberances, that do not develop into adventitious buds, was also observed.O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a organogênese in vitro de C. lanatus, pela indução de gemas adventícias, em segmentos de cotilédones, cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com citocinina. Os explantes consistiram de segmentos das regiões distal e proximal de cotilédones, coletados de plantas germinadas in vitro com um, três e cinco dias de idade. Os dados obtidos mostram que a organogênese de melancia, in vitro, ocorre com maior eficiência em segmentos da região proximal dos cotilédones, coletados de plântulas com três dias de idade e cultivados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com a combinação BAP (1 mg L-1 e água de coco (10%. Pelo estudo histológico, verificou-se que a organogênese ocorre diretamente, sem a formação de calo, na epiderme e subepiderme do explante. As gemas adventícias foram caracterizadas pela presença de meristema apical e primórdios foliares. Observou-se, também, o desenvolvimento de protuberâncias que não se desenvolvem em gemas adventícias.

  20. Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli 危害新寄主籽瓜和病菌的快速检测%Edible Seed Watermelon as a New Host of Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli and Rapid Detection of this Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毓忠; 李国英; 李晖; 孙岚春

    2007-01-01

    Through observation of field symptoms,identification of the isolated bacterial strains based on biological characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests including Gram reaction,catalase,oxidase and oxygen requirement test,and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection,Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli was first reported infecting edible seed watermelon (citrullus lanatus var.Lanatus) in Xinjiang province of China.This pathogen mainly infected fruit and cotyledon of edible seed watermelon,especially causing spots with black and star-shaped cracks in fruit.To control this disease,rapid detection method of A.avenae subsp.Citrulli in plant seed was studied.It was shown that pecific primer PCR could detect the pathogen in seed rapidly and sensitively.Seed suspension could be directly used as PCR template when seed infection was more than 4%. When extracted DNA from seed suspension was used as template,target pathogen could be easily detected with seed infection at or less 2%.%根据病原菌的生物学特性、生理生化特性包括革兰氏染色反应、氧化酶反应、过氧化氢酶反应、氧需求等和特异性PCR扩增结果,以及病原菌危害造成的田间症状,发现燕麦嗜酸菌属西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli)可在新寄主-籽瓜上造成严重危害.该病菌在田间主要侵染籽瓜的果实和子叶,症状在果实上尤为明显,形成黑色的星状开裂.为了控制该病的发生,对种子携带病原菌的快速检测方法进行了研究.结果表明,特异性PCR作为检测种传病原菌具有快速、准确和灵敏的特点.当种子浸出液为PCR反应的模板时,可检测出的种子带菌率极限最低为4%;当以种子浸出液提取的DNA为模板时,种子带菌率检测极限为2%甚至更低.

  1. Determination of the rate of photoreduction of O2 in the water-water cycle in watermelon leaves and enhancement of the rate by limitation of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, C; Yokota, A

    2000-03-01

    A study was performed to determine how the electron fluxes for the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) and the photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycles affect the photoreduction of O2 at PSI, which is the limiting step in the water-water cycle. Simultaneous measurements were made of CO2-gas exchange, transpiration and quantum yield of PSII [phi(PSII)] using leaves of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). The total electron flux in PSII[Je(PSII)], as estimated from phi(PSII), was always larger than the total electron flux required for the PCR and PCO cycles at various partial pressures of CO2 and O2 and 1,100 micromol photons m(-2)s(-1). This observation suggested the existence of an alternative electron flux (Ja). Ja was divided into O2-dependent [Ja(O2-depend)] and O2-independent [Ja(O2-independ)] components. The magnitude of half Ja(O2-depend), 7.5 to 9.5 micromol e- m(-2)s(-1), and its apparent Km for O2, about 8.0 kPa, could be accounted for by the photoreduction of O2 at PSI either mediated by ferredoxin or catalyzed by monodehydroascorbate reductase. The results indicated that Ja(O2-depend) was driven by the water-water cycle. A decrease in the intercellular partial pressure of CO2 from 23 to 5.0 Pa at 21 kPa O2 enhanced Ja(O2-depend) by a factor of 1.3. Saturation of the activities of both the PCR and PCO cycles by increasing the photon flux density induced Ja. These results indicate the electron flux in PSII that exceeds the flux required for the PCR and PCO cycles induces the photoreduction of O2 in the water-water cycle. PMID:10805597

  2. Herança da resistência a Watermelon mosaic virus em melancia

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    Lindomar Maria da Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as doenças que ocorrem na cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus, a virose ocasionada por Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV se destaca entre as principais, sendo a resistência genética a forma mais indicada de controle. Dessa forma, é importante o conhecimento do controle genético da resistência que se pretende trabalhar. Objetivando estudar a herança da resistência ao WMV em melancia, foram realizados cruzamentos entre o cultivar Crimson Sweet (CS suscetível e a linha L26 resistente. Populações segregantes e não segregantes obtidas dos cruzamentos foram inoculadas com um isolado de WMV e avaliadas quanto ao aparecimento de sintomas e à presença do vírus por testes de ELISA indireto contra antissoro específico para WMV. A hipótese de herança monogênica foi avaliada em diferentes graus médios de dominância e pelo método da máxima verossimilhança. Foram obtidas variâncias genética (σ²G, ambiental (σ²E, fenotípica (σ²F2, aditiva (σ²A e de dominância (σ²D, herdabilidades nos sentidos amplo (h²a e restrito (h²r. A herança monogênica foi rejeitada. O grau médio de dominância indicou efeito de dominância completa. As herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram baixas; portanto, constatou-se que o controle da resistência a WMV nas populações de melancia estudadas é do tipo oligogênica, com presença de efeitos aditivos e não aditivos e presença de genes maiores e poligenes.

  3. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  4. PRÉ-MELHORAMENTO DE UMA POPULAÇÃO DE MELANCIA COM SISTEMA MISTO DE REPRODUÇÃO PRE-IMPROVEMENT OF A WATERMELON POPULATION WITH A MIXED REPRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Duarte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A melancia, introduzida na região Nordeste do Brasil durante a escravatura, apresenta grande variabilidade genética, sendo importante o emprego de seu germoplasma em programas de pré-melhoramento. Este trabalho visou promover o prémelhoramento de uma população, sintetizada pelo cruzamento entre um acesso coletado no Nordeste e uma variedade comercial. As progênies, obtidas de polinização livre e de autofecundação, foram avaliadas no campo com respeito à: produção e número de frutos por planta; peso, diâmetro longitudinal, diâmetro transversal e formato de fruto; espessura, cor e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa; número e peso de cem sementes. O potencial da população em produzir linhagens promissoras foi avaliado conforme o grau de depressão endogâmica e a resposta para os caracteres produção de frutos por planta, cor e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa. A maioria das progênies foi superior às testemunhas para os caracteres relacionados à produção de frutos. Em média, a depressão endogâmica não foi drástica, contudo em algumas progênies obteve-se um efeito equivalente ao que ocorre em populações de espécies estritamente alógamas. Em 9,4% das progênies de polinização livre, a produção de frutos por planta, o teor de sólidos solúveis e a cor da polpa, foram superiores à média da população.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Citrullus lanatus; germoplasma; depressão endogâmica; cor da polpa; teor de açúcar.

    The watermelon introduced in the Northeast of Brazil during the slavery period, presents great genetic variability. This germplasm is important in pre-breeding programs. This work aimed to perform pre-breeding work in a population synthesized by crossing an accession collected access in the Northeast of Brazil and a commercial variety

  5. 蔬菜作物轮作对嫁接西瓜植株生理代谢与生长的影响%Effects of Rotation with Vegetables on Physiological Metabolism and Growth of Grafted Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛萍萍; 宋尚成; 李敏; 刘润进

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous cropping 20 years soil of watermelon which was collected from the Chanle County, Shandong Province as control, we studied the effect to physiological metabolism and growing of grafting watermelon in the rotation soil of leeks, garlic, and celery. Results showed that rotation could increase root activity and growth of grafting watermelon, and the rotation treatment with celery was the best, of which stem diameter, fresh weight of root, leaf numbers per plant and root activity were increased 10.7% , 20. 3% , 10. 5% , 38. 8% respectively comparing with the control. The leaf chlorophyll content of grafted watermelon grown in rotation soil of leeks, garlic, and celery was significantly higher than that of the control, and grown in rotation soil of celery increased most, Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B increased 24.9% and 17.8% respectively comparing with the control. Net photo-synthetic rate of the control was inferior to others. The rotation was proved to increase the activity of SOD, POD, CAT, decreasing the contents of MDA, and it reduce most in the lamina of grafted watermelon in rotation soil of celery, which is 9. 1%. It was concluded that rotation could improve physiological metablism and grwoth of grafted watermelon and reducing replant disease.%以山东昌乐连作20年西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)的土壤为对照,比较轮作大葱(Allium fistulosum)、大蒜(Allium sativum)和芹菜(Apium graveolens)土壤对嫁接西瓜部分生理代谢与生长的影响,结果表明,轮作可以提高嫁接西瓜根系活力和生长量,其中以种植芹菜的处理根系活力最高,生长量最大,其茎粗、地下部鲜重、单株叶片数和根系活力分别比连作西瓜处理(对照)增加10.7%、20.3%、10.5%和38.8%;轮作大葱、大蒜和芹菜处理的西瓜叶片叶绿素含量显著高于对照,其中轮作芹菜增加最多,叶绿素a和叶绿素b含量分别比对照增加了24.9%和17.8%;连作西瓜处理的嫁接

  6. Taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho agronômico de melancia sob enxertia Grafted watermelon survival rate and agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Natália C de S Gama

    2013-03-01

    those obtained with conventional farming. This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate and the agronomic and quality performance of BRS Opara grafted by approach in four genotypes of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata: BGC 186, BGC 217, BGC 830 and BGC 830.1; and in two genotypes of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus variety citroides: BGCIA 223 and BGCIA 857. We quantified the survival rate, in a greenhouse, under a completely randomized design; the grafted and non-grafted productivity and the fruits were characterized by the following parameters: fruit shape, internal and external color, fresh weight, pulp firmness, center pulp soluble solids and pulp homogenized, titratable acidity, ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity and pH. To evaluate agronomic and qualitative fruit parameters we adopted the randomized block design with four replicates of five plants. The survival rate of grafted seedlings, after weaning, varied depending on the rootstock. Compared to the performance of the control (23.5 t ha-1, there was an average increase of 66.5% in the productivity of plants grafted on BGCIA 223, BGC 830, BGC 217 and BGCIA 857. For the 'BRS Opara', initially these rootstocks may be recommended, for they have determined increased productivity without affecting fruit quality.

  7. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  8. 侧芽嫁接对小型无籽西瓜生长、产量、品质和抗性的影响%Effect of Lateral Bud Grafting on Growth, Yield, Quality and Resistance of Small Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖道龙; 伍壮生; 蔡兴来; 高学望; 梁振深

    2013-01-01

    以小型无籽西瓜先甜童为材料,以自根苗和幼苗顶芽嫁接为对照,研究侧芽嫁接对西瓜生长、产量、品质以及抗性的影响.结果表明:与自根苗相比,侧芽嫁接和顶芽嫁接一样不仅表现为生长势强、产量高、品质不受影响以及抗病性好等特点;而且侧芽嫁接相对于顶芽嫁接具有嫁接亲和性高、生产成本低等优势.尽管侧芽嫁接在侧芽生长不整齐,一次性出芽少,不利于集约化嫁接育苗等方面还存在问题,有待于进一步克服,但侧芽嫁接技术作为小型无籽西瓜嫁接育苗的一种选择方式仍具有很好的推广前景.%Taking small seedless watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. et Nakai ] 'Xiantiantong' as material, taking the self-root seedling and the apical bud grafting as the contrast, this experiment studied on the effect of the lateral bud grafting and on growth, yield, quality and disease-resistance of watermelon. The result indicated that compared with self-rooted bud, the lateral bud grafting with the apical bud grafting not only possessed the same traits of vigorous growth, higher yield, higher quality and better disease resistance, but also with higher compatibility and lower cost than the apical bud grafting. Although the lateral bud growth was not even and with less disposable budding, which were unfavorable to intensive grafting and seedling culture, the lateral bud grafting technology, as a selective method for grafting and seedling cultivation of small seedless watermelon, could still have a good prospect for extension.

  9. Watermelon, phytochemicals and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon fruit contains lycopene, a carotenoid pigment, and citrulline, an amino acid. These plant compounds may be helpful in preventing some chronic diseases. The amount of lycopene in watermelon ranges from 35 to 125 mg per kg of edible portion, and there is 2 to 4 mg per kg citrulline presen...

  10. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Extract from Roots and Leaves of Citrullus lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia-gang; WANG Shuo; GUO Li-cheng; FAN Li-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of extract from the roots and leaves of Citrulluslanatus and assess their acute toxicity in animals.Methods The mouse model with ear edema induced by xyleneand the rat model with paw edema or granuloma by carrageenin or cotton pellet were used for anti-inflammatoryeffects of the extract.Effects of the extract on analgesia was tested respectively by measuring the latency of micelicking hind foot from hot plates and by counting the times of body twisting in response to acetic acid.The acutetoxicity of the extract was determined with the method of Bliss.Results The extract significantly inhibited the earedema,granuloma hyperplasia,and paw edema.It significantly lifted the pain threshold on mouse hot-plateresponses and reduced their writhing times.During the 7 d observation period in its acute toxicity assay,no apparenttoxic reaction was shown and all mice survived at a dose of 87 g extract per kg body weight.Conclusion Theextract could protecte mice/rates from inflammation and analgesia,and may be safe as an orally administered naturalproduct for humans.

  11. Growth and Yield Response of Watermelon to in-row Plant Spacings and Mycorrhiza Respuesta del Crecimiento Vegetativo y Producción de Sandía a Diferentes Distancias entre Plantas y a Micorrizas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Ban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a significant increase in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai growing areas has been registered in the last few years. In-row plant spacing has a significant effect on the growth and yield of watermelon, and can enhance competition for water and nutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in-row plant spacing (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi Glomus mosseae inoculations on watermelon growth and yield under field conditions during 2003, 2004, and 2005 year. In 2003, the main vine length, number of leaves, and number of lateral branches were increased quadratically as the in-row plant spacing increased from 1.0 to 2.5. With an increase in the in-row plant spacing the early yield of watermelon decreased in 2004, while the fruit number decreased in 2003 and 2004. The total yield and fruit number decreased with an increase in the in-row plant spacing in all 3 yr; however, the fruit mass increased at wider plant spacings in 2003. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the main vine length and the number of lateral branches in 2003. Compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal plants presented higher early yield in 2005 and a higher early fruit number in 2003 and 2005. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total yield in 2005; however, the fruit weight was not affected by mycorrhizal inoculation during early or total harvest. In this study, an in-row plant spacing of 1.0 m provided the best early and total yield while maintaining high fruit weight. The growth and yield enhancement of watermelon due to mycorrhizal colonization was not consistent; therefore, mycorrhizal inoculation could not be recommended as a standard production practice.En los últimos años se ha registrado un significativo aumento en las áreas cultivadas con sandía (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai a nivel mundial. La distancia entre plantas en la hilera tiene un efecto significativo en su

  12. Acetohydroxamate inhibition of the activity of urease from dehusked seeds of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan

    2004-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using two acetone fractionation steps, heat treatment at 48 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. Effect of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) on the activity of the homogeneous enzyme preparation (sp. act. 3000 +/- 550U/mg protein) was investigated. AHA exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. The inhibition was uncompetitive and the Ki was 2.5 mM. Binding of AHA with the enzyme was reversible, as 63% activity could be restored by dialysis. Time-dependent inhibition revealed a monophasic inhibition of the activity. Addition of beta-mercaptoethanol (ME) gradually abolished the inhibition. Pre-treatment of native enzyme with 8.0 mM ME for 5 min at 30 degrees C exhibited protection against AHA-induced inhibition. The significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:15558957

  13. Geographic variation in Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae

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    Raul Fonseca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the geographic variations in the shape and size of the cranium and mandible of two woolly opossums, Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus. Using geometric morphometrics we analyzed 202 specimens of C. derbianus and 123 specimens of C. lanatus, grouped in 7 and 9 populations, respectively. We found sexual dimorphism in shape variables only in the dorsal view of the cranium of Caluromys derbianus, which is not associated with geographical origin. We detected geographic variation in the size of the mandible in two populations (Nicaragua and Northern Panama, but no geographic variation in shape. The size of the cranium of C. lanatus varies significantly, with clinal variation in peri-Amazon populations, with a break between two populations, Bolivia and Paraguay. Shape analyses also revealed some separation between the Paraná population and all other populations. Our results suggest that the available name, Caluromys derbianus, should be maintained for all individuals throughout the geographic range of the species. The same is true for Caluromys lanatus, which can be separated into two distinct morphologic units, Caluromys lanatus ochropus, from the Amazon and Cerrado, and Caluromys lanatus lanatus, from the Atlantic forest.

  14. A metabolomics approach to identify and quantify the phytochemicals in watermelons by quantitative (1)HNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) contains many health-promoting compounds, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic acids and amino acids including l-citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. Reported HPLC method for quantification of l-citrulline and sugars in watermelon involves, time-consuming sample preparation, post-column color development and detection with fluorescence and refractive index detectors. The present study describes development of a method to identify and quantify amino acids and sugars simultaneously from watermelon samples using quantitative proton NMR. Lyophilized watermelon samples (30-50mg) were extracted with deuterium oxide (D2O) by sonication and the centrifuged extract was directly used for quantification and identification with (1)HNMR. An external coaxial insert containing a 65µL of 0.012% 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-(2,2,3,3-d4) acid sodium salt (TSP-d4) in D2O was used as a quantitative reference. The levels of l-citrulline and sugars were measured in less than 6min. This rapid quantitation method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and robustness. The limit of detection for l-citrulline was 38µg/mL and the limit of quantification was 71µg/mL; for sugars, the limits were 59-94µg/mL and 120µg/mL, respectively. This method can be used widely for confirmation and rapid quantitation of multiple compounds in large number of biological or breeding samples for routine analysis. PMID:27130118

  15. Geographic variation in Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Fonseca; Diego Astúa

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the geographic variations in the shape and size of the cranium and mandible of two woolly opossums, Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus. Using geometric morphometrics we analyzed 202 specimens of C. derbianus and 123 specimens of C. lanatus, grouped in 7 and 9 populations, respectively. We found sexual dimorphism in shape variables only in the dorsal view of the cranium of Caluromys derbianus, which is not associated with geographical origin. We detected geographic variation...

  16. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boualem, Adnane; Lemhemdi, Afef; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Pignoly, Sarah; Troadec, Christelle; Abou Choucha, Fadi; Solmaz, Ilknur; Sari, Nebahat; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera. PMID:27171236

  17. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Boualem

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera.

  18. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  19. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  20. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  1. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho; Leilson Costa Grangeiro

    2004-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai), híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e ...

  2. Story: A Bleeding Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor bzang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bleeding Watermelon was written by Norsang (Nor bzang;b. 1988, a native of Dpa ris (Rab rgyas (Huazangsi 华藏寺 Township, Tianzhu 天祝 Tibetan Autonomous County,Gansu 甘肃 Province. Norsang writes: I heard that a university student opened an elevator door in a campus building still under construction. The elevator shaft was empty and he fell to his death. Many people had questions about his death. This inspired me to write this story.

  3. Avaliação de caracteres morfológicos úteis na identificação de plantas poliplóides de melancia Evaluation of morphological characters useful in the identification of poliploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de F. Souza

    2004-09-01

    watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated in three diploids, three tetraploids and three triploids hybrids, in relation to the number of chloroplasts per leaf stomata (NCF; width and length of the leaves (LFH e CFH; leaf width/length ratio (LF/CF; stem diameter (DCE; petal diameter in male and female flowers (DCM and DCF; ovary diameter (DOV; fruit weight (PMF; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF; fruit diameter axial/diameter transversal ratio (DL/DT and rind thickness (EMC. A randomized block design was employed with three replications and five plants per plot. A nested analysis was performed and the ploidy level was considered the main factor. The genotypes were clustered at a dendrogram based on generalized Mahalanobis distance and also plotted on Cartesian plain using scores of the first and second canonic variables. Relative contribution of the variables to clustering was estimated by the Singh Method and the matrix of correlation was obtained using the Principal Component Analysis. The NCF presented higher relative importance (41% to set divergence clusters, while DCF, DCM, DOV and DT/DL when analyzed together showed themselves efficient to discriminate diploids, triploids and tetraploid plants. So, they are recommended to aid watermelon breeding programs to obtain polyploid plants.

  4. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Watermelon contains lycopene, a red carotenoid pigment that has strong antioxidant properties. The lycopene content of watermelon is substantial, contributing 8-20 mg per 180 g serving. There are no reports on carotenoid changes in whole watermelon during storage. Three types of watermelon, open-pollinated seeded, hybrid seeded, and seedless types, were stored at 5, 13, and 21 degrees C for 14 days and flesh color, composition, and carotenoid content were compared to those of fruit not stored. Watermelons stored at 21 degrees C had increased pH, chroma, and carotenoid content compared to fresh fruit. Compared to fresh fruit, watermelons stored at 21 degrees C gained 11-40% in lycopene and 50-139% in beta-carotene, whereas fruit held at 13 degrees C changed little in carotenoid content. These results indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelons can be affected by temperature and storage. PMID:16881688

  5. Effects of Soil Depth and Season Variation on Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Greenhouse Soils Planted with Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Run-Jin; LI Yan; DIAO Zhi-Kai; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure in various soil depths and growing seasons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) grown in commercial greenhouses in Daxing of Beijing and Weifang and Laiyang of Shandong,China were investigated using both morphological identification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.The sampled soils had been used for continuous greenhouse production of watermelon for 0,5,10,15,or 20 years.Glomus claroideum was the dominant species in the greenhouse soils planted for 5,10,and 15 years in Laiyang,while Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were dominant in the nearby open farmland soil.Sorenson's similarity index of AMF community composition ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 in the soils planted for 5 years,and from 0.29 to 0.33 for 20 years among the three locations.Spore abundance,species richness,and the Shannon index were highest near the soil surface (0-10 cm) and decreased with soil depth,and higher in June and October than in August and December.Canonical correspondence analysis showed that available P and the number of years that soil had been used for greenhouse production were the main factors contributing to the variance of AMF community composition.It was concluded that the community structure of AMF was mainly influenced by soil available P and planting time of watermelon as well as by soil depth and seasonal variation in the commercial greenhouse.

  6. Grafting increases lycopene in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although watermelon grafting has been done for years in Asia and Europe, this production method is still novel to the U.S. Fruit from four rootstocks with scions of the seedless watermelons Palomar, TriX313, Matrix, and Petite Perfection were compared for soluble solids content, pH, and carotenoids...

  7. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Roberts, Warren

    2006-04-01

    The lycopene content of 50 commercial cultivars of seeded and seedless red-fleshed watermelons was determined. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (90 mg/kg fw). Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, ranging from 33 to 100 mg/kg. Most of the seeded hybrid cultivars had average lycopene contents. Sixteen of the 33 seedless types had lycopene contents in the high and very high ranges. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant carotenoid (84-97%) in all watermelon cultivars measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, but the germplasm differed in the relative amounts of cis-lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytofluene. Red-fleshed watermelon genotypes vary extensively in carotenoid content and offer opportunities for developing watermelons with specifically enhanced carotenoids. PMID:16569049

  8. Response of Watermelon to Gravel-Mulch and Supplementary Irrigation:Yield,Water Use Efficiency and Root Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-shan; LI Xin-rong; ZHANG Pei-dong; ZHANG Jing-guang; WANG Xin-ping; LIU Li-chao

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementary irrigation on watermelon (Citullus lanatus) yield, water-use efficiency (WUE) and root distribution in gravel-mulched field in northwest Loess Plateau, China, during 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. The results showed that gravel mulch significantly improved seedling emergence,increased yield and WUE, and alleviated the influence of drought on plant growth. Regardless of gravel mulch application, supplementary irrigation increased watermelon yields, average fruit weight and number of fruit, especially yield increased as the amount of irrigation increased (P<0.05). Generally, WUE of irrigated treatments were higher than that of non-irrigation treatment in gravel-mulched field. The effect of water supply on root distribution was different in two years. In 2001, average root length density (RLD) and root weight density (RWD) whole the soil profile increased. In 2002, however, RLD and RWD decreased as water supply increased. The average RLD and RWD in 2001 were significantly higher than those in 2002. Maybe we can interpret the phenomenon with the theory that there is a need to optimize root distribution (in termsof water relations) and aboveground biomass for a given water supply. The yield may not depend as much on root growth as on the amount of water required at critical stages. A significant effect of soil depth on RLD and RWD were observed in both years, but did not rapidly decrease with depth.

  9. Combined toxicity of Cassia senna and Citrullus colocynthis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

    2001-04-01

    Body weight loss, inefficiency of feed utilization, diarrhea, ruffled hair and enterohepatonephrotoxicity were effects on male Wistar rats fed diet containing 10% Cassia senna or 10% Citrullus colocynthis ripe fruits for 6w. Rats fed a 1:1 mixture (5% + 5%) of fruits from these plants were more adversely affected and had deaths than rats fed the individual plants. The changes associated with the macrocytic hypochromic anemia and leukopenia were increased serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, increased urea, and decreased total protein, albumin and calcium. Serum bilirubin concentration did not change.

  10. 秋水仙素诱导西瓜多倍体的研究%Study on Colchicines Induced Polyploid Plants and Identification of Citrullus lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施先锋; 彭金光; 王宏太; 李煜华; 曾红霞; 张安华; 杨皓琼

    2010-01-01

    研究了不同浓度秋水仙素处理对3个西瓜品系幼苗染色体加倍的诱导效应,通过形态观察、染色体计数以及流式细胞仪等方法进行了倍性鉴定.结果表明.秋水仙素诱导3个西瓜品系均得到了四倍体,0.3%的秋水仙素处理幼苗的变异率较高,其中以0.3%秋水仙素处理黄小玉母本的变异率最高,迭15.1%.四倍体表现出叶片长、宽、厚均增大,花瓣大小和果皮厚度均较二倍体明显增加.根尖染色体压片检查表明,四倍体染色体教为2n=4x=44,二倍体对照为2n=2x=22.流式细胞仪检测结果表明,诱导不仅产生四倍体,还有嵌合体.

  11. Economics of grafted vs conventional watermelon plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting of watermelons has been used in many countries to provide control of, or resistance to, certain soil borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt. The impact of grafting on postharvest quality has not been thoroughly examined. This report deals with the comparison of the costs of production betwe...

  12. Screening of watermelon rootstocks resistant to physiological wilt disease%抗生理性凋萎症西瓜砧木筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦志扬; 韦莉萍; 韦昌联; 覃泽林; 麻小燕; 何毅; 温国泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]筛选抗生理性凋萎症的西瓜嫁接砧木品种应用于生产.[方法]选用葫芦类、南瓜类、冬瓜类及野生西瓜类等17个砧木与广西三号无籽西瓜进行嫁接试验、田间栽培试验,观察嫁接成活率及嫁接栽培对西瓜生长势、抗病性、产量和果实品质的影响.[结果]嫁接成活率葫芦类91.20%~95.60%,南瓜类73.20%~80.40%,冬瓜类81.20%~86.40%,野生西瓜类82.40%~91.20%;嫁接组合生长势强的砧木品种为广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、日本南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、白籽南瓜、农友野生西瓜、伙伴野生西瓜;坐果容易的砧木品种为广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、日本南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、白籽南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜;高抗生理性凋萎症的砧木品种为白籽南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、日本南瓜、广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、伙伴野生西瓜;产量在22500.00 kg/ha以上且按产量由高到低排序为白籽南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、广西本地葫芦、日本南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜;17个嫁接组合的西瓜果实在瓤色、果实质地、口感风味方面差别不明显,但在果实可溶性固形物含量、瓜形及剖面、皮厚等方面存在一定差异.[结论]广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、白籽南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜与广西三号无籽西瓜嫁接表现高抗西瓜生理性凋萎症,且综合性状表现优良,可进一步扩大试验和示范.%This research screened the grafted watermelon rootstock varieties resistant to physiological wilt disease in order to apply relevant information to watermelon production. [ Method]Seventeen different stocks of Lagenaria siceraria, squash, Benincasa, and wild Citrullus vulgaris were selected to undergo the grafting test and filed cultivation test with seedless watermelon Guangxi 3; the relevant

  13. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  14. Tolerance to the Herbicide Clomazone in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pre-emergence herbicide clomazone (trade name: Command 3ME), is widely used in watermelon production in the US for suppression of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds growing in between plastic beds. Exposure of young watermelon plants to clomazone can cause moderate or severe injury that is expr...

  15. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  16. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiai Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid search algorithm, the classification results of watermelon seeds exterior quality achieved by genetic algorithm were analyzed in detail. Meanwhile machine vision grid laser was applied to detect the surface irregularities defects of watermelon seeds. This study demonstrated the feasible of detecting the watermelon seeds exterior quality by machine vision.

  17. The nature of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a method to extract and separate phytochelatins (PCs)-metal(loid) complexes using parallel metal(loid)-specific (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and organic-specific (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) detection systems-and use it here to ascertain the nature of arsenic (As)-PC complexes in plant extracts. This study is the first unequivocal report, to our knowledge, of PC complex coordination chemistry in plant extracts for any metal or metalloid ion. The As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus and the As hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica were used as model plants. In an in vitro experiment using a mixture of reduced glutathione (GS), PC(2), and PC(3), As preferred the formation of the arsenite [As((III))]-PC(3) complex over GS-As((III))-PC(2), As((III))-(GS)(3), As((III))-PC(2), or As((III))-(PC(2))(2) (GS: glutathione bound to arsenic via sulphur of cysteine). In H. lanatus, the As((III))-PC(3) complex was the dominant complex, although reduced glutathione, PC(2), and PC(3) were found in the extract. P. cretica only synthesizes PC(2) and forms dominantly the GS-As((III))-PC(2) complex. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the existence of mixed glutathione-PC-metal(loid) complexes in plant tissues or in vitro. In both plant species, As is dominantly in non-bound inorganic forms, with 13% being present in PC complexes for H. lanatus and 1% in P. cretica.

  18. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without

  19. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Tania

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal

  20. Watermelon epicuticle changes related to friction test parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Brusewitz G.H.; Puchalski C.

    2000-01-01

    A surface friction method was used to apply a mechanical load to the watermelon fruit's epicuticle. By varying the degree of abrasion intensity, four increasingly larger degrees of epicuticle were identified. These altered stages were related to unique features on the friction force vs. displacement curve, marks on the watermelon, and marks on the abrasive surface. Failure threshold distance and epicuticle layer removal distance were good indicators of resistance to abrasion and were affected...

  1. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  2. Penetapan Kadar Kalium, Natrium dan Magnsium pada Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom.

    OpenAIRE

    Saraan, Sri Muftri Diani

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon is a tropical fruit which is favoured by people cause of it tastes crisp and sweet. Some informed that this fruit can decrease blood pressure cause of its potassium content. The aim of this research is to have a quantitative levels of potassium, sodium and magnesium in yellow and red watermelon’s fruit flesh, also in seed and seedless watermelon. Quantitative analysis is done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with acetylene-air flame. Potassium, sodium and magnesium are qua...

  3. Quality improvement of oriental melon and watermelon using bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriental melon and watermelon plants were cultivated in the soil treated with bioceramics in a greenhouse during summer season from June 1st to August 20th, 1995. Two application methods were employed, one was a mixed treatment of soil and bioceramics, and the other was a spray treatment of bioceramic solution on the stems and leaves. And two types of bioceramics were also stopped by five levels. In order to analyze the bioceramic effect on oriental melon and watermelon, the growth rate of stems, leaves and fruits were measured in the greenhouse. After harvest, the sweetness of fruits was measured and the freshness of fruits based on the storage period was tested by human taste and smell sense. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The growth rates of stems, leaves and fruits of oriental melon and watermelon were the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3. 2. The density of oriental melon and watermelon was the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3 and No. 2 respectively. 3. The Brix number of watermelon was 10.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 11.5 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2, and that of oriental melon was 8.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 12.3 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2. 4. The storage duration of watermelon treated with bioceramics was about 50 days in the condition of the ambient temperature of 25∼30°C. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ) Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nikbakht; I Gheatasi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided...

  5. A lectin extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) inhibits digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramzi; A. Sahragard

    2013-01-01

    A lectin was extracted from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae) by column chromatography using Sepharose 4BGalactose and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow. The inhibitory effects of the extracted lectin on digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae were studied using pH, temperature, time of incubation and kinetic parameters. Different concentrations of extracted lectin, Citrullus colocynthis agglutinin (CCA), inhibited digestive amylolytic activity by 22-49%. The highest inhibiti...

  6. The Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Pulp Extract on the Liver of Diabetic Rats a Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The goal of the current investigation was to clarify the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the structure of the liver of diabetic rats at both light and scanning electron microscopic levels. Approach: Forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: Group1: control, Group 2: Citrullus colocynthis-treated, Group 3: diabetic rats and Group4: diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis. All treatments were administered via an intragastric tube. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 3 and 4 by an intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Results: The liver of Citrullus colocynthis-treated rats revealed minor histological changes versus the control animals. In group 3 animals, diabetes caused degenerative alterations in the form of disorganization of the hepatic cords, cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknosis of the nuclei of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration. Scanning electron microscope examination of these livers revealed numerous lipid droplets within hepatocytes, damaged blood sinusoids and hemorrhage of erythrocytes between hepatocytes and inside Disse’s spaces. On the other hand, the normal histological and scanning ultrastructural features were nearly resumed in the liver of diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract. Conclusion: The present study proved a lessening effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the liver of diabetic rats. In light of these advantageous influences, it is advisable to widen the scale of its use in a trial to alleviate the diabetic hepatic adverse effects.

  7. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods. PMID:25936063

  8. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜抗生理性凋萎症的作用机理研究%Effect mechanisms of different grafting rootstocks on physiological wilt disease of watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦志扬; 覃泽林; 韦莉萍; 韦昌联; 麻小燕; 温国泉; 何毅

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探明不同砧木嫁接对西瓜抗生理性凋萎症的作用机理,为抗性砧木筛选和育种提供理论依据.[方法]选用葫芦、南瓜、冬瓜、野生西瓜等12个砧木与广西三号无籽西瓜进行嫁接试验、田间栽培试验,测定不同嫁接组合对西瓜生长后期叶片生理生化指标的影响.[结果]不同的嫁接组合中,以白籽南瓜、广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、伙伴野生西瓜、日本南瓜、大蒲瓜、超丰F1作砧木西瓜生理性凋萎症发病率较低,为0~6.00%,最低的为白籽南瓜.发病率低的组合,其叶片叶绿素a、叶绿素b、总叶绿素含量和POD活性、SOD活性、Pro含量均极显著高于对照,MDA含量则显著低于对照.[结论]日本南瓜、广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、伙伴野生西瓜对西瓜生理性凋萎症抗性较强,可在生产上示范应用.%Abstract:[Objective]The experiment was conducted to study the effect mechanisms of different rootstocks on physiological wilt disease of watermelon in order to provide theoretical foundation for resistant rootstock screening and watermelon breeding.[Method]Twelve different rootstocks of Lagenaria siceraria,squash,Benincasa and wild Citrullus vulgaris were selected to undergo the grafting test and filed cultivation test with seedless watermelon Guangxi 3.Physiological and biochemical indexes of watermelon leaves of different grafting combinations at later stage were determined.[Result]The watermelon grafted with rootstocks of white seed pumpkin,Guangxi local cucurbit,cross cucurbit,Huoban wild watermelon,Japanese pumpkin,large white flowered gourd,and Chaofeng F1 generation showed low incidence rate of physiological wilt disease.The incidence rate was in 0-6.00%.The incidence rate of physiological wilt disease was the lowest when white seed pumpkin was used as rootstock.The chlorophyll a content,chlorophyll b content,total chlorophyll content,POD and SOD activity and free praline content were all

  9. Nutritional status of watermelon fertirrigation with nitrogen and phosphorus rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sobreira de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of N and P2O5 rates through irrigation water on the uptake of macro and micronutrients by watermelon crop. The study was conducted at the farm Santa Luzia, in Mossoró, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (5° 05’ 57”S e 37° 33’ 16”W. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with strip cropping (4 x 4 x 2, resulting and thirty two treatments with three replicates. The treatments consisted in the application of four N rates (0; 48; 121; 218 kg ha-1 combined with four rates of P2O5 (0; 88; 220; 397 kg ha-1 with two cultivars of watermelon. No deficiency of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn in the watermelon leaves was found in any treatment, excepting Cu and Zn. The N and P2O5 rates, as well as the interaction, provide significant effect on contents of macronutrients in the watermelon leaves. Macronutrients most absorbed by the leaves of watermelon were N>Ca>K>Mg>P.

  10. Traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. in Bou Saada (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani SARRI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: The study area called gate to the desert, the oasis is the closest to the Algerian coastline luxuriant vegetation, lies at the Monts Ouled Nail of the Saharan Atlas. The latter is characterized by the presence of a fairly specific Algeria dunes, presents a sizeable floristic and ecological diversity. Objective: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Materials and Methods: Our study consists in the elaboration of a survey concerning the traditional use in the Bou Saada region especially Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. species. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in the study area during 2011-2012. His research has been conducted in collaboration with healers, herbalists and ordinary users. Results: This analysis of Citrullus colocynthis (L. has revealed its use by 69 people of different ages. In addition, it has multiple uses such as: rheumatism (50%, diabetes (24%, inflammation of skin (8%, bacterial infections (7%, diseases of prostates (8% and female infertility (4%. Conclusion: This study shows that the colocynth is traditionally used by people of both sexes belonging to age groups and socioeconomic levels and different intellectuals. At the end of this work the observations on traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. can be useful to guide a research work in the chemical and clinical side.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  12. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  13. Determination of morphological and cytological differences between diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİMŞEK, İsmail; Münevver GÖÇMEN; Sari, Nebahat

    2013-01-01

    In the seedless watermelon breeding programme, firstly, tetraploid parents must be developed by the breeders. When diploid watermelon lines treated with colchicine and oryzaline in vivo and vitro conditions, tetraploid plants could be obtained. The diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants should be selected within the population. For this reason, some markers (morphological, isozyme, cytological and molecular techniques) are needed to separate from diploid and tetraploid plants. Chromosome co...

  14. Estudos sôbre a conservaç��o de sementes: XII - Melancia The influence of humidity and temperature on viability of watermelon seeds in storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zink

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de melancia (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. dos cultivares «Charleston Gray» e «Yamato Satô» foram conservadas em ambientes que diferiam entre si na umidade e na temperatura. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo com rapidez, quando conservadas em ambientes de alta umidade e temperatura elevada, cêrca de 30°C. Queda menos pronunciada foi observada quando se baixou a temperatura para 20ºC. Reduzindo-se apenas a umidade do ar, as sementes conservaram muito bem o poder germinativo até o final do ensaio. Quando, porém, tais sementes foram mantidas em baixas condições de umidade e temperatura, a capacidade germinativa conservou-se inalterada, ao longo dos dezoito meses de observações.The viability of watermelon seeds kept under different storage conditions, was studied during a period of 18 months. The experimental results presented in this paper drew the following conclusions: 1 Complete viability at the end of 18 months was obtained for seeds stored at 20°C and at relative humidity of 45%. 2 At this same temperature, the longevity of the seeds decreased with the increasing of relative humidity. 3 Seeds kept at 30°C, even in low relative humidity condition, lost their viability in a short time. 4 The seeds of watermelon stored in airtight containers at room temperature, kept their viability well for 12 months, after which time it decreased considerably.

  15. Enhanced arsenate reduction by a CDC25-like tyrosine phosphatase explains increased phytochelatin accumulation in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M; Hakvoort, Henk W J; Bliek, Mattijs; Souer, Erik; Schat, Henk

    2006-03-01

    Decreased arsenate [As(V)] uptake is the major mechanism of naturally selected As(V) hypertolerance in plants. However, As(V)-hypertolerant ecotypes also show enhanced rates of phytochelatin (PC) accumulation, suggesting that improved sequestration might additionally contribute to the hypertolerance phenotype. Here, we show that enhanced PC-based sequestration in As(V)-hypertolerant Holcus lanatus is not due to an enhanced capacity for PC synthesis as such, but to increased As(V) reductase activity. Vacuolar transport of arsenite-thiol complexes was equal in both ecotypes. Based on homology with the yeast As(V) reductase, Acr2p, we identified a Cdc25-like plant candidate, HlAsr, and confirmed the As(V) reductase activity of both HlAsr and the homologous protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene appeared to be As(V)-inducible and its expression was enhanced in the As(V)-hypertolerant H. lanatus ecotype, compared with the non-tolerant ecotype. Homologous ectopic overexpression of the AtASR cDNA in A. thaliana produced a dual phenotype. It improved tolerance to mildly toxic levels of As(V) exposure, but caused hypersensitivity to more toxic levels. Arabidopsis asr T-DNA mutants showed increased As(V) sensitivity at low exposure levels and enhanced arsenic retention in the root. It is argued that, next to decreased uptake, enhanced expression of HlASR might act as an additional determinant of As(V) hypertolerance and As transport in H. lanatus.

  16. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  17. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  18. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  19. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  20. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  1. Watermelon stomach in end-stage renal disease patient

    OpenAIRE

    Lata, S; Gupta, V.; Nandwani, A.; Sharma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also called watermelon stomach, is a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. GAVE is associated with a number of conditions, including portal hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and collagen vascular diseases, especially scleroderma. Limited reports of GAVE are present in CKD patients. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective therapy for GAVE. We describe the case of a CKD, stage V patient, who presented with recurrent blood loss in ...

  2. Molecular Analysis of Biofield Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant and watermelon, as one of the important vegetative crops have grown worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two inbreed crops varieties after the biofield energy treatment. The plots were selected for the study, and divided into two parts, control and treated. The control plots were left as untreated, while the treated plots were exposed with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both the crops were cultivated in different fields and ...

  3. Effect of phytophthora capsici crown rot on watermelon rootstocks and grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera is also gaining acceptance in our l...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a..., MS, NM, PR, SC, TX, VI”. (b) Cantaloupe, netted melon, vegetable melon, winter melon, and...

  5. Introduction of Bottle Gourd DNA into Watermelon by Soaking Embryo for Resistance to Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to utilize wilt disease resistance of bottle gourd, total DNA of bottle gourd was introduced into watermelon through the method of soaking embryo. The DNA-introduced variant offsprings were cultured in contaminated soil to elect the wilt disease resistance for more than 3 generations. 2 high- resistant and 2 middle-resistant watermelon materials were obtained.

  6. Watermelon enhances arginine availability in an animal model of type-II diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon fruit contain lycopene, a red pigment known for its ability to scavenge free hydroxyl radicals. L-Citrulline, an amino acid that acts as a vasodilator and is a precursor of L-arginine, is found in all cucurbits, but is most plentiful in watermelon. In a study with Zucker diabetic fatty ...

  7. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  8. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the varieties sown directly by seeds. The success of the graft system in the described patterns was 90%. The Lagenaria and Cucurbita graftholders produced greater amount of foliate area than Luffa which reduced it greatly. Graftholders did not reduce the organoleptic characteristics of the fruits from the two varieties. - Pests infection in fruits of plants over Cucurbita and Luffa graftholders were reduced.

  9. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan), injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub) Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Juan Carlos; Bruzón C. Serapio F.; Tanaka N. Edgar

    1992-01-01

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby...

  10. Introduction of T-DNA into Watermelon by Stigma Smeared Method and Its Molecular Marker Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shuang-wu; BAO Wen-feng; WANG Ji-ming; SHANG Jian-li; WANG Xiao-jun

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to introduce T-DNA into watermelon for its molecular marker research. [Method] Based on the method of foreign DNA introduced to Arabidopsis thaliana via dipping flowers, the stigma smear was used to transfer T-DNA into watermelon and its molecular marker research was carried out. [ Result] The ideal transformed species was ZXG01078 for the highest fruit setting rate and the most deviant seedlings. The best concentration of kanamycin for treating watermelon seeds was 500 -700 mg/L with differences among the species. The best position was spire leaf or young leaf and the best concentration of kanamycin for treating the watermelon leaf was 4 000 -8 000 mg/L with no significant difference among species. The steadily variation appearing of growing pointless and conjoined twin seedlings indicated that the normal growth had been interfered by foreign DNA in the progeny. [ Conclusion] This study had provided basis for the further research on watermelon.

  11. QUALIDADE SENSORIAL DE GELÉIA MISTA DE MELANCIA E TAMARINDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAELLA MARTINS DE ARAUJO FERREIRA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of jelly is an alternative to the use of fruits that did not meet the classification standard, helping to reduce post harvest losses of up to 40% of total production. This study aimed to evaluate the sensory quality of jelllies produced mixed with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad. and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.. Six jelly formulations were prepared using pulp from watermelon and tamarind in different proportions: F1 (100% watermelon pulp, F2 (87.5% watermelon pulp and 12.5% tamarind pulp, F3 (75% watermelon pulp and 25% tamarind pulp, F4 (12.5% tamarind pulp and 87.5% water, F5 (25% tamarind pulp and 75% water and F6 (37.5% tamarind pulp and 62.5% water. All jellies containing pulp and sucrose in the ratio 1: 0.6 and the final soluble solids was 67 ºBrix. The attributes of color, texture, taste and preference of the jellies were evaluated by 50 untrained panelists using a hedonic scale of nine points (ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely". The worst consistency was found in F4 and the largest concentration of tamarind in jelly impaired color impacting negatively on the product acceptance. The jelly mixed F2 had the best score for taste and preference attributes that jelly F6.

  12. Qualitative identification of the active principles in Citrullus colocynthis and evaluation of its teratogenic effects in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Abdalla Elgerwi; Zuhira Benzekri; Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub; Abubakr El-Mahmoudy

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to identify the active contents of Citrullus colocynthis plant and to examine their teratogenicity in rats. The fruit pulp of the poisonous plant was collected randomly from Suq-Alkhamis district, Tripoli, Libya. Methods: The glucoside colocynthin was isolated by lead acetate method while the alkaloids and saponins were isolated by maceration method. These active principles were then identified by chemical tests, color reactions and thin layer chromatograph...

  13. Breeding few-seed/seedless watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation induced by gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of autotriploid watermelon was a great advance in the field of watermelon breeding. However, some disadvantages still existed with this type of seedless watermelon. Partial sterility may be induced in diploid watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation. We used gamma-rays to irradiate the seeds of homozygous translocation strains with one translocation ring composed of 4 chromosomes (symbol (4) ). Watermelon strains were 'Asahi Yamato', 'Mioyaka', and 'Fumin' saent to us by H. Kihara in 1977. In order to further induce multiple reciprocal translocations for developing new few-seed/seedless watermelon strains, the seeds of the above 3 strains were sown for further selfing in 1978. The seeds of each selfed fruit were grown as a single plant line in 1979 for evaluation of their characters. In addition, some crosses between common diploid watermelon cultivars and translocations were carried out to test the seed setting rate of the heterozygous translocation strains. Some of the crosses were 'Sugar Baby' x 'Asahi Yamato AT-1' and 'Akakotama' x Asahi Yamato AT-2'. The plump seed setting rate of the F1 of these crosses were ca. 50%

  14. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman; Teresa Destro, Maria; Landgraf, Mariza

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  15. Thrips collected in watermelon crops in the semiarid of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewerton Marinho Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to report the occurrence of two species of thrips in watermelon crops in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From August to September 2011, we performed weekly sampling of thrips in a commercial watermelon production area with 10,000m2, using 20 Moericke traps. We captured a total of 431 thrips, belonging to Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thripidae and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin (Phlaeothripidae. This is the first report of H. gowdeyi in watermelon crops in Brazil

  16. Genetic variability of watermelon accessions based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Gama, R N C; Santos, C A F; de C S Dias, R

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic variability of 40 watermelon accessions collected from 8 regions of Northeastern Brazil using microsatellite markers, in order to suggest strategies of conservation and utilization of genetic variability in this species. These accessions are not commercial cultivars. They were sampled in areas of traditional farmers that usually keep their own seeds for future plantings year after year. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated from a distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient, based on 41 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance was made by partitioning between and within geographical regions. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 37 to 96%; the dendrogram gave a co-phenetic value of 0.80. The among population genetic variability was high ( (^)ϕST = 0.319). Specific clusters of accessions sampled in 3 regions of Maranhão were observed while the other 5 regions did not presented specific clusters by regions. We conclude that watermelon genetic variability is not uniformly dispersed in the regions analyzed, indicating that geographical barriers or edaphoclimatic conditions have limited open mating. We suggest sampling a greater number of populations, so regional species diversity will be better represented and preserved in the germplasm bank. PMID:23546958

  17. Effects of extreme weather events and legume presence on mycorrhization of Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J; Kreyling, J; Singh, B K; Jentsch, A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about direct and indirect effects of extreme weather events on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under field conditions. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of mycorrhization to drought and heavy rain in grassland communities. We quantified AMF biomass in soil, mycorrhization of roots of the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Plantago lanceolata, as well as plant performance. Plants were grown in four-species communities with or without a legume. We hypothesised that drought increases and heavy rain decreases mycorrhization, and that higher mycorrhization will be linked to improved stress resistance and higher biomass production. Soil AMF biomass increased under both weather extremes. Heavy rain generally benefitted plants and increased arbuscules in P. lanceolata. Drought neither reduced plant performance nor root mycorrhization. Arbuscules increased in H. lanatus several weeks after drought, and in P. lanceolata several weeks after heavy rain spells. These long-lasting effects of weather events on mycorrhization highlight the indirect influence of climate on AMF via their host plant. Legume presence increased plant community biomass, but had only minor effects on mycorrhization. Arbuscule colonisation was negatively correlated with senescence during the dry summer. Mycorrhization and biomass production in P. lanceolata were positively related. However, increased mycorrhization was related to less biomass in the grass. AMF mycelium in soil might generally increase under extreme events, root colonisation, however, is host species specific. This might amplify community shifts in grassland under climate change by further increasing stress resistance of species that already benefit from changed precipitation. PMID:26284575

  18. Algorithm of orthogonal bi-axle for auto-separating of watermelon seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Guan, Miao; Yu, Daoqin; Wang, Jing

    2007-11-01

    During the process of watermelon seeds characteristic extraction as well as separation, watermelon seeds' major and minor axes, the length and width ratio have played a very important role in appearance regulating degree evaluation. It is quite difficult to find the answer of orthogonal bi-axes because the watermelon seeds are flat and irregular in shape and what's more there is no rule to follow. After a lot of experiments and research, the author proposed the algorithm of orthogonal bi-axes algorithm for granulated object. It has been put into practice and proved in the application of auto-separation system for watermelon seeds. This algorithm has the advantage of lower time complexity and higher precision compared with other algorithms. The algorithm can be used in the solution of other similar granulated objects, and has the widespread application value.

  19. Enhanced biocidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extracts by green nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shawky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an attractive research area for their divers and potential implications in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, production of nanoparticles by biosynthetic method employing live plant or plant extract has emerged a simple and viable alternative to traditional methods. In the present study the biocidal; antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and larvicidal activities of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNPs in aqueous extracts (AEs of Citrullus colocynthis were investigated. SNPs Formed in C. colocynthis AEs were spherical and homogenous and their average mean sizes were 19.267 nm, 16.578 nm, 13.376.nm and 7.398 nm in AEs of fruits, seeds, leaves and roots respectively. The biosynthesized SNPs greatly enhanced the activities of C. colocynthis AEs. It showed  a significant inhibitory action against different bacterial species; Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes; antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotricum candidum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with inhibition zones ranging from 15.1 ± 0.44 to 25.2 ± 0.37 mm. Transmitted electron microscopic (TEM analysis of the morphological changes in S. aureus and E. coli cells revealed SNPs aggregated and located non-specifically on the cell wall, also, SNPs were seen within the cell wall or the cell of bacteria. The cells became severely distorted and disrupted showing a bactericidal action. Interestingly, a size dependence of SNPs' antiviral activity was observed. We found that the SNPs/ C. colocynthis roots AEs showed the strongest antiviral activity causing 70%, 73% and 75% reduction of the Cytopathic effect (CPE of hepatitis A virus, Herpes simplex virus type I and Herpes simplex virus type II respectively. Also, the SNPs/C. colocynthis showed a significant larvicidal activity against the 3

  20. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D. S.; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and...

  1. Transcriptome profiling of differentially expressed genes in floral buds and flowers of male sterile and fertile lines in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Seo, Minseok; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Male sterility is an important mechanism for the production of hybrid seeds in watermelon. Although fruit development has been studied extensively in watermelon, there are no reports on gene expression in floral organs. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in two near-isogenic watermelon lines (genic male sterile [GMS] line, DAH3615-MS and male fertile line, DAH3615) to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to male sterility. Results DEG analys...

  2. Dietary supplementation with watermelon pomace juice enhances arginine availability and ameliorates the metabolic syndrome in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon is rich in L-citrulline, an effective precursor of L-arginine. This study was conducted to determine whether dietary supplementation with watermelon pomace juice could ameliorate the metabolic syndrome in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of noninsulin-dependent diabet...

  3. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  5. Residue analysis of multi-class pesticides in watermelon by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Semin; Lee, Sung Joong; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Jeong, Won Young; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Soo Taek; Shin, Sung Chul

    2010-03-01

    As watermelon is farmed primarily by protected and successive cultivation techniques, a number of pesticides are required for the control of pests and diseases. To evaluate the harmful effects of pesticides in watermelon and to guarantee consumers' safety, a rapid screening process for pesticides is required. A LC-MS/MS method was applied for the direct quantitation of 44 pesticide residues in watermelon. A Zorbax XDB-C(18) column was selected for analysis, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient system of water and 5 mM methanolic ammonium formate. MS/MS experiments were performed in ESI positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The LOQs were in the range of 1-26 microg/kg, thereby indicating good sensitivity. Most of the recoveries ranged between 70-131% with RSDs watermelon samples. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the surveyed watermelons obtained from eight local markets in the Republic of Korea. Statistical analysis of the recoveries classified the 44 pesticides into nine groups and three overall categories. PMID:20175086

  6. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J W; Slaughter, D C; Boyden, L E; Barrett, D M

    2016-06-01

    The textural properties of 5 seedless watermelon cultivars were assessed by descriptive analysis and the standard puncture test using a hollow probe with increased shearing properties. The use of descriptive analysis methodology was an effective means of quantifying watermelon sensory texture profiles for characterizing specific cultivars' characteristics. Of the 10 cultivars screened, 71% of the variation in the sensory attributes was measured using the 1st 2 principal components. Pairwise correlation of the hollow puncture probe and sensory parameters determined that initial slope, maximum force, and work after maximum force measurements all correlated well to the sensory attributes crisp and firm. These findings confirm that maximum force correlates well with not only firmness in watermelon, but crispness as well. The initial slope parameter also captures the sensory crispness of watermelon, but is not as practical to measure in the field as maximum force. The work after maximum force parameter is thought to reflect cellular arrangement and membrane integrity that in turn impact sensory firmness and crispness. Watermelon cultivar types were correctly predicted by puncture test measurements in heart tissue 87% of the time, although descriptive analysis was correct 54% of the time. PMID:27105291

  7. Chilling Tolerance and Physiological Parameters as Influenced by Grafting in Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ying; ZHU Zhu-jun; LU Guo-hua; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of different rootstocks on chilling tolerance and physiological parameters in wa-termelon seedlings have been studied. The results showed that grafting improved the chilling tolerance. Com-pared with own-rooted watermelon seedlings, the grafted watermelon seedlings had lower chilling injury index,lower electrolytic leakage (%), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, higher chlorophyll and proline con-tent, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and de-hydroascorbate reductase (DR) in the leaves under iow temperature stress. There was a considerable differenceof chilling tolerance among different grafted watermelon seedlings due to the difference of rootstock chillingtolerance. After low temperature treatment, the grafted seedling with higher chilling tolerance had lower elec-trolytic leakage ( %), lower MDA content, higher proline content and higher activities of SOD, AsA-POD andDR in the leaves compared with the grafted seedling with weaker chilling tolerance. From these, we could con-clude that chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings may be related to higher antioxidative ability and mem-brane stability in the plants. The chilling tolerance of grafted seedling could be properly evaluated by compre-hensive physiological indexes but not a single physiological index.

  8. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. PMID:25520388

  9. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations. PMID:11312845

  10. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  11. A lectin extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae inhibits digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectin was extracted from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae by column chromatography using Sepharose 4BGalactose and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow. The inhibitory effects of the extracted lectin on digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae were studied using pH, temperature, time of incubation and kinetic parameters. Different concentrations of extracted lectin, Citrullus colocynthis agglutinin (CCA, inhibited digestive amylolytic activity by 22-49%. The highest inhibition was obtained at pH 8 and 9, which corresponds with the highest enzymatic activity in the control. The highest inhibition of E. ceratoniae α-amylase was found at 40°C, which corresponds with the optimal temperature for enzymatic activity. Timecourse experiments revealed the highest amylolytic activity at 20-40 min post-incubation, while the highest inhibition was found after 20- 30 min. Kinetic analysis showed that incubation of α-amylase with CCA significantly decreased Vmax, indicating non-competitive inhibition, but no statistical difference was found in the Km value. Our results indicated that CCA significantly inhibited activity of digestive α-amylase in E. ceratoniae larvae, suggesting its possible application as a potential alternative control method against this pest.

  12. Qualitative identification of the active principles in Citrullus colocynthis and evaluation of its teratogenic effects in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Abdalla Elgerwi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to identify the active contents of Citrullus colocynthis plant and to examine their teratogenicity in rats. The fruit pulp of the poisonous plant was collected randomly from Suq-Alkhamis district, Tripoli, Libya. Methods: The glucoside colocynthin was isolated by lead acetate method while the alkaloids and saponins were isolated by maceration method. These active principles were then identified by chemical tests, color reactions and thin layer chromatography. Possible teratogenic effects of the fruit pulp extract was investigated by its administration to twelve pregnant rats on the 7th day of gestation at a dose of 40.6 mg/kg body weight that is equivalent to one fourth of the LD50 of the extract. Results: Gross anatomical observation on the 20th day of gestation revealed a high percentage of resorbed fetuses, smaller size and weight fetuses as well as absence of coccygeal vertebrae, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and carpal and tarsal bones. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the extract of fruit pulp of Citrullus colocynthis, obtained from Libya, contain glucosidal as well as other principles that may cause teratogenic effects if given during at the early stage of pregnancy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 438-445

  13. Genetic differentiation of watermelon landrace types in Mali revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Andersen, Sven Bode; Jensen, Brita Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the genetic differentiation of a collection of 134 watermelon landrace accessions from Mali, representing red fleshed dessert and white fleshed seed and cooking type watermelons from five regions, plus three commercial dessert type cultivars with red flesh. The material...... the accessions into use groups (dessert, cooking, seed processing) explained 25 % of the variation. When categorising the accessions further into 10 landrace types, differentiated on the basis of use groups, local accession name, flesh colour and seed phenotype, these landrace types explained 26...... % of the variation. Analysis with the software Structure revealed that the accessions with confidence could be separated into two major genetic groups, related to flesh colour (red and white) of the watermelon fruits. The same analysis further indicated that the material may be differentiated into eight genetic sub...

  14. 西瓜大棚栽培技术%Cultivating Techniques of Watermelon in Plastic Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢学义

    2011-01-01

    通过采用大棚设施栽培西瓜可实现春节前上市,并多次结果,连续采收半年以上,每667 m2产量5000 kg左右。该文总结了多年来西瓜大棚栽培的成功经验和技术细节。%Field experiments showed that the watermelon cultivated in plastic greenhouse could mature before Spring Festival and multiply fruit.The watermelon could be harvested for more than half a year and yielded 75,000 kg/hm2.This paper summarized years of successful experiences and technical details on watermelon cultivation in plastic greenhouse.

  15. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  16. Determination of morphological and cytological differences between diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the seedless watermelon breeding programme, firstly, tetraploid parents must be developed by the breeders. When diploid watermelon lines treated with colchicine and oryzaline in vivo and vitro conditions, tetraploid plants could be obtained. The diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants should be selected within the population. For this reason, some markers (morphological, isozyme, cytological and molecular techniques are needed to separate from diploid and tetraploid plants. Chromosome counts and DNA content of diploid and tetraploid plants as a result of measurement of flow cytometry distinction can be made definitively. However, the laboratory infrastructure required to implement each method, is not economical. The purpose of this study is to select the tetraploid watermelon plants at M1 stage from populations applied colchicine and oryzaline with morphological anda cytological investigations in in vivo conditions. In this study, tetraploid plants belong to the four watermelon lines and diploid plants compared with the morphological and cytological dates. Morphological dates; width of the leaf-length (cm, male flower diameter (mm, diameter-length of the ovary (mm, the female flower petal width and length (mm were measured. Cytological assessment of the stoma diameter (μm, stomatal length (μm, stomatal density and chloroplast number were measured. In the present study has shown that the tetraploid plants grow vigorously as compared to diploid plants. Tetraploid plants are the number of chloroplasts increased, but decreased stomatal density were determined. As a result, tetraploid plants could be selected practically and economically by using morphological and cytological data for watermelon plants.

  17. The distribution of arsenate and arsenite in shoots and roots of Holcus lanatus is influenced by arsenic tolerance and arsenate and phosphate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Mieke; Rengel, Zdenko

    2003-07-01

    The recent discovery that phytochelatins are important for arsenic (As) detoxification in terrestrial plants results in the necessity to understand As speciation and metabolism in plant material. A hydroponic study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of different levels of phosphate and arsenate [As(V)] on As speciation and distribution in tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Holcus lanatus. Speciation of As in tissue (using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) revealed that the predominant species present were the inorganic As species (As(V) and arsenite [As(III)]), although small levels (<1%) of organic As species (dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid) were detected in shoot material. In roots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally increased with increasing levels of As(V) in the nutrient solution, whereas in shoots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally decreased with increasing levels of As(V). H. lanatus plants growing in the high-phosphorus (P) (100 micro M) solution contained a higher proportion of As(V) (with regard to total As) in both roots and shoots than plants supplied with low P (10 micro M); in addition, tolerant clones generally contained a higher proportion of As(V) with regard to total As than non-tolerant clones. The study further revealed that As(V) can be reduced to As(III) in both roots and shoots. Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus.

  18. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30-80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  19. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30–80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  20. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  1. Watermelon cultivation with fall-planted small grain plants intercropped as cover crop

    OpenAIRE

    ARAKI, Hajime; Yamashita, Yoneji; Ito, Michiaki; Fukuyama, Toshinori; Nakano, Kazuhiro; 荒木, 肇; 山下, 米治; 伊藤, 道秋; 福山, 利範; 中野, 和弘

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mulchmugi) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Minorimugi) were introduced in watermelon production for weed control, not seed production. To examine the weed control-effect of wheat and barley between rows of a watermelon field, they were sown in October, 1993, with the seeding rate of 4 kg/10a. Elongated culms were mowed early in June, 1994, and turned into straw mulch. Light intensity (photon flux density) on the surface of the ground was suppressed by straw ...

  2. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  3. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila; Benariba; Rabeh; Djaziri; Wafaa; Bellakhdar; Nacera; Belkacem; Marcel; Kadiata; Willy; J.Malaisse; Abdullah; Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis(C.colocynthis)seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging.Methods:Phytochemical screening,total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C.colocynthis seeds extracts,including a crude aqueous extract(E1),a defatted aqueous extract(E2),a hydromethanolic extract(HM),an ethyl acetate extract(EA)and a n-butanol extract(n-B)was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.Results:None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid,quinone,antraquinone,or reducing sugar.Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1,MM and EA,whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM.Coumarins were found in E2,EA and n-B.Polyphenols,expressed as gallic acid equivalent,amounted,per 100 g plant matter,to 329,1002 and 150 mg in EA,HM an E1 respectively.Flavonoids,expressed as catechin equivalent,amounted.per 100 g plant matter to 620,241 and 94 mg in EA,HM and E1 respectively.Comparable values were found in n-B and E1,with lower values in E2.Quercetin,myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography,The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded,when tested at a concentration of 2000μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay,a reducing percentage of 88.8%with EA,74.5%with HM and 66.2%with E1,and corresponding IC50of 350,580and 500μg/mL as compared to 1.1μg/mL for ascorbic acid.Conclusions:These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C.colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity,as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  4. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila Benariba; Rabeh Djaziri; Wafaa Bellakhdar; Nacera Belkacem; Marcel Kadiata; Willy J Malaisse; Abdullah Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids ofC. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2000 μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 μg/mL as compared to 1.1 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  5. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils.

  6. 转基因西瓜研究进展%Progress of Research in Transgenic Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金超; 马三梅; 王永飞; 孙小武

    2014-01-01

    综述了西瓜转基因常用的方法、目前已获得的转基因西瓜性状以及转基因西瓜安全性等方面的研究进展,并提出了今后进一步的研究方向。西瓜转基因常用方法为叶盘转化法;将外源基因导入到西瓜基因组中常用的方法主要有农杆菌介导法和花粉管介导法;常采用PCR、Southern和Western等方法来检测和鉴定外源基因是否成功整合到西瓜基因组中;目前利用转基因技术改良的西瓜性状主要集中在培育抗病毒、抗枯萎病和耐旱、耐盐碱等方面;对转基因西瓜的安全性研究主要包括生态安全性和食品安全性2个方面。今后应利用转基因技术进一步提高西瓜营养品质、耐贮性和抗冻性等性状,并进一步加强对转基因西瓜安全性的研究。%In this paper,the general methods of transgenic watermelon were summarized,the transgenic watermelon suc-cessfully developed currently was introduced,the security concern of transgenic watermelon was reviewed. The further re-search directions of transgenic watermelon were proposed. The general method of transgenic watermelons was leaf disc trans-formation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and pollen-tube-mediated transformation were commonly used to intro-duce exogenous gene into the watermelon genome. PCR,Southern and Western methods were used to detect and identify if exogenous genes weresuccessfully integrated into the watermelon genome . Currently the watermelon characters that using transgenic technology to improve mainly included disease resistance,blight resistance,drought resistance and alkali resis-tance,etc. Research on the safety of transgenic watermelons mainly included the ecological safety and food safety. For the transgenic technology of watermelons,it should further be applied to improve the quality of the watermelon nutrition traits, and storage resistance and freeze resistance. And research on the safety of transgenic should be

  7. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  8. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  9. Old Dogs, Children, and Watermelon Wine: Focus on the Older Adult Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1978-01-01

    Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)

  10. Grafting Seedless Watermelons, How and Why? Will Grafting Help With Disease Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera has gained importance in the United States. Grafting vegetable crops, especially cucurbit’s, is very common in Europe and Asia. In these regions, the practice of crop ...

  11. Evaluation of fungicide rotations for management of Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC in summer of 2013. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand and the field has been infested with Phytophthora capsici for the previous 2 years. Five-week-old seedlings of the seedless watermelon cultivar Vanessa growin...

  12. Evaluation of Actigard and fungicides for management of Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC, in summer of 2013. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand and the field has been infested with Phytophthora capsici for the previous 2 years. Five-week-old seedlings of the seedless watermelon cultivar Vanessa growi...

  13. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... would be considered small entities. The Board's audit records show import assessments for the calendar... Watermelon Promotion Board (Board). The Board recommended eliminating the requirement that an importer import more than 50 percent of the total volume handled and imported in order to qualify as an importer...

  14. 微培养条件下西瓜种子的萌发试验%Influence of Microcuiture on the Germination of Citrullus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珍; 杨冬业; 靳振江

    2011-01-01

    为获得无菌西瓜(Citrullus vulgaris)实生苗材料,对西瓜种子进行无菌微培养试验.结果表明,导去种皮的西瓜种子用无菌水浸泡30 min,以MS为基本培养基,在25~30℃的条件下暗培养3d,种子发芽率达100%.%The seeds of Citrullus vulgaris were germinated by microculture to obtain aseptic seedlings. The peeling seeds were decontaminated in steril water for 30 min and inoculated in MS base medium, and the coulture was performed in dark at 25~30 ℃ for 3d, 100% germination rate was achieved by the method.

  15. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-01

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage. PMID:17002453

  16. MARKETING MARGIN AND DETERMINANTS OF NET RETURN OF WATERMELON MARKETING IN YENAGOA METROPOLIS OF BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kainga Prince Ebiowei

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted from May, 2013 to July, 2013 for determining the marketing margin and examines the determinants of net return of watermelon marketing in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was adopted in drawing the sample. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, marketing margin analysis, and multiple regression models. The results showed that watermelon marketing was female dominated (73.3%) with m...

  17. Rootstock Potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria Germplasm for Watermelon: Plant Growth, Graft Compatibility, and Resistance to Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    YETİŞİR, Halit; Şener KURT; Sari, Nebahat; TOK, Fatih M.

    2007-01-01

    The rootstock potential of Turkish Lagenaria siceraria germplasm for watermelon was evaluated. Among 210 accessions, 72 genotypes were selected based on morphological characteristics. Two commercial hybrid rootstocks were also used for comparison. Crimson Tide watermelon cultivar was used as a scion. Emergence rate, hypocotyl morphology, survival rate, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) were investigated. Grafted plants were grown for 3 weeks in order to investigate the ...

  18. Frequency and Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Mosaic Virus from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is widespread in cucurbit crops, most commonly occuring in temperate and Mediterranean regions. In Serbia WMV has been detected in single and mixed infections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in field-grown pumpkin and squash crops. Among pumpkin-affecting viruses WMV is the most frequent one, both by the number of localities and its incidence at each location. During the growing season of 2009, samples from 583 plants of Cucurbita pepo cvs. Olinka, Belgrade zucchini and Tosca (Zucchini group, as well as from C. maxima and C. moschata showing symptoms of virus infection were collected from 12 commercial fields at eight localities and analyzed by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific to six most important cucurbit viruses. Interestingly, WMV was detected at fewer sites and had lower ncidence rate than in two previous years. In single infections, WMV was found in 11% of tested plants in three fields; in mixed infections with ZYMV, it was recorded in 9.9% of plants in five fields and with CMV in only 0.2% in one field. The partial coat protein gene and 3’ non-translated region from two representativeisolates of WMV originating from different localities and host plant species were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GenBank database. The PCR-amplified fragment of predicted size of approximately 1017 bp was obtained. The sequences of isolates 137-08 (Acc. No. GQ259958 and 159-08 (GU144020 proved to be 94-99% identical at the nucleotide level with those from other parts of the world. The sequences of these two isolates differed from each other only at two nucleotide positions, without any amino acid substitution. Phylogenetic analysis of 57 isolates based on 750 bp sequences of the coat protein gene showed no correlation between isolates and their geographic origin, and italso indicated that these isolates fell into three molecular groups of

  19. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  20. Evolution of watermelon fruit physicochemical and phytochemical composition during ripening as affected by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, G A; Kyriacou, M C; Siomos, A S; Gerasopoulos, D

    2014-12-15

    Flesh reflectance colorimetry, mechanical texture analysis, pH, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solid (SS), soluble carbohydrate, lycopene and citrulline content of watermelon fruit were assessed throughout ripening (30-50 days post-anthesis; dpa) in grafted and self-rooted plants. Grafting increased firmness, TA, and lycopene content though it delayed its peak. Lycopene content was mostly ripening-dependant, highly correlated and synchronous with changes in pulp chroma (C) and colour a. The sweetness was affected only by ripening. However, total sugars and SS peaked later in fruit of grafted plants than in non-grafted ones, and significant interaction of ripening with grafting was observed. Citrulline content increased with ripening in fruit of grafted plants, reaching a peak at 45 dpa; whereas in non-grafted ones it was unchanged between 30 and 45 dpa and declined at 50 dpa. As ripening overall was retarded by grafting, fruit quality of grafted watermelon may benefit from belated harvest.

  1. Multifocal Gastric Neoplasia after Recurrent Laser Therapy for the Watermelon Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Bernstein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated laser therapy has become an accepted therapeutic approach in the treatment of watermelon stomach, and to date no important negative sequelae have been reported. The case of a patient who underwent repeated sessions of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser therapy over a five-year period for the treatment of the watermelon stomach is presented. Postlaser therapy the patient developed deep ulcerations that would heal; however, he ultimately developed a nodular antrum. Random biopsies of antral nodules revealed carcinoma-in-situ. A Billroth I gastrectomy revealed two foci of carcinoma-in-situ/high grade dysplasia and multiple foci of lower grades of dysplasia. This case suggests a possible association between use of laser therapy and development of gastric neoplasia.

  2. Development of seedlings of watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet irrigated with biosaline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. B. da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe limited access and the scarcity of good quality water for agriculture are some of the major problems faced in agricultural areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of watermelon seedlings (cv. Crimson Sweet, irrigated with different concentrations of biosaline water of fish culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, corresponding to biosaline water at different concentrations (0, 33, 50, 67 and 100%, and four replicates of 108 seedlings. Watermelon seeds were sown in plastic trays filled with commercial substrate and irrigated with different solutions of biosaline water. Seedlings were harvested for biometric analysis at 14, 21 and 28 days after sowing. The use of biosaline water did not affect emergence and establishment of seedlings until 14 days after sowing, the period recommended for transplantation. However, the use of biosaline water affected the development of seedlings with longer exposure time.

  3. Molecular characterization of a GA-inducible gene, Cvsus1, in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Jinwon; An, Gynheung

    2002-10-31

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed development, we isolated a seed-preferential gene from ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. The gene Cvsus1 encodes a protein that is 86% identical to the Vicia faba sucrose synthase expressed in developing seeds. RNA blot analysis showed that Cvsus1 was preferentially expressed in watermelon seeds. We also investigated gene expression levels both in pollinated seeds and in parthenocarpic seeds, which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcript level of Cvsus1 was rapidly increased during normal seed development, the expression was not significantly increased in the parthenocarpic seeds. However, treating the parthenocarpic fruits with GA3 strongly induced Cvsus1 expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that Cvsus1 is induced in maternal tissues via signals from the zygotic tissues, and that GA may be one of those signals. PMID:12442898

  4. The effect of watermelon frost on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in inflamed pulp tissue (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulp inflammation can be marked by the increase of prostaglandin E2(PGE2 level compared to normal pulp. The increase of PGE2 may lead to vasodilatation, increase of vascular permeability, pain and bone resorption. Watermelon frost has been well known in Chinese society for pain relief and inflammation in oral cavity and teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level. Method: 27 samples of pulp tissues used in this in-vitro study, were extirpated from the patients’ teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis referred to clinic of Conservative Dentistry, RSPGM Faculty of Dentistry, USU. Trial materials were applied to 27 samples i.e. watermelon frost as a trial material and commercial watermelon frost and eugenol to observe their effect on PGE2. PGE2 level of each material was detected through ELISA method by measuring and comparing the absorbance reading of the wells of the samples against standards with a micro plate reader at W1 = 650 nm and W2 = 490 nm. Result: The result showed the biggest effect was found in the third group (eugenol, mean 4.6933, followed by the first group (watermelon frost as a trial material, mean 18,1578 then the second group (commercial watermelon frost, mean 82,2689. OneWay ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among all trial materials (p < 0.001 on PGE2 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level in inflamed pulp tissue and led to the acceptance of traditional medicine and natural products as an alternative form of dental care.

  5. Efek Watermelon Frost Terhadap Penurunan Prostaglandin E2(PGE2) Pada Inflamasi Jaringan Pulpa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis,, Jean-Philippe and

    2008-01-01

    Pada inflamasi pulpa dapat ditandai dengan peninggian level Prostaglandin E2 (PGEz) bila dibandingkan dengan pulpa normal. Peningkatan level PGEz dapat menyebabkan vasodilatasi pembuluh darah, peningkatan permeabilitas vaskuler, menimbulkan rasa nyeri dan resorpsi tulang. Level PGEz pada kasus-kasus simptomatis lebih tinggi daripada kasus-kasus yang asimptomatis. Watermelon frost telah lama diketahui oleh masyarakat Chinese dapat menurunkan rasa nyeri daninflamasi pada gigi dan rongga mulut. ...

  6. Detection of internal quality in seedless watermelon by acoustic impulse response

    OpenAIRE

    Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Recent commercialisation of seedless watermelon varieties relies on the guarantee of a high quality product. Several internal defects may deteriorate greatly this fruit: (a) creases and/or large voids in the flesh, (b) overripeness and (c) bruises due to impact. The objective of this research was to develop a feasible non-destructive procedure for detecting these defects in individual fruits, based on acoustic impulse response. A device consisting of a microphone, structural elements and a...

  7. Vibrational analysis of seedless watermelons: use in the detection of internal hollows

    OpenAIRE

    Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; JANCSÓK, P

    2005-01-01

    The internal quality of fruit can be non-invasively tested using systems based on vibrational characteristics. In this work, acoustic impulses were used to detect internal hollows in watermelons; the change in the signal revealing the problem. Frequency spectrum variables were analysed for their potential as non-destructive predictors of this defect. The band magnitude variables, obtained from the integral of the spectrum magnitudes between two frequencies, best predicted internal disorders. ...

  8. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    OpenAIRE

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim; Antônio Diego de Melo Bezerra; Alexandre Campos Nunes; Breno Magalhães Freitas; Fernando Antonio Souza de Aragão

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161) and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore) genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG),...

  9. Development of seedlings of watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet irrigated with biosaline water

    OpenAIRE

    José E. S. B. da Silva; Janete R. Matias; Keylan S. Guirra; Carlos A. Aragão; Gherman G. L. de Araujo; Bárbara F. Dantas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe limited access and the scarcity of good quality water for agriculture are some of the major problems faced in agricultural areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of watermelon seedlings (cv. Crimson Sweet), irrigated with different concentrations of biosaline water of fish culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, corresponding to biosaline water at different concentrations (0, 33, ...

  10. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  11. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weining [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States); Tarafdar, Jagadish C. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute (India); Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d{sub p} < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  12. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality. PMID:25829594

  13. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.

  14. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  15. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. (CCT fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w. 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs. In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P<0.0001. At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  16. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

  17. Study on Preservation of Watermelon%西瓜保鲜试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫国; 赵永亮

    2001-01-01

    用单因素试验和正交试验法探讨了西瓜保鲜剂的主要成分苯甲酸钠(A)、山梨酸钾(B)、亚硫酸氢钠(C)等对保鲜西瓜所起作用的大小及最佳浓度,并就西瓜保鲜剂对西瓜的耐寒及耐热性的影响进行了探讨。结果表明,苯甲酸钠、山梨酸钾单独使用的最适浓度为1800mg*L-1和1500mg*L-1,可使贮存30d(天)的西瓜的好果率由38.1%提高到62.1%和65%。亚硫酸氢钠单独试用于西瓜保鲜有一定的副作用。多因素正交试验结果表明,影响西瓜保鲜的因素的主次顺序为:B>C>A。其最佳组合为A2B2C2,即苯甲酸钠(800mg*L-1)、山梨酸钾(800mg*L-1)、亚硫酸氢钠(400mg*L-1)。经保鲜剂处理过的西瓜,在1~10℃下贮藏45d(天)未见冷害,在28~38℃下贮藏45d(天),其失水率均小于9.5%,而未处理的则高达18%。%The effect and their optimal concentration of sodium benzoate (A),potassium sorbate (B),sodium sulfite (C) on the storage of watermelon were studied by single factor experiments and cross experiments. And the characteristics of antifreezing,anti-high-temperature of watermelon preservative were discussed. The results indicated that the optimal concentrations of sodium benzoate,potassium sorbate were 1800mg*L-1 and 1500mg*L-1 respectively,which increased the rate of non-decayed watermelon that stored for 30 days from 38.1% of control to 62.8% and 65.0%,Sodium sulfite had a little side-effect to watermelon and no positive effect. Effect of three factors in degree is:B>C>A,the best combination was A2B2C2,that is,sodium benzoate 800mg*L-1,potassium sorbate 800mg*L-1,sodium sulfite 400mg*L-1.The symptoms of low-temperature injury were not found under 1-10℃ for 45 days after using watermelon preservative. The rate of weight loss was less than 9.5% under 28-38℃ for 45 days after using watermelon preservative,while that of control was up to 18%.

  18. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  19. 西瓜交替氧化酶AOX2基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of the alternative oxidase-2(AOX2) gene in watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李严曼; 朱磊; 杨景华; 张明方

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the possible functions of the alternative oxidase gene family in watermelon plants,high-quality RNA was extracted from cold-tolerant watermelon(Citrullus lanatus) germplasm IVSM No.9 and then cDNA was obtained through reverse transcription kit.A cDNA fragment of alternative oxidase was amplified using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the conserved domain of alternative oxidase genes in other plants.According to the cDNA fragment sequence,the 5' and 3' end fragment sequences were obtained using RACE technology respectively.The full length cDNA of ClAOX2 was obtained by DNAMAN5.22 from the above three sequences.The cDNA fragment exhibited high homology to the alternative oxidase-2(AOX2) of other species and could be referred to as ClAOX2.Then the full lengths of cDNA and DNA were obtained by PCR according to the known cDNA sequence.The full-length cDNA of ClAOX2 was 1 263 bp in size with a 1050 bp open reading frame(ORF).The full-length DNA was 1 983 bp which has consisted of four exons interrupted by three introns.The accession number of ClAOX2 in GenBank database is ADD84880.Real-time PCR showed that the ClAOX2 gene expressed in root,stem,leaf,flower,and fruit of watermelon seedling and significantly higher in the fruit.These results demonstrated that ClAOX2 may play a role during fruit development.%为了研究西瓜交替氧化酶基因家族在西瓜植株中可能发挥的功能,以西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)耐冷种质IVSM9为材料,根据植物不同物种交替氧化酶基因核苷酸保守区序列设计兼并引物,得到西瓜交替氧化酶(alterna-tive oxidase)AOX基因的中间片段。在已知序列的基础上,分别设计5’和3’末端扩增的特异引物,采用cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)的方法得到西瓜交替氧化酶基因的5’端和3’端序列,用DNAMAN5.22软件对3个序列进行拼接和分析,获得全长序列。得到的基因片段同其

  20. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  1. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding. PMID:21079966

  2. Distribution of four viruses in single and mixed infections within infected watermelon plants in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2010-11-01

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in the past 5 years. Tissue-blot nucleic acid hybridization assays were developed for simple, high-throughput detection of these three viruses as well as Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), which was first reported in Florida in 2008. To determine virus distribution within plants, we collected 80 entire plants just before or during the harvest period in a systematic sample, 20 each on 11 April, 18 April, 26 April, and 3 May 2007, from a fruiting commercial watermelon field near Immokalee, FL showing symptoms of infection by SqVYV, CuLCrV, and PRSV-W and, possibly, CYSDV. This was followed by a sampling of five plants collected at harvest showing symptoms of virus infection on 11 October 2007 in a different commercial planting located in Duette, FL. Tissue prints were made from cross sections of watermelon plants from the crowns through the tips at 0.6-m intervals on nylon membranes and nucleic acid hybridization assays were used for virus detection. Results from testing crown tissue showed that SqVYV, CuLCrV, and PRSV-W were present in ≈37, 44, and 54%, respectively, of the 80 plants collected over the four sampling dates from the first field. For individual vines diagnosed with SqVYV, the distribution of SqVYV in vine tissue decreased proportionately with distance from the crown. The probability of detecting SqVYV was 70% at the base of the vine compared with 23% at the tip of the vine. In contrast, CuLCrV tended to be more evenly distributed throughout the plant, with ≈10% higher probability of detection at the growing tip relative to the crown of the plant. The distribution of PRSV-W resembled that of SqVYV but with ≈20% higher probability of detection at the tip of the vine. Similar trends were

  3. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (σ) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  4. Asymptotics of the average height of 2--watermelons with a wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fulmek, Markus

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the classical work of de Bruijn, Knuth and Rice (giving the asymptotics of the average height of Dyck paths of length $n$) to the case of $p$--watermelons with a wall (i.e., to a certain family of $p$ nonintersecting Dyck paths; simple Dyck paths being the special case $p=1$.) We work out this asymptotics for the case $p=2$ only, since the computations involved are already quite complicated (but might be of some interest in their own right).

  5. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (Pwatermelon seeds than in vacuum-infiltrated (testa-localized) seeds. Based on these results we conclude that A. citrulli cells are not intrinsically tolerant to desiccation and that localization of

  6. Sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutant agents 60Co and EMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Velkov; Nasya Tomlekova; Fatma Sarsu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutagenic agents was carried out in 2013-2014. The goal was to establish effective doses for mutagenic treatment of dry seeds with 60Co gamma rays (80, 100, 200, 250, 350 and 450 Gy) and swollen seeds with water for 24 hours were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) at a concentration of 2%. Dominant mutations were not observed in the M1 generation. Morphological changes in 14 of 1395 M2 plants were observed. Phenotypic variation...

  7. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P<0.05. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the Fon population declined significantly in the watermelon/wheat companion system compared with the monoculture system (P<0.05. The analysis of microbial communities showed that the relative abundance of microbial communities was changed in the rhizosphere of watermelon. Compared with the monoculture system, the relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Sordariomycetes were increased, and the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Cytophagia, Pezizomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were decreased in the rhizosphere of watermelon in the watermelon/wheat companion system; importantly, the incidence of Fusarium wilt was also decreased in the watermelon/wheat companion system. In conclusion, this study indicated that D123 wheat as a companion crop increased soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system.

  8. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Logistics institude, CJ Korea Express, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability.

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  10. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) transmits Acidovorax citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okhee; Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jinwoo

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of cucurbit plants. If TSSM can act as vector for Acidovorax citrulli (Acc), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), then the movement of mites from infected to healthy plants may represent a potential source of inocula for BFB outbreaks. To confirm the association between Acc and TSSM, we generated a green fluorescent protein-tagged mutant strain (Acc02rf) by transposon mutagenesis and demonstrated that TSSM can transmit Acc from infected to non-infected watermelon plants. Challenge with 10 TSSMs carrying Acc02rf population densities of 1.3 × 10(3) CFU each on freshly grown individual watermelon plants caused disease transmission to 53 %. Incubation periods ranged 7-9 days. Bacteria recovered from symptoms typical of those associated with leaf necrosis were characterized and identified as Acc. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that TSSM can be a vector of Acc. The results reported here support that the strong association of TSSM with Acc is of particular importance in controlling BFB. PMID:27178042

  11. Development of Watermelon Peel Fruit Wine%西瓜皮果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟; 王林山

    2011-01-01

    Watermelon peel and sugar were used as main raw materials to produce watermelon peel fruit wine by yeast fermentation. The suitable technical parameters were determined by single factor experiments as follows: 18 %-22 % sugar content, 6 h alcoholic fermentation time, 3% yeast use level and pH value between 3.0-5.0. The optimum technical parameters were summed up as follows by orthogonal experiments: sugar content was 22 %, the use level of yeast was 3 % and pH value was 4.%以西瓜皮和白砂糖为主要原料,经酵母茵发酵后制成西瓜皮果酒。通过单因素实验确定了酒精发酵过程中较适宜的糖度为18%~22%,最佳酒精发酵时间为6h,酵母用量为3%,pH值为3.0-5.0。正交实验确定酒精发酵的最佳工艺组合为:糖度为22%,酵母茵用量为3%,pH值为4。

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  13. Coupling of the chemical niche and microbiome in the rhizosphere: implications from watermelon grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SONG,Chen ZHU,Waseem RAZA,Dongsheng WANG,Qiwei HUANG,Shiwei GUO,Ning LING,Qirong SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is commonly used to overcome soil-borne diseases. However, its effects on the rhizodeposits as well as the linkages between the rhizosphere chemical niche and microbiome remained unknown. In this paper, significant negative correlations between the bacterial alpha diversity and both the disease incidence (r = -0.832, P = 0.005 and pathogen population (r = - 0.786, P = 0.012 were detected. Moreover, our results showed that the chemical diversity not only predicts bacterial alpha diversity but also can impact on overall microbial community structure (beta diversity in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, some anti-fungal compounds including heptadecane and hexadecane were identified in the rhizosphere of grafted watermelon. We concluded that grafted watermelon can form a distinct rhizosphere chemical niche and thus recruit microbial communities with high diversity. Furthermore, the diverse bacteria and the antifungal compounds in the rhizosphere can potentially serve as biological and chemical barriers, respectively, to hinder pathogen invasion. These results not only lead us toward broadening the view of disease resistance mechanism of grafting, but also provide clues to control the microbial composition by manipulating the rhizosphere chemical niche.

  14. A Novel Agricultural Waste Adsorbent, Watermelon Shell for the Removal of Copper from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the application of Watermelon Shell, an agricultural waste, for the adsorptive removal of Cu(II from its aqueous solutions. This paper incorporates the effects of time, dose,temperature, concentration, particle size, agitation speed and pH. Analytical techniques have been employed to find pore properties and characteristics of adsorbent materials. Batch kinetic and isotherm studies have also been performed to understand the ability of the adsorbents. The adsorption behavior of the Cu(II has beenstudied using Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. The monolayer adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir adsorption equation has been found as 111.1 mg/g. Kineticmeasurements suggest the involvement of pseudo-second-order kinetics in adsorptions and is controlled by a particle diffusion process. Adsorption of Cu(II on adsorbents was found to increase on decreasing initial concentration, increasing pH up to 8, increasing temperature, increasing agitation speed and decreasing particlesize. Overall, the present findings suggest that watermelon outer shell is environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent which is useful for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous media.

  15. Sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutant agents 60Co and EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Velkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutagenic agents was carried out in 2013-2014. The goal was to establish effective doses for mutagenic treatment of dry seeds with 60Co gamma rays (80, 100, 200, 250, 350 and 450 Gy and swollen seeds with water for 24 hours were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS at a concentration of 2%. Dominant mutations were not observed in the M1 generation. Morphological changes in 14 of 1395 M2 plants were observed. Phenotypic variations changes were the colour of the seed coat, chlorophyll disorders of cotyledons, leaves, petals, and alterations of the location of the fruit set in the central stem. Visible changes of the morphological characteristics of the fruit were not observed. The doses induced certain morphological changes, however, higher doses or combined gamma rays 60Co and EMS treatments would induce mutations more efficiently. Subsequent experiments are required to obtain mutants with changes that affect flowers and fruits. The results are important for increasing mutation efficiency in watermelon breeding.

  16. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihui; Wang, Zhigang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system. PMID:26388851

  17. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo; Edgley Soares da Silva; João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto; Luciana Baú Trassato; Roberto Dantas de Medeiros; Dilacy Sales Porto

    2015-01-01

    Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Bo...

  18. Contribution à l'étude de l'analyse physicochimique de l'huile de Citrullus colocynthis(colo quinte) et de son pouvoir antimicrobien

    OpenAIRE

    MEZIANE, Wafa

    2015-01-01

    De tout temps, l'homme s'est intéressé aux lipides pour diverses utilisations : en agroalimentaire, en cosmétologie, en médecine,.. . etc. De nombreuses graines sont sources d'huile qui sont de plus en plus étudiées pour leurs propriétés nutritionnelles et thérapeutiques. Dans notre travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à l'extraction de l'huile de graines de Citrullus colocynthis, communément appelée Coloquinte. La conformité de l'huile à la norme du codex alimentarius exige la dé...

  19. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  20. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  1. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Tania; Holguín Gina; Polanía Jaime; Vanegas Javier; Sánchez Jimena; Moreno Nubia

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots) on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load), A. germinans and R. mangle plants colle...

  2. Intensified removal of copper from waste water using activated watermelon based biosorbent in the presence of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metals having significant effects on the living organisms and hence effective removal of copper from waste water is crucial. The current work investigates the application of activated watermelon shell based biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The effect of activation using calcium hydroxide and citric acid as well as the effect of operating parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, pH, initial concentration and ultrasonic power on the extent of removal has been investigated. Experiments performed in the presence of ultrasound to investigate the degree of intensification as compared to the conventional agitation based treatment revealed that the adsorption rate significantly increases in the presence of ultrasound and also the time required for reaching the equilibrium reduces from 60 min in conventional approach to only 20 min in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of adsorption of Cu(II) on adsorbents was found to increase with an increase in the operating pH till an optimum value of 5. The extent of adsorption also increased with a decrease in the initial concentration and particle size as well as with an increase in ultrasonic power till an optimum. Kinetics and isotherm study revealed that all the experimental data was found to best fit the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 31.25mg/g for watermelon treated with calcium hydroxide and 27.027 mg/g for watermelon treated with citric acid. Overall present study established that activated watermelon is an environmentally friendly, low cost and highly efficient biosorbent that can be successfully applied for the removal of copper from aqueous solution with intensification benefits based on the ultrasound assisted approach.

  3. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan L. F.; Everts, Kathryne L.; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P.; Abdelnabby, Hazem M. E.; Skantar, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on ‘Charleston Gray’ watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on ‘Sugar Baby’ watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  4. The effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in drip irrigated grafted and ungrafted watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seluk zmen; Rza Kanber; Nebahat Sar; Mustafa nl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in grafted and ungrafted watermelon. The study was conducted in Çukurova region, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, between 2006 and 2008, and employed 3 irrigation rates (ful irrigation (I100) with no stress, moderate irrigation (DI70), and low irrigation (DI50);DI70 and DI50 were considered deifcit irrigation) on grafted (CTJ, Crimson Tide+Jumbo) and the ungrafted (CT, Crim-son Tide) watermelon. The amount of irrigation water (IR) applied to the study plots were calculated based on cumulative pan evaporation that occurred during the irrigation intervals. Nitrogen consumption was 16%lower in CTJ plants than in CT plants. On the other hand, consumption of nitrogen was 28%higher in DI50 plants than in DI70 plants while it was 23%higher in DI50 plants than in I100 plants. By grafting, the average amount of nitrogen content in seeds, pulps and peels for CTJ was 30, 43 and 56%more than those of CT, respectively. The yield and the quality were not signiifcantly affected by the deifcit irrigation. In this respect, grafting of watermelon gave higher yield, but, it had a slight effect on fruit quality. The highest yield values of 16.90 and 19.32 kg plant–1 in 2008 were obtained with I100 and in CTJ plants, respectively. However, DI50 treatment could be taken into account for the development of reduced irrigation strategies in semiarid regions where irrigation water supplies are limited. Additional y, the yield increased by applying CTJ treatment to the watermelon production.

  5. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan L F; Everts, Kathryne L; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P; Abdelnabby, Hazem M E; Skantar, Andrea M

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on 'Charleston Gray' watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on 'Sugar Baby' watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  6. RESEARCH ON THE USE OF EXTRA-EARLY CULTIVARS FOR INCREASING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN WATERMELON GROWING IN THE SOUTHERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to study the influence of two cultivars: Crisby and Karistan, with a different maturation length, upon economic efficiency in watermelon growing in an experiment running on sandy soils at SC Casa Pepenilor Verzi SRLDabuleni, Dolj County, Romania in the year 2011.The experience was organized on 1.25 ha divided into 2 plots: V1-cultivated with Crisby F1 cultivar, an extra-early type and V2-cultivated with Karistan cultivar, a tardy type. The main economic indicators followed in the experiment have been the following ones: watermelon yield, production cost, income, profit, profit rate and gross margin. Crisby cultivar produced 30 t fruit per ha, starting from the 1st part of June when the selling price was Lei 1.2/kg and assured Lei 22,611 profit/ha. Karistan cultivar generated 70 t fruit per surface unit beginning from the 2nd part of July when the selling price was Lei 0.3/kg and produced Lei 6,051 profit per ha. As a conclusion, the use of an extra-early cultivar could assure a more efficient watermelon growing because fruit could be delivered earlier in the market covering in a better way consumer’s demand and increasing producers’ income and profit.

  7. A non-destructive genotyping system from a single seed for marker-assisted selection in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meru, G; McDowell, D; Waters, V; Seibel, A; Davis, J; McGregor, C

    2013-01-01

    Genomic tools for watermelon breeding are becoming increasingly available. A high throughput genotyping system would facilitate the use of DNA markers in marker-assisted selection. DNA extraction from leaf material requires prior seed germination and is often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. In an effort to develop a more efficient system, watermelon seeds of several genotypes and various seed sizes were sampled by removing ⅓ or ½ sections from the distal ends for DNA extraction, while germinating the remaining proximal parts of the seed. Removing ⅓ of the seed from the distal end had no effect on seed germination percentage or seedling vigor. Different DNA extraction protocols were tested to identify a method that could yield DNA of sufficient quality for amplification by polymerase chain reaction. A sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction protocol with 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone yielded DNA that could be amplified with microsatellite primers and was free of pericarp contamination. In this study, an efficient, non-destructive genotyping protocol for watermelon seed was developed. PMID:23546952

  8. A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Newport gastroenteritis in Europe associated with watermelon from Brazil, confirmed by whole genome sequencing: October 2011 to January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, L; Fisher, I; Peters, T; Mather, A; Thomson, N; Rosner, B; Bernard, H; McKeown, P; Cormican, M; Cowden, J; Aiyedun, V; Lane, C

    2014-08-07

    In November 2011, the presence of Salmonella Newport in a ready-to-eat watermelon slice was confirmed as part of a local food survey in England. In late December 2011, cases of S. Newport were reported in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Ireland and Germany. During the outbreak, 63 confirmed cases of S. Newport were reported across all six countries with isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from the watermelon isolate.A subset of outbreak isolates were whole-genome sequenced and were identical to, or one single nucleotide polymorphism different from the watermelon isolate.In total, 46 confirmed cases were interviewed of which 27 reported watermelon consumption. Further investigations confirmed the outbreak was linked to the consumption of watermelon imported from Brazil.Although numerous Salmonella outbreaks associated with melons have been reported in the United States and elsewhere, this is the first of its kind in Europe.Expansion of the melon import market from Brazil represents a potential threat for future outbreaks. Whole genome sequencing is rapidly becoming more accessible and can provide a compelling level of evidence of linkage between human cases and sources of infection,to support public health interventions in global food markets.

  9. 我国三倍体无籽西瓜的周年生产与栽培%Annual Production and Cultivation of Triploid Seedless Watermelon in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文革; 何楠; 赵胜杰; 路绪强

    2014-01-01

    我国三倍体无籽西瓜栽培面积日益扩大,全国各地均有栽培,通过不同时间、不同栽培模式等栽培,基本实现了我国无籽西瓜的周年生产和供应。综述了全国各地三倍体无籽西瓜栽培面积、主栽品种、栽培分布优势区域、栽培模式、上市时间等,以期为我国无籽西瓜产业发展、各地优势产业布局提供依据。%The cultivation area of triploid seedless watermelon has increasing in China. The seedless watermelon was planted with different cultivation methods in different times all over China. It was basically achieved seedless watermelon production and supply throughout the year. In the paper, we analyzed and summarized the cultivation area, leading cultivars, advantage region of cultivation and distribution, cultivation methods, time to market of seedless watermelon in every province in China, in order to provide the basis for the development of seedless watermelon industry and the advantage industry distribution in China.

  10. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  11. 西瓜枯萎病土壤拮抗菌的筛选%Screening of Soil Antagonistic Bacteria for Watermelon Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芹; 张洪斌; 苏晓飞

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to screen bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt from soil and investigate the biological control of watermelon fusarium wilt by applying the antagonistic bacteria strains into soil. [Method] Actinomycete strains, fluorescent bacteria strains and bacillus strains were isolated from soil samples by the dilution-plate method, then its resistance was screened respectively by the improved confront culture method after colonies were purified. Finally, bacteria strains with better antagonistic effect were identified. [Result] 29 bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt were screened from 39 soil samples, which contained 15 fluorescent bacteria strains, 5 bacillus strains and 9 actinomycete strains. Furthermore, three antagonistic bacteria strains of FM2, FM3 and FM4 with the strongest antagonism were identified primarily. [Conclusion] According to cultural characteristics, morphological observation, biochemical and physiological tests, FM2 belongs to bacillus subtilis, while FM3 and FM4 belong to micrococcus.

  12. Regulation of plant growth, photosynthesis, antioxidation and osmosis by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in watermelon seedlings under well-watered and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eMo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and MDHAR in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2- compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances in the knowledge of AM-induced drought tolerance.

  13. Study on Fertilizer Effect of Nanyang Biological Organic Fertilizer on Watermelon%南阳生物有机肥在西瓜上的肥效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文芳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索南阳生物有机肥对西瓜品质及产量的影响。[方法]以不施生物有机肥+常规施肥为对照,设置施用生物有机肥3000、4500和6000kg,hm。3个处理,分析有机肥对西瓜生长品质及产量的影响、[结果]增施南阳生物有机肥能有效促进西瓜植株生长发育,降低坐瓜节位.提高单个瓜重,提高西瓜中心糖分含量,改善西瓜口感和品质,达到增产增收的目的。[结论]南阳生物有机肥对西瓜生产有增产增收的效果,适合大面积推广。%[Objective] The aim was to explore the influence of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer on yieht and quality of watermelon. [Method] The treatment of no biological organic fertilizer and conventional fertilizer was taken as control, analyzed the influence of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer on yield and quality of watermelon by setting three treatments: applied Nanyang biological organic fertilizer 3 000,4 500,6 000 kg/hm2. [Result] The result indicated that increasing application of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer could effectively promote plant growth and development of watermelon, reduce fruiting node, improve single melon weight, raise watermelon center sugar content, improve the taste and quality of watermelon and achieve the purpose of increasing income. [Conclusion] Nanyang biological organic fertilizer was suitable to be popularized in large area for increasing production of watermelon.

  14. 野生西瓜开花结实及结籽特性的研究%Study on Characteristics of Wild Watermelon Flowering, Fruiting and Seed Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪娇; 饶贵珍

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to discuss the characteristics of wild watermelon flowering, fruiting and seed setting. [ Method ] The flowering and fruiting features of wild watermelon were observed, and the effects of different pollination ways ( mixed pollination, single flower pollination, natural pollination) on seat fruit rate, single watermelon weight, single melon seed number and seed 1000 -grain weight were studied. [ Reset] The wild watermelon has few female flowers and the seat fruit rate is low. Artificial pollination can increase a fewer seat fruit rate, but can significantly increase the fruit weight, seed yield and quality about the wild watermelon, and the way of the mixed pollination is the best. [ Conclusion] The study will provide reference for improving seed- producing yield and quality of wile watermelon.%[目的]探讨野生西瓜的开花结实、结籽特性.[方法]对野生西瓜的开花结实习性进行了观测,并研究了不同授粉方式(混合花粉授粉、单花花粉授粉和自然授粉)时野生西瓜座果率、单瓜重、单瓜种子数及种子千枉重的影响.[结果]野生西瓜雌花少、座果率低.采用人工授粉虽不能显著提高野生西瓜的座果率,但能显著地提高单瓜重、种子的产量和质量,其中以混合花粉授粉最好.[结论]为提高野生西瓜的制种产量和质量提供了参考.

  15. Inheritance of Egusi Seed Character in Watermelon%黏籽西瓜与籽用西瓜种皮性状的遗传研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春立; 王惠林; 赵文言; 林德佩

    2011-01-01

    The inheritance of Egusi seed characteristic was studied by using the populations derived from the cross of Egusi seed watermelon and edible seed watermelon. The hybrid between Egusi watermelon and edible watermelon showed normal edible watermelon seed coat. The BC1 to Egusi watermelon show 1: 1 segregation of Egusi seed and normal edible seed. The F2 generation segregated 3 normal edible seed and 1 Egusi seed. We conclude that the Egusi seed character is conferred by a single recessive gene.%通过利用黏籽西瓜独特的黏籽性状与籽瓜亚种间进行杂交,对所配6个世代中的黏籽种皮类型与籽瓜种皮类型的分离比例进行分析和采用卡方检验,来验证理论值与观测值间的关系.结果表明,在F1代中黏籽性状不表现,而在与黏籽西瓜作父本的BC1代中籽瓜种皮类型和黏籽种皮类型分离比例为1:1,在F2代中籽瓜种皮类型和黏籽种皮类型分离比例为3:1.由此可以推测黏籽性状是由隐性单基因控制的.

  16. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romdhane, Molka Ben; Haddar, Anissa; Ghazala, Imen; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities. GC-FID results proved that galactose was the dominant sugar in the extracted polysaccharides, followed by arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, mannose, xylose and traces of glucuronic acid. The findings revealed that WMRP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Those polysaccharides had also a protection effect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Functional properties of extracted polysaccharides were also evaluated. WMRP showed good interfacial dose-dependent proprieties. Overall, the results suggested that WMRP presents a promising natural source of antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. PMID:27596431

  17. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  18. Effect of diurnal temperature alternations on plant growth and mineral composition in cucumber, melon and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthichack, Phommy; Nishimura, Yasuyo; Fukumoto, Yasufumi

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated plant growth and mineral composition in three cucurbit crops of cucumber, melon and watermelon grown under four constant day and night temperatures (DIF) of 25/15, 22.5/17.5, 17.5/22.5 and 15/25 degrees C. As expected, the growth and development of the three cucurbits were strongly temperature dependent. Plant height and relative chlorophyll content of the three crops decreased linearly along with decreases in day temperature. Leaf and stem dry weight decreased significantly under negative DIFs and the lowest value was in DIF plot 15/25 degrees C. However, the negative DIF of 15/25 degrees C resulted in increased content of all mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu) in both the leaf and stem of the three cucurbit crops. The data suggest that a negative DIF as low as 15/25 degrees C may be beneficial to greenhouse-grown cucurbit crop producers, by controlling vegetative growth that facilitates crop management, with no negative effect on or enhancement of the uptake rates of mineral nutrients which are required to determine yield and fruit quality at the production stage. Effective utilization of diurnal temperature alternations is one strategy that can be used to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses.

  19. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on cut cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-04-01

    A recent outbreak linked to whole cantaloupes underscores the importance of understanding growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in cut melons at different temperatures. Whole cantaloupe, watermelon, and honeydew purchased from a local supermarket were cut into 10 ± 1 g cubes. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes from food related outbreaks was used to inoculate fruit, resulting in ~10(3) CFU/10 g. Samples were stored at 4, 10, 15, 20, or 25 °C and L. monocytogenes were enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was used to describe L. monocytogenes growth rate as a function of temperature. The model was compared to prior models for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth on cut melon, as well as models for L. monocytogenes on cantaloupe and L. monocytogenes ComBase models. The current model predicts faster growth of L. monocytogenes vs. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 at temperatures below 20 °C, and agrees with estimates from ComBase Predictor, and a corrected published model for L. monocytogenes on cut cantaloupe. The model predicts ~4 log CFU increase following 15 days at 5 °C, and ∼1 log CFU increase following 6 days at 4 °C. The model can also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk assessments.

  20. Intergrated Pest and Disease Management of Watermelon and Melon in Greenhouse%温棚西甜瓜病虫害综合防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗思良; 潘廷由; 刘承勇

    2012-01-01

    从农业防治、物理防治、化学防治等方面介绍了温棚西甜瓜病虫综合防治技术,以期为温棚西甜瓜高产、稳产提供参考。%The intergrated pest and disease management of watermelon and melon in greenhouse was introduced including agriculture control, physical control and chemical control,in order to provide refernces for high and stability yield of watermelon and melon.

  1. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza; Renato Almeida Sarmento; Madelaine Venzon; Gil Rodrigues dos Santos; Marcela Cristina Agustini C. da Silveira; Paulo Henrique Tschoeke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin) at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were expos...

  2. Germination hindrance and seed coat structure of triploid watermelon seed%三倍体西瓜种子萌发障碍与种皮的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴思慧; 孙小武; 熊兴耀; 肖杰; 黄智

    2012-01-01

    以三倍体西瓜‘黑牛’和二倍体西瓜‘黑宝’种子为材料,对种子形态指标、种皮的透性和种皮电镜超微结构进行了分析.试验结果:三倍体西瓜种子中种皮平均厚度约为二倍体西瓜种子的2倍,而且三倍体西瓜种子比二倍体多1个细胞排列非常致密的硬化组织;三倍体西瓜种子内种皮平均厚度约为二倍体的10倍,三倍体西瓜种子内种皮木质化,结构明显分为3层;在种子吸胀萌发过程中,三倍体和二倍体种子内种皮结构变化的差异非常明显,表明三倍体西瓜种子的中种皮和内种皮在一定程度上均阻碍种胚与外界的气体交换,影响种子的萌发,而二倍体西瓜种子的种皮对气体交换的影响不明显.%Seeds of triploid watermelon cultivar 'Heiniu' and diploid watermelon cultivar 'Heibao' were used to investigate the morphology of seeds, fee influence of seed coat on permeability of the seed and the ultra structure of seed coat. The results showed that the average thickness of the sclerotesta of the triploid was almost 2 times thicker than that of the diploid and there was a sclerosis with cells densely arranged in triploid but not diphoid watermelon seed. The average thickness of the endotesta of the triploid was almost 10 times thicker than that of the diploid. The endotesta of triploid watermelon was lignified and the complicated structure consisted of 3 layers. During germination, the structure changes of endotesta between the two kinds of watermelon seed coat were significant. And the sclerotesta and endotesta of triploid watermelon seed blocked the water and air exchange between the embryo and the outside environment to some extent, which hindered the imbibition and germination of triploid watermelon seed. But the seed coat of the diploid watermelon didn't block the air exchange.

  3. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar eRamzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are the widespread and heterogeneous proteins of plants that serve as storage proteins in defensive mechanisms against herbivores. A lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae to find out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macromolecules. It was found that CCA increased life span from 23.44 days in control to 28.59 days in the individuals fed on 2% of CCA. Larval survivals on control and CCA diets were 93.3 and 66.6%, respectively. Different concentrations of CCA significantly affected α-amylase and general proteolytic activities in larvae but TAG-lipase activity had no significant changes. Activities of all specific proteases decreased when larvae were fed on different concentrations of CCA except for aminopeptidase. Meanwhile, amount of storage macromolecules in the larvae fed on different concentrations of CCA statistically decreased versus control. These results demonstrated that CCA could intervene in physiology of E. ceratoniae and survival of larvae. Therefore, it can be taken into consideration in IPM of the pest through plant breeding programs.

  4. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Samar; Sahragard, Ahad; Sendi, Jalal J; Aalami, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are the heterogeneous proteins in plants that serve as storage proteins via defensive mechanisms against herbivores. In the current study, a lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae finding out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macromolecules. It was found that CCA (C. colocynthis Agglutinin) increased life span from 23.44 days in control to 28.59 days in the treated individuals. Survival of larvae on control and CCA diets were 93.3 and 66.6%, respectively. Different concentrations of CCA significantly affected α-amylase and general proteolytic activities except for TAG-lipase activity. Activities of all specific proteases decreased when larvae were fed on different concentrations of CCA except for aminopeptidase. Meanwhile, amount of storage macromolecules in the larvae fed on different concentrations of CCA statistically decreased vs. control. These results demonstrated that CCA could intervene in physiology of E. ceratoniae and survival of larvae. Therefore, it can be taken into consideration in IPM of the pest through plant breeding programs.

  5. APROVEITAMENTO DA CASCA DE MELANCIA (Curcubita citrullus, Shrad NA PRODUÇÃO ARTESANAL DE DOCES ALTERNATIVOS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. SANTANA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A melancia, botanicamente classificada como Curcubita citrullus, Shrad é originária da Índia. Devido ao seu alto teor de água, é ideal para ser consurnida no período de calor intenso, mais propriamente no verão. Por ser um fruto que produz considerável quantidade de resíduos não comestíveis, o presente trabalho objetivou aproveitar as cascas da melancia para a produção artesanal de doces alternativos. Os resultados mostraram que os doces cremosos e em calda com e sem adição de coco, obtiveram excelente aceitabilidade entre os consumidores adultos e crianças. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Melancia; cascas; doces crernosos; doces em calda.

  6. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswaran Guru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also

  7. Effects of Different Rotation Modes on Microbial Population in Gravel Mulched Field%砂田轮作模式对土壤微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚慧; 吴宏亮; 康建宏; 许强; 杨金娟; 姚姗; 尹冠华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究砂田轮作模式对土壤微生物区系的影响,从而通过制定合理的栽培制度创造良好的土壤生态环境,为促进农业的可持续发展提供理论依据.[方法]对宁夏中卫市香山地区压砂地土壤进行取样,并进行了微生物区系的分析.[结果]西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)与绿豆(Vigna radiata)、南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)、油葵(Helianthus annuus)、西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo L.)、芝麻(Sesamum indicum)轮作,土壤微生物多样性指数均高于西瓜连作.[结论]轮作能有效调节土壤微生物区系,有利于微生物群落的多样性和稳定性的提高,最终改善了土壤的微生态环境,其中以西瓜→南瓜效果最好.%[ Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of different rotation modes on microbial population in gravel mulched field, then create good soil ecological environment by drawing up reasonable cultivation system to provide a theoretical basis for promoting agricultural sustainable development of agriculture, [Method] Soil samples were taken from gravel mulched field in Xiangshan Area, Zhongwei City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and their microbial population was analyzed. [Result] Compared with the watermelon continuous crop, the microbial diversity index was higher in the planting mode of mung bean( Vigna radiata) , pumpkins( Cucurbita moschata) , oil sunflower(Helianthus arm-uus) , squash(Cucurbitapepo L. ) and sesame(Sesamum indicum) rotating with watermelon( Citrultus lanatus). [Conclusion] Rotating effectively adjusts soil microbial population, which is conducive to improving microbial population diversity and stability, and eventually improving the soil ecology environment. Among these rotation modes, squash rotation with watermelon was the best.

  8. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  9. 广西西瓜高产栽培技术%Cultivation Techniques of Watermelon in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志翘; 潘文兴; 黄小凤

    2015-01-01

    从选种、选地整地、播种期选择、育苗移栽、田间管理、病虫害防治及采摘技术等方面介绍广西西瓜高产栽培技术,以供参考。%This paper introduced cultivation techniques of watermelon in Guangxi,including selection of good varieties,election to election,planting suitable period,transplanting,field management,pest control and harvesting technology for reference.

  10. 三倍体无籽西瓜教学难点解析%Difficulties In Teaching Triploid Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范旭阳; 张红梅

    2011-01-01

    Many students were very interested in the triploid seedless watermelon,but there is always some confusion.This paper analyzes the confusion and discusses it.%在教学实践中发现,很多学生对三倍体无籽西瓜非常感兴趣,同时总是存在一些疑惑。本文针对教学中学生提出的疑问进行了分析和探讨。

  11. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index. PMID:27570274

  12. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  13. Developmental Biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Three Cucurbitaceous Hosts at Different Temperature Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkiga, A M; Mwatawala, M W

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies are key pests of cucurbits in many parts of the world, including Tanzania. Developmental biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) has been determined across temperature regimes in some cucurbitaceous hosts, in limited geographies. This study was conducted to determine duration and survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae in three cucurbitaceous hosts, at different temperature regimes. It was hypothesized that temperature and cucurbitaceous hosts influence duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. We conducted experiments in the environmental chamber set at 75 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°. Our results showed that duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae differed significantly among the temperature regimes but not among the hosts. Egg incubation period as well as larval and pupal stages were significantly longer (P watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) did not significantly affect duration or survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. The low developmental thresholds were estimated at 15.88, 13.44, and 12.62 for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. These results further confirm that Z. cucurbitae is well adapted to warm climate, which dominates many areas of Tanzania. PMID:26589874

  14. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  15. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  16. Surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate: stable recyclable magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Yoon, Minyoung

    2015-11-14

    Mercury is considered one of the most notorious global pollutants due to its high toxicity and widespread use in industry. Although many materials have been developed for the removal of mercury for water purification, most of these materials are difficult to reuse, which may lead to an increase in the mercury handling expense. Therefore, new sustainable materials that can be easily recycled and are highly efficient for the removal of mercury are required. Herein, we report the surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind extract. The Fe3O4 MNPs were further functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate (DHPCT) and applied to the removal of Hg(ii). Evaluation of the mercury removal efficiency and the amount adsorbed by DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs demonstrated a high Hg(ii) removal efficiency (98%) with a maximum Hg(ii) adsorption capacity of 52.1 mg g(-1). Systematic studies of the adsorption mechanism and selectivity suggest that the soft ligand (DHPCT) can preferentially coordinate with the soft metal ion (Hg(ii)) resulting in selective mercury removal. The developed DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs were readily recycled several times using an external magnet by exploiting their ferromagnetic character, without a significant decline in the Hg(ii) removal efficiency. This study provides a new insight into the preparation of a highly efficient adsorbent for Hg(ii) removal by an eco-friendly method. PMID:26436867

  17. Aphid populations (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea depend of mulching in watermelon production in the Mediterranean region of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zanic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Winged morphs of aphids were investigated under field conditions during 2008, 2010 and 2011 in the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Field experiments were conducted to record aphid diversity and compare polyethylene black mulch to straw mulch and bare soil in terms of their attractiveness to aphid species in a watermelon crop. Aphids were collected weekly using yellow water metal traps from May to July. During the study, 44 species in 31 genera were detected; 36 species in 24 genera were identified in 2008, 18 species in 15 genera were identified in 2010, and 34 species in 25 genera were identified in 2011. The overall seasonal percentage composition showed that Aphis fabae Scopoli and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were consistently eudominant species, whereas Acyrtosiphon pisum (Harris was consistently dominant. Cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L. was determined as the dominant species in 2008 and as eudominant species in 2011. Additionally, Macrosiphum rosae (L. was twice recorded as the dominant species, whereas Aphis gossipii Glover was dominant once, and Phorodon humuli (Schrank was eudominant once. Our study also demonstrated that mulching sporadically affected the abundance of individual species. The attractiveness of mulching for aphid species differed between the treatments. It was found that bare soil was attractive to A. pisum and M. rosae, black mulch was attractive to B. helichrysi and P. humuli, and straw mulch was attractive to four aphid species, of which two were eudominant, A. fabae and M. persicae. The presented species are mostly polyphagous, and their preference for certain mulches can be used in crop protection management.

  18. Location of Acidovorax citrulli in infested watermelon seeds is influenced by the pathway of bacterial invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Avci, U; Hahn, M G; Walcott, R R

    2012-05-01

    Watermelon seeds can become infested by Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits via penetration of the ovary pericarp or by invasion of the pistil. This study investigated the effect of these invasion pathways on A. citrulli localization in seeds. Seed samples (n = 20 or 50 seeds/lot) from pistil- and pericarp-inoculated lots were dissected into testa, perisperm-endosperm (PE) layer, and embryo tissues and tested for A. citrulli by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by plating on semiselective media. Less than 8% of the testa samples were A. citrulli-positive regardless of the method of seed inoculation. Additionally, the difference in percentages of contaminated testae between the two seed lot types was not significant (P = 0.64). The percentage of A. citrulli-positive PE layer samples as determined by real-time PCR assay was significantly greater for seeds from pistil-inoculated lots (97%) than for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (80.3%). The mean percentage of A. citrulli-positive embryo samples was significantly greater for seeds from pistil-inoculated lots (94%) than for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (≈8.8%) (P = 0.0001). Removal of PE layers and testae resulted in a significant reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission percentage for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (14.8%) relative to those from pistil-inoculated lots (72%). Additionally, using immunofluorescence microscopy, A. citrulli cells were observed in the PE layers and the cotyledons of pistil-inoculated seeds but only in the PE layers of pericarp-inoculated seeds. These results suggest that pericarp invasion results in superficial contamination of the testae and PE layers while pistil invasion results in the deposition of A. citrulli in seed embryos. PMID:22352307

  19. 大棚早熟西瓜套种鲜食玉米试验%Study on Interplanting Mode of Greenhouse Early-maturing Watermelon and Fresh Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠阳; 陈舜权; 胡俏强; 潘玖琴; 吴志鹏; 戴惠学

    2014-01-01

    采用大棚西瓜套种鲜食玉米栽培模式,以充分利用西瓜地爬生长的空间优势,达到增产增效的目的。试验结果表明,套种对鲜食玉米晶甜6号的生育期影响不明显,株高、穗位高极显著增加,同时植株的双穗率增加明显,产量极显著增加。可见,在南京地区进行大棚早熟西瓜套种鲜食玉米是可行的,是一种值得推广的科学高效种植模式。%In this paper, we interplanted corn with greenhouse watermelon to make full use of growth space of watermelon. The results showed that, interplanting with watermelon had no significant influence on growth period of the fresh corn cultivar Jingtian No.6, but made the plant height and ear height increased significantly, in addition, the double ear rate was significantly increased, so the yield was very significantly increased. Thus, it was feasible to interplant fresh corn with greenhouse early-maturing watermelon in Nanjing area, and this was proved a scientific and effective planting mode.

  20. 西瓜汁的澄清工艺及营养成分变化研究%Watermelon Juice Clarification Technology and Nutrition Changes Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋波

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon deep processing which could digest part and greatly enhance the added value of agricultural products was reseached to solve the difficult problem of watermelon seasonal storage. Chitosan and filter aid diatomite in different ratio were selected to clarify the watermelon juice. Watermelon juice clarification experiments showed that, the clarification effect of 400 ppm of chitosan and diatomite was good. The analysis filter, light transmission rate of fruit juice was 96.03%. Clarification and watermelon juice nutritious component analysis shows, vitaminC, total sugar, soluble solid content and protein content decreased slightly. Watermelon juice pH increasing, watermelon juice concentrated fructose content reached 26.5% which could be refered in further development and utilization.%为了解决西瓜应季储存困难的问题,试验拟从西瓜深加工入手,既能消化掉一部分又能极大提高农产品附加值。研究了西瓜汁的澄清及澄清前后的营养成分变化及浓缩后果糖的含量。试验选用壳聚糖和助滤剂硅藻土按照不同的配比澄清西瓜汁。西瓜汁的澄清试验结果表明,壳聚糖和硅藻土含量均为400×10-6时澄清效果好,再经分析滤纸过滤,果汁透光率达到96.03%。澄清前后的西瓜汁营养成分分析表明,维生素C、总糖、可溶性固形物和蛋白质的含量略微降低。西瓜汁pH有升高,西瓜汁浓缩后果糖含量达到26.5%,可供进一步开发利用。

  1. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using watermelon rinds and their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ch.; Gangadhara, S.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2016-08-01

    Novel and bio-inspired magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using watermelon rinds (WR) which are nontoxic and biodegradable. Watermelon rind extract was used as a solvent and capping and reducing agent in the synthesis. The Fe3o4 MNPs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques (VSM). XRD studies revealed a high degree of crystalline and monophasic Fe nanoparticles of face-centered cubic stricture. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process in an excellent candidate for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles that is simple, easy to execute, pollutant free and inexpensive. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of highly stable and small-sized iron nanoparticles with a narrow distribution from 2 to 20 nm is reported. Also, the MNPs present in higher saturation magnetization (Ms) of 14.2 emu/g demonstrate tremendous magnetic response behavior. However, the synthesized iron nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for the preparation of biologically interesting 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives in high yields. These results exhibited that the synthesized Fe3O4 MNPs could be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

  2. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions. PMID:27310473

  3. Antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and clove oil: effect on selected foodborne pathogens in model food systems and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, S; Anusha, B A; Ashwini, L S; Negi, P S

    2015-09-01

    Natural additives for the control of microbial growth are in demand because consumers prefer them over synthetic ones. In the present investigation, the antibacterial activity of two natural preservatives, cinnamaldeyde and clove oil alone or in combinations was studied, and their potential as food preservative in model food systems and watermelon juice was evaluated. The cinnamaldehyde and clove essential oil showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at or below 5000 mg/l, and fractional inhibitory studies using both the oils showed synergistic effect. In artificially inoculated barley model food system and cabbage model food system, 2 MIC of oils was able to reduce the growth of the tested bacteria (more than 5 log) during 4 weeks storage at 37 °C, and similar reduction was also observed when combinations of oils were used at one eighth of MIC against Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica, and one fourth of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Natural contaminants of watermelon juice were also reduced by the combination of one fourth of MIC of the oils, which was more effective than individual 2 MICs. These findings may be useful for food applications, but their effect on sensory quality of various foods need to be studied. PMID:26344998

  4. 大棚西瓜高产栽培技术及2013-2014年上海大棚瓜果经济效益分析%High Yield Cultivation Techniques ofWatermelon in Greenhouse and Analysis on Economics of Watermelon in Greenhouse of Shanghai City in 2013-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明桃

    2014-01-01

    从介绍大棚西瓜高产栽培技术出发,分析了2013-2014年上海大棚瓜果经济效益,探讨了2014年6—8月上海地区气候格局状况,并展望了上海地区西瓜种植前景。%Starting from introducing the high yield cultivation techniques of watermelon in greenhouse, the economics of watermelon in greenhouse of Shanghai City in 2013-2014 were analyzed. The Weather patterns status of Shanghai region in June-August ,2014 were explored .Moreover ,the watermelon planting prospects of Shanghai region were prospected .

  5. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the seedling growth of grafted watermelon and the defensive enzyme activities in the seedling roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Sun, Ji-Qing; Liu, Run-Jin; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme on the seedling growth and root membrane permeability, malondiadehyde (MDA) content, and defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon growing on the continuously cropped soil. Inoculation with G. versiforme increased the seedling biomass and root activity significantly, and decreased the root membrane permeability and MDA content. The seedling shoot fresh mass, shoot dry mass, and root activity of non-grafted watermelon increased by 57.6%, 60.0% and 142.1%, and those of grafted watermelon increased by 26.7%, 28.0% and 11.0%, respectively, compared with no G. versiforme inoculation. The root membrane permeability of non-grafted seedlings (C), grafted seedlings (G), non-grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (C+M), and grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (G+M) was in the order of C >G>C+M>G+M, and the root MDA content was in the sequence of C>G>G+M>C+M. G. versiforme inoculation increased the root phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities of grafted and non-grafted seedlings significantly, and the peaks of the POD, PAL and beta-1,3-glucanase activities in the mycorrhizal roots appeared about two weeks earlier than those in the non-inoculated roots. These results indicated that inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus G. versiforme could activate the defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon seedlings, enable the seedling roots to produce rapid response to adversity, and thus, improve the capability of watermelon seedling against continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:23718001

  6. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Technique for Watermelon Seed Oil%西瓜籽油微波辅助提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昌贵; 孟宇竹; 蔡花真

    2013-01-01

    以西瓜籽为原料,研究了微波辅助提取西瓜籽油的工艺条件,通过单因素试验和正交试验,探讨了溶剂种类、微波功率、提取温度、料液比、以及提取时间对西瓜籽油得率的影响.确定最佳提取剂为正已烷,最佳工艺条件为:微波功率200 W,提取温度80℃,料液比1∶12,提取时间21 min,此条件下西瓜籽油得率可达51.77%.西瓜籽油中的脂肪酸以不饱和脂肪酸为主,尤以亚油酸质量分数最高,达62.30%.%Taking watermelon seeds as the raw materials, we studied the technical conditions for extracting watermelon seed oil by microwave - assisted method, discussed solvent types, microwave power, extraction temperature, solid - liquid ratio and the influence of extraction time on watermelon seed oil yield through single factor and orthogonal experiments. As the experimental results showed,the optimal extractant was n -hexane,and the optimal technical conditions were as follows: microwave power of 200 W, extraction temperature of 80℃ , solid - liquid ratio of 1: 12 and extraction time of 21 min. The extraction yield of watermelon seed oil could reach 51.77% in the optimal conditions. The major component of fatty acid in watermelon seed oil was unsaturated fatty acid with the highest linoleic acid content proportion of up to 62. 30% particularly.

  7. 怀化市西瓜高产优质栽培技术探讨%Discussion on High-yield Culture Techniques for Quality Watermelon in Huaihua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗继斌

    2011-01-01

    针对怀化市气候特点,从生产实践角度对西瓜高产栽培技术进行了探讨.西瓜具有根系发达、生长势强、耐早怕涝等特点,生产上实行地膜覆盖避雨栽培、增施有机肥、增施磷钾肥、合理轮作、合理安排播期等措施是西瓜优质高产栽培的关键;无籽西瓜具有特殊的生理需求,应推行一套特殊的栽培措施;析西瓜枯萎病是制约西瓜发展的瓶颈,研究推广西瓜嫁接技术是西瓜高产稳产的有力保障.%According to the climatic characters of Huaihua City, the high-yield culture techniques for watermelon were discussed from practical production aspect. Watermelon has characters of developed root system, vigorous growth, drought-resistance and waterlogging-sensitive. So, to apply measures of mulching plastic film, rain-shelter cultivation, applying organic fertilizer, phosphor and kalium, reasonable rotation and reasonable arrangement of sowing date in the production is the key point of high-yield culture techniques for quality watermelon. But because seedless watermelon has its special physiological demands, it should apply a series of special culture measures. Moreover, the fusarium wilt of watermelon is the bottle-neck restricting the development of watermelon industry, so to popularize the grafting technique of watermelon is the powerful guarantee for high and stable yield of watermelon.

  8. Tetrazolium test in the evaluation of watermelon physiological seed quality/
    Teste de tetrazólio para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de melancia

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Magda de Oliveira; Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho; Marcela Carlota Nery

    2007-01-01

    The tetrazolium test is one of the most promising methods to estimate in a fast way viability and vigor of seeds. Its usage in watermelon seeds requires some care with the imbibition and handling due to presence of mucilaginous layer adherent to the tegument. The objective of this research work was to define the imbibition time and the method of scarification for removing the mucilage, during pre – conditioning of the tetrazolium test in watermelon. Seeds from different watermellon cultivars ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFE826 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmelon lambda zap library Citrullus lanatus cDNA clone WMLS336 5' similar to acetyl...of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVC055H06 5, mRNA sequence. 60 3e-08 2 AI563047 |AI563047.1 EST00171 wate

  10. 响水县无籽西瓜品比试验%Comparison of Seedless Watermelon Cultivars in Xiangshui County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德兰; 缪学田; 吴婧; 于磊; 尤玉能

    2012-01-01

      In this paper, we carried out a comparative test of five seedless watermelon cultivars, Zhongnong Wuzi No.1, Green Field, Golden Orchid, Red Lycopene No.2, Shubao in fields. The results showed that, Zhongnong Wuzi No.1 had good comprehensive characters, high yield, regular fruit shape, high fruit-setting rate and good quality, which could be promoted in Xiangshui county and around area. Though the yield of the cultivar Green Field was relatively low, it was early maturing and possessed regular fruit shape, good quality and commodity nature, which could be promoted as an early-maturing cultivar. Compared with seedless watermelon cultivars with black pericarp, the pericarp and fresh of Golden Orchid were distinctive, and it could be promoted as a characteristic seedless watermelon cultivar. As the main cultivar in Xiangshui, Shubao had larger fruit and higher yield, which could be promoted as a late-maturing cultivar. Red Lycopene No.2 was a functional seedless watermelon cultivar with high content of lycopene, but the related quantitative detection wasn't carried out because of the limited testing condition.%  采用田间试验法对中农无籽1号、绿野无籽、金兰无籽、莱卡红无籽2号、暑宝5个无籽西瓜品种进行品比试验。试验结果表明,中农无籽1号植物学综合性状好,产量高,果形整齐,易坐果,品质优,可在响水县及周边地区大面积推广;绿野无籽产量较低,但早熟性好,果实整齐度高,品质优,商品性佳,可作为早熟无籽西瓜品种推广;金兰无籽与黑皮无籽西瓜比,果皮、皮肉都富特色,可作为特色无籽西瓜品种推广;暑宝作为本地区多年的主栽品种,果实较大,产量较高,可作为晚熟品种栽培;莱卡红无籽2号是功能型无籽西瓜品种,高含番茄红素,因本次的试验条件有限,未能做定量测试。

  11. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... morphology, but in particular for seed traits. On average, the three landraces produced a fruit yield of 11·6 t/ha and an estimated seed yield of 364 kg/ha, with no significant differences among landraces. Kaneye showed the highest stability of fruit number/ha in different field environments, suggesting this...... landrace is the best among the three for a poor growing environment, whereas Fombou and especially Musa Musa responded positively to more favourable environments. Seed weight revealed a different trend, with Fombou as the most responsive to favourable conditions, while Kaneye and Musa Musa were less...

  12. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  13. High-yield cultivation technique of grafted watermelon in young orchard%幼龄果园种植嫁接西瓜丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆道兴

    2011-01-01

    High yield and high income was acquared by cultivating grafted watermelon in young navel-orange orchard after a 3-year demonstration and extension.This paper introduced the high-yield cultivation technique of grafted watermelon in young orchard including cultivating and planting grafted plants,management measures and control of pests and diseases.%经3年的示范推广,在幼龄脐橙果园种植嫁接西瓜取得高产高效益。该文从西瓜嫁接苗培育、定植管理到病虫害防治几个方面介绍了幼龄果园种植嫁接西瓜的具体技术。

  14. Measures to Improve the Yield and Quality of Hybrid Watermelon Seed Production%西瓜杂交制种高产高质措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢淑艳

    2014-01-01

    Excellent quality and high yield are the keys to ensuring the profits of seed farmers and seed sellers. This paper gives a detailed description of measures improve the yield and quality of hybrid watermelon seed production in terms of plot selection, field management, pollination, and harvesting in a bid to provide theoretical reference for improving the yield and quality of watermelon.%优良的质量和较高的产量,是保证西瓜制种农民和种子经销单位利益的关键所在。从地块选择、田间管理、授粉、采收等方面,详细介绍提高西瓜杂交制种产量和质量的具体措施,为提高西瓜的产量和质量提供理论参考。

  15. Novel Approaches to Implementation of Pumpkin Resistance in Control of Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bulajić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is a growing frequency of viral plant diseases in epidemic proportions, the possibilities for successful control are constantly being explored. Despite the fact that integral and simultaneous employment of numerous control measures may contribute to thedecreasing amount of yield losses, especially concerning non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses, these measures are often not efficient enough. Research into the basis of resistance to viral infection and principles of its inheritance, introduction of sources of resistance in susceptible genotypes, by conventional or genetic manipulations, are very intensive for cucurbit crops, especially pumpkins. Pumpkin crops are being endangered by a great number of different viruses, among which the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV are present every year in Serbia, frequently causing epidemics.The majority of pumpkin cultivars are not resistant or tolerant to viral infections, but sources of resistance have been identified in various related species. So far, the identified sources of esistance to the ZYMV are found in Cucurbita moschata and Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus genotypes and consist of one or several major dominant genes of resistance. It is a similar case with WMV, although the sources of dominant major genes are identified in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis. The sources of resistance to CMV in the form of one dominant gene have been identified in the genotype C. moschata, although the introduction of this gene by conventional means proved to be very difficult. Besides the aforementioned, substantial efforts are being made in developing genotypes with multiple resistance against several viruses and even other pathogens, as well as genotypes with resistance to the most significant plant aphid species, through mechanisms of antixenosis or antibiosis. The other way of obtaining resistant genotypes includes genetic manipulation

  16. A RESEARCH ON SEPERATION OF FILLED SEEDS OF MELON AND WATERMELON SEEDS DIFFERENT FLOTATION TECHNIQUE AND TIME ON SEPARATING BY FLOTATION IN WATER

    OpenAIRE

    KABAŞ, Önder

    2006-01-01

    In this study, effects of flotation technique and time on separating filled seeds of watermelon and melon by flotation in water were investigated. Three different flotation techniques and times were used for each seeds. As a result of the tests, the flotation technique in which the seeds were mixed in vertical direction in water, for 1 minute flotation time gave better results than the other used techniques and times. When this technique and 1 minute time were applied, it was determined for w...

  17. Productive Adaptiveness on Introduced No-seed Watermelon Cultivars in Guizhou%无籽西瓜在贵州的生产适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宇

    2001-01-01

    The abnormal hollow core and thick peel are often found in no-seed watermelon production because of lower germinating and survival rate,slow growth of young seedlings caused by the imfavourable condition of low temperature,rainy climate and scant sunshine in spring,Guizhou.The results from the comparation and cultivation experiment for seven introduced no-seed watermelon varieties show that the mean yield,soluble solids and yield value of no-seed watermelon are higher than those of CK (seed bearing watermelon).The no-seed cultivars,Guangxi 3,Xuefeng Huapi and Hongmeigui should be popuralized in the adaptable regions of Guizhou province.%由于无籽西瓜种子本身种胚发育不全,故发芽率、成苗率低,幼苗生长缓慢,育苗困难;同时,因贵州省春季低温、多雨、寡照等不良条件,无籽西瓜生产中容易出现畸形、空心、厚皮等现象,本试验对广西3号、雪峰花皮等7个无籽西瓜品种进行了引种、品比和栽培技术试验。初步试验结果表明,无籽西瓜的平均产量、中心可溶性固形物含量、产值均高于对照有籽西瓜,广西3号、雪峰花皮、红玫瑰无籽西瓜品种可在贵州省内适宜地区推广。

  18. Effect of Hypocotyl Morphology on Survival Rate and Growth of Watermelon Seedlings Grafted on Rootstocks with Different Emergence Performance at Various Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    YETİŞİR, Halit

    2004-01-01

    The emergence performance of different rootstocks and watermelon cultivars at different temperatures, and the effect of hypocotyl structure on grafting success and survival rate were investigated. Evaluated rootstocks were Cucurbita moschata (landrace), C. maxima (Arıcan local cultivar), Strong Tosa (C. maxima x C. moschata), P360 (C. maxima x C. moschata), Luffa cylindrica, Benincasa hispida, Lagenaria siceraria (landrace), Skopje (Landrace), and 2 Lagenaria hybrids, 216 and FR Gold. The Cri...

  19. 硒砂瓜施用沼肥试验效果观察%Effect of Biogas Fertilizer on Watermelon Growing on Selenium Sand Lan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学仁; 黄素琴; 刘国华; 郝忠华

    2013-01-01

    对压砂地种植的西瓜进行了施用沼肥试验,观察了其对西瓜生长、品质和产量的影响以及对病虫害的防治情况.结果表明,施用沼肥对硒砂瓜的生长、品质和产量能产生显著的影响,对西瓜病虫害具有一定的防治效果,施用沼肥地经济效益明显高于未施肥地.为今后硒砂瓜种植大面积推广施用有机肥、实现提质增效和有效保护硒砂瓜品质品牌提供了理论依据.%An experiment was made that the biogas fertilizer was applied to selenium sand land where the watermelons were planted. The influences on watermelon growth, quality, yield and the diseases prevention were investigated. The results showed that the biogas fertilizer applied to selenium sand land could not only have a significant effect on watermelon growth, quality and yield, but also have a certain degree of effect on prevention and curing diseases causing by insect and pests, and the economic benefit is obviously higher than that from the land which was unfertilized with biogas digestate.

  20. Precise control of clamping force for watermelon picking end-effector%西瓜采摘末端执行器夹持力精确控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志勇; 张学炜; 张伟; 王琳

    2014-01-01

    为实现西瓜的机械化采摘,该文提出了采用液压驱动型末端执行器采摘大型果实的思路。在抓取西瓜时,为避免末端执行器夹持力不稳定引起的果实损伤,需对夹持力进行精确控制,该文建立了末端执行器负载模拟平台和AMESim&Simulink联合仿真模型,模拟西瓜采摘夹持力的加载情况。针对执行器夹持力加载过程中位置控制系统对力控制系统产生干扰,影响夹持力精确加载的问题,该文基于速度同步控制原理,设计了简化的加载误差补偿环节,开展了加载误差补偿理论、仿真及试验研究。结果表明,速度同步控制方法能够有效地减小加载误差,提高末端执行器负载模拟精度。该研究可为末端执行器输出力的精确控制和抓取控制策略提供参考。%Certain agricultural work requires a very stable robot end-effector to reduce vibration and damage to products. However, the structures of conventional articulated robots tend to be too weak to manipulate heavy objects, such as the watermelon. To achieve mechanized harvesting of the watermelon, we compared the characteristics of different end-effectors with the motor, pneumatic and hydraulic drives. By contrast, the hydraulic drive has many advantages, such as high power-weight ratio, compact structure and convenient layout. Therefore, the end-effector with hydraulic drive is more suitable for heavy fruit harvesting such as the watermelon. The hydraulic drive system based on force perception can output appropriate clamping force according to actual situation. When picking robot crawls and picks, it needs to avoid the damage to fruits and vegetables caused by unstable clamping force and to achieve the precise control of the clamping force for picking robot end-effector. Therefore, how to improve output force’s control precision of the valve control cylinder and reduce interference are key to improve the picking performance. Two

  1. 福州大棚小型无籽西瓜品种筛选试验%Comparison of Small Seedless Watermelon Cultivars in Plastic Greenhouse in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小红; 赵依杰; 林航; 林强; 陈贻钊

    2013-01-01

    为了筛选出适合福州地区大棚种植的小型无籽西瓜品种,引进了10个小型无籽西瓜品种,开展了早春大棚种植对比试验。综合评价结果表明,金兰、小宝、墨童2号和蜜童等品种综合表现较好,植株生长势强,抗病性、抗逆性较强,丰产优质,综合性状佳,可进一步参加小型无籽西瓜品种生产试验。%We carried out the comparative test of ten introduced small seedless watermelon cultivars, in order to screen out the suitable small seedless watermelon cultivars for plastic greenhouse cultivation in Fuzhou. The results showed that, the cultivars Jinlan, Xiaobao, Motong No.2 and Mitong had better comprehensive characters, with strong growth vigor, strong disease resistance and stress resistance, good quality and high yield, so they could be involved in the further production trail of small seedless watermelon cultivars.

  2. 籽用西瓜种质的苗期枯萎病抗性鉴定%Identification of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Edible Seed Watermelon Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宋楠; 王惠林; 郑健; 高强; 苏瑞

    2013-01-01

    Artificial inoculation of 62 inbreds derived from egusi watermelon, edible seed watermelon and regular watermelon to test their resistance to Fusarium wilt. Variation of resistance was observed in the test. Nineteen lines showed intermediate resistance,42 lines showed low level resistance and 1 line was susceptible. High level resistance was not found among the materials tested.%通过室内苗期枯萎病人工接种鉴定,对62份来源于籽用西瓜、黏籽西瓜及普通西瓜杂交后代自交纯系进行枯萎病抗性鉴定,显示出不同自交系之间抗病性的差异,供试材料中鉴定出19份中抗、42份轻抗和1份感病材料,没有发现免疫和高抗材料.

  3. 干热处理对西瓜种子活力的影响%Effects of Different Dry Heat Treatments on Seed Vigor of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐炎英; 李玲; 童龙; 闵子扬; 李涵; 孙小武

    2014-01-01

    以西瓜种子黑媚娘为试验材料,在70,75,80℃温度下分别处理24,48,72 h,研究不同干热处理对西瓜种子活力的影响。试验结果表明,70℃干热处理对西瓜种子发芽特性、发芽势均没有影响,75,80℃处理降低了西瓜种子活力,与对照有显著性差异。各干热处理后的种子在老化3d后,活力大大降低。%In order to study the effects of different dry heat treatments on seed vigor of watermelon, we took the seeds of watermelon cultivar Heimeiniang as test material, and put the seeds at 70 ℃, 75℃ and 80 ℃ for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively. The results showed that, the dry heat treatment under 70℃had no effect on seed germination and germination energy of Heimeiniang. While the two treatments under 75℃ and 80℃ reduced the seed vigor of watermelon significantly compared with that of the control treatment. We also found that the vitality of the treated seeds greatly reduced after artificial aging for three days.

  4. High-yielding Cultural Techniques of Watermelon in Mountain Area%高山西瓜高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张久玲

    2011-01-01

    The climate with short,cool summer in mountain area had adverse effects on the yield of watermelon.In order to overcome the effects,this paper summarized the measures about high-yielding cultivation techniques of watermelon in the mountain area.These measures included variety selection,field selection,sowing dating,nutrient soil configuration,soaking and germination of watermelon seed,seedbed and field managing,etc.%为克服高山区夏季气候凉爽、炎热期短对夏季西瓜产量的不利影响,从品种选择、地块选择、播期安排、营养土配制、浸种催芽、苗床管理,以及大田栽培具体措施等方面,提出一套高山西瓜高产优质栽培技术。

  5. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  6. Effect of Weak Light on Vegetative Growth of Watermelon%弱光对西瓜植株营养生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭尚; 王宇楠; 陈曙霞; 许晶

    2014-01-01

    为明确弱光条件对西瓜植株营养生长的影响,以100%全自然光照为对照,设遮光率50%全时段遮光和遮光率50%间断1 d遮光2个处理,并分析了不同弱光处理对植株株高、叶长、叶宽、叶绿素含量等指标的影响。结果表明:50%全时段遮光处理的西瓜幼苗出现徒长,植株茎高、叶片长度、叶片宽度和叶柄长度均>50%间断遮光和对照处理,但茎粗和开花率最低;叶片叶绿素a和叶绿素b含量有着相同的变化趋势,均随西瓜叶片的生长呈先增加后降低趋势,且含量<对照和50%间断遮光处理;叶片MDA含量>对照处理,但<50%间断遮光处理。%To clarify the effect of weak light conditions on vegetative growth of watermelon , there were two shading treatments, which were shading rate of 50% with full time shading and shading rate of 50% with shading of interval 1 day, taking 100% all natural light as the control, and the indicators of plant height, leaf length, leaf width,content of chlorophyll and so on of the plant under different shading treatments were measured and the effects were analyzed.The results showed that watermelon seedlings appeared leggy under shading rate of 50% with full time shading, and the stem height, leaf length, leaf width and petiole length of which were all larger than that of discontinuity shading and CK, while the stem diameter and flowering rate were the lowest, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of watermelon leaf had the same trend , they first increased and then decreased with the growth of watermelon leaf, and the contents were all lower than that of discontinuity shading and CK.MDA content of watermelon leaf was higher than that of CK, and lower than that of discontinuity shading.

  7. 无籽西瓜种子萌发障碍及萌发技术概述%An Overview of Seed Germination Barriers and Technology for Triploid Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童龙; 闵子扬; 唐炎英; 李玲; 李涵; 王志伟; 成娟; 蔡雁平; 孙小武

    2014-01-01

    三倍体无籽西瓜种子发芽率低是影响无籽西瓜生产的主要因素,探索无籽西瓜种子促萌发技术显得尤为重要。概述了无籽西瓜种子萌发的生理障碍,同时简述了浸种、破壳、种子引发及药剂处理等几项促进种子萌发的技术。%The low germination rate of triploid watermelon seeds was the main factor affecting the production of seedless watermelon, so it was particularly important to explore germination technology for seedless watermelon seeds. This article summarized the physiological barriers for seed germination of seedless watermelon, and introduced the promoting technology for seed germination of seedless watermelon, including seed soaking, seed coat breaking, seed priming and seed treating.

  8. Interferência de plantas daninhas no cultivo da melancia Weeds interference periods in watermelon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de G Maciel

    2008-03-01

    crop is an agricultural activity explored regionally, representing one of the most important sources of family income in small cities of the Médio Paranapanema, São Paulo State, Brazil, where nowadays, significant changes in the yield process are verified, changing from intensive labor to the use of promising technologies, as weed management, for instance. An experiment was carried out at Oscar Bressane municipal district, São Paulo State, Brazil, to study the weed interference on watermelon cultivation, in 2002/2003. Statistical procedure was based on randomized blocks with ten treatments and four replications, represented by plots with useful area of 18 m², containing four water melon plants and infestation of Sidaspp, Brachiaria humidicola, Commelina benghalensisand Portulaca oleraceaspecies. Weed infestation was estimated through randomized samples from the plots, using an iron drained square with 0,5 m sides. Treatments consisted of checks with and without hand weeded and different periods of weeds control, so that, crop was sustained in weeds presence or absence up to 7; 14; 28; 56 and 63 days after emergency (DAE. Initial period occurrence of possible coexistence greater than the final period established the Critical Period of Interference Prevention from the 9th to the 13th days (CPIP = 9-13 DAE. The reduction in yield due to the weed interference during all water melon crop cycle was about 41,4%. The diameter and thickness of fruits peel were also influenced by the coexistence with weed infestation during all the crop cycle, with decreases of 7,9% and 23,3%, respectively, against the characteristics length and diameter of branch and ºBrix of fruits pulp, when significant differences were not observed.

  9. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2005-06-01

    populações de plantas prolíficas e de frutos pequenos.Genetic dissimilarity among 31 watermelon genotypes was evaluated through the canonic analysis and cluster analysis (Tocher Method and Ward Method based on Mahalanobis distance (D²ii' Thirty lines obtained from accesses collected in the Northeast of Brazil and the cultivar Crimson Sweet were evaluated to determine the number of days to appearance of the first male and female flower (NDM and NDF; number of shoots to the appearance of the first male and female flower (NGM and NGF; number of fruits per plant (NFP; length of the main vine (CRP; fruit mean weight (PMF; total solid soluble content (TSS; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF and rind thickness average (EMC. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replicates and seven plants per plot. The characteristics that contributed more to the genetic dissimilarity among the genotypes were number of fruit per plant, axial diameter of fruit, total solid soluble content and fruit mean weight. Three clusters were formed by Tocher's optimization method and by the Ward Method, while four clusters were formed by the graphic dispersion, based on two first canonic variables. In the last case, cluster I was composed of seven lines from Pernambuco and one line from Bahia; cluster II was formed by all the 21 lines from Maranhão; clusters III and IV were composed of line 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco and of 'Crimson Sweet', respectively. Lines 87-019.021 and 87-019.022 were the closest related, while line 87-019.023 and Crimson Sweet presented the biggest dissimilarity by the Mahalanobis distance (D²ii'. The hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from the cluster II will be the most promising. Hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from cluster I will be interesting to obtain populations of prolific plants, which give small fruits.

  10. 西瓜新品种'裕农新1号'%A New Seedless Watermelon Cultivar 'Yunongxin 1'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童莉; 王欣; 段士民; 王云鹤; 陈英; 尹林克; 荆卫民

    2011-01-01

    '裕农新1号'为中晚熟三倍体无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期95 d.果实高球形,果面绿色布深绿条带,果肉红色,品质优,中心糖度达12%.平均单瓜质量6.0~7.0 kg,一般产量40~45 t·hm-2.商品性好,耐贮运.%‘Yunongxin 1' is a kind of late maturing seedless watermelon. Its growing period is about 95 days. The fruit is high-round and flesh color is red. Pericarp is green with deep green stripes. Fruit soluble solids content is 12%. The average single fruit weight is 6.0 - 7.0 kg and the yield is 40 - 45 t· hm-2.It has good quality and storability.

  11. 开封地区早春西瓜育苗病虫害防治措施%Diseases and Pests Control Measures of Early Spring Watermelon Seedling in Kaifeng Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉娟

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and pests control measures of early spring watermelon seedling in Kaifeng area were introduced,including infectious disease,noninfectious disease,pest etc.,so as to provide the reference for the management of early spring watermelon seedling in Kaifeng area.%介绍了开封地区早春西瓜育苗病虫害防治措施,包括易发生的侵染性病害、非侵染性病害和虫害等,以期为开封地区西瓜早春育苗管理提供参考。

  12. Study on Allelopathy of Root Extract from Grafted Watermelon%嫁接西瓜根系浸提液化感作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑芳; 吴芳芳

    2011-01-01

    Watermelon itself as receptor, the allelopathy of root water extract from grafted watermelon was studied by bioassay methods. The result showed that compared with the control, watermelon seed germination exhibited allelopathic promotion in 0.01 g/ml,0.02 g/ml and 0.04 g/ml root extract treatments,seed germination exhibited allelopathic inhibition in 0. 08 g/ml root extract treatment,in which the allelopathic potential of 0. 01 g/ml and 0.02 g/ml root extract treatment was better. In terms of watermelon seedling growth,root length or plant height improved and plant dry weight increased in 0. 01 g/ml and 0. 02 g/ml root extract treatments, which played allelopathic promotion on seedling growth. In 0.04 g/ml and 0.08 g/ml root extract treatments, watermelon seedling growth was inhibited, and the allelopathic potential of 0. 08 g/ml root extract treatment was the best. The change of MDA content explained that plant was injury by high concentration extract treatment and growth was inhibited. As a whole, allelopathy of root water extract from grafted watermelon was stimulatory in lower concentration and inhibitory in higher concentration.%以西瓜自身为受体,采用生物测定的方法,研究嫁接西瓜根系水浸液的化感作用.结果表明,与对照相比,0.01、0.02、0.04 g/ml浸提液处理对种子萌发有化感促进作用,0.08 g/ml浸提液处理表现为化感抑制作用,0.01 g/ml和0.02g/ml处理化感强度较大.从西瓜幼苗生长状况来看,0.01 g/ml和0.02 g/ml根系浸提液处理促进根系生长或植株苗的生长,苗干重增加,对西瓜幼苗生长起化感促进作用,0.04 g/ml和0.08 g/ml浸提液处理对西瓜幼苗生长起抑制作用,0.08 g/ml浸提液处理化感强度最大.幼苗体内MDA含量的变化,表明在较高浓度浸提液处理下,植株受到伤害,进而生长受抑.嫁接西瓜根系浸提液的化感作用整体表现为低促高抑.

  13. 早春西瓜嫁接育苗技术规程%Cultivation Technique Regulations of Grafting Watermelon Seedling in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀瑞; 李冰; 刁春英; 武彦荣; 张强; 潘秀清

    2013-01-01

      为规范河北省早春西瓜嫁接育苗生产,促进西瓜产业的可持续发展,依据国家和行业标准,结合河北省西瓜育苗生产实际情况,对早春西瓜嫁接育苗的设施、基质用料选择和消毒、砧木与接穗的选择、种子消毒处理、嫁接技术方法、嫁接后的管理、病虫害防治技术以及嫁接壮苗标准等提出具体要求。该规程(标准编号: DB 13/T 1649—2012)对河北省早春西瓜嫁接育苗生产具有重要的现实指导意义。%To standardize grafting watermelon seedling production and promote the sustainable development of watermelon industry in Hebei Province , the cultivation technique regulations were put forward according to the national and industry standards and combining with the production current situation , including facilities and substrate materials selection and disinfection, stock and scion selection, seed disinfection treatment, grafting method, the management, the safety control measures of diseases and insect pests and grafting plant standard , and production archives, which had great practical guiding significances for the production of early spring grafting watermelon seedling in Hebei Province.

  14. Genetic characteristics of sugar content in watermelon fruit%西瓜果实糖分含量遗传特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范涛; 张莉; 张建农

    2014-01-01

    以低糖西瓜(籽瓜)与高糖西瓜杂交的 F1代、F2代、F1代与双亲的回交代及其亲本为材料,在西瓜果实成熟期测定果实可溶性固形物、可溶性糖(蔗糖、葡萄糖和果糖)含量,分析研究果实葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖含量的遗传规律。结果表明:西瓜果实葡萄糖、果糖含量属数量性状遗传,即多基因决定的性状,蔗糖含量可能由一对显性或不完全显性的主效基因决定着低水平的含量,还有数对基因决定着高蔗糖或低蔗糖的含量。%Parents and progeny were P1 (edible seed watermelon)and P2 (high sugar watermelon for flesh),progeny included F1 ,F2 and F1 back cross with parents were used to study on genetic characteristics of sugar content watermelon fruit (sucrose,glucose and fructose).The results indicated that fructose and glucose content were quantitative traits controlled by multiple genes.One pair of dominant or incomplete dominant maj or genes determined low level of sucrose content.There were several pairs of genes deter-mined a high or a low level of sucrose content.

  15. Allelopathy Effect of Ginger Rhizome Extract on Watermelon and Bitter Gourd%生姜浸提液对西瓜和苦瓜的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖佳; 张莉; 李焕秀; 唐懿

    2014-01-01

    以不同浓度的生姜根茎浸提液为供体,以早佳8424西瓜和大白苦瓜为受体,采用培养皿滤纸法,初步研究了不同浓度生姜根茎浸提液对西瓜和苦瓜的化感作用。试验结果表明,当生姜根茎浸提液在2.5~20 g/L的浓度范围内,对西瓜和苦瓜的种子萌发和幼苗生长均具有促进作用,在低浓度时促进作用较为明显,随着浓度的升高促进作用减弱。当生姜浸提液浓度为2.5 g/L时,西瓜幼苗生长最好;浸提液浓度为5~10 g/L时,苦瓜幼苗生长最好。%We studied the allelopathy effect of ginger rhizome extract with different concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth of watermelon cultivar Zaojia 8424 and bitter gourd cultivar Dabikugua by using the culture plate and filter paper culture bioassay method. The results showed that 2.5-20 g/L ginger rhizome extract promoted the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelon and bitter gourd, and at lower concentration, the promoting effect of ginger rhizome extract was greater than that of the higher concentration, in addition, the promoting effect weakened gradually as the concentration increased. 2.5 g/L was the most beneficial concentration for watermelon seedling growth, while 5-10 g/L was the most advantageous concentration for bitter gourd seedling growth.

  16. 嫁接西瓜根系分泌物的化感效应及其化感物质的鉴定%Allelopathic effects and identification of allelochemicals in root exudates of grafted watermelons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阳霞; 唐海东; 李焕秀; 严泽生; 郭学君

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the allelopathic effects of root exudates from the watermelons grafted with pumpkin and calabash as rootstocks,effects of root exudates from the watermelons grafted on the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons were researched.The Allelochemicals of root exudates were detected by GC-MS.The results showed that the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons were increased when the root exudates were in low concentration,but decreased in high concentration.The root exudates promoted the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons at 2.5 μL·L-1.The root exudates began to restrain the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons at 10 μL·L-1.When the concentrations were lower,the root exudates from grafted watermelons had more effects on the seed germination and seedling vegetal promotion than own-rooted watermelons.The inhibiting effect of grafted watermelons was less than that of own-rooted watermelon at high concentration of root exudates.And the identification of the allelochemicals in root exudates of grafted watermelons indicated that the categories and the relative contents were different from the own-root plants.The results showed that grafting changed the categories and the relative contents of root exudate components and changed allelopathic effects.Furthermore,there was obvious grafting superiority.So grafting was one of the effective methods for relieving the continuous cropping obstacles caused by autotoxicity.%为了研究嫁接西瓜根系分泌物的化感效应,采用南瓜、葫芦作砧木嫁接西瓜,研究了嫁接西瓜根系分泌物对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,并对嫁接西瓜根系分泌物中的化感物质进行了GC-MS检测。结果表明,各处理对西瓜种子发芽和幼苗生长均呈现出低促高抑的规律。在根系分泌物浓缩液浓度为2.5μL.L-1时,促进西瓜种子的发芽和幼苗的生长。在浓度为10μL.L-1、20μL.L-1

  17. Screening on Chilling Tolerance Appraisal Index of Watermelon%西瓜耐冷性鉴定指标的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇薇; 羊杏平; 范淑英; 刘广; 张曼; 徐锦华

    2014-01-01

    12 different genotypes of watermelon seedings were studied in low temperature stress treatment,and selected three different cold tolerant watermelon materials. The cold tolerance of 3 watermelon materials seeds during the germination were analyzed with five different temperature, study of low temperature,weak light resistance in wa-termelon seedings and the change of growth characteristic,photosynthesis and physiological and biochemical charac-teristics under low temperature, to develop an efficient, comprehensive appraisal index and evaluation method for cold-resistance watermelon,the purpose of this study was to provide theoretical basis for the actual production breed-ing for low temperature,weak light watermelon germplasm resources. The results showed that the chilling injury in-dex of each genotype was different under different processing time. It is concluded that each type of cold resistance strength through the determination of chilling injury index in 6 and 8 days treatment,and choose Hongyeyihao as cold tolerant germplasm,moderately cold resistance varieties gerplasm Kangbingsumi and cold sensitive germplasm Chenglan. Under 15 ℃,Hongyeyihao germination rate,relative germination rate,length of radicle and relative radi-cle were the highest,15℃ can be used as a watermelon seed germination period of low temperature resistance iden-tification of appropriate temperature;Date of the beginning of seed germination and relative germination rate,relative radicle length can be used as a watermelon bud good low temperature resistance appraisal indicators. After low temper-ature treatment,plant growth,photosynthetic rate decreased,the enzyme activity of leaves increased,MDA content in-creased,the change range of each index associated with varieties of low temperature treatment intensity and its cold re-sistance. Plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, root dry weight, the leaf net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , Chl a/b ratio,MDA content as watermelon varieties

  18. Watermelon stomach: clinical aspects and treatment with argon plasma coagulation Ectasia vascular do antro gástrico ("watermelon stomach": aspectos clínicos e tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton M. Chaves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a disorder whose pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. The endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation has been considered one of the best endoscopic therapeutic options. AIM: To analyze the endoscopic and clinical features of gastric antral vascular ectasia and its response to the argon plasma coagulation treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied and classified into two groups: group 1 - whose endoscopic aspect was striped (watermelon or of the diffuse confluent type; group 2 - diffuse spotty nonconfluent endoscopic aspect. RESULTS: Group 1 with eight patients, all having autoimmune antibodies, but one, whose antibodies were not searched for. Three were cirrhotic and three had hypothyroidism. All had gastric mucosa atrophy. In group 2, with 10 patients, all had non-immune liver disease, with platelet levels below 90.000. Ten patients were submitted to argon plasma coagulation treatment, with 2 to 36 months of follow-up. Lesions recurred in all patients who remained in the follow-up program and one did not respond to treatment for acute bleeding control. CONCLUSION: There seem to be two distinct groups of patients with gastric antral vascular ectasia: one related to immunologic disorders and other to non-immune chronic liver disease and low platelets. The endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation had a high recurrence in the long-term evaluation.RACIONAL: "Watermelon stomach" ou ectasia vascular do antro gástrico é uma doença de etiopatogenia desconhecida. O tratamento endoscópico através da coagulação com plasma de argônio é considerado uma das melhores opções terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e endoscópicos da ectasia vascular do antro gástrico e a resposta ao tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram estudados e classificados em dois grupos: grupo I - oito pacientes que

  19. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E- glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  20. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael; Schroder, Robert F W; Matsuo, Koharto; Li, Betty W

    2002-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E-glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW) that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillusspp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose) makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide. PMID:15455053

  1. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A; Meaney, Mary P; Knab, Amy M; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function. PMID:27556488

  2. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  3. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  4. Experimentation of Intercropping of Darkgreen Skin Seedless Water-melon with Cotton%黑皮无籽西瓜新品种瓜棉套种栽培比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何楠; 刘文革; 李平; 戴照义; 王运强; 邱文兵; 胡祯; 赵胜杰; 路绪强; 朱红菊

    2014-01-01

    无籽西瓜瓜棉套种是湖北省荆州地区的主要栽培模式,为了筛选出适合荆州地区栽培的黑皮无籽西瓜新品种,以中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所自育的13个品种(组合)在松滋市八宝镇群星村进行瓜棉套种栽培比较试验,比较各品种间的综合性状。结果表明:‘长江1号’、‘长江2号’和‘长江3号’3个黑皮无籽西瓜品种综合表现较好,适合在湖北省荆州及周边瓜区栽培。%13 seedless watermelon varieties bred by Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, CAAS were tested in Ba Bao Coun-ty,Songzi City under the model of watermelon and cotton intercropping. Three black skin seedless watermelon varieties‘Yangtze River No.1’,‘Yangtze River No. 2’and‘Yangtze River No.3’showed good performance in the test. These variet-ies are suitable for cultivation in Hubei province and Jingzhou area for the watermelon and cotton intercropping.

  5. 基于机器视觉的西瓜子外观品质检测与分类%Detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality based on machine vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡爱; 柯霜; 王凌; 许宏; 王斌锐; 郑恩辉

    2014-01-01

    A machine vision system is developed to investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality. The main characteristics of watermelon seeds appearance including area, perimeter, roughness and minimum enclosing rectangle are calculated by image analysis. Least Square Support Vector Machine optimized by genetic algorithm is applied for the classification of watermelon seeds exterior quality, and the broken melon seeds, normal melon seeds and high-quality seeds are distinguished finally. The experimental results show that the watermelon seeds exterior quality can be well detected and classified by machine vision based on least squares support vector machine.%采用机器视觉获取了西瓜子的面积、周长、最小外接矩和圆形度等外形特征,而后使用遗传算法优化的最小二乘支持向量机算法对西瓜子外观品质进行分类识别,最终实现了破损瓜子、普通瓜子和优质瓜子的区分。实验结果表明,基于最小二乘支持向量机分类的西瓜子外形检测方法能够很好地实现西瓜子外观品质的识别检测。

  6. 内蒙古黄河灌区籽用西瓜种质资源调查%INVESTIGATION ON GERMALASM RESOURCES OF SEED- USING WATERMELON IN YELLOW RIVER IRRIGATED AREAS OF INNER MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 张岩; 杨燕; 刘杰才; 靳润岁; 杨文秀

    2011-01-01

    Yellow River Irrigated Areas of Inner Mongolia is one of mainly production area of seed - using watermelon in china. To grasp germplasm resources condition,we investigated on germplasm resources of seed - using watermelon in yellow river irrigated areas of Inner Mongolia in 2008 and 2009 , compared growth characteristics of different Investigation site and preliminarily definited cultivar type of seed - usiing watermelon, the study may supply theroy basis for variety breeding and establishing of efficient cultivated technology of seed - using watermelon.%内蒙古黄河灌区是我国籽用西瓜主产区之一,栽培历史久远,籽用西瓜种质资源丰富.为全面掌握当地地区籽用西瓜种质资源,2009年和2010年连续两年开展籽用西瓜种质资源调查,比较各调查点分布籽瓜的生态生活习性,初步查清了内蒙古黄河灌区分布的籽瓜栽培品种(类型),为籽用西瓜规范化、标准化生产及高效栽培技术开发和品种选育提供理论依据.

  7. Effects of Application Level of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizers on Yield and Quality of Watermelon%氮钾肥用量对西瓜产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟爱红; 崔世明; 杨宜生; 王浩; 王华

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we studied the application level of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on watermelon yield and quality in greenhouse to improve the local fertilizing level of watermelon. The results showed that the yield of watermelon was relatively higher and the pulp of watermelon was sweet while application amounts of pure nitrogen and potassium oxide were 20 kg/667 m2 and 10 kg/667 m2 respectively.%  研究对大棚西瓜产量和品质影响较大的氮素和钾素的施用水平,有利于促进西瓜施肥水平的提高。以甜丽特三号西瓜为材料,开展氮、钾各4个用肥水平的试验。试验结果表明,每667 m2施用纯氮20 kg、氧化钾10 kg,既能使西瓜获得较高产量,又能保证瓜瓤具有较高的甜度。

  8. 高压二氧化碳对鲜榨西瓜汁杀菌效果和风味的影响%Effects of High Pressure Carbon Dioxide on Microbiological and Flavor Profiles of Fresh Watermelon Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘野; 赵晓燕; 邹磊; 胡小松; 宋焕禄

    2012-01-01

    为研究高压二氧化碳对鲜榨西瓜汁的杀菌效果及对风味的影响,采用高压二氧化碳(HPCD)技术对鲜榨西瓜汁进行处理。以95℃、1min热处理西瓜汁作为对照,考察30MPa、60min HPCD处理对西瓜汁中菌落总数、霉菌和酵母菌总数及典型风味化合物含量的影响;并探讨两种处理西瓜汁在4℃、30d贮藏过程中上述指标的变化情况。结果表明:95℃、1min热处理的杀菌效果略好于30MPa、60min HPCD处理,采用两种处理西瓜汁的微生物指标均符合《果、蔬汁饮料卫生标准》的要求;并且保质期满足鲜榨西瓜汁的消费要求。30MPa、60min HPCD处理对西瓜汁的典型风味化合物含量影响较小;贮藏过程中风味变化也较小。总体看来,HPCD处理更适合于鲜榨西瓜汁的加工。%In this study, the effect of high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) on the microbial indexes and flavor of fresh watermelon juice was investigated. The total bacteria, mold and yeast count, and typical flavor compounds of watermelon juice after treated with HPCD for 60 min at 30 MPa were analyzed and compared to those of samples thermally treated at 95℃ for 1 rain. Microbial analysis was carried out on watermelon juice during 30 days of storage at 4 ℃.The results showed that better sterilization results were achieved by the thermal treatment than the HPCD treatment. The microbial indexes of watermelon juice samples sterilized by the different treatment methods were in line with the requirement of the national standard Hygienic Standard for Fruit and Vegetable Juice and could meet consumer demands for fresh watermelon juice within the shelf life. The HPCD treatment had little impact on typical flavor compounds of watermelon juice and little changes were observed during storage. In general, HPCD treatment is more suitable than heat treatment for fresh watermelon juice production.

  9. 控释肥对西瓜生长发育的影响%Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer on Growth and Development of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元秀; 井大炜; 刘春生

    2011-01-01

    Taking the watermelon Heitong K-8 as meterial,the field experiment was conducted to study effect of controlled-release fertilizer on growth period,plant growth and yield of watermelon.The results showed that controlled-release fertilizer could promote wat%以黑彤K-8西瓜为试验材料,用田间小区试验的方法研究了控释肥对西瓜生育期、植株生长及产量的影响。结果表明,控释肥能促进西瓜早熟3~6 d;相对于习惯施肥,控释肥对植株的生长也有明显的作用;而且对西瓜的产量具有显著的提高作用,在等养分施用情况下与习惯施肥相比,增产幅度为22.32%,而且在减少20%养分用量的情况下,增产幅度仍可达到10.60%;等量控释肥、减量控释肥、减氮控释肥处理的肥料生产率分别为习惯施肥处理的2.28、2.01、1.32倍。

  10. Determination of Phosphorus by Spectrophotometry in Watermelon Soils%分光光度法测定西瓜地土壤中的有效磷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨森; 吴勇; 徐莲; 杨留勇

    2014-01-01

    Determination of phosphorus by spectrophotometry in watermelon soils was measured.The results showed that spectrophotometry had some advantages including simple, fast, convenient sampling and a good linear relationship. Watermelon in the 1st, the 4 th, the 7 th and the 8 th greenhouse were lack of quality,for example growingand appearance.Its phosphorus content in soil had a certain relationship.With the results,it could be used as a local application basis of phosphate and nitrogen.%采用分光光度法测定西瓜地土壤中的有效磷,结果表明:其操作简单、快捷、取样方便,线性关系良好,1号、4号、7号、8号瓜棚中西瓜长势、外观品质均较其他棚欠缺,与其土壤中有效磷含量有一定关系,试验结果可作为当地瓜农施用磷肥和氮肥的依据。

  11. 反渗透浓缩籽瓜汁的实验研究%Experimental study on reverse osmosis concentration of seed-watermelon juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建国

    2012-01-01

    The reverse osmosis membrane seed-watermelon juice processing was introduced.The relationship between pressure,temperature,concentration and permeate flux in concentrated process were studied with reverse osmosis.Experimental results proved that the retention of valuable components of this system was approximation 100%.On inorganic salt interception rate was greater than 98%.The end of seed-watermelon juice concentrate concentration was at 20Brix.Case of other things,membrane flux was proportional to the pressure and the liquid temperature.Membrane flux and concentration had an inverse relationship.%采用反渗透技术对籽瓜汁进行浓缩,分别研究了膜通量、压力、料液温度、籽瓜汁浓度等参数之间的关系,结果表明:反渗透膜对籽瓜汁有效成分的截留率接近100%,对无机盐截留率大于98%,籽瓜汁的最终浓缩浓度为20Brix;其它条件不变的情况下,膜通量与压力、料液温度成正比关系,与料液浓度成反比关系。

  12. 无籽西瓜水浮育苗嫁接技术%Grafting Techniques for Water Floating Seedlings of Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泉; 马陆平; 朱别房; 苑莉莉; 郭建新; 易学赛

    2013-01-01

    Water floating seedling grafting techniques for seedless watermelon is taking seedling tray as the carrier, mixed substrate as the foundation, and using root stock, water floating seedling bred with nutrient solution and grafting techniques as support, which is the latest achievement in China consist of soilless culture and grafting technique. During production of seedless watermelon, these grafting techniques can effectively solve the occurrence of blight (soil borne disease), and increase yield and benefit. The technical application showed a broad prospects and huge development potential.%无籽西瓜水浮育苗嫁接技术,以育苗盘为载体、混配基质为基础,以砧木、营养液水浮育苗与嫁接技术为支撑,是一项集无土栽培与嫁接技术有机融合的国内最新成果。在无籽西瓜生产中,能有效解决土传病害枯萎病的发生,增产增效,其技术应用表现出了广阔的发展前景和巨大的开发潜力。

  13. Development of the Seedless Watermelon Variety “Longfa 88”%无籽西瓜新品种隆发88无籽的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧小球; 邓大成; 孙小武; 莫小平; 左浦阳; 谭秋英; 杨仁喜; 夏立平

    2012-01-01

    隆发88无籽(SA9801×BC219)是湖南省瓜类研究所最新育成的优质、丰产、抗病耐湿无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期105 d左右,果实发育期约35 d.易坐果.单果质量7 kg左右,667 m2产量3 800~4 500 kg.果实圆球形,果形指数1.03~1.05,果皮墨绿色,瓤鲜红色.中心可溶性固形物含量12%.生长势强,适于我国各西瓜栽培区种植.%Seedless watermelon variety "Longfa 88" (SA9801xBC219) was developed by Hunan Cucurbit Research Institute. It produces high quality and high yield with the strong plant under humid condition. The fruit matures 105 days form sowing and 35 days from flowering. Single fruit weigh about 7 kg and the 667 m2 yield is about 3 800-4 500 kg. The sugar content is 12%. It has been grown successfully in many seedless watermelon production areas.

  14. Study on Technique of Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Seedless Watermelon%无籽西瓜的组培快繁技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许念芳; 刘少军; 臧传江; 兰成云; 李燕; 焦健; 舒锐

    2013-01-01

    The optimal culture conditions for regeneration plants were studied with the cotyledon of seedless watermelon cultivar Mutong as explants.The results showed that the most suitable medium for buds induced from cotyledon of seedless watermelon was MS + 2.0 mg/L 6-BA + 0.1 mg/L NAA,and the medium of 1/2MS + 0.3 mg/L NAA was the best for rooting culture of adventitious buds.%以无籽西瓜“牧童”的种子为材料,以其子叶为外植体,研究了其再生植株的适宜培养条件.结果表明:MS+2.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA是子叶诱导的最适宜培养基.不定芽在添加0.3 mg/L N从的1/2MS培养基上生根效果最好.

  15. Comparison Experiment of vSmail Seedless Watermelon in Plastic Greenhouse%大棚小果型无籽西瓜品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利波; 惠长敏; 张波; 朱晓天; 王永卓; 陈莹; 马艺荞

    2012-01-01

    Through the comparison and evaluation of the phenological period ,field growth performance,characters of fruit,quality and yieht of the 10 introduced small seedless watermelons fruit varieties of,we preliminary screen lvye,jinlan,jingling and xuefenghongbao of the four varieties are suitable for early spring canopy production plan.At the same time they provide basic data to speed up the application and promotion of small seedless watermelons of jilin provinee.%通过对引进的10个小果型无籽西瓜品种物候期、田间生长表现、果实性状、品质及产量的比较和评价,初步筛选出绿野、金兰、京玲和雪峰红宝等4个品种,适合于早春大棚生产种植,同时为加快吉林省小果型无籽西瓜品种的应用推广提供基础数据支撑。

  16. 西瓜嫁接砧木资源的初步筛选研究%Evaluation of Watermelon Rootstock Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马双武; 尚建立; 王吉明

    2012-01-01

    为了获得优良的西瓜嫁接砧本,对70份砧木资源进行了西瓜嫁接栽培试验.结果表明:南瓜仍然是西瓜嫁接最好的砧木,增产效果最好,选用适当的品种可以提高抗病性、改善果实品质:其次是葫芦,嫁接的西瓜品质较好,选用适当的品种可以提高抗病性和产量.已选出具有较大利用价值的南瓜砧木5份,葫芦砧木3份.%Seventy rootstock germplasm were evaluated for selecting proper rootstock for watermelon. Squash rootstocks are the best choice for watermelon grafting because the improved yield,quality and disease resistance they offered. The second group is the Lagenaria bottle gourd rootstocks. Five squash rootstock varieties and 3 bottle gourd rootstock varieties were selected for further testing and commercial application.

  17. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development. PMID:12552151

  18. 籽瓜氮、磷、钾肥料效应的研究%Study of Effects of NPK Fertilizer on Seed Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承业; 林明; 潘竟海; 白晓山; 刘华君

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To nail down the optimal fertilization schemes for planting seed watermelon,which could ensure the normalization and standardization of fertilization and reduce consumption in order to use resource reasonably.[Method] The optimal scheme 3414'was adopted in the field plot experiment,including the three factors (N,P,K) and four levels and fourteen treatments.[Results] The critical periods of fertilization for seed watermelon were vine stretch and young melon inflation.The main effects of yield were showed on the level of nitrogen 1 (N1),which increased the yield by 18.4 kg/667 m2.And the yield of seed watermelon was obviously decreased on the level of N3.No significant effects of increasing yield for seed watermelon in phosphorus (P) level.The yield of seed watermelon reached maximum in the level of potassium 1 (Kt) then decreased obviously with the fertilization.[Conclusion] The fertilizers of N,P and K were respectively used in the stages of vine stretch and young melon inflation.The optimal fertilization amount was:N-P-K=12.19-7.08-5.19andthesuitableratioofN:p:K was about 1.72∶ 1∶ 0.73.%[目的]明确种植籽瓜的最佳施肥方案,使籽瓜施肥规范化、标准化,低耗高效、合理利用资源.[方法]试验采用“3414”最优设计方案,即3因素(氮、磷、钾),4个水平,14个处理,进行田间小区试验.[结果]甩蔓期和幼瓜膨大期是籽瓜的需肥临界期.氮肥增产效应主要表现在N1水平上,产量增幅明显,增产幅度为18.4 kg/667 m2.在N,水平时对应的籽瓜产量增产幅度呈明显递减趋势.磷肥在田间对籽瓜产量的增产效应不是非常明显.钾肥在田间对籽瓜的增产效应表现在K1水平中籽瓜产量增产达到最大,而后随着钾肥施肥量的增加籽瓜产量的增幅呈递减趋势.[结论]在甩蔓期主施N、P肥,而在幼瓜膨大期主施K肥.最佳施肥量为N-P2O5-K20 =12.19-7.08-5.19,适宜施用比例为1.72∶1∶0.73.

  19. 籽瓜抗氧化及抗肿瘤活性研究%Studies on Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Seeding Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨我国西部特有的籽瓜皮和瓢的抗氧化及抗肿瘤活性.[方法]利用不同溶剂对籽瓜皮和瓤分别进行分离提取,测定了不同提取组分的抗氧化与抗肿瘤活性,以及活性物质含量.通过对各组分DPPH·、ABTS·+、羟自由基(·OH)的清除能力测定来确定籽瓜皮和瓤各组分的抗氧化活性.以MTT法确定籽瓜皮和瓤各组分的抗肿瘤活性.[结果]籽瓜皮和瓤各相粗提物对DPPH·、ABTS·+、·OH均具有较强的清除作用,显示出一定的抗氧化活性和抗肿瘤活性.瓜皮和瓜瓤各相的抗氧化活性与总多酚、总黄酮含量呈正相关.籽瓜皮的抗氧化活性相对高于瓜瓤部分,而瓜瓤的抗肿瘤活性则要高于瓜皮.[结论]籽瓜皮和籽瓜瓤具有一定的抗氧化和抗肿瘤活性,可以作为一种良好的天然抗氧化剂及抗肿瘤活性物质来源.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the antioxidant and anticancer activities in the rind and flesh of seeding watermelon which specially grown in the northwest of China. [ Method] The rind and flesh of seeding watermelon were separate and exacted by different solvents, reap. The antioxidant and anticancer activities, as well as the active substances contents in the different extracting components were determined. The antioxidant activity was confirmed through measuring the scavenging capacity of each component in the rind and flesh of seeding watermelon to DPPH · , ABTS · And OH · The anticancer activity in each component in the rind and flesh was determined by the assay of MTT. [ Result] The extracts in both the rind and flesh of seeding watermelon had stronger scavenging capacity, showing some activities of antioxidant and antitumor. The antioxidant activity in the each extract from the rind and flesh was positively correlated with the content of total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents. The antioxidant activity in the rind was higher than that in flesh, while the antitumor

  20. 打瓜白粉病药剂防治技术研究%Study on the Technique of Controling Seed- used Watermelon Powdery Mildew with Bactericides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛; 李新辉; 于建新; 王艳; 杨渡; 李承业; 潘竟海; 李妍娥; 杨静飞; 严丽; 刘同业; 侯秀芳

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] Because seed - used watermelon powdery mildew induced serious damage in Xinjiang Region, we study the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed - used watermelon powdery mildew in the field. [Method] Comparison of the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed -used watermelon powdery mildew was made in the field plot experiment. [Result]Fourteen days after using these bactericides twice, thecontrol efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 5 ,000 times solution is 73. 80% , achieving the highest control efficacy in all the six used bactericides And the control efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 1,0000 times solution, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG 3 ,000 times solution, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC 7 ,500 times solution and 25% Ethirimol wp 1,500 times solution are also effective, reaching the effect of 69. 69% , 69.56% , 68. 48% , and 67. 32% respectively after being used 14 days later. [ Conclusion]The control efficacy of ZJ0712 wp, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC and 25% Ethirimol wp are quite effective, so it is suggested that they could be used in production by turn, and the rule for controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is made. The primary sources of infection and suitable time for controlling this disease have been clearly made, too. The key to controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is to spray effective bactericide in time.%[目的]针对打瓜白粉病在新疆严重危害的现状,研究6种杀菌剂对打瓜白粉病的田间防治效果.[方法]采用田间小区试验,比较6种药剂的防效差异.[结果]两次施药后第14 d,10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂5000倍液防效最高,防效达73.80%.10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂10 000倍液、50%醚菌酯水分散粒剂3 000倍液、400 g/L氟硅唑乳油7 500倍液和25%乙嘧酚悬浮剂1 500倍液的防效也较好,药后14 d分别达69.69%、69.56%、68.48%和67.32%.[结论]4种药剂防效较好,推荐在生产中交替使用.提出了打瓜白粉病防治原则,明

  1. Oferta e comercialização de melancia na CEASA-PI (1991- 1996 Supply and commercialization of watermelon at CEASA-PI (1991-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Júnior

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de analisar e fornecer informações quanto à oferta, procedência e comercialização de melancia no Piauí, no período de 1991 a 1996. Foram utilizados os dados básicos referentes ao suprimento mensal de melancia, por procedência, obtidos junto à CEASA-PI. Verificou-se que foram comercializadas no mercado atacadista de Teresina (PI um volume médio anual de 11.250 t de melancia, correspondendo a um acréscimo de 33,8% em relação ao volume médio anual de 8.408,3 t obtido no período de 1986 a 1991. Os estados que mais contribuíram para a oferta de melancia foram Pernambuco, Bahia e Piauí com um volume médio de melancia comercializada e percentual de participação de 5.139,5 t (45,68%, 3.765,4 t (33,48% e 1.798,5 t (15,97%, respectivamente. As maiores quantidades de melancia comercializadas foram oriundas dos municípios de Petrolina (PE, Juazeiro (BA, Barreiras (BA e Barras (PI, destacando-se como os mais regulares quanto ao fornecimento do produto. Os meses do ano em que houve menor oferta de Pernambuco e Bahia foram junho-julho, setembro-outubro e dezembro, recomendando-se ao produtor piauiense que, uma vez atingidos níveis econômicos de produtividade, procure ofertar seu produto neste período.This study was conducted to analyze and provide information about the supply, source and commercialization of watermelon in the state of Piauí, Brazil, from 1991 to 1996. Monthly data of commercialized fruits were obtained from CEASA-PI, which is a central market for vegetable and fruit commercialization for the whole state. The average total commercialized annually within the period was 11,250 t of fruits, which meant an increase of 33.8% in comparison to the average total of 8,409 t, commercialized annually from 1986 to 1991. Pernambuco (PE, Bahia (BA and Piauí (PI were the most important states in terms of watermelon supply, with average annual totals and average percentages of 5,140 t (45

  2. Discussion on Sustainable Development of Gravel-sand Mulched Land Watermelon Industry in Zhongning%中宁县压砂瓜产业可持续发展问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2012-01-01

    The area of watermelons planted in gravel-sand mulched land has reached 0.268 hm2 of Zhongning county.It has been the main production base of gravel-sand mulched watermelon.With the expansion of watermelon planted in this area,the plant industry faced the problems of watermelon single species,extensive management,difficult in disease and pest control,which became restricting factors for industry sustainable development.The article proposed that watermelon industry of gravel-sand mulched land should be based on the advantages of natural resources,made science and technology as the guide,emphasized on establishment of green standardized production base,developed the industry with local conditions and put rational distribution.%宁夏中宁县压砂瓜种植面积已达到1.8万hm2,成为宁夏主要的压砂瓜生产基地。随着压砂种植面积的不断扩大,压砂瓜产业面临着品种单一、管理粗放、病虫害防治难度极大等不容忽视的制约因素,影响着产业的可持续发展。文章提出了立足自然资源优势,以科技为先导,以建立绿色标准化生产基地为重点,因地制宜,合理布局等措施,以促进压砂瓜产业可持续发展。

  3. Effects of Different Rootstocks on Growth, Yield and Quality of Greenhouse Watermelon%不同砧木嫁接对日光温室西瓜生长、品质及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林; 赵霞; 李建设; 张光弟; 景宇晨

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, in order to screen out the optimal roostock for greenhouse watermelon, we studied the effects of four rootstocks, Meilijian, Jiadejin, Jingang, Kangbingjinzuan, on the growth and development of greenhouse watermelon, by taking Hualing own-rooted seedlings as the control treatment. The results showed that Jiadejin had best comprehensive performance among the four rootstocks, both the aboveground part and belowground part of the grafted seedlings grew vigorously, and the fruit quality of grafted watermelon had no significant difference with that of the control treatment. In addition, taking Jiadejin as rootstock, the grafted watermelon had heaviest single fruit weight and with the highest yield of 51 442 kg/hm2, thus the rootstock Jiadejin could be widely used in the greenhouse watermelon production.%以华铃自根苗为对照(CK),研究4个砧木美利坚、嫁得金、金刚、抗病金钻和嫁接对日光温室西瓜生长发育的影响,以筛选出最优日光温室西瓜嫁接砧木。试验结果表明,供试的嫁接砧木中嫁得金综合表现最好,嫁接苗地上部和地下部生长势最强,嫁接后的西瓜品质与对照自根苗西瓜无显著差异,且其西瓜单瓜质量最大,产量最高,达51442 kg/hm2,可在日光温室西瓜生产中应用推广。

  4. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar em Roraima = Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight in Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rodrigues Youssef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar isolados do fungo Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar, obtidos de hospedeiros de importância econômica no estado de Roraima. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, soja (Glycine max, seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, alface (Lactuca sativa e feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan. Os parâmetros utilizados foram números de núcleos, grupo de anastomose e as características culturais da colônia, taxa de crescimento micelial e a formação de escleródios nos meios de cultura: batata dextrose agar (BDA, BDA+asparagina, BDA+extrato de levedura, Czapek Agar, maltose-peptona-agar, soil extract agar, sacarose-yeast-asparagina e V-8. Todos os 10 isolados estudados foram caracterizados como multinucleados e pertencentes à espécie Rhizoctonia solani. Três isolados de feijão-caupi, um de soja e o isolado de melancia foram identificados como AGI-1A e um isolado de feijãocaupi, um de soja e o isolado de feijão-guandu como AGI-1B. O isolado de seringueira não foi identificado como nenhum dos padrões de anastomose utilizado. Para a maioria dos isolados as maiores taxas de crescimento micelialforam obtidas no meio de cultura Soil Extract Agar. Dois tipos de escleródios, característicos do grupo AGI, foram observados: formação de 2-20 tufos placa-1 coloração variável, 1-2 mm e formação de 38-611 microescleródios placa-1, de coloração marrom, medindo 100 μm. A produção e o tipo de escleródio variaram com o isolado e o meio de cultura utilizado.The aim of this work was to characterize Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight symptom from hosts with economic importance at Roraima state. The isolates were recovered from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, soybean (Glycine max, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, lettuce (Lactuca sativa and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan. The evaluated characteristics were nuclear

  5. Contribuição das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento de plântulas de cucurbitáceas Cotyledonary leaf contribution for growth and establishment of cucurbit seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As cucurbitáceas apresentam germinação epigeal, cujos cotilédones têm a dupla função de fornecer substâncias de reserva e fotoassimilados para o crescimento e o estabelecimento da plântula. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nível de dependência de plântulas de abóbora híbrida (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, pepino (Cucumis sativus e porongo (Lagenaria siceraria em relação às folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento inicial. Foi efetuada a remoção de um ou dois cotilédones aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a emergência (DAE, comparando-se o crescimento das plântulas com o de plântulas controle (sem remoção. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado a cada três dias, da emergência até 21 DAE, determinando-se a taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o período de tempo até a equivalência entre área foliar e cotiledonar e a produção de matéria seca. A abóbora apresentou a maior taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o menor período até a emissão e expansão das folhas verdadeiras e a maior produção de matéria seca. As plântulas de abóbora e pepino apresentaram a maior dependência em relação às folhas cotiledonares. Os resultados obtidos mostram que danos às folhas cotiledonares, dependendo da espécie, da intensidade e da idade da plântula, podem afetar drasticamente o crescimento inicial e o estabelecimento das plântulas, com reflexos evidentes no rendimento de frutos em cucurbitáceas.Cucurbit species have epigeal cotyledons adapted for both storage and photoassimilation functions. Seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for initial growth and establishment was quantified for hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria. One or both cotyledons were excised at 3; 6; 9; and 12 days after emergence (DAE and initial growth was compared to control

  6. Response of vegetable seed germination to solar radiation penetrating through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of vegetable seeds to irradiation and emergence of plants seeded at various depths were investigated to clarify the effects of solar radiation through soil on vegetable seed germination. Seeds of eight vegetable species were germinated in Petri dishes under 11-h irradiation per day. Seed germination was delayed in tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill.) but accelerated in perilla (Perilla ocymoides L.) and Japanese hornwort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk.) with increase in irradiation at the intensities higher than 0.4W m-2. Seeds of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Matsum.), and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) showed delayed germination at more than 4-6W m-2. No effect of irradiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed germination was seen. For tomato, Japanese radish and Japanese hornwort, the effects of irradiation time on germination were also investigated. Tomato seed germination was delayed and Japanese hornwort seed germination was accelerated with increase in irradiation time beyond 2h per day. The emergence of tomato and Japanese hornwort covered with Shimokuriyagawa loam soil (Kuriyagawa soil) and vermiculite at depths of less than 5mm, 5-10mm and 10-15mm was observed. Plants emerged more rapidly from 5-10mm depths than from less than 5mm depth in tomato. The plants seeded at 10-15mm depths emerged as rapidly as those at 5-10mm depths using vermiculite but later than those at other depths using Kuriyagawa soil, probably due to high bulk density. The early emergence of Japanese hornwort was fastest from less than 5mm depth. The plants seeded at 5-10mm depths did not emerge much slower than those at less than 5mm depth. A seeding depth of 5-10mm was suitable for the rapid emergence of those vegetables covered with both the soil and vermiculite. (author)

  7. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  8. Improving quality and safety of minimally processed fruits and vegetables by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh fruit and vegetables are an essential part of the diet of people all around the world. Fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms while growing in fields, or during harvesting, processing and distribution. Raw materials used in the preparation of minimally processed food can be contaminated with pathogens like Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Ionising radiation as a non-thermal technology is a highly promising technology. The main objective of this study was to analyse the effect of gamma radiation on the quality and safety in ready-to-eat vegetables, namely coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L cv. Frisada.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum M.), turnip (Brassica campestris L.)), watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.), melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Piel de Sapo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (thunb.) Mansfeld). Therefore studies on the physico-chemical, sensorial properties and inactivation of natural microbiota after applying several doses were carried out. Shelf life of the irradiated and non-irradiated produce was compared. The dose required for inactivation 90% (D10) of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Listeria innocua on artificial contaminated vegetables were also determined. No important differences were verified in the overall of the sensorial and the physico-chemical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, although a considerable decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (>2 log). The D1)0 calculated to Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on artificially contaminated vegetable leaves, turnip and melon were 0.11 up to 0.16 kGy. The D10 range of 0.16 up to 0.29 kGy was calculated for the non-pathogenic surrogate bacterium (Listeria innocua) in the artificially contaminated vegetables. (author)

  9. Effects of L-citrulline diet on stress-induced cold hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-citrulline is an amino acid discovered in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae and is a known component of the nitric oxide (NO cycle that plays an important role in adjusting blood circulation and supplying NO and a key component of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of L-citrulline on a newly established stress-induced cold hypersensitivity mouse model. Materials and Methods: When normal mice were forced to swim in water at 25°C for 15 min, their core body temperature dropped to 28.9°C, and then quickly recovered to normal temperature after the mice were transferred to a dry cage at room temperature (25°C. A 1-h immobilization before swimming caused the core body temperature to drop to ca. 24.1°C (4.8°C lower than normal mice, and the speed of core body temperature recovery dropped to 57% of the normal control. We considered this delay in recovery from hypothermia to be a sign of stress-induced cold hypersensitivity. Similar cold hypersensitivity was induced by administration of 50 mM L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, a NO synthesis inhibitor. Results: In this study, we showed that recovery speed from the stress-induced hypothermia remarkably improved in mice fed a 1% L-citrulline-containing diet for 20 days. Furthermore, the nonfasting blood level of L-arginine and L-citrulline increased significantly in the L-citrulline diet group, and higher serum nitrogen oxide levels were observed during recovery from the cold. Conclusions: These results suggested that oral L-citrulline supplementation strengthens vascular endothelium function and attenuates stress-induced cold hypersensitivity by improving blood circulation.

  10. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides.

  11. Investigation and Analysis of Watermelon Production in a Family Farm-A Case Study of a Large Watermelon Planting Grower in Yanqing District of Beijing City%家庭农场模式下的西瓜生产调查分析--以北京市延庆区某西瓜种植大户为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲凯; 胡宝贵

    2016-01-01

    以北京市延庆县西瓜生产较为成熟的家庭农场经营模式为例,对其生产经营过程进行了调研,分析了家庭农场模式下从事西瓜生产的优势与不足,进而总结了北京市家庭农场普遍存在的经营主体短缺、农业社会化服务体系建设滞后、资金短缺等问题,提出了加强农业科技推广与应用、提高农场主科技素质、创新家庭农场金融政策等建议,为北京西瓜产业推广家庭农场模式提供依据。%The production and management process of watermelon in a family farm were investigated and studied .The advantages and disadvan-tages of watermelon production in the family farm were analyzed , and then common problems such as shortage of operators , lagging of agricultural socialized service system construction, and capital shortage existing in family farms in Beijing City were summarized .Finally, some suggestions such as strengthening the popularization and application of agricultural science and technology , improving farmers’ quality of science and technol-ogy, and innovating financial policies of family farms were proposed to provide scientific references for the popularization of family farms in water-melon industry in Beijing City .

  12. Breeding of Bilv, a New Seedless Mini-watermelon Cultivar%小果型无籽西瓜新品种碧绿的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉红; 谭慧明; 孙铁良; 李超; 杜晓莉

    2013-01-01

    碧绿是开封市蔬菜科学研究所以诱变稳定的小果型四倍体4X-66作母本,以小果型二倍体自交系X-18为父本配制而成的小果型无籽西瓜新品种。该品种易坐瓜,全生育期100 d左右,果实发育期28 d左右。植株生长势强,抗病抗逆性强。果实短椭圆形;果皮绿色覆深绿网纹,厚度0.5 cm左右,坚韧耐贮运。瓤色鲜黄,质脆爽口,纤维极少,白秕籽小且极少,无籽性能好;中心可溶性固形物含量12.5%左右。单果质量2.3~2.5 kg,667 m2产量约2500 kg。耐低温、弱光性好,适宜于日光温室及大棚早春设施栽培。%Bilv is a new seedless mini-watermelon developed by taking tetraploid mini-watermelon 4X-66 as female parent and diploid inbred line X-18 (mini-watermelon) as male parent. Bilv sets fruits easily, with the whole growth period of about 100 days and fruit development period of about 28 day. It grows vigorously and with strong disease and stress resistance. The fruit is oval, and the peel is green with dark green stripes. Its peel thickness is about 0.5 cm, and the fruits are resistant to transport. The yellow flesh is crisp with excellent taste and flavor, and there are few white abortive seeds in the fruits. The central soluble solid content is about 12.5%. The single fruit weight is 2.3-2.5 kg, and the yield is about 2 500 kg/667 m2. It bears the low temperature and weak light, and it is suitable for cultivation in both sunlight greenhouse and early spring greenhouse.

  13. Influence of Incubation Periods and Dosage on the Bioefficacy of Cow Urine against Melon Aphids (Aphis gossypii and Pickleworms (Diaphania hyalinata in Watermelon Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Burubai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubated cow urine and its application rates against melon aphids (Aphis gossypii and Pickleworms (Diaphania hyalinata was investigated. Incubation periods of 7, 14 and 21 days at doses 5, 10 and 15% were tried in a randomized block design with three replications. Results from analysis of variance (Anova show that all treatments significantly reduced the incidence of both pests. However, a post hoc analysis using Turkeys HSD reveals that 14 days incubation at the various dosage levels proved superior to other treatments. Maximum fruit yields of 79816, 78178 and 54109 kg/ha were also recorded for 14 days incubation at 10, 15 and 5%, respectively. Therefore, 14 days incubation time is recommended for cow urine FOR adoption in pest control on watermelon.

  14. 无籽西瓜无菌萌发条件的研究%The Research of Germinating Condition of Seedeless Watermelon on Germ - free Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏华; 张洪溢

    2001-01-01

    It is reported several conditions of the germ-free germination of seedless watermelon in this paper. The result shows that the best germination occurs on the condition of the seeds in asertic water within white gauze and the best steriliation method is to use 250 ppm ClO2, and 2% NaClO.%研究了无籽西瓜在无菌条件下萌发的各种条件,得出:种子消毒污染率最低方法为250PPM的二氧化氯与0.15%升汞联合消毒,而以250PPM二氧化氯与2%次氯酸钠联合消毒方法种子的萌发率最高,无菌萌发的理想条件为无菌水加纱布。

  15. 花皮无籽西瓜新品种花花牛的选育%A New Triploid Seedless Watermelon Variety "Huahuaniu"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪敏; 朱佩; 马长江

    2013-01-01

    Seedless watermelon "Huahuaniu" is a main season hybrid MD05-8 ?MD03-6 that meets watermelon production and market demand. The whole growth period is 106 d and fruit development 35 d. The fruit is round with deep green skin and dark green narrow stripes. The central soluble solids content is 10.6%-11.83%. The average fruit weight is 4.5 kg. Yield on 667 m2 is about 2 510 kg, highest yield up to 3 500 kg per 667 m2. Field trials showed that the plants are easy to set fruit, slightly susceptible to anthracnose, and tolerant to virus disease and Fusarium wilt. This variety is suitable for planting in North, Northeast, Northwest China.%花花牛无籽西瓜是根据西瓜生产和市场需求,用MD03-6×MD05-8杂交选育而成的中熟花皮无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期106 d,果实发育期35 d,圆形果,果皮灰绿覆墨绿色锯齿条带,条纹清晰;瓜瓤红色,质脆汁多,无空心;品质优,中心可溶性固形物含量10.6%~11.83%.平均单果质量4.5 kg,平均667 m2产量2 510.0 kg,高产地块在3 500 kg以上.田间表现植株易坐果,轻感炭疽病,较耐病毒病、枯萎病.适宜我国华北、东北、西北等广大瓜区种植.

  16. 福州地区无籽西瓜新品种比较试验%Comparison of New Seedless Watermelon Cultivars in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小红; 赵依杰; 林航; 林强; 陈贻钊

    2012-01-01

      为筛选出适合福州地区种植的无籽西瓜新品种,引进了15个无籽西瓜新品种,以暑宝为对照,开展了品种种植对比试验。试验结果表明,郑抗无籽10号植株生长势强,抗病性、抗逆性较强,果实商品性和丰产性表现突出,综合性状优,适合在福州地区进行推广种植;郑抗无籽5号、黑巨霸、北农998和黑宝二号等品种表现也较好,可以进一步试种观察;其余品种在本次试验中表现不理想。%  In order to screen out the suitable new seedless watermelon cultivars for Fuzhou area, we introduced 15 new seedless watermelon cultivars and carried out the comparative test by taking Shubao as control. The results showed that, Zhengkang Wuzi No.10 showed strong growth vigor, higher disease and stress resistance, prominent commodity and high yield and excellent comprehensive characteristics, so it could be promoted in Fuzhou. Zhengkang Wuzi No.5, Heijuba, Beinong 998 and Heibao No.2 also showed better characteristics, and they could be planted for the further experimental observation. The other cultivars didn't perform well in the test.

  17. 基于FPGA的西瓜子机器视觉色选系统%Design and Experiment of Watermelon Seed Machine Vision Inspection System Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵吉文; 高尚; 魏正翠; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    A kind of watermelon seeds sorter system with linear CCD chip was designed based on the FPGA parallel computing platform. Through integrating CCD driver, dynamic image acquisition and processing algorithms, classification algorithm and valve control signal output in one FPGA chip, the hardware platform were designed. The color sorter prototype system had an output of 1. 2 -1.8 t/h, color sorting accuracy was 97. 7% , ratio of color separation mass was 6-8. The good real-time and efficiency of the watermelon seeds sorter system based on FPGA were verified by the experiments that compared with the traditional industrial computer platform.%基于现场可编程门阵列FPGA并行运算平台,设计了一种采用线阵CCD芯片的西瓜子色选机系统.硬件平台将CCD芯片驱动、动态图像的采集与处理、分类计算及气阀控制信号输出等集中在一个FPGA芯片上实现.色选机试制系统产量为1.2~1.8 t/h,色选精度97.7%,带出比为6~8.与传统工控机平台进行对比试验,验证了基于FPGA的西瓜子色选机系统具有良好的实时性和高效性.

  18. 打瓜籽热风干燥加工工艺研究%Study on Hot-air Drying Technology of Seed Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振华; 孔庆浩; 陈国刚

    2014-01-01

    Seed watermelon, as a food and drug, is rich in nutrients, and has functional properties. In this paper, using Xinjiang seed watermelon as experimental materials, the technology of hot-air drying were studied. Three main process parameters including the hot wind speed, drying temperature, and Thickness were involved in the drying process. Based on the research of the hot-air drying curve, the best drying process were obtained. Based on orthogonal analysis, the optimum parameters of drying process were 1.8m/s hot wind speed, 70℃, 3.5mm thickness. Under this circumstance, seeds well-shaped were kept and color is normal.%打瓜籽含有丰富的营养物质,药食兼用,具有很好的保健功能,深受受到人们的青睐。本实验以新疆打瓜籽为实验材料,利用热风干燥技术干燥打瓜籽。干燥工艺涉及三个主要的工艺参数,分别是热风干燥风速、干燥温度和料层厚度。利用正交分析法对实验进行设计和优化,确定最佳的干燥工艺条件为热风干燥风速为1.8m/s,干燥温度为70℃,料层的厚度为3.5mm,此条件下,瓜子形状规整,颜色正常。

  19. Effects of NaCl Stress on the Seed Germination of Watermelon%NaCl胁迫对西瓜种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏红; 孙德玺; 邓云; 何兰银

    2009-01-01

    The salt tolerance of two watermelon varieties(Zhengkang No. 2 and Zhongke No. 6)was studied during seed germination. The two watermelon varieties were evaluated for their seed germination percentage ,germination rate ,length of radical, germination index (GI)and vitality index (VI)with different concentration of NaCl solution treatment. The results showed that all the measurements for Zhongke No. 6 were increased under the low NaCI concentration (40 mmol/L) ,and were declined with concentration more than 40 mmol/L. However,each measurement for Zhengkang No. 2 was declined with the increase of NaCl concentration. The salt tolerance of Zhongke No. 6 was greater than Zhengkang No. 2 in the range of NaCl concentration 80-200 mmol/L.%为了研究2个西瓜品种(郑抗2号及中科6号)种子的耐盐情况.采用不同浓度的NaCl溶液处理西瓜种子,并研究其发芽势、发芽率、胚根长度、发芽指数和活力指数的变化情况.结果表明.中科6号在NaCl溶液低浓度条件下(40mmol/L)各项指标均有上升;超过40mmol/L时,各项指标则下降.郑抗2号的各项指标随着NaCl溶液浓度的增加均下降,在80~200mmol/L时,对盐胁迫的适应能力弱于中科6号.

  20. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s) for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s) for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS) proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lower...

  1. Effects of 60Co-γ Irradiation Intensity on Watermelon Seed Germination and Seedling Growth%60Co-γ辐射对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉明; 杨世梅; 纪海波; 方春媛; 潘从祥; 陈年来

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of different doses of 60Co-γ radiation on watermelon seed germination and seedling growth, watermelon seeds with different qualities of 12 varieties were used as the test materials to investigate the effects of six different doses of radiation on emergence rate, surviving rate, emergence time, cotyledon area, plant height and stem diameter. The results showed that medium size seeds of watermelon demonstrated a promoting effect on seedling growth under the dose of 200 Gy and 400 Gy. When the radiation dose exceed 600 Gy, all watermelon seeds showed the extremely significant level (P small seed > medium seeds.%为了探讨60Co-γ辐射剂量对不同质量西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,以不同质量的12个西瓜品种干种子为材料,通过6个剂量的辐射处理,研究辐射剂量对西瓜干种子出苗率、存活率、出苗时间、子叶面积、株高及茎粗等的影响.结果表明,200和400 Gy辐射对中等种子出苗有促进作用,超过600 Gy都具有显著(P<0.05)抑制作用;随着辐射剂量的增加,植株出苗时间延长,幼苗生长缓慢;根据半致死剂量确定西瓜种子适宜辐射剂量为600~800 Gy.不同大小西瓜种子对60Co-γ辐射的敏感性表现为大种子>小种子>中等种子.

  2. 基于灰度带比例的优质西瓜子识别算法研究与实现%Research and implementation of recognition algorithm based on gray scale of watermelon seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵吉文; 魏正翠; 汪洋; 高尚

    2011-01-01

    In order to sort the normal watermelon seeds, according to the characteristics of watermelon seeds, a feature extraction algorithm based on the gray scale was proposed, and its verification tests was carried out on a CCD color sorter. In the seeds image pre-processing, the contrast adaptive histogram equalization of the seeds image was executed.Then, after the median filter of the histogram equalization images, the value of the gray scale of the watermelon seeds was extracted as the classification characteristic quantity. The classification characteristic quantity was trained on the CCD color sorter, and the normal seeds were picked out finally with 95% recognition rate. The algorithm can provide theoretical support and technical realization for the classification and recognition of watermelon seeds.%为了分拣出正常西瓜子,根据西瓜子的特点,提出了针对西瓜子的基于灰度带比例的特征值提取算法,并在CCD色选机上进行了试验验证.在瓜子图像预处理中,先对瓜子图像进行对比度自适应的直方图均衡化,而后对瓜子的二值化图像进行中值滤波.在瓜子分类方面,采用灰度带比例作为分类特征量,并在CCD色选机上进行特征量分类训练,最终分检出正常瓜子,识别率达到95%.该算法为该西瓜子的分类识别提供了理论支持和技术实现.

  3. Efficacy Test of Thiamethoxam 70%WS for Controlling Underground Pests of Watermelon by Seed Treatment%70%噻虫嗪WS处理打瓜种子防治地下害虫的药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 林哲; 张映合

    2014-01-01

    为验证70%噻虫嗪种子处理可分散粉剂(WS)对打瓜地下害虫的防治效果,采用拌种法,分别用种子量0.1%、0.2%和0.4%的剂量处理打瓜种子进行防治地下害虫的药效试验。结果表明:不同剂量药剂处理出苗率均在85%以上;对苗期地下害虫的平均防效分别为77.55%、83.67%、87.75%,且对打瓜生长无不良影响。%In order to prove the control effects of thiamethoxam 70% WS for underground pests, efficacy tests were carried out using thiamethoxam 70% WS dressed as 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% of the seeds of watermelon. The results showed that seeding emergence rates of watermelon exceeded 85%, the control effects of three treatments were 77.55%, 83.67%, 87.75%, respectively. Thiamethoxam 70%WS had no effect on the growth of watermelon.

  4. 紫茉莉种子水浸液对西瓜和枸杞的化感作用研究%Allelopathy of Water Extracts from Seeds of Mirabilis jalapa L. on Watermelon and Chinese Wolfbeery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益民; 薛泽

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy of water extracts from seeds of Mirabilis jalapa L. on watermelon and Chinese wolfberry were examined for the objective of providing the reference for the theoretical study of allelopathy. By using the techniques of laboratory bioassay, the effects of water extracts from seeds of Mirabilis jalapa L. on seeds germination and seedlings growth of watermelon and Chinese wolfberry were studied. The results showed; Treated with different concentrations water extracts from seeds of Mirabilis jalapa L. on seeds germination and seedlings growth of watermelon could be inhibited, and on germination of seed, height , fresh weigh and fresh weight of root of Chinese wolfberry could be promoted, the inhibition or facilitation increased with increased concentrations of the water extracts.%采用室内生物测定法,研究了紫茉莉种子水浸液对西瓜、枸杞种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,以期为植物化感作用的理论研究提供参考.结果表明,不同浓度紫茉莉种子水浸液对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长表现为化感抑制作用,而对枸杞种子萌发,幼苗苗高、鲜重、根鲜重表现为化感促进作用,且表现为浓度效应.

  5. 不同药剂处理对西瓜细菌性果斑病带菌种子的影响%Effects of Different Medicament Treatments on Watermelon Seeds Contaminated with Bacterial Fruit Blotch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛庆伟; 孔秋生; 黄远; 别之龙

    2012-01-01

      Six different medicaments were used to soak watermelon seeds after the artificial inoculation of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), and their control effects were evaluated by investigating the seed germination, seedling growth and incidence of BFB. The results showed that, it was effective to control BFB of watermelon seedlings by soaking seeds contaminated with BFB in 40%formaldehyde at a dilution of 100 times for an hour before sowing, and the control efficiency was 100%, moreover, the treatment had no detrimental effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelon.%  采用菌悬浮液浸种方式对西瓜种子接菌,利用6种药剂对带菌种子进行浸种处理,并调查各处理对种子发芽、幼苗生长的影响及对西瓜幼苗细菌性果斑病(BFB)的防治效果。试验结果表明,播种前带菌种子采用40%甲醛100倍液浸种1 h,对西瓜幼苗BFB的防效达到100%,对西瓜种子的发芽和幼苗的生长无不良影响。

  6. Current Status and Future Development of Watermelon Seed Production and Processing in China%我国西瓜种子生产加工处理现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴思慧; 熊兴耀; 孙小武; 肖杰; 罗伏青

    2012-01-01

    We discusses the international challenges, current status and problems of watermelon seed production and seed processing in China in this article. Some suggestions were given for the development of watermelon seed production and seed processing in China. The progress and competitiveness of watermelon produce industry and seed industry are heavily dependent on high seed quality achieved through best seed production practices and best seed processing technologies.%概述了我国西瓜种子生产加工技术发展面临的国际挑战、发展现状和存在的问题,对我国西瓜种子加工技术今后的发展方向提出了建议,认为提高西瓜种子生产和加工水平,实现其精细加工,才能提高我国西瓜种子质量和市场竞争力,促进西瓜种业进一步发展.

  7. 利用西瓜种子检测黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒%Utilizing Watermelon Seeds for Detection of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖璐; 李玲; 唐炎英; 戴思慧; 王军辉; 刘泽发; 孙小武

    2013-01-01

      以疑似感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)的西瓜植株上收取的种子为材料,提取总RNA为模板进行RT-PCR扩增,并对电泳后的目标条带进行回收测序,将测序结果提交genebank与已知序列比较,结果显示所扩增序列为CGMMV 外壳蛋白(CP)基因中的一个片段,说明此方法可以成功检测出西瓜种子携带的CGMMV,可作为一种快速检测西瓜种子是否携带CGMMV的方法。%In the paper, we took the seeds harvesting from watermelons which were suspected of being infected with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) as material, and extracted total RNA for RT-PCR amplification, then we recycled and sequenced the target bands, and submitted the sequencing results to genebank. The results showed that the amplified sequence was a fragment of the CGMMV coat protein (cp) gene, which indicated that the method used in the test could successfully detect whether the watermelon seeds carrying CGMMV or not, and the method was a rapid method of detecting CGMMV of watermelon seeds.

  8. The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had

  9. 超声辅助提取打瓜籽油工艺及其脂肪酸成分研究%Study on ultrasonic-assisted extraction of seeding-watermelon seeds oil and analysis of fatty acid compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋颖凡; 刘程惠; 胡文忠; 姜爱丽; 田密霞

    2012-01-01

    以打瓜籽为原料,石油醚为浸提剂,采用超声波辅助浸提技术,考察了粒度、料液比、超声频率、超声温度和超声时间对打瓜籽油提取率及亚油酸提取量的影响,通过正交实验,得到了最佳工艺条件为粒度60目,料液比1:8g/mL,超声频率为36kHz,超声温度为50℃,超声时间为40min,打瓜籽油得率为23.89%。气相色谱分析表明:打瓜籽油的主要脂肪酸组成为棕榈酸、反油酸、油酸、亚油酸,其中亚油酸含量最高,可达184.37mg/g。%With the seeding-watermelon seeds as raw material, petroleum ether as extraction agent,the ultrasonicassisted extraction technology was used to extract seeding-watermelon seed oil.The influences of particle size, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic temperature and time on the extraction rate and linoleic acid content of seeding- watermelon seeds oil were studied. Through the orthogonal test, the optimal extraction conditions were as follows : particle size 60 mesh, solid liquid ratio 1:8g/mL, ultrasonic frequency 36kHz, ultrasonic temperature 50℃,ultrasonic time 40min.Under these conditions the seeding-watermelon seeds oil extraction rate reached 23.89%.Gas chromatographic(GC) analysis was employed to analyze the components of fatty acid of seeding-watermelon seeds oil which contained :palmitic acid,elaidic acid,oleic acid, linoleic acid.Among them the linoleic acid content is up to 184.37mg/g the highest of all.

  10. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  11. 多倍体西瓜种壳性状的基因效应分析%Genetic study on seed coat characteristics in multiploid watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2007-01-01

    [目的]通过遗传效应分析,为三倍体西瓜种壳性状改良提供依据.[方法]选用西瓜4个生态型的6个四倍体自交系作母本和同一生态型的6个二倍体自交系作父本,按NCII (North Carolina II) 遗传交配设计方法配制6×6个杂种F1,采用加性-显性遗传模型分析西瓜种壳性状的遗传效应.[结果]剖面种壳数受基因的加性效应、显性效应以及环境效应共同控制.败育种壳长和宽的加性效应显著,环境(机误)方差达到显著或极显著水平.剖面种壳数与边缘可溶性固形物含量呈加性显著负相关,相关系数为0.631;与番茄红素和干物质含量呈显性负相关,相关系数为0.288和0.386.败育种壳长与种壳宽成极显著加性正相关,相关系数为0.983.[结论]该研究为三倍体西瓜育种中的基因改良提供参考.%[Objective] This study is to provide basis for the genetic improvement of triploid watermelon cultivars from seed coat characteristiscs by analyzing its genetic properties.[Method] Genetic effects of seed coat characteristics and their related characteristics in triploid watermelon were analyzed by additive dominant genetic model based on 36 F1 hybrids which were crossed by six female parents of four ecotypes and six male parents of same ecotype according to North Carolina II crossing design.[Result] The seed coat number characteristics was controlled by additive effects, dominant effects and error variance of genetic together.The additive effects of the length and width of abortive seed coat were significant, and the error variance was significant or highly significant.It was observed that there was a significant negative correlation of additive effects between the seed coat number and fringe soluble sugar.Also there was a significant negative correlation of dominant effects between lycopenes, dry matter and the seed coat number.However, there was a highly significant positive correlation in additive effects between the

  12. Optimization of the most important operational parameters of a pneumatic seeder using real-time monitoring for Cucumber and Watermelon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Abdolahzare

    2016-04-01

    devices for online measurement of various parameters, including: the actual forward speed, wheel sleep percent, drawbar pull, motor RPM, and fuel consumption. Wheel drive of the seed metering mechanism was equipped with Rotary Encoder model S48-8-0360ZT (TK1 to determine the seed disk rotation. For more precise vacuum pressure monitoring, a Vacuum Transmitter model BT 10-210 was used to measure relative pressure from 0 mbar to -1000 mbar. Investigation of seed falling trajectories was conducted using the AVI video acquisition system consisted of CCD (charge-coupled device camera (Fuji F660EXR capable of capturing images with a constant speed of 320 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 320×240 pixels. All data were transmitted to a data logger and displayed online on the PC's screen. For optimization of the factors affecting the performance of the pneumatic planter, the experiments were conducted with: two ranges of forward speeds [3 to 4 km h-1, and 6 to 8 km h-1; three levels of vacuum pressure [-2.5kPa, -3.5kPa and -4.5 kPa]; and two types of seed [cucumber and watermelon], keeping a three-factor factorial experimental design. The tests were replicated three times. The uniformity of seed spacing was measured with indicators described by kachman and smith (1995 which are defined as: I_miss=N_1/N×100 (1 I_mul=N_2/N×100 (2 I_qf=100-(I_mul+I_miss (3 P=s_d/x_ref (4 Which for planting distance of 45 cm, N1 is number of spacing > 1.5Xref; N2 is number of spacing ≤ 0.5Xref and N is total number of measured spacings, Sd is standard deviation of the spacing more than half but not more than 1.5 times, the set spacings Xref, Imiss is the miss index, Imul is the multiple index, quality of feed index Iq is the percentage of spacings that are more than half but not more than 1.5 times, the set planting distance and P is error index. Results and Discussion: According to the studies on both watermelon and cucumber, the ‘quality of feed index’ value in forward speed

  13. 基于省域的广西西瓜生产比较优势空间特征分析%Provincial Comparative Advantages of Watermelon Production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宇明; 张棵; 柳唐镜; 覃武; 洪日新; 覃斯华; 杨景峰

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]This study aimed to clarify the spatial patterns of comparative advantage of watermelon production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, to pro-vide theoretical basis for the development of watermelon industry in China. [Method] Based on the agricultural statistics data of Guangxi and al over China, yield com-parative advantage (YCA) index, efficiency comparative advantage (ECA) index, scale comparative advantage (SCA) index, concentration ratio comparative advantage (CRCA) index, comprehensive comparative advantage (CCA) index, ratio of yield per unit area (RYPA) index and sowing area ratio (SAR) index were established and calculated to determine the watermelon production comparative advantages in 31 provinces (cities) in China. Spacial patterns of the comparative advantages were produced by using GIS software. [Result] Nine provinces Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Hunan, Zhejiang and Guangxi were the dominant regions in watermelon production al over the country. The Central and Eastern China showed the integrated comparative advantage in watermelon production, while the Southern, Northeastern, Northern and Northwestern China can be considered as the potential places for watermelon production in future. Southwest China gave more priority to watermelon production, so the comparative advantages kept increasing here. [Con-clusion] Based on this study, watermelon production should be a prior consideration among the agricultural products in Guangxi. Related measures should be developed to optimize the regional distribution of watermelon in Guangxi and China to promote healthy competition in watermelon production.%[目的]阐明西瓜生产比较优势区域的空间特征,为广西及中国西瓜产业战略决策提供重要的参考依据。[方法]利用广西及中国的农业统计资料,以产量比较优势指数、效率比较优势指数、规模比较优势指数、集中度比较优势指数、综合比较优势、单位面积

  14. 生防菌根系定殖竞争作用对西瓜枯萎病发病机理的影响%Effect of antagonistic fungal competition for colonization of roots on pathogenesis of watermelon Fusarium wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小慧; 张国漪; 张鹏; 韦巧婕; 冉炜; 沈其荣

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Watermelon Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum is a common destructive soil-borne disease.Understanding of the competition between non-pathogenic congeneric Fusarium species and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains has contributed to acquisition of novel bio-control agents and broadening the biological control measures against the plant disease.[Methods] Selective media and dilution plating procedure were used to study colonization of bulk soil, rhizosphere soil and plant tissues of watermelon grown in greenhouse pots by non-pathogenic Fusarium verticillioides XA and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum LD.[Results] Strains XA and LD were isolated from diseased plant tissues in field.When non-diseased soil was solely inoculated with strain XA or strain LD, inoculation with strain XA had no symptom of wilt and no loss of biomass of watermelon whereas inoculation with strain LD led to heavily symptom of wilt.As compared with the treatment of LD, the treatment of dual inoculation with strains XA and LD increased the fresh weight and dry weight of the aerial part of watermelon plants by 151.2% and 110%, respectively.Strain XA successfully colonized roots but was not found in the basal part of stem of watermelon, while strain LD infected plant tissues and soil with (1.58-4.85)×104 CFU/g.As compared with the treatment of LD inoculation, the dual inoculation with strain XA and strain LD decreased the pathogenic F.oxysporum numbers in the basal part of stem, roots, rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of watermelon by 63.3%, 66.1%, 3.3% and 24.4%, respectively and increased the non-pathogenic F.oxysporum numbers in roots, rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of watermelon to (0.35-3.84)×104 CFU/g; this treatment gained 57.8% of control efficiency against watermelon Fusarium wilt.[Conclusion] The non-pathogenic congeneric strain XA effectively reduced the ability of pathogenic F.oxysporum LD to infect watermelon plants and had certain effectiveness as a

  15. Cultivation techniques of new watermelon variety "Heibao"%西瓜新品种“黑宝”栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海滨; 许丽松; 陈丹

    2012-01-01

    A new watermelon variety "Heibao" was introduced from Taiwan.The results of planting trials in multi-sites for several years and participating in provincial quality competition showed that,it had the characteristics of wide suitability,high disease resistance,high yield and excellent quality.Detaired management practices for high-yielding cultural techniques of "Heibao" including its characteristics,sowing and seedling raising,land preparation and fertilization,field planting and management,pruning and pressing of vine,pest control,and so on,were summarized in this paper.%引进西台湾瓜新品种黑宝,经多年多地试种试验和参加省级品质比赛,表现适应性广、抗病力强、产量高、品质佳,该文总结黑宝西瓜高产栽培技术,包括特征特性、播种育苗、整地施肥、定植、田间管理、整枝压蔓、病虫害防治等管理细节。

  16. Fertilization of Watermelon Grown with Wheat Straw Substrate in Passive Plastic Greenhouse%大棚西瓜秸秆基质栽培施肥量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁培祥

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization was studied using watermelon "Xiuli' grown in wheat straw substrate in passive plastic greenhouse. The tests included 5 levels of chicken manure + ammonium phosphate. The measurements included plant growth, yield and fruit quality. With the levels tested in this experiment yield was increased with the increase of fertilizer amount, the best treatment was 30 kg chicken manure + 1.5 kg ammonium phosphate per plot(19.87 m2).%以西瓜品种秀丽为试材,在大棚中采用秸秆基质栽培,腐熟鸡粪+磷酸二铵作为施肥配方,分析比较了5种施肥量对西瓜生长发育、产量及品质的影响,结果表明,在一定施肥量的范围内,产量随施肥量的增加而增加,综合所有因素,最佳施肥配方为每小区腐熟鸡粪30 kg+磷酸二铵1.5 kg.

  17. A New Gene for Dwarfism in Watermelon%介绍1个新的短蔓西瓜基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 李永刚

    2009-01-01

    The inheritance of a dwarf mutant discovered from watermelon inbred line 5-6y was studied in this project. The result showed that the dwarf mutant is genetically stable and is conferred by a pair of recessive gene that is no allelic to known genes dw-1 and dw-2. The new dwarf gene may be named as dw-4 if it is not allelic to dw-3.%对在长蔓西瓜材料5-6y中发现的1株短节间突变体的研究显示,其受制于1对隐形基因.这1新的短蔓突变体(系)暂命名为d5-6y,它既不与已知的dw-1和dw-2等位,也无法与dw-3进行测定,建议将这一新的短蔓基因命名为dw-4.

  18. 基于蜂窝纸芯模块的西瓜包装设计%Watermelon Packaging Design Based Honeycomb Core Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫建; 杜艳平; 张阳

    2014-01-01

    为了实现运输包装及产品包装一体化,研究了西瓜的包装结构与造型设计,探索蜂窝纸芯模块应用于相关包装产品领域的数字化设计与绿色制造方法。以虚拟设计和虚拟制造的方法进行新型包装结构产品开发,通过最终产品形态逆向反求蜂窝纸芯模块数据和加工尺寸,以数控CNC加工中心完成蜂窝模块的加工制作。结果表明,此法可实现包装的个性化定制,有效提升产品的品牌附加值。%In order to achieve the integration of transport packaging and product packaging, this paper studies the structure and design of watermelon packaging, explores the ho-neycomb paperboard core module in packaging applications. At the same time, the paper discusses the method of the virtual design and manufacturing of new packaging design and development. At last, it finishes making cellular module processing by CNC machining center. The results show that this method can be personalized custom packaging, effectively improve product brand value.

  19. 西瓜植苗覆膜滴灌套种玉米栽培技术%Watermelon Transplanting, Filming, Dripping Irrigation and Maize Interplanting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 马献军

    2016-01-01

    西瓜植苗覆膜滴灌套种玉米栽培技术有效地利用当地的光、热资源,提高了肥料利用率和土地利用率,是一种理想的节水、高产、高效、优质栽培模式。本文总结了宁夏农垦暖泉农场西瓜植苗覆膜滴灌套种玉米栽培技术,包括选地、整地、品种选择、移栽、田间管理等。%Watermelon transplanting, filming, dripping irrigation and maize interplanting cultivation technology, effectively uti-lizes light and heat resources and increases fertilizer and land utilization efficiency, can be an ideal cultivation model for water conservation, high yield and high quality cultivation. The technology was concluded in this paper, including land se-lection, soil preparation, variety selection, interplantation, and field management.

  20. Breeding of a New Early Mature Watermelon Cultivar——Cuili%早熟西瓜新品种翠丽的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德玺; 邓云; 徐小军; 安国林; 李卫华; 刘君璞

    2011-01-01

    翠丽是中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所于2003年冬季在海南用SD作母本、SUG作父本杂交育成的早熟西瓜新品种.全生育期96 d左右,果实发育期28 d.植株生长势稳健.果实高圆形,果皮绿色覆墨绿锯齿条带;瓜瓤红色,瓤质酥脆多汁,口感风味好;果皮薄而韧,不易裂果,耐贮运.单果质量6 kg左右,667 m2产量2000~3500kg.中抗枯萎病.适宜河南省及生态相似区域种植.%A new early mature watermelon cultivar Cuili was developed by crossing inbred line SD as female parent and SUG as male parent. The fruit matures 96 days from sowing and about 28 days from flowering. The fruit is high globe shaped with dark green skin and deep green narrow stripes. The flesh is red with soluble solid content at center about 12%. The rind is thin but durable. 667 m2 yield is 2 000-3 500 kg. The average fruit weight is about 6 kg. The plant has intermediate resistance to Fusarium wilt. It is suitable for cultivation in Henan province.

  1. 鸭儿芹-冬瓜复合蔬菜汁饮料的研制%Manufacture of compound beverage on Cryptotaenia japenica Hassk and Chinese watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田成

    2011-01-01

    以鸭儿芹和冬瓜为主要原料,采用L9(34)正交设计,研究了鸭儿芹和冬瓜复合汁饮料的加工工艺和最佳配方。结果表明,当鸭儿芹汁3.0%、冬瓜汁20%、白砂糖8%和柠檬酸0.08%时,产品品质较好。该产品具有香味独特、酸甜爽口、营养和保健功能的特点。%Using Cryptotaenia japenica Hassk and Chinese watermelon as the main raw materials,the technology of compound beverage and the best formulations were studied by L9(34)orthogonal design.The results showed that the best formula was as follow:the content for Cryptotaenia japenica Hassk juice,Benincasa hispida juice,white crystal sugar and citric acid was 3.0%,20%,8% and 0.08% respectively.This product has the characteristics of particular ordor,refreshing sweet and sour taste,and with nutrition and health functions.

  2. Effects of Vermicompost on Quality and Phy­chemical Properties in Rhizosphere Soil of Watermelon%施用蚯蚓粪对西瓜品质及根际土壤理化性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝林生; 苏厚谊

    2014-01-01

    以‘黑彤K­8’西瓜为试材,通过大田试验研究了 CK(不施肥)、CF(习惯施肥)、VC(蚯蚓粪)和VC+CF(蚯蚓粪和化肥各提供50%的氮)等处理对西瓜品质及根际土壤理化性状的影响。结果表明:同CF处理相比,VC+CF处理明显降低了根际土壤pH值,显著提高了根际土壤速效N、P、K含量以及EC值;明显增强了脲酶、过氧化氢酶、多酚氧化酶和蔗糖酶活性,其中脲酶活性分别比CK、CF和VC处理提高51.13%、17.19%和12.84%。此外,VC+CF处理还显著提高了西瓜产量,且明显改善了西瓜品质。与VC+CF处理相比, VC处理对西瓜根际土壤理化性状及产量、品质的影响较小。因此,蚯蚓粪与化肥配施对西瓜的作用效果更佳,是比较理想的施肥措施。%Vermicompost was an important organic amendment that regulated the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there was little information on the effect of vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer on the ecological environment at rhizosphere soil and yield of watermelon. Considering the benefits of vermicompost, a field experiment was conducted to determine whether the vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer benefits the ecological environment of watermelon rhizosphere soil. There were four treatments in the field experiment, CK (neither urea nor vermicompost was applied), CF (100%of nitrogen was provided by urea), VC (100%of nitrogen was provided by vermicompost), and VC+CF (50%and 50%of nitrogen was provided by vermicompost and urea, respectively). The study was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer on soil phy­chemical properties, enzyme activities at rhizosphere soil and yield as well as quality of watermelon. The results showed that compared to the CF treatment, the VC+CF treatment significantly decreased the pH value and apparently increased the contents of available

  3. 10%溴氰虫酰胺悬浮剂对西瓜烟粉虱的田间防治研究%Control Efficacy of Cyantraniliprole against White Fly on Watermelon in Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永; 宋晓磊; 王海红; 王世强; 王祥平; 任璐

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the control efficacy of cyantraniliprole against watermelon white fly, we compared the control efficacy of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid with different concentrations against watermelon white fly. The results showed that, while were applied twice every seven days, the control efficiencies of cyantraniliprole were higher than 80%against the white fly adults and nymphs with active ingredient higher than 54 g/hm2 seven days after the second spraying. In conclusion, cyanthraniliprole showed good control efficacy against watermelon white fly than imidaclorid, and cyantraniliprole could make the vine length increased, growth vigor strengthened and pests damage reduced.%为明确溴氰虫酰胺对西瓜烟粉虱的防治效果,以吡虫啉为对照,通过田间试验比较了溴氰虫酰胺36 g/hm2、54 g/hm2、72 g/hm2及90 g/hm2及吡虫啉90 g/hm2(剂量为有效成分)对西瓜烟粉虱成虫和若虫的控制效果及对作物长势的影响。试验结果表明,在西瓜烟粉虱成虫发生初期施用溴氰虫酰胺悬浮剂54 g/hm2及以上剂量,7 d 间隔,连续施药2次,末次药后7 d对烟粉虱成虫和若虫的防效均高于80%,明显优于吡虫啉处理,同时能够增加西瓜茎蔓长度、增强西瓜长势,降低烟粉虱对西瓜的为害。

  4. Effects of seed treatments on seed germination and seedling growth of watermelon%种子处理对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凌云; 李明; 姚东伟

    2011-01-01

    Effects of seed priming and fungicide coating on seed germination and seedling growth of watermelon were studied.The results showed that at 15 ℃ low temperature potassium nitrate had the best seed priming effect,and at 20 ℃ both potassium nitrate and vermiculite were about the same in seed priming effect,significantly improving the seed vigor.The coating with mixture of fludioxonil and azoxystrobin had a good disinfection effect on watermelon seeds.In greenhouse culture seed priming and fungicide coating could improve the watermelon seed germination traits, shorten the mean emergence time and enhance the seedling emergence rate and seedling quality.%研究了种子引发结合杀菌剂包衣处理对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗素质的影响.结果表明:15℃低温条件下,硝酸钾引发处理效果最好;20℃条件下,硝酸钾引发处理与蛭石引发处理效果相同,均能显著提高西瓜种子活力.运用咯菌腈和嘧菌酯药剂混配包衣西瓜种子,对西瓜种子具有良好的消毒效果.对西瓜种子进行引发和杀菌剂包衣综合处理可以提高温室西瓜种子萌发特性,缩短平均出苗时间,提高出苗率和幼苗素质.

  5. 基于双目立体视觉的西瓜子三维形态检测%Detection of Watermelon Seed Three-dimensional Shape Based on Binocular Stereo Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士鑫; 孙涌; 余建飞; 张刚

    2012-01-01

    To improve the watermelon seed automated screening system performance, this paper presents a method of watermelon seed combination parallel binocular stereo vision and bone line to use in measurement and process the warping degree of watermeldn seed. This method uses binocular stereo vision technique for the reconstruction of three-dimensional object's surface information. The three-dimensional information is projected in space rectangular coordinates, it can obtain the seed profile in the front view and side view. The combination of Curvature Scale Space(CSS) and bone line is used in feature extraction of the side view profile of the watermelon seed. Experimental results show that the method has high recognition accuracy for warped seed.%为提高西瓜子自动筛选系统的性能,提出一种用于度量和处理西瓜子弯翘度的方法.把双目平行立体视觉与骨骼线相结合,利用双目立体视觉技术重建物体表面的三维信息.将该信息进行正交投影,分别得到西瓜子在前视图和侧视图的轮廓.利用曲率尺度空间与骨骼线相结合的方法对侧视图的瓜子轮廓进行特征提取.实验结果表明,该方法对弯翘瓜子有较高的识别精度.

  6. 无籽西瓜种子萌发与磷酸戊糖途径关系的研究%Relationship Between Phosphopentose Pathway and Germination of Triploid Watermelon Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴思慧; 熊兴耀; 黄智; 孙小武

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship between phosphopentose pathway and germination of triploid watermelon seeds, changes of G-6-PDH and 6-P-GDH enzyme activities during the germination of triploid watermelon seed were studied. The activities of G-6-PDH and 6-P-GDH reached highest at 36h after germination and decreased afterwards. The enzyme activity peak was concordant with the seed coat cracking stage. The beginning of germination was determined by the activities of G-6-PDH and 6-P-GDH of seed embryo. These results suggest that triploid watermelon seed germination may be closely related to phosphopentose pathway.%为了探讨无籽西瓜种子萌发与磷酸戊糖代谢途径的关系,研究了无籽西瓜种子萌发过程中磷酸戊糖代谢途径的G-6-PDH和6-P-GDH 2个关键性酶联合活性变化.结果表明:无籽西瓜种子随着萌发过程的进行,G-6-PDH和6-P-GDH联合活性在36h种子的各个部位出现高峰值,然后下降,与种子的萌发裂口时间一致,且种胚中G-6-PDH和6-P-GDH联合活性大小决定其萌动的开始,表明无籽西瓜种子萌发与磷酸戊糖代谢途径密切相关.

  7. Problems and Countermeasures in Cultivation Management of Watermelon and Melon in Henan Province%河南省西甜瓜栽培管理中存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曼; 龚攀

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzed the problems in cultivation management of watermelon and melon,including soil cropping obstacles,nursery,planting density,fertilization,herbicide,pest control and so on,and proposed countermeasures,in order to provide reference for its planting.%分析河南省西甜瓜栽培管理中在土壤连作障碍、育苗、种植密度、施肥、除草剂、病虫害防治等方面存在的问题,并提出相应的对策,以为西甜瓜的种植提供参考。

  8. Screening of most efficient medicament for controlling bacterial fruit blotch of grafted watermelon seedlings using seed soaking method%药物浸种处理防治西瓜嫁接苗细菌性果斑病试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 韦志扬; 李文信; 覃斯华; 黄金艳; 洪日新; 李天艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选防治西瓜嫁接苗细菌性果斑病(BFB)的种子处理有效药剂,为防治BFB提供科学依据.[方法]先以17种药剂的200倍液对西瓜种子进行浸种处理,依据嫁接苗BFB的发病率初步筛选防治BFB的有效药剂;以初选有效药剂进行不同浓度、不同混合组合及不同浸种方法处理对嫁接苗BFB的防治效果试验.[结果]初试结果表明,2%春雷霉素处理西瓜嫁接苗BFB病株率较低,可用于下一步试验.复试结果表明,2%春雷霉素100、200、300、400、500倍液浸种处理有籽西瓜种子,嫁接后12d嫁接苗BFB发病率分别为1.0%、36.7%、94.3%、95.7%、98.1%;2%春雷霉素200倍+乐尤病、72%农用链霉素、72%农用硫酸链霉素800倍液浸种处理有籽西瓜种子,嫁接后12 d嫁接苗BFB发病率为1.0%~2.4%;2%春雷霉素100、200、300、400倍液处理西瓜干种子,嫁接后12 d有籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为0.5%~5.7%,无籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为8.1%~11.4%;2%春雷霉素400倍+乐无病、72%农用链霉素、72%农用硫酸链霉素1000倍液处理西瓜干种子,嫁接后12 d有籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为1.0%~2.0%,无籽西瓜嫁接苗BFB发病率为6.7%~9.5%.[结论]2%春雷霉素可作为防治西瓜嫁接苗BFB的首选特效药,推荐浓度为2%春雷霉素400倍或以2%春雷霉素400倍搭配其他杀菌剂使用.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to screen effective medicaments for controlling bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of grafted watermelon seedlings, and to provide scientific basis for BFB control. [Method]Seeds of watermelon were soaked in 200 times diluted solutions of 17 different kinds of medicaments, the effectiveness of different medicaments was screened preliminarily by observing rate of BFB incidence on grafted seedlings. Different concentrations and combinations were also used to screen the most effective medicament. [Result]The rate of BFB incidence on grafted watermelon seedlings, treated

  9. Breeding of New Characteristic Yellow Flesh and Seedless Watermelon Variety-Shenyu%特色型黄瓤无籽西瓜新品种神玉的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱别房; 周泉; 马陆平; 易学赛; 周坚; 彭七凤

    2013-01-01

    神玉系岳阳市西甜瓜科学研究所和湖南省西瓜育种工程实验室最新选育的特色型、中小果形、黄瓤无籽西瓜新品种,于2013年3月通过湖南省农作物品种审定委员会审定。该品种全生育期100 d左右,雌花开放至果实成熟28 d左右。植株生长势中强,茎叶中等,抗病性、抗逆性强;果实短椭圆形,果形指数1.2;果皮深绿色,厚度1.0 cm左右;瓤色鲜黄,质脆爽口,纤维少,无籽性能好;果实中心可溶性固形物含量约10.6%,边部约6.7%。单瓜重2~4 kg,一般单产2000 kg/667m2左右,立架栽培单产可达4000 kg/667m2左右。%Shenyu is the newest breeding characteristic variety of seedless watermelon which has small fruit and yellow flesh, and it is bred by Yueyang Institute of Watermelon and Muskmelon Science and Hunan Watermelon Breeding Engineering Laboratory. Shenyu watermelon is officially approved by the Hunan Provincial Crop Variety Approval Committee in March, 2013. The Shenyu is around 100 d in whole growth period, and around 30 d between florescence of female flower and fruit mature;its plant has medium strong growth potential and middle size of stem and leaves, and it also has strong resistance to disease and stress; its fruit is short oval with fruit shape index of 1.2, the peel is dark green with thickness of 1.0 cm, and the flesh is fresh yellow with crisp taste, and its seedless ability is good;the soluble solids content is around 10.6% in central fruit and about 6.7% in fruit edge; the weight of single fruit is around 2~4 kg, the unit yield with normal method is around 30 000 kg/hm2, and the unit yield with vertical culture method can reach 60 000 kg/hm2.

  10. 桂林西瓜霜对宫颈糜烂组织细胞的影响研究%Study on the effect of Guilin watermelon frost on cervical columnar ectopy tissue and cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董林红; 蒋秋燕; 宋金玲; 张琪; 李艳林; 莫海霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of Guilin watermelon frost on cervical columnar ectopy tissue and cells. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients with cervical columnar ectopy were randomly divided into observation group and control group; the patients in observation group were treated with sprayed coating of Guilin watermelon frost on the erosion surface; while the patients in control group were treated with external application of bFGF - collagen sponge. The hyperplasia of mucosal epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial fibroblast proliferation in the two groups were observed under light microscope. Results: Guilin watermelon frost used in observation group had a promoting effect on hyperplasia of squamous epithelial cells, decrease of the inflammatory cells, formation of granulation tissue and fibroblast, and angiogenesis. The intact rate of covering epithelium of cervical tissue in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (P0.05) . Conclusion; Guilin watermelon frost has anti - inflammatory effect and anti - bacterial effect, which can promote the healing of the erosion surface.%目的:探讨桂林西瓜霜对宫颈糜烂组织细胞的影响.方法:将160例宫颈糜烂患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组用桂林西瓜霜喷敷宫颈糜烂面;对照组采用bFGF -胶原蛋白海绵外敷.光学显微镜下观察两组治疗前后的黏膜上皮细胞增生、炎细胞浸润、间质成纤维细胞增生情况.结果:观察组采用的桂林西瓜霜对鳞状上皮细胞增生、炎性细胞减少、肉芽组织及成纤维细胞形成、血管新生等有促进作用.经组织细胞病理形态学积分差比较,观察组对宫颈组织被覆上皮完好率高于对照组,经积分差u检验(P<0.05)差异有统计学意义;成纤维细胞增生积分差经u检验(P>0.05)差异无统计学意义.结论:桂林西瓜霜具有消炎抗菌、促进糜烂面愈合的作用.

  11. 西瓜翠衣抑制酪氨酸酶、抗自由基作用及其成分的含量测定%Anti-tyrosinase and Antioxidation Activities and Contents Determining from Watermelon Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王园园; 龙娴; 钟大妹; 葛月宾; 汪振雄

    2014-01-01

    To determine the contents and evaluate the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidation activities of extract from watermelon peel. Watermelon peel was extracted by different extraction solvents, macroporous resin purification as well as dialysis bag. And the contents of polysaccharides, amino acids, vitamine C were measured. In order to evaluate and compare the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidation activities of watermelon peel extracts , the tyrosinase activity inhibition rate and DPPH free radical scavenging rate were measured in vitro. It showed that selecting 95%ethanol as the extraction solvent, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-oxidative actions of extract were better than other solvents, in which the contents of polysaccharides, amino acids, vitamine C were 50.10, 2.59 and 26.75 mg/g, respectively. After purification by macroporous resin, water-eluting location obtained much amount and showed higher activities. The elution was further dialyzed and the tyrosinase activity inhibition rate and DPPH free radical scavenging rate of the concentrate in the outside of dialysis bag were 58.12%and 56.82%, respectively. Through the process, the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidation activities of watermelon peel was clear and the contents of active ingredients were determined.%评价西瓜翠衣的抑制酪氨酸酶和抗自由基作用,并测定其成分的含量。采用酪氨酸酶活性抑制率和DPPH自由基清除率活性测定方法,分析西瓜翠衣提取物的多糖、总氨基酸和VC含量。西瓜翠衣用95%乙醇作为溶剂,提取物活性较高,其多糖、总氨基酸和VC含量分别为50.10、2.59、26.75 mg/g;提取物经大孔树脂纯化后,水洗脱部位的活性较好且富集量最大;进一步透析水洗脱部位,其透析液的酪氨酸酶活性抑制率达到58.12%,与0.25 mmol/L曲酸作用相当,DPPH自由基清除率达到56.82%。通过此研究确定了西瓜翠衣的抑制酪氨酸酶和抗自由基功效及其成分的含量。

  12. 三倍体西瓜种子种壳结构及机械破壳力学特性%Seedcoat structure and mechanical nicking properties of triploid watermelon seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴思慧; 孙小武; 熊兴耀; 李明; 姚珺

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the germination rate via mechanical seedcoat nicking method instead of manual operation. The germination hindrance of triploid watermelon seed was analyzed by seedcoat infrastructure features compared with diploid watermelon seed. Familiar watermelon seeds of three varieties, Heiniu, Mihong and Huapi, at the moisture content of 11.1, 11.2 and 10.6% (w.b.), were selected to study the mechanical nicking properties using common methods, respectively. Test results showed that the loading speed of pressure had an influence on the seedcoat nicking force. The maximum compression values of all seeds were as the designing standard for the compressing rocker. The loading speed of pressure was chosen as 80-100 mm/min; the maximum nicking force as 68.97 N. It is concluded that the results provide basic parameters and theoretical basis to design a seedcoat nicking machine for triploid watermelon seeds.%为实现机械破壳代替人工破壳的方式提高无子西瓜种子的发芽率.对比二倍体西瓜种子,用种壳超微结构分析方法解释了三倍体西瓜种子的发芽障碍原因;并采用3种常见的三倍体西瓜种子黑牛、蜜红和花皮,含水率分别为11.1%、11.2%和10.6%,运用常用试验方法对实现机械破壳的力学特性进行了试验研究.试验结果得出三倍体西瓜种子的加载速度对破壳力的影响;设计压缩摇杆时,其调节量标准以各品种的压缩变形量最大值为基准;加载速度宜选择80~100 mm/min;最大破壳力为68.97 N.研究得到的结果为开发三倍体西瓜种子破壳机械提供了基本参数和理论计算依据.

  13. 砧木播种密度对西瓜断根嫁接苗生长的影响%Effects of Rootstock Sowing Density on the Growth of Grafted Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华斌; 黄远; 别之龙

    2011-01-01

    为了确定生产中西瓜断根嫁接苗砧木最佳播种密度,采用50孔塑料穴盘,研究了砧木不同播种密度(每穴1粒、每穴2粒、每穴3粒)对砧木苗和西瓜断根嫁接苗生长的影响.结果表明,砧木每穴播种1粒.砧木苗和西瓜断根嫁接苗质量最高;随着播种密度的增加,砧木苗徒长,西瓜断根嫁接苗质量下降.综合考虑嫁接苗质量和育苗成本,认为对50孔穴盘而言,低温时期西瓜断根嫁接苗生产中最经济有效的砧木播种密度为每穴2粒,正常温度时期砧木播种密度以每穴1粒为宜.%Different sowing densities ( 1 seed per cell, 2 seeds per cell, 3 seeds per cell)of rootstock were tested using 50 cell plug tray to determine optimal sowing density of rootstock for root pruning hole insertion watermelon grafting method.The growth of both rootstock and grafted watermelon seedling was used as responses to the treatment.The results showed that rootstock seedlings and grafted seedlings had the best quality when the sowing density is 1 seed per cell.The increase in sowing density resulted in excessive growth of rootstock seedlings and declined quality of grafted watermelon seedlings.Considering the seedling quality and production cost the most economical and effective sowing density of rootstock for 50 cell plug tray for the production of root pruning hole insertion grafted watermelon seedlings is 2 seeds per cell in the low temperature period and 1 seed per cell in normal temperature period.

  14. 利用近红外高光谱图像技术快速鉴别西瓜种子品种%Fast identification of watermelon seed variety using near infrared hyperspectral imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张初; 刘飞; 孔汶汶; 章海亮; 何勇

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon seed variety selection plays a vital role in watermelon planting, and the variety of watermelon seeds directly affect the yield and quality of watermelons. In this study, we aimed to identify the cultivars of watermelon seeds by using a novel, rapid, non-invasive, and low cost technique named hyperspectral imaging. 121 samples of four different cultivars of watermelon seeds were investigated, and a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system (874-1734 nm with 256 bands) was established to acquire the hyperspectral images of the samples. A region of interest (ROI) with 15×15 pixels of the hyperspectral image of each sample was defined, and the average reflectance spectrum of the ROI were extracted. To remove the absolute noises of the spectra, only the spectral range 1 042-1 646 nm was used for analysis, and to reduce the noises existed in spectral range 1 042-1 646 nm, the extracted 121 reflectance spectra were preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), and Wavelet Transform (WT) methods. The preprocessed spectra were then used to select sensitive wavelengths by Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) and Genetic Algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) methods. Different numbers of sensitive wavelengths were selected by different variable selection methods with different preprocessing methods. 24, 16, and 15 sensitive wavelengths were selected by SPA with spectra preprocessed by SG, EMD, and WT, respectively. Moreover, 38, 33. and 32 sensitive wavelengths were selected by GA-PLS with spectra preprocessed by SG, EMD. and WT, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build discriminant models with the full spectra, and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were applied to build discriminant models with the selected wavelength variables. A PLS-DA model with spectra preprocessed by EMD obtained the best identification rate among all PLS-DA models

  15. 基于打瓜力学特性的破碎装置研究与分析%Research on and Analysis of Crushing Device Based on the Mechanical Properties of Seed Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛长河; 王学农; 刘旋峰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this project was to design a new crushing device and make strength checking on its spindle. [Method] Compressive test was used to research mechanical properties and get the elastic modulus of seed watermelon and finite - element analysis was applied to establish mechanical property model. Also, finite - element analysis software was employed to simulate strength checking on the key parts of crushing device. [Result]Through the test, the average elastic modulus of seed watermelon was got, that is, 5.05 × 106 Pa, and the density was 910 kg/m3. The results of the finite element analysis and the test are very similar; the established mechanical model can analyze the crushing mechanism of seed watermelon and solve the matching problem between pick - up device of seed watermelon harvester and crushing device. [Conclusion]Through checking, the spindle of new crushing device could meet the strength requirements.%[目的]设计新型打瓜破碎装置,对其关键零件主轴进行强度校核.[方法]通过对打瓜进行压缩试验,研究打瓜的机械特性,得出打瓜的弹性模量,运用有限元分析法建立打瓜的力学特性有限元模型,并使用有限元分析软件对破碎装置的关键零件进行模拟强度校核.[结果]通过试验,得出打瓜的强度极限为1 310N,平均弹性模量为5.05×106 Pa,密度为910 kg/m3,有限元分析结果与试验数据基本吻合,建立的打瓜力学有限元模型可用于分析打瓜的破碎机理.[结论]新型打瓜破碎装置主轴经校核满足强度要求.

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on microorganism and flavor of fresh watermelon juice%超高压对鲜榨西瓜汁杀菌效果和风味的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘野; 赵晓燕; 胡小松; 宋焕禄

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on microorganism and flavor of fresh watermelon juice, HHP was applied to produce watermelon juice. Total bacteria, mold and yeast, typical flavor compounds of watermelon juice after HHP treatment of 600 Mpa and 60 min were studied with thermal treatment of 95℃ and 1 min as control. The variations of microorganisms count and content of typical flavor compounds during 30 d storage at 4°C were investigated. The count of total bacteria, mold and yeast of thermal and HHP treatments conformed to hygienic standards and shelf life could meet consumption demand. The treatment of 600 Mpa and 60 min HHP induced little on typical flavor compounds. The content of typical flavor compounds did not change after 30 d storage at 4 ℃. In general, HHP treatment is suitable for fresh watermelon juice production.%为了研究超高压(HHP)处理对鲜榨西瓜汁的杀菌效果及风味的影响,采用HHP技术对鲜榨西瓜汁进行处理.以95℃,1 min热处理作为对照,重点考察了600MPa,60 min HHP处理对西瓜汁中菌落总数、霉菌和酵母菌数及典型风味化合物含量的影响;并探讨了2种处理西瓜汁在4℃,30 d贮藏过程中上述指标的变化情况.结果表明:95℃,1 min热处理和600MPa,60 min HHP处理后西瓜汁中的微生物指标均符合《果、蔬汁饮料卫生标准》的要求;并且25 d的保质期满足鲜榨西瓜汁的消费要求(保质期≥7d).600MPa,60 min HHP处理对西瓜汁的典型风味化合物含量影响较小;4℃,30 d贮藏过程中典型风味物质含量不发生变化(P>0.05).总体看来,HHP处理更适合于鲜榨西瓜汁的加工.

  17. Trellis Cultivation of Medium Size Watermelon in Beijing%北京地区中果型西瓜吊架栽培初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保东

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated three plant densities,650 plants per 667 m2,850 plants per 667 m2 and 1 050 plants per 667 m2,in trellis production of medium size watermelon to improve the income of watermelon growers in Beijing area. We evaluated plant growth,fruit quality and economic return of 3 treatments. No effects of plant density on plant vigor and fruit quality-were observed in the trial. However,the fruit size was reduced with increase of plant density,7.09,6.54 and 6.05 kg per fruit for densities of 650 plants per 667 m2,850 plants per 667 m2 and 1 050 plants per 667 m2,respectively. All fruit sizes are ac-ceptable for Beijing market. Compared to the low density treatment,the economic benefits of 850 plants per 667 m2 and 1 050 plants per 667 m2 were improved 20.26%and 39.34%.%为了提高瓜农经济效益,采用中果型西瓜密植吊蔓栽培技术,通过667 m2650株、850株、1050株3种栽培密度设计,对西瓜长势、品质及其经济效益进行了初步研究。结果表明:增加西瓜密度,采用吊蔓栽培管理,对西瓜长势、品质无显著影响,从单瓜质量看,667 m2定植650株平均单瓜质量最高为7.09 kg,667 m2定植850株平均单瓜质量为6.45 kg,667 m2定植1050株平均单瓜质量达到6.05 kg,适合市场需求。从经济效益上分析,667 m2定植850株的处理2比定植650株的处理1经济效益提高20.26%。667 m2定植1050株的处理3比定植650株的处理1经济效益提高39.34%,经济效益最高,适合中果型西瓜栽培农户应用。

  18. A New Triploid Seedless Watermelon Variety “Cuimi Huaba”%无籽西瓜新品种翠蜜花霸的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶翠枝; 赵明远; 王桂林; 王景行; 娄威

    2013-01-01

    Cuimi Huaba is a new triploid seedless watermelon developed by crossing the tetraploid line Youxi 416 as female parent with the diploid Kangxi 328 as male parent. Cuimi Huaba is easy to set fruit and the fruit matures about 33 days from pollination. The average fruit is about 6.8 kg and 667 m2 yield is above 4 000 kg in open field. The fruit is globe shaped with dark green skin and narrow stripes. The thickness of rind is 1.4 cm with good durability. Its red flesh is crisp and flavorful. The soluble solids content in center is 11.25% and 9.5% near rind. It is suitable for cultivation in Henan province and the surrounding areas.%翠密花霸是以四倍体优系416为母本,抗系328为父本杂交育成的无籽西瓜新品种.中晚熟,果实发育期33 d左右.植株生长势稳健,易坐果.果实圆球形,花皮,皮厚1.4 cm,耐储运;瓜瓤红色,中心可溶性固形物11.25%,边部9.5%,风味纯正,品质优.平均单果质量6.8 kg,采用普通栽培方式667 m2产量在4 000 kg以上.适宜河南及周边地区种植.

  19. Breeding of A New Edible Seed Watermelon Hybrid——Linzi No.1%籽瓜杂交种林籽1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾; 林淑敏; 刘彤; 王诚忠; 丁禹琪; 陶东

    2011-01-01

    林籽1号是以92707为母本、88708为父本育成的早熟、优质、高产籽瓜杂交种.植株生长健壮,抗病抗逆性强,适应性广,易坐果.全生育期95~103d.果实圆形,果皮浅绿色覆深绿核桃纹;单瓜产籽250~480粒,种子纵、横径1.75 cm×1.13 cm,片面平整、黑白分明,翘片、二青片、秕籽极少,商品率在97%以上.667m2干籽产量160 kg.适宜在新疆、内蒙古、甘肃、宁夏以及东北部分地区种植.%Linzi No.1 is a new edible seed watermelon variety with early maturity, high quality and high yield.It was developed by using line 92707 as female and line 88708 as male parent.The variety produce plants with strong vigor,good resistance and adaptability.The plant set fruit easily.The whole growing period is 95-103 days.The fruit is globe shaped with light green skin and pencil lines.The single fruit can produce 250-480 seeds.The seed size is 1.75 cm×1.13 cm.The seed is white in center portion and dark at edges.More than 97% seed are marketable.667 m2 yield of dry seeds is 160 kg.It is suitable for cultivation in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia province and part areas of Northeast.

  20. Cloning of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA and analysis of endogenous gibberellins in the developing seeds in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Joonyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    2002-02-01

    We have isolated Cv3h, a cDNA clone from the developing seeds of watermelon, and have demonstrated significant amino acid homology with gibberellin (GA) 3 beta-hydroxylases. This cDNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein that oxidized GA(9) and GA(12) to GA(4) and GA(14), respectively. The Cv3h protein had the highest similarity with pumpkin GA 2 beta,3 beta-hydroxylase, but did not possess 2 beta-hydroxylation function. RNA blot analysis showed that the gene was expressed primarily in the inner parts of developing seeds, up to 10 d after pollination (DAP). In the parthenocarpic fruits induced by treatment with 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU), the embryo and endosperm of the seeds were undeveloped, whereas the integumental tissues, of maternal origin, showed nearly normal development. Cv3h mRNA was undetectable in the seeds of CPPU-treated fruits, indicating that the GA 3 beta-hydroxylase gene was expressed in zygotic cells. In our analysis of endogenous GAs from developing seeds, GA(9) and GA(4) were detected at high levels but those of GA(20) and GA(1) were very low. This demonstrates that GA biosynthesis in seeds prefers a non-13-hydroxylation pathway over an early 13-hydroxylation pathway. We also analyzed endogenous GAs from seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits. The level of bioactive GA(4 )was much lower there than in normal seeds, indicating that bioactive GAs, unconnected with Cv3h, exist in integumental tissues during early seed development. PMID:11867694

  1. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  2. Preliminary Report on Efficiency Comparison Test of Application of Jianong Humic Acid Water Soluble Fertilizer to Open Field Watermelon%嘉农腐殖酸水溶肥在露地西瓜上的肥效试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈玉芳; 张骞; 艾凤舞; 马广福

    2014-01-01

    在宁夏灵武农场开展了嘉农腐殖酸水溶肥在露地西瓜上的肥效对比试验。结果表明,追施嘉农腐殖酸水溶肥可增加西瓜糖分,提高西瓜产量及品质,增加经济效益;在灵武农场露地西瓜生产中,嘉农腐植酸水溶肥可作追肥推广应用。%An efficiency comparison test of application of Jianong humic acid water soluble fertilizer to the open field watermelon was conducted at Lingwu farm in Ningxia. The result showed that the topdressing of Jianong humic acid water soluble fertilizer could increase the watermelon sugar content, increase watermelon yield and quality and increase the economic benefits. In the production of the open field watermelon, the Jianong humic acid water soluble fertilizer could be extended and applied as topdressing.

  3. Introduction and selection experiment of functional small watermelon varieties%功能性特色小果型西瓜新品种引进筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项生; 王海荣; 董思瑶; 季莉

    2013-01-01

    引进国内育成的功能性特色小果型西瓜新品种9个,于2012-2013年在宁夏贺兰日光温室种植进行品种比较试验,鉴定其早熟性、果实品质、丰产性、适应性等性状。试验表明,中兴红1号、小宝无籽、绿野无籽、金兰无籽等4个功能性西瓜品种和黄皮红瓤品种华晶3号综合性状优于对照,适合在宁夏日光温室种植。%9 varieties of small fruit type watermelon with functional features were Introduced in 2012-2013, the planting varieties comparison experiment was done in ningxia solar greenhouse for the identification of its early maturity, fruit quality and botany characteristics, high yielding, such as adaptive traits. Tests show that ZHongXinHong1, and XiaoBao seedless, LvYe seedless, JinLan seedless four functional watermelon varieties and yellow and the pulp is varieties HuaJing 3 comprehensive properties is better than that of control, suitable for ningxia solar greenhouse planting.

  4. 小果无籽西瓜大棚长季节高效栽培技术%Long-season and Efficient Cultivation Techniques for Small Fruit and Seedless Watermelon in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建雄; 梁志怀; 阮万辉; 李基光; 张云; 王志伟

    2013-01-01

    以小果无籽西瓜品种蜜童为材料,以早春红玉、早佳为对照,对西瓜大棚长季节高效栽培进行了研究。结果表明:小果无籽西瓜蜜童大小适中、品质优良、商品性好、耐贮运,适宜做湖南地区大棚长季节栽培的主栽品种。%In order to study the long-season and efficient cultivation techniques for watermelon in green house, the Mitong, a small fruit and seedless watermelon variety, was taken as experimental material, and the Zaochunhongyu and the Zaojia were taken as control. The results revealed that the Mitong had moderate size, great characteristics, and good marketability and storability. Therefore, the Mitong is suitable for planting in greenhouse in Hunan province as main cultivar for long-season cultivation.

  5. Macrosporogênese, formação do saco embrionário, desenvolvimento do endosperma e do embrião em uma forma tetraplóide de melancia (Citrullus vulgaris SHRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Na melancia tetraplóide da variedade Keckley Sweet, observa-se ainda em estados iniciais do desenvolvimento, uma diferenciação no tamanho dos óvulos, diferenciação essa que se acentua cada vez mais. Nos óvulos maiores, a mocrosporogênese ocorre antes da abertura da flor. Quando isso se verifica, quase todos os sacos embrionários estão completos e a fertilização se dá entre 24 e 48 horas após a abertura. As primeiras divisões da célula-ôvo aparecem do 7.° dia em diante, quando o endosperma já apresenta 6 a 16 núcleos. Observou-se a formação do haustório do endosperma de forma tubular, cujo desenvolvimento é máximo cêrca de 10 dias após a abertura, ocasião em que o embrião ainda se apresenta globular. Em óvulos de 13 e 14 dias o haustório se mostra atrofiado, o embrião é cordiforme e o endosperma bastante desenvolvido. Aos 20 e 22 dias de idade, as sementes completam seu desenvolvimento, encontrando-se, de dentro para fora: o embrião tomando todo o espaço correspondente ao endosperma e ao nucelo; o nucelo, reduzido a uma película fina e transparente; finalmente, o tegumento externo, duro e bastante espêsso. Uma correlação entre o desenvolvimento do saco embrionário e o crescimento do nucelo pôde ser estabelecida. Nesta variedade de melancia, constatou-se grande eliminação de óvulos durante o processo de desenvolvimento do fruto: parte antes da fertilização, parte naqueles que foram fertilizados. Essa eliminação se traduz num atraso cada vez mais acentuado no desenvolvimento das diversas portes da semente, produzindo no fruto maduro uma série de sementes "abortadas" e "chôchas". Sòmente uma pequena fração dos óvulos se transforma em sementes normais e, em conseqüência esta forma tetraplóide apresenta poucas sementes.Megasporogenesis, embryo-sac formation and endosperm and embryo development were studied in a tetraploid variety of watermelon which was artificially obtained some years ago at

  6. Spatial by Characteristic Analysis of the Comparative Advantage of Watermelon and Melon Production in Hainan Province%海南省西瓜甜瓜生产比较优势空间特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳唐镜; 张棵; 别之龙; 许勇; 李劲松; 孔秋生

    2013-01-01

    [目的]阐明西瓜甜瓜生产比较优势区域的空间特征,为海南省西瓜甜瓜产业战略决策提供重要的参考依据.[方法]以基于县域的海南省西瓜甜瓜播种面积、总产量和单位面积产量为研究单元,系统分析海南省西瓜甜瓜产量、效率、规模、集中度、综合比较优势和单位面积产量比、播种面积比及其空间分布特征.利用海南省18个县市农业统计资料,以产量比较优势指数、效率比较优势指数、规模比较优势指数、集中度比较优势指数、综合比较优势、单位面积产量比指数和播种面积比指数分析海南省西瓜甜瓜生产比较优势状况,并通过“地图汇”软件在地图上进行空间表达.[结果]海南省西瓜优势区域依次是陵水、万宁、文昌、东方、三亚、乐东和昌江等7个县市,琼东和琼南地区为海南省西瓜生产的综合比较优势区,琼西和琼北地区可作为后备发展区域;海南省甜瓜优势区域依次是乐东、陵水、三亚和东方等4个县市,琼南地区为海南省甜瓜生产的综合比较优势区,琼西地区可作为后备发展区域.[结论]以研究结果为依据,确定西瓜甜瓜为海南省近期发展的优势瓜菜农产品,对西瓜甜瓜进行优势区域布局规划,优先予以重点扶持建设,尽快提高产品产量、质量和市场竞争能力.%[Objective] This study investigated the spatial characteristics of counties (cities) with comparative advantages in watermelon and melon production to provide reference bases in formulating strategies for the development of watermelon and melon industries in Hainan Province.[Method] By using the sowing area,total yield,and yield per unit area of watermelon and melon in Hainan Province as research units,the yield comparative advantage (YCA),efficiency comparative advantage (ECA),scale comparative advantage (SCA),concentration ratio comparative advantage (CRCA),comprehensive comparative

  7. 黄瓤无籽西瓜新品种魁晶的选育%A New Yellow Flesh Seedless Watermelon Variety-‘Kuijing’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉红; 谭慧明; 杜晓莉; 李超; 孙铁良

    2014-01-01

    魁晶是以黑皮黄瓤四倍体 Ks-4N 作母本,以墨绿皮黄瓤二倍体 HA-6作父本配制而成的优质黑皮黄瓤无籽西瓜新品种。中熟,全生育期约105 d(天),果实发育期约33 d(天)。果实圆形,黑皮,外形漂亮,单果质量6~8 kg,果皮厚1.3 cm 左右,中心可溶性固形物含量11.0%,边部10.5%,瓜瓤晶黄透亮,细脆爽口,风味上乘。每667 m2产量3000~3500 kg,田间对枯萎病和病毒病的抗性强于对照黑蜜5号,适宜河南省各无籽西瓜主栽区早春保护地、露地地膜覆盖及延秋栽培。%‘Kuijing’is a new seedless watermelon hybrid variety developed by crossing inbred line Ks-4N as female parent and HA-6 as male parent. It is of mid-maturity. The total growing period is about 105 days and the fruit matures 33 days after pollination. The fruit is of round shape with black peel. The fruit has beautiful appearance. The single fruit weight is 6-8 kg. The peel thickness is about 1.3 cm. The flesh is crystal yellow bicolored and crispy with good taste. The soluble solid content in central part is 11.0% and 10.5% in edge. It can normally yield 45.0-52.5 t·hm-2. It is suitable for greenhouse and open field cultivation.

  8. 不同宽度地膜覆盖对西瓜栽培效果影响对比试验%Effects of Mulching Polythene Film with Different Widths on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文信; 樊学军; 李凤梅; 张力; 黄金艳; 李桂芬; 覃斯华; 何毅; 李天艳; 洪日新

    2013-01-01

      采用田间栽培对比试验,研究分析了不同宽度地膜覆盖西瓜种植畦对西瓜植株生长状况、产量和品质形成的影响,寻找适合华南地区冬、春、秋干旱,夏季多雨气候环境下,能很好调节土壤水分和肥料,满足西瓜植株正常健康生长所需的栽培技术方法。试验结果表明,在同等的栽培管理条件下,覆盖100 cm宽黑色地膜效果最好,在种植后遇到干旱或下雨季节,其对土壤的保水及防水能力,提高肥料的利用率,提高西瓜产量及品质等方面都有明显效果,可作为我国华南地区冬、春、秋干旱,夏季雨水偏多气候环境露地西瓜生产栽培模式技术。%In this paper, we studied the effects of covering polythene film with different widths on the furrow on the growth, yield and quality of watermelon, to find out suitable cultivation methods which met the require of watermelon plants' normal and healthy growth through adjusting soil moisture and fertilizer well in the south China environment, where was droughty in winter, spring and autumn but rainy in summer. The results showed that the best effect was gained by covering 100 cm wide black film on the furrow under the same cultivation method, and it had good water holding and water-proof effects in the droughty or rainy climate after planting, meanwhile it could increase the utilization rate of fertilizer and improve the yield and quality obviously, so it could be recommended as a suitable open field cultivation method of watermelon in the south China where was rainy in summer and droughty in winter, spring and autumn.

  9. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜叶片生理效应及产量影响%Effects of Different Kinds of Stocks on Leaf Physiological Changes and Yield of Grafted Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫星; 徐小利; 刘喜存; 董彦琪; 常高正; 李晓慧; 梁慎

    2014-01-01

    Using the seedlings of seedless watermelon variety “Heidi” as scion, we studied the effects of different kinds of stocks on the leaf physiological indexes and yield of grafted watermelon through field experiment&physiological and biochemical de -termination.The results showed that there were differences in leaf chlorophyll and MDA contents as well as PPO and NR activities a -mong different grafted combinations at different growth stages .The seedlings of grafted combinations from pumpkin stocks “Xi-jiaqiangsheng” and “Zhengkangzhen No .1” had more prominent comprehensive performance .The yields of these two grafted com-binations were not significantly different from that of the grafted combination from the stock “Chaofengkangshengwang”, but they were significantly higher than those of other 2 grafted combinations .There was no significant difference in soluble solid content a-mong 5 grafted combinations .So“Xijiaqiangsheng” and“Zhengkangzhen No .1” are the good stocks for the grafting of seedless wa-termelon variety “Heidi”.%以无籽西瓜黑帝为接穗材料,采用田间试验、生理生化测定等方法,研究了不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长过程中叶片生理指标及产量的影响,结果表明:不同砧木嫁接组合西瓜叶片叶绿素、MDA含量和PPO、NR活性在不同生育期表现有差异,其中以南瓜类型砧木西嫁强生和郑抗砧1号嫁接苗综合表现较为突出,其产量除与超丰抗生王嫁接组合差异不显著外,显著高于其他2个嫁接组合,且其可溶性固形物含量与其他嫁接组合间差异不显著。因此,西嫁强生和郑抗砧1号是无籽西瓜黑帝嫁接的优良砧木。

  10. 不同砧木嫁接对无籽西瓜部分生理指标的影响%Influence of Several Physiological Indicators on Grafted Seedless Watermelon of Different Stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小红; 赵依杰; 林强; 林航; 陈贻钊

    2012-01-01

    TTie effects of d ifferent stocks on physiological indicators in leaves of grafted seedless watermelon (variety 'Zhengkang 10') during the process of growth were studied by field experiment and physiological determination. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugar, C/N ratio, and the activities of Peroxidase(POD), Superoxide Dismutase(SOD), Catalase(CAT) and Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) in leaves of grafted plants at three growing periods were all higher than those of own -rooted plants, while the contents of Malondialdehyde(MDA) were lower. The activities of POD, SOD, CAT and PPO, and the contents of MDA in leaves of different stocks grafted on seedless watermelon had the same variation during growth process. There were differences among different grafted combinations and changhu -1 stock was more prominent. Accordingly, photosynthesis and resistance related physiological indicators in leaves of grafted seedless watermelon can be used as one of the referenced indexes for the screening of stock species.%以‘郑抗无籽10号’西瓜为材料,采用田间试验、植物生理生化测定等方法,研究不同砧木嫁接对无籽西瓜生长过程中叶片生理指标的影响.结果表明:嫁接能提高无籽西瓜3个生长时期叶片叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量和C/N,且能提高叶片POD、SOD、CAT和PPO活性,降低叶片MDA含量;不同砧木嫁接无籽西瓜叶片POD、SOD、CAT和PPO活性以及MDA含量变化规律基本一致;但不同的嫁接组合表现有差异,其中以长葫1号为砧木的嫁接苗表现较为突出.叶片光合和抗性相关生理指标可以作为无籽西瓜砧木品种筛选的参考依据之一.

  11. Breeding of Mid-small Fruit Type of Seedless Watermelon Variety Heitongbao%中小果型无籽西瓜新品种黑童宝的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泉; 朱别房; 郑绍儒; 郭建新; 易学赛; 周湘彬; 周坚

    2013-01-01

    黑童宝系岳阳市西甜瓜科学研究所和湖南省西瓜育种工程实验室最新选育的三倍体中小果型黑皮红瓤无籽西瓜新品种.该品种全生育期95 d左右,雌花开放至果实成熟约需32 d;植株生长势中强,茎叶中等,抗病、抗逆性强;果实圆球形,果形指数1.1;果皮黑色,果皮厚度1.1 cm;瓤色鲜红,质脆爽口,纤维少,无籽性能好;一般中心可溶性固形物含量11.5%左右,边部7.5%;单瓜重2~4 kg,露地栽培产量1 800~2 200 kg/667m2,立架栽培单产4 500 kg/667m2左右.2013年3月通过湖南省农作物品种审定委员会审定.%Heitongbao is a new mid-small fruit type of triploidy seedless watermelon variety with black peel and red pulp,which is bred by Yueyang Municipal Institute of Melon and Watermelon Sciences and Hunan Provincial Laboratory of Watermelon Breeding Engineering.The whole growth period of Heitongbao is around 95 d,its time from female flower opening to fruit mature needs about 32 d; the plant has mid-strong growth potential,middle size of stem and leaf and strong disease resistance and stress resistance; the fruit is round shape with fruit shape index of 1.1,the fruit peel is black with thickness of 1.1 cm,the pulp is fresh red with less fibre,and the seedless performance is great; the content of soluble solids is around 11.5% in center and 7.5% in edge,the single fruit weight is 2-4 kg,the yield is 27 000-33 000 kg/hm2 in open field and around 67 500 kg/hm2 in greenhouse.The Heitongbao has been approved by Hunan Crop Variety Approval Committee in March,2013.

  12. 郑抗系列无籽西瓜品种SSR指纹图谱的构建%Fingerprinting of Zhengkang Triploid Seedless Watermelon Varieties Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵胜杰; 关立颖; 阎志红; 何楠; 路绪强; 刘文革

    2012-01-01

    为实现无籽西瓜品种的快速、准确鉴定,用23对西瓜核心SSR引物分析了15份无籽西瓜品种的DNA指纹.23对核心引物中有21对具多态性,共扩增出58个基因型,平均2.71个,平均多态性信息量(PlC)为0.36.10对引物在9个品种上具有特征谱带,组合PIC值>0.4的8对引物可以将参试的15个无籽西瓜品种一一区分开,并利用这8对引物构建了参试品种的数字指纹图谱.研究表明,西瓜核心SSR引物适合用于构建无籽西瓜品种的DNA指纹,将为无籽西瓜品种真实性鉴定和知识产权保护提供有效的技术依据.%Fifteen Zhengkang triploid seedless watermelon varieties were fingerprinted using the published 23 core SSR marker primer pairs for watermelon. Twenty one out of 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among tested triploids and produced 58 genotypes with an average of 2.71 per pair. The mean PIC was 0.36. Ten primer pairs produced unique bands for nine varieties. All 15 varieties were distinguished by 8 primer combinations,PIC > 0.4,and their digital fingerprinting code was also established. The results indicate that the published core SSR markers are suitable for the construction of DNA fingerprinting of triploid seedless watermelon varieties. The fingerprinting will provide reliable evidence for the variety identification and protection of intellectual property right for these varieties.

  13. 高压二氧化碳对西瓜汁中过氧化物酶钝化动力学的研究%Inactivation of peroxidase in watermelon juice by high pressure carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘野; 张超; 许勇; 李武; 赵晓燕

    2011-01-01

    The effect of high pressure carbon dioxide(HPCD)on peroxidase (POD) activity in watermelon juice was evaluated to extent its shelf-life with the thermal treatments as a control.The experimental plots were well fit by the two-fraction model (R2>0.975), suggested that the POD in the watermelon juice included labile and stable fractions.The two fractions had the different sensitivity to the temperature and pressure by the kinetics analysis. Moreover,it was concluded that the combined effects of temperature,pressure,treatment time,pH,and CO2 were suggested as the cause of POD inactivation.Consequently, HPCD treatment showed a great capacity to inactive POD of watermelon juice than the thermal treatment,being an option to extend its shelf-life.%为了延长西瓜汁的货架期,研究高压二氧化碳处理对西瓜汁中过氧化物酶(peroxidase,POD)的钝化效果.研究以热处理为对照,比较不同高压二氧化碳处理温度和压强对其POD活性残存率的影响.采用二段式模型模拟POD的钝化效果(R2>0.975),证明西瓜汁中POD存在敏感型和稳定型两部分.通过动力学分析考察两种类型POD对温度和压强的敏感性,确认高压二氧化碳处理温度、压力、时间、pH和CO2等因素共同导致了POD活性的降低.高压二氧化碳处理比热处理可以更加有效钝化西瓜汁中POD,有助于延长西瓜汁的货架期.

  14. 超声波法提取西瓜籽油的最佳工艺研究%Study on Optimum Extraction of Watermelon Seed Oil by Ultrasonic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严小平; 李成平; 金建昌

    2012-01-01

    对超声波辅助提取西瓜籽油的最佳工艺进行了研究,利用正交试验探讨了影响提取率的主要因素.结果表明,影响西瓜籽油提取率的因素主次顺序依次为:料液比>超声温度>超声时间>超声功率;最佳提取条件为:石油醚为提取剂,料液比为1∶12(g∶mL),超声温度60℃,超声时间30 min,超声功率150 W,西瓜籽油提取率为50.8%,西瓜籽油的脂肪酸主要由棕榈酸和不饱和脂肪酸组成,不饱和脂肪酸占93.1%,特别是亚油酸的含量高达74.8%,具有较高的保健价值.%The optimum extraction conditions of oil from watermelon seeds with aid of ultrasonic wave technology were studied and the main factors that affect the extraction efficiency were also studied through orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the significant of the effects of these factors on the oil extraction efficiency decreased in the following order; ratio of raw material to solution > ultrasonic temperature > ultrasonic temperature > ultrasonic power ; and the optimum extraction conditions are: the petroleum ether as extraction solvent, ratio of raw material to solution l:12(g:mL) ,ultrasonic temperature 60 t,ultrasonic time 30 min,ultrasonic power 150 W,and the maximum extraction efficiency of watermelon seed oil could reach 50. 8% . The fatty acids of watermelon seed oil mainly consisted of palmitic acid and unsaturated fatty acids,and the latter accounts for 93. 1% .especially linoleic acid accounts for 74.8% .quite a value of health care.

  15. Identification of Resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli of Edible Seed Watermelon Germplasm Resources%籽用西瓜种质资源对细菌性果斑病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宋楠; 王惠林; 郑健; 高强

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The project aims to clarify the different disease resistances of edible seed watermelon germplasm resources to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli.[Method] The method of artificial inoculation in door was used to identify 62 inbred pure lines from hybrid progeny of edible seed watermelon,egusi seed introduced from abroad and other common watermelons.[Result] The results of identification showed that the 22 middle resistant varieties included ES84,ES90,etc,the 22 middle sensitive varieties included ES30,ES94,etc,and the 18 high sensitive varieties included ES46,ES50,etc.There were no high resistant and immune varieties.[Conclusion] In Xinjiang,the present main cuhivars Minzi 1 and Minqin manifested middle sensitiveness in blockbuster area,Neimenghe in moderate blockbuster area and Hefeng from Anhui Province in small blockbuster area.The resistant gene was contained in all the selected varieties of middle resistance:ES84,ES90 and ES30,etc.%[目的]通过对62份来源于籽用西瓜、国外引进的粘耔西瓜及普通西瓜杂交后代的自交纯系进行苗期抗病性鉴定,以此来探明籽用西瓜种质资源对瓜类细菌性果斑病的抗病性差异.[方法]通过室内人工接种法.[结果]筛选出了ES84、ES90等22份中抗材料;ES30、ES94等22份中感材料;ES46、ES50等18份高感材料,没有高抗和免疫材料.[结论]目前新疆主栽品种民籽1号、民勤大片表现中感,内蒙古黑中片、黑丰、安徽黑小片表现为感病.筛选出的中抗材料ES84、ES90、ES30等均含有粘籽西瓜的抗性基因.

  16. Allelopathy of Water Extracts from Seeds of Althaes rosea on Watermelon and Chinese Wolfbeery%蜀葵种子水浸液对西瓜和枸杞的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益民; 薛泽

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy of water extracts from seeds of Althaea rosea on watermelon and Chinese wolfberry were examined, with the objective of providing the reference for the theoretical study of allelopathy. By using the techniques of laboratory bioassay, the effects of water extracts from seeds of Althaea rosea on seeds germination and seedlings growth of watermelon and Chinese wolfberry were studied. The results showed that treated with different concentrations water extracts from seeds of Althaea rosea on seeds germination and seedlings growth of watermelon could be inhibited, and on height, fresh weigh of Chinese wolfberry could be promoted; when the concentration of water extracts was 0.005 g/mL, 0.010 g/mL, the water extracts from seeds of Althaea rosea exhibited significant promotion effects on seeds germination and seedlings growth of Chinese wolfberry, and when the concentration of water extracts was 0.020 g/mL, the water extracts from seeds of Althaea rosea exhibited significant inhibition effects on germination of seed, length of main root and fresh weight of root of Chinese wolfberry.%研究蜀葵种子水浸液对西瓜和枸杞的化感作用,为植物化感作用的理论研究提供参考.采用生物测定法,用不同浓度的蜀葵种子水浸液处理西瓜、枸杞的种子和幼苗,研究其化感作用.结果表明:(1)不同浓度的蜀葵种子水浸液对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长均有不同程度的抑制作用,对枸杞幼苗的苗高、鲜重有促进作用;(2)当蜀葵种子水浸液浓度为0.005 g/mL、0.010 g/mL时对枸杞种子萌发和幼苗生长表现为化感促进作用,浓度为0.020 g/mL时对枸杞种子的发芽率、幼苗根长、根鲜重表现为化感抑制作用.综上,蜀葵种子水浸液可抑制西瓜种子的萌发和幼苗的生长,对枸杞幼苗的苗高、鲜重的增加有促进作用.

  17. Effects of Polyethylene Glycol(PEG)Solution Priming on Germination of Triploid Watermelon Seeds%PEG引发三倍体无籽西瓜种子萌芽研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢荔; 曹利霞; 乔洋洋; 静景; 戴思慧; 马凌坷; 黄智; 孙小武

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000)with the water potential of 0,-0.2,-0.6 and -1.2 MPa were applied to prime triploid watermelon seeds for 3,6,9 and 12 h; and the germination rate as well as the seedling vigor of treatments and control were evaluated in this experiment. Different water potential of PEG-6000 solutions had no significant effect on triploid watermelon seed germination and seedling vigor. Priming period of 3 h gave the best result eompared with other treatments,germination rate and vigor index were obviously better than other treatment. This priming time agrees with the commonly used seed soaking time of triploid watermelon.%为了探索一条能大批量处理无籽西瓜种子,有效提高种子活力的途径,应用水势0、-0.2、-0.6和-1.2MPa的聚乙二醇(PEG-6000)溶液对三倍体无籽西瓜种子进行3、6、9、12h引发处理,并与常规萌发条件下的种子萌芽情况进行比较分析.结果表明:(1)各种水势的PEG-6000溶液引发对无籽西瓜种子发芽各项指标均没有显著影响.(2)3h引发处理相对于其他引发时间处理,能最大程度地提高无籽西瓜种子发芽能力,在发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数和活力指数的影响上均存在明显差异,这与常规生产上无籽西瓜浸种时间结果一致.

  18. 西瓜花粉直感效应对其果实的影响%Influence of Xenia Effect on the Fruit of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红斌

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To study the influence of xenia effect to the fruit of watermelon. [Method] Self-crossing and crossing by inbreeding of more generation female parent, male parent:07-10-2-3-3(tall spherical, golden yellow peel with thin lines, red flesh), 07-32-2-3-5(tall spherical, green peel with greenish thick lines, red flesh), 07-33-1-2-3(tall spherical, green peel with greenish thin lines, red flesh) [Result] It was found that F0(07-10-2-3-3×07-32-2-3-5) and F0 (07-10-2-3-3×07-33-1-2-3) seed ripening was accelerated, and the sugar degree increased by 1.7-2.4%, and the flesh became crisp. [Conclusion] The result demonstrates watermelon has xenia effect.%[目的] 研究西瓜花粉直感效应对其果实的影响.[方法] 以多代自交的小-西瓜材料07-10-2-3-3(黄皮红瓤)为母本,07-32-2-3-5(绿皮粗虎纹红瓤)和07-33-1-2-3(绿皮细虎纹红瓤)为父本,配置杂交种.并测定杂交后30 d的西瓜重量、皮厚度、糖度等.[结果]外观上,杂交后2个小西瓜组合当代(F0)差异不大,组合07-10-2-3-3×07-32-2-3-5和07-10-2-3-3×07-33-1-2-3都表现为高球形,瓜皮金黄色并带有细虎纹,其瓜肉都表现为红色.但种子颜色有一些差异,授粉30 d时,母本颜色较浅表现为深黄色,父本颜色较深表现为浅褐色,2个组合颜色最深都表现为深褐色.可见杂交授粉加快了种子的成熟过程.2个F0组合在单瓜重、皮厚度和形状方面与母本相似,并无明显变化,但在糖度上差别较大.母本07-10-2-3-3中心糖度为8.5%,边缘糖度为6.2%,中心和边缘糖度相差较大;父本07-32-2-3-5和07-33-1-2-3中心糖度分别为9.6%和8.2%,边缘糖度分别为6.8%和6.1%.而组合F0(07-10-2-3-3×07-32-2-3-5)和F0(07-10-2-3-3×07-33-1-2-3)中心糖度分别为10.9%和10.2%,边缘糖度分别为9.6%和9.1%.2个组合F0的中心含糖量平均比母本提高了2.4%和1.7%,中心糖度和边缘糖度的差值明显缩小,从口感上也表现为较脆.[结论] 不同品系授粉后

  19. Effects of Biogas Fertilizer on Pest and Disease Damages, Yield and Sweetness of Watermelon%施用沼肥对西瓜苗期病虫害、产量和甜度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓康; 王瑜; 岳德连

    2013-01-01

    t [Objective] The aim was to explore the effects of biogas fertilizer on occurrence rates of disease and pest damages,yield and sweetness of watermelon in seedling period.[Method] A single-factor design of experiment was conducted,involving three treatments and three repetitions.In addition,every experimental plot is 20 m2 and both of base fertilizer and top dressing were fixed.Hence,the occurrence rates of disease and pest damages,yield and sweetness of watermelon can be measured during seedling period,accordingly.[Result] The occurrence rates of diseases,such as anthracnose and epidemic disease,and pest damages,such as aphid and Aulacophora femoralis were 1.01% and 1.41%,2.30% and 5.72%,and 3.15% and 10.38% after biogas manure,cake fertilizer and chemical fertilizer were applied during seedling period.The yields were 41 925.00,37 250.25 and 36 500.25 ky per hectare,and sweetnesses were 11.15%,11.05% and 10.40% of watermelon applied by biogas manure,cake fertilizer and chemical fertilizer.[Conclusion] The application of biogas fertilizer would reduce occurrence rates of disease and pest damages,and improve yield and sweetness of watermelon,accordingly.%[目的]探索施用沼肥对西瓜的苗期病虫害发生率、产量和甜度产生的影响.[方法]采取单因子小区试验,3个处理,3次重复,每个小区20 m2,施统一基肥和追肥,调查苗期田间病虫害发病率,小区测产,测定甜度.[结果]施用沼肥、饼肥和化肥西瓜苗期病害(炭疽病、疫病)、虫害(蚜虫、黄守瓜)的发生率依次是1.01%和1.41%、2.30%和5.72%、3.15%和10.38%:施用沼肥、饼肥、化肥产量依次为41 925.00、37 250.25、36 500.25 kg/hm2,甜度为11.15%、11.05%、10.40%.[结论]施用沼肥能够降低西瓜苗期病虫害发生率,提高产量,改善西瓜甜度.

  20. Study on the Stability and Free Radical Scavenging Ability of Seed-used Watermelon Pigment%籽瓜色素的稳定性及其清除自由基能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤霖; 刘肇明

    2016-01-01

    Obj ective:Study the stability and free radicals scavenging ability of seed-used watermelon pigment.Method:The seed-used watermelon pigment is added into the oxidation,reduction,food additives,metal ions for testing its stability and abilities of free radicals scavenging,superoxide anion free radicals and T-AOC.Result:The antioxidative activity of seed-used watermelon is better within a certain range;it possesses good stability in reductant and glucose except citric acid.Fe3+and Fe2+have a considerable effect on color increasing of the pigment except Zn2+,Cu2+,Al3+,Na+,among which,Zn2+ has a great influence on color decreasing,Cu2+,Al3+,Na+ have a little influence. Inhibit hydroxyl free radicals of 1 .268 U/mg prot,inhibit super oxide free radical of 18 U/g prot,the total antioxidant activity per minute per mg pigment crude extract is 0.238 units.Conclusion:The seed-used watermelon pigment has good activity of scavenging free radicals,better stability,can be used as a pigment source of natural antioxidant activity.%目的:研究籽瓜瓤中色素的稳定性及其清除自由基能力。方法:将籽瓜色素添加在氧化性、还原性、食品添加剂、金属离子中,对其稳定性及清除羟自由基、抗超氧阴离子自由基及总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)进行试验。结果:籽瓜色素在一定范围内,耐氧化性较好,在还原剂及葡萄糖中稳定性好,在柠檬酸中稳定性较差,Fe3+,Fe2+对该色素均有增色作用,Fe3+的影响最大,Zn2+,Cu2+,Al3+,Na+均有降色作用,Zn2+降色影响较大,Cu2+,Al3+,Na+影响较小。抑制羟自由基1.268 U/mg prot,抗超氧自由基能力18 U/g prot,每分钟每毫克色素粗提物的总抗氧化活性0.238单位。结论:籽瓜色素具有良好的清除自由基活性,稳定性较好,可作为一种天然抗氧化活性色素来源。

  1. 西瓜嫁接育苗传统靠接法与改良靠接法比较%Comparation on Traditional and Modified Inarching Methods of Watermelon Grafting Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如霞

    2014-01-01

    对西瓜嫁接育苗传统靠接法和改良靠接法进行比较分析。结果表明:改良靠接法嫁接成活率可达到95.3%,比传统靠接法提高5.3%,嫁接工作效率提高1倍,嫁接成本每株降低0.1元。%The traditional and modified inarching methods of watermelon grafting seedings were compared. The results showed that the survival rate of modified method reached 95.3% by 5.3% higher than the traditional method; the grafting efficiency was increased by 1 times; and the cost of 0.1 yuan per plant was reduced.

  2. Tetrazolium test in the evaluation of watermelon physiological seed quality/ Teste de tetrazólio para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Magda de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The tetrazolium test is one of the most promising methods to estimate in a fast way viability and vigor of seeds. Its usage in watermelon seeds requires some care with the imbibition and handling due to presence of mucilaginous layer adherent to the tegument. The objective of this research work was to define the imbibition time and the method of scarification for removing the mucilage, during pre – conditioning of the tetrazolium test in watermelon. Seeds from different watermellon cultivars were immersed in water at 30°C from 12 to 18 hours, and sloughed in cal, fine and thick sand. After longitudinal cut in the distal portion to the embryonic axis, the tegument was removed and embryos were kept in water for additonal 2 hours at 30°C for hand removal of the remaining membrane. After definition of the ideal pre – conditioning method, the embryos were immersed in tetrazolium solution in concentrations of 0,075%; 0, 5% and 1% for 3 and 4 hours at 30°C. The immersion of watermelon seeds in water at 30°C for 12 hours, mucilage removal with fine sand, longitudinal cut in the distal portion to the embryonic axis, and removal of tegument, followed by the permanence of embryos in water for 2 hours at 30°C for the hand removal of the internal membrane and immersion in the tetrazolium solution at 0,075% for 4 hours at 30°C are adequate procedures for the evaluation of watermelon seed quality.O teste de tetrazólio é um dos métodos mais promissores para estimar, de forma rápida, a viabilidade e o vigor das sementes. Sua utilização em sementes de melancia requer cuidados na embebição e manuseio pela presença de camada mucilaginosa aderente ao tegumento. O objetivo do trabalho foi definir o tempo de embebição e do método de escarificação para retirada da mucilagem, no pré-condicionamento do teste de tetrazólio, sementes de diferentes cultivares de melancia. As sementes foram imersas em água a 30oC por 12 e 18 horas, e escarificadas

  3. 北疆地区打瓜镰刀菌根腐病药剂防治研究%Study on Fungicides for Controlling Root Rot of Seed Watermelon in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚峰; 李平; 金玉华; 张莉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Root rot of seed watermelon (Fusarium solani) is a major disease to seed watermelon in Xinjiang,the control efficacy of six fungicides to root rot was studied.The objective was to make some contributions to the control of the disease.[Method] The control efficacy of six bactericides to root rot of seed watermelon with experiments of indoor toxicity trials,potted trials and field plot trials were compared.[Result] Indoor toxicity trials shows that ethylicin is the most effective fungicide against the pathogen with EC50 of 31 mg/L,then it is followed by carbendazim,hymexazol,difenoconazole-thiram,bacillus subtilis,trichloroisocyanuric acid.Potted trials show that the control efficacy of irrigating roots is better than seed dressing.The control effects of carbendazim is the highest,the average control efficacy reached to 83.0%,followed by hymexazol and difenoconazole-thiram,with the average control efficacy of 64.4% and 60.2%.Field plot trials show that the control effects of difenoconazole-thiram is the highest,which the average control efficacy reached to 46.6%,followed by carbendazim and hymexazol,with the average control efficacy of 45.3% and 45.1%.[Conclusion] Difenoconazole-thiram,carbendazim and hymexazol have better control effect against root rot of seed watermelon%[目的]打瓜根腐病是北疆地区打瓜上的重要病害,明确几种杀菌剂对打瓜根腐病的防治效果,为打瓜根腐病的有效防治奠定基础.[方法]采用室内毒力测定、盆栽药效试验和小区药效试验,比较6种杀菌剂对打瓜根腐病的防治差异.[结果]室内毒力测定表明:乙蒜素对菌丝生长抑制效果最好,EC50值为31 mg、L,其他依次为多菌灵、恶霉灵、苯甲·福美双、枯草芽孢杆菌、三氯异氰尿酸.盆栽试验表明:药剂灌根的防治效果比药剂拌种好,其中多菌灵灌根防治效果最好,防治效果为83.0%,其次是恶霉灵和苯甲·福美双,防治效果分别为64.4

  4. 花粉不同保存方法对西瓜授粉效果及种子质量的影响%Effects of Different Pollen Storage Methods on Pollination and Seed Quality of Mini-watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹园凤; 党选民

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen out the simple storage method for mini-watermelon pollen, we analyzed the pollen viability, fruit setting rate, seed setting rate, thousand seeds weight, germination potentiality and seed germination rate of two different pollen storage methods, keeping pollen wet and dry respectively at normal temperature. The results showed that, taking the two storage methods, the pollen viability, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate had no significant difference with those of the control treatment (pollinating directly). Therefore, in practice we could keep pollen of mini-watermelon wet or dry in short term at normal temperature. Comprehensively, keeping pollen wet at normal temperature was better for possessing higher seed setting rate and saving time.%为筛选出适宜的简易花粉保存方法,采用常温保湿和干燥保存2种方法保存花粉,并对西瓜花粉活力、坐果率、结籽率、种子千粒质量、发芽势及发芽率进行了比较分析。试验结果表明,2种保存方法保存的花粉活力、授粉之后的坐果率、结籽率及种子质量均与对照(活体授粉)差异不显著,说明实践中可采用常温保湿保存和干燥保存方法短期保存花粉,综合分析表明短期常温保湿保存花粉效果较好且省力。

  5. Study on extraction technology of oil from watermelon seeds by response surface methodology%响应面法优化西瓜子油的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文文; 曹盛; 陆宁

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used for optimizing the extraction technology of oil from watermelon seeds.Based on single factor experiments,liquid/material ratio,ultrasonic time and different organic solvent was selected as influencing factors. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the liquid/material ratiol : 16.3 (g/mL),ultrasonic time 45.4min, organic solvents were petroleum ether. The predicted watermelon seeds oil extraction yield was 27.92% ,and the verification extraction yield was 28.04%.%以西瓜子为原料,利用响应面法优化西瓜子油的提取工艺务件.在单因素实验的基础上,选取料液比、超声时间、提取溶剂为影响因子,应用Box-Behnken中心组合设计建立数学模型,以西瓜子油提取率为响应值,进行响应面分析.确定西瓜子油的最佳工艺条件为:料液比为1:16.3(g/mL),超声时间为45.4min,提取溶剂为石油醚.此条件下西瓜子的提取率预测值为27.92%,验证值为28.04%.

  6. Effect of Bio-organic and Foliar Fertilizer on Traits and Yield of Seed Watermelon%施用生物有机肥和叶面肥对籽瓜性状与产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯

    2015-01-01

    以“黑丰一号”籽瓜为试验材料,研究不同施肥方式对籽瓜性状和产量的影响。结果表明,生物有机肥1200kg/hm2+定量喷施叶面肥,能有效提高籽瓜大小、重量、千粒重、产籽率,降低白籽率,且施用生物有机肥+叶面肥能显著提高鲜瓜与种子产量。因此,施用1200kg/hm2生物有机肥+定量喷施叶面肥是一种比单一化肥更好的施肥方式。%In order to study the effects of different fertilization on traits and yield of seed watermelon with“Heifeng No.1”. The results showed that,bio-organic with 1200kg/hm2 and quantitative foliar fertilizer application could im⁃prove size,weight,kernel weight,producing seed ratio effectively,and also decrease white seed ratio,and bio-organ⁃ic and quantitative foliar fertilizer application could increase seed watermelon and seed production. Therefore ,appli⁃cation of bio-organic with 1200kg/hm2 and quantitative foliar fertilizer is a better fertilization mode than chemical fer⁃tilizer.

  7. Breeding of Interspecific Hybrid Squash Rootstock Jingxinzhen No.3 for Melon and Watermelon%甜瓜、西瓜专用砧木品种——京欣砧3号的选育和推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长才; 李海真; 张帆; 姜立纲

    2011-01-01

    Jingxinzhen No. 3 is interspecific hybrid squash rootstock for melon and watermelon. It was developed by using line 05-88 (Cucwbita maxima) as female parent and line 04-36 (Cucurbita moschata) male parent. Compared with check varieties , Jingxinzhen No. 3 has higher germination, uniform seedling, strong plant vigor. It has high grafting affinity with watermelon and melon scion. The grafted plants are tolerant to low temperature and weak light,resistant to Fusarium wilt,and tolerant to salinity. The grafted plant produces higher yield and good quality fruit.%京欣砧3号是用印度南瓜种05-88自交系作母本,中国南瓜系04-36自交系作父本配制而成的远缘南瓜(Cucurbita maxima×Cucurbita moschata)杂交种,主要用于甜瓜和西瓜嫁接栽培.采用京欣砧3号等不同砧木嫁接甜瓜和西瓜试验结果显示:与其他参试葫芦砧木和各类南瓜砧木相比,京欣砧3号发芽率高,出苗整齐,苗壮.与甜瓜、西瓜嫁接亲和性好,共生力强,结合面致密,成活率高.嫁接苗耐低温弱光.抗枯萎病,耐盐碱,叶部病害轻.嫁接后增产效果明显,对果实品质影响小.

  8. Acúmulo e exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes Accumulation and exportation of macronutrients in seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C. Grangeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o acúmulo e a exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes, híbrido Nova, conduziu-se um experimento em Itápolis (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2001, em um ARGISSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 15; 30; 45; 60 e 70 dias após transplantio (DAT, sendo quantificados o acúmulo de massa seca e de macronutrientes na folha, caule + ramos e frutos. O acúmulo de peso seco foi lento até 30 DAT, intensificando-se a partir deste, alcançando no final do ciclo o total de 545,1 g planta-1, onde as folhas participaram com 30%, caule + ramos com 31% e os frutos com 39%. Até 30 DAT, o acúmulo de nutrientes também foi pequeno, sendo que com a frutificação, houve um forte incremento na quantidade de nutrientes acumulados, com maior demanda no período de 45 a 60 DAT. A ordem decrescente dos macronutrientes acumulados pela cultura foi: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. Os frutos exportaram 20,3 kg ha-1 de N; 4,0 kg ha-1 de P; 26,6 kg ha-1 de K; 1,4 kg ha-1 de Ca; 1,6 kg ha-1 de Mg e 1,4 kg ha-1 de S.The accumulation and exportation of nutrients of the seedless watermelon hybrid Nova was determined under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Typic Paleudult soil, in the Itápolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling of the plants was done at 15; 30; 45; 60 and 70 days after transplanting date (DAT and the accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients was quantified in leaves, stem + branches and fruits. The dry mass accumulation was slow until 30 DAT, intensifying with the beginning of the fruit development. At the end of the cycle, the average contribution of leaves, stems + branches and fruits, was respectively of 30; 31 and 39%. The accumulation of nutrients followed the curve of dry mass accumulation. The larger demand for macronutrients occurred from 45 to 60 DAT. The order of nutrients accumulation for the culture was: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. The fruits exported 20.3 kg

  9. Características produtivas da melancia em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio Yield characteristics of watermelon in different planting spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio foram avaliados na produção de melancia em experimento da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina, de outubro a dezembro de 1998. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, consistindo de dois espaçamentos entre linhas (2,50 e 3,00 m e três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,40; 0,60 e 0,80 m e 3 repetições, sendo utilizada a cultivar Crimson Sweet. O espaçamento entre linhas de 3,00 m apresentou maior produção (42,46 t/ha, sendo que entre plantas os espaçamentos de 0,60 e 0,80 m alcançaram as maiores produções com 42,50 e 45,29 t/ha, respectivamente, não mostrando diferenças entre si. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas para produção de frutos refugo nos espaçamentos entre linhas. No entanto, o menor espaçamento entre plantas proporcionou maior produção com 20,21 t/ha, seguido pelos espaçamentos de 0,60 m (12,86 t/ha e 0,80 m (8,62 t/ha. O incremento dos espaçamentos, tanto entre linhas como entre plantas, resultou em frutos de maior tamanho, tendo o espaçamento 3,00 x 0,80 m apresentado a maior massa fresca do fruto (8,83 kg/fruto. O maior número de frutos por planta (1,35 frutos foi obtido com o espaçamento de 3,00 x 0,80 m.The yield of watermelon as a result of different planting space was evaluated, from October to December 1998 in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized blocks in a 5 x 3 factorial scheme, with three replications. The cultivar Crimson Sweet was planted in 2.5 and 3.0 m row spacing and in 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m inside the row. The 3.0 m row spacing resulted in the highest marketable yield with 42.46 t ha-1. Higher yields (42.50 and 45.29 t ha-1 were obtained with the 0.2 and 0.4 m plant spacing, with no difference between them. No significant differences were observed for unmarketable fruit yield in the row spacings. However, the smallest plant spacing (0.4 m showed the highest yield

  10. Capacidade de combinação em sete populações de melancia Combining ability of seven watermelon populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aldete Justiniano da Fonseca Ferreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar as capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação e os efeitos recíprocos (ER em relação à precocidade, componentes de produção e características do fruto em sete populações de melancia. As populações foram intercruzadas em dialelo, incluindo os recíprocos. Todas as variáveis avaliadas, com exceção do número de frutos por planta, apresentaram efeitos da CGC, CEC e ER significativos. Efeitos gênicos aditivos foram importantes em relação ao número e peso de frutos por planta, assim como em relação à cor, espessura e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa. Quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor feminina e número de sementes por fruto, ocorreu predominância de efeitos gênicos não-aditivos. Foram identificadas algumas populações e algumas combinações híbridas superiores, que podem ser exploradas em programas de melhoramento. As populações tradicionais P14 e B9, coletadas no Nordeste do Brasil, são promissoras para serem empregadas em programas que visem melhorar o número e o peso dos frutos, ao passo que a M7 é promissora em relação à precocidade. As variedades comerciais Charleston Gray e Crimson Sweet poderão ser empregadas para melhorar o teor de açúcar e a cor da polpa.The aim of this work was to estimate general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability and reciprocal effects (RE in relation to earliness, yield components and fruit properties for seven watermelon populations. Populations were intercrossed in diallel, including reciprocals. All evaluated traits, except number of fruit per plant, showed significant effects for GCA, SCA and RE. Additive gene effects were determinant for number and weight of fruit per plant, as well as for flesh colour, thickness and soluble solids content. However, for number of days to the first female flower and number of seeds, a predominance of non additive gene effects was found. Some of the

  11. 农户的技术需求及影响因素分析--以河南、浙江西瓜主产区种植户为例%Analysis on farmers'demand for technology and its influencing factors---An empirical study on watermelon farmers in Henan and Zhejiang Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵姜; 周忠丽; 吴敬学

    2014-01-01

    Based on the questionnaire investigation for 519 watermelon farmers in Henan and Zhejiang province , this paper analyzed the status quo on the demand of different types of agricultural technology and influencing factors of the demand.The results showed that at present the improved variety and pest control techniques is most needed ;nearly ninety percent of the farmers did not attend any related technical training about watermelon planting ;the watermelon farmers classified by different household characteristics and technical performance had different demand behaviors . At last, the countermeasures and suggestions were given pertinently .%通过对河南、浙江两省519户有效样本西瓜种植户的抽样问卷调查,统计分析瓜农对不同类型农业技术的需求现状及其影响因素。结果表明:瓜农最需要的是良种技术和病虫害防控技术;近九成的瓜农没有参加过任何西瓜种植相关的技术培训;不同家庭特征和技术诱导情况的瓜农表现出不同的技术需求行为。并有针对性地提出了相关政策建议。

  12. Effects of 0.1%Forchlorfenuron Soluble Liquid on Fruit Growth and Quality of Triploid Watermelon%0.1%氯吡脲可溶性液剂对三倍体西瓜果实生长和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运强; 戴照义; 郭凤领; 刘志雄

    2014-01-01

    To explore effects of forchlorfenuron on fruit growth and quality of triploid watermelon, a filed experiment was carried out in 2013. The results showed that evenly sprayed 0.1% forchlorfenuron soluble liquid on triploid watermelon ovary could significantly improve the fruit setting rate, at the same time enlarged fruit stalk and thicken skin in a certain extent, but it could not significantly affect the center sugar content and hollow rate of triploid watermelon. And the appropriate concentration was 30 mg/kg (effective content).%为探索氯吡脲对三倍体西瓜果实生长和品质的影响,于2013年进行了田间试验。试验结果表明,0.1%氯吡脲可溶性液剂均匀喷洒三倍体西瓜子房可显著提高其坐果率,同时在一定程度上会使果柄增粗、果皮变厚,但对三倍体西瓜中心糖含量和空心率没有明显影响,适宜使用浓度为30 mg/kg(有效含量)。

  13. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    , sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias, but neither Raynaud's phenomenon nor oesophageal dysmotility. The patient was treated with endoscopic Argon laser therapy, repeated six times, but this did not control the bleeding. Altogether the patient received 62 units of blood transfusions. The patient died after 9...

  14. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol. Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml, total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml, starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml, cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml, hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml; high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method. Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml, which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml. In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and 69.63µg/ml and in alkali hydrolysis 62 and 170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml, hence among six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.

  15. 西瓜感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒后糖的变化与倒瓤关系的研究%The relation between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立梅; 吴元华; 赵秀香; 王文航; 王林; 蔡明

    2011-01-01

    By high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC), the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose, and the sweetness were analyzed in watermelon inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The relationship between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon was determined. The results indicated that the content of glucose was apparently increased compared to that of the control before maturity (within 28 days after pollination), but reduced to 24.8% of the control after maturity (at 35 days after pollination). The content of fructose was higher than that of the control within 14 days after pollination, and then decreased with a significant difference. In all cases, the content of sucrose increased with the growth of watermelon. However, compared with the control, the sucrose content of watermelon inoculated with CGMMV was lower. The ratios of glucose, fructose and sucrose in the total sugar were abnormal. Coincidence with the changes of the total sugar, the fruit sweetness before maturity was higher than that of the control, whereas decreased sharply after maturity ( lower than that of the control). The inner pulp of the mature fruit appeared to be water-soaked and dirty red with no edibility. In a word, after inoculation with CGMMV, the changes of sugars and sweetness affected the watermelon quality.%@@ 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物上的重要病毒,2006年12月被农业部列为全国检疫性有害生物,2007年5月又被列为中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物.西瓜感染该病毒后,果肉出现油渍状深色病变,种子周围形成暗紫红色空洞,变色组织软化溶解呈丝状纤维化,俗称血瓤或倒瓤,果味异样,丧失食用价值[1].

  16. 不同瓤色小型西瓜成熟果实挥发性风味物质GC-MS分析%Analysis of Flavor Compounds in Different Watermelon Pulp Colour Cultivars by Solid Phase Microextraction with GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖守华; 马德源; 王施慧; 王崇启; 董玉梅; 刘淑梅; 侯丽霞; 焦自高

    2014-01-01

    The volatile flavor substance make an important contribution to the flavour and taste of watermelon. The aromatic components of ripe fruits of 6 Watermelon cultivars with different pulp colors were identified by combining headspace solid-phase microextraction ( HS-SPME) with GC-MS method. Results showed that there are 76 kinds of volatile aromatic compounds in the fruits. Based on this method, comparative analysis for the flavor compounds in 6 watermelon cultivars was carried out. The results showed that the contents in different watermelon cultivars were significantly different. The major volatile aromatic compounds in watermelon (82.9% of volatile aromatic compounds) consisted of 23 kinds of aldehydes, 15 kinds of alcohols, 9 kinds of alkenes, 10 kinds of ketones and 6 kinds of esters, which relative contents account for 87.47% to 91.43% of the total of their peak areas. The contents of esters and alkenes in 2 kinds of yellow fruits were more than the other watermelons with pink and red pulps, but the content of ketones was lower evidently. There were significant differences in aromatic components and relative contents among these three varieties. The results could be used as an important index to evaluate different varieties of watermelon and one of the important bases for the classification of their sweet-smelling category.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气相色谱质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析黄瓤色、粉红瓤色和大红瓤色的不同瓤色西瓜品种成熟果实中挥发性的风味物质。结果表明:(1)不同瓤色西瓜共鉴定出76种挥发性风味物质,其中包括23种醛类、15种醇类、9种烯类、10种酮类、6种酯类,这5类物质占测定挥发性风味物质总数的82.9%,相对含量占总峰面积的87.42%~91.43%,为西瓜果实中的主要挥发性风味物质成分;(2)两个黄瓤色西瓜品种的酯类物质和稀类物质明显高于两个粉红瓤和大红瓤色西瓜品种,而酮类物质明

  17. Induced Resistance of Endophyte XG-1 against Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon%内生菌XG-1对西瓜枯萎病诱导抗性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙正祥; 王丰; 周燚

    2013-01-01

    This experiment studied the induced resistance of endophytic bacterium XG-1 against Fusarium wilt of watermelon by taking the content variation of MDA and the activity variation of four defense enzymes including PAL,POD,PPO and CAT as the indexes. The results showed that the activities of the four defense enzymes in leaves of watermelon plants treated by bacterial suspension of endophyte XG-1 were all higher than the control. After the leaves were treated by XG-1 bacterial suspension and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON),the activity of PAL showed two peeks on the 4th day and the 10th day,l. 86 and 1. 52 times higher than the control, respectively; the activities of POD and PPO both exhibited the peek on the 4th day,increased by 52. 6% and 57. 1%,respectively; the activity of CAT exhibited the peek on the 5th day,increased by 56. 4%;MDA content firstly descended and then gradually ascended,falling to the lowest on the 4th day,dropped by 33. 1%. The results suggest that induced resistance is one of the important mechanisms by strain XG-1 in control of watermelon Fusarium wilt.%以苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)4种防御酶的活性变化以及丙二醛(MDA)的含量变化作为指标,研究内生菌XG-1对西瓜枯萎病的诱导抗性,为阐明XG-1的作用机制及其开发应用提供理论依据.结果表明:经内生菌XG-1菌悬液处理后,西瓜苗叶片的PAL、POD、PPO及CAT活性均高于清水对照.同时接种XG-1菌悬液和西瓜枯萎病菌(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp niveum,FON)的叶片,PAL活性在接种后第4天、第10天出现2次高峰,分别比对照增加1.86倍和1.52倍;POD和PPO活性均在第4天达到最高峰,分别比对照提高52.6%和57.1%;CAT活性在第5天时达到最高峰,比对照提高56.4%.同时接种XG-1菌悬液和枯萎病菌FON后,西瓜苗叶片的MDA含量呈先下降后逐渐上升趋势,第4天时达到最低值,比对照下降33.1%.由此

  18. FAAS法测定打瓜不同部位微量元素的含量%Determination of microelement in different parts of watermelon by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波; 胡文忠; 姜爱丽; 田密霞; 马堃; 董珊

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and ultrasonic wave techniques were used for disposing watermelon samples. The contents of Ca,Cu,Zn, Fe, K, Mn, Mg and Na in different parts of watermelon were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The recoveries for each element were within the range of 95% to 105% ,the average recoveries were 96.2% to 104.0%,and RSD of the method for 10 times determinations were 0.23% to 2.98%,the method was accuracy and precise. The results showed that the contents of potassium ,calcium and magnesium were high in rind,endodermis,pulp and dried seed. The order of the content of Ca was rind〉seed〉endodermis〉 pulp, Cu was seed 〉rind 〉endodermis 〉pulp,Zn was seed 〉rind 〉pulp i〉 endodermis, Fe was seed 〉rind 〉pulp 〉 endodermis, K was seed 〉endodermis 〉rind 〉pulp, Mn was seed 〉rind 〉pulp 〉endodermis, Mg was seed 〉rind 〉 endodermis 〉pulp,Na was seed 〉rind 〉endodermis 〉pulp. The results of watermelon could provide theoretical basis for developing and utilizing the melon.%采用微波消解和超声波技术处理打瓜样品,空气-乙炔火焰原子吸收光谱法测定打瓜不同部位中的钙、铜、锌、铁、钾、锰、镁和钠含量。此方法的各元素加标回收率均在95%~105%之间,平均回收率在96.2%~104.0%之间,10次测定的相对标准偏差为0.23%~2.98%,准确性好、精密度高。研究结果表明,在新鲜的打瓜外皮、内皮、瓤和干燥的瓜籽中,钾、钙和镁含量较高,其中Ca含量顺序为外皮〉籽〉内皮〉瓤,Cu含量为籽〉外皮〉内皮〉瓤,Zn含量为籽〉外皮〉瓤≥内皮,Fe含量为籽〉外皮〉瓤〉内皮,K含量为籽〉内皮〉外皮〉瓤,Mn含量为籽〉外皮〉瓤〉内皮,Mg含量为籽〉外皮〉内皮〉瓤,Na含量为籽〉外皮〉内皮〉瓤,研究结果可为打瓜瓤、外皮和内皮的开发利用提供理论依据。

  19. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of some Fruit Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of secondary plant metabolite with an antioxidant character are present in the vegetal extracts, such as: tocopherols, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc. These compounds intervene in the cellular defense mechanisms against the free radicals and oxidative stress, as they possess anticancer and anti mutation effect. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of methanolic extracts obtained from seeds of fruits: Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Citrullus lanatus. Grape seeds have a high content of antioxidants and polyphenols compounds, due to this, it is recommended their used in obtaining functional food with benefit on the human body.

  20. Acolchado plástico de color en sandía con riego por goteo

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cenobio-Pedro; Marco A. Inzunza-Ibarra; S. Felipe Mendoza-Moreno; Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen; Abel Román-López

    2006-01-01

    Para alcanzar una competitividad en el mercado resulta evidente, sobre todo en condiciones restrictivas de agua, practicar una agricultura con alta tecnología. Esto ha justificado realizar estudios enfocados al uso de películas plásticas y riego por goteo, buscando mayor producción y precocidad del fruto, además de mayor eficiencia en el uso del agua. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la productividad de la sandía (Citrullus lanatus T.), así como su precocidad, en respuesta a colores de...

  1. Caracterización, Multiplicación y Regeneración de Variedades Hortícolas Tradicionales de la Zona Centro-Oeste de España para su Conservación en Bancos de Germoplasma

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Sancho, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo del proyecto es la recuperación de 7 variedades locales de hortícolas tradicionales locales: Tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L.), Guindilla (Capsicum annuum L.), Calabaza (Cucurbita maxima L.), Sandía (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)Matsum & Nakai), Lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.), Melón (Cucumis melo L.), Judía (Phaseolus coccineus L.), Judía (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) para su conservación en un banco de germoplasma Proyecto Fin de Carrera-Universidad de Salamanca, Facultad de Cienc...

  2. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  3. Reasonable drip irrigation frequency improving watermelon yield and quality under regulated deficit irrigation in plastic greenhouse%调亏灌溉合理滴灌频率提高大棚西瓜产量及品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炼红; 莫言玲; 杨小振; 李小玲; 吴梅梅; 张显; 马建祥; 张勇; 李好

    2014-01-01

    在调亏灌溉条件下,该试验研究了不同膜下滴灌频率对早春大棚西瓜植株生长、果实产量、品质及水分利用效率的影响,从而确定西瓜整个生育期的最佳灌溉频率方案。试验在各生育期设置3个不同的灌溉频率水平,分别为高频(每2d灌溉1次)、中频(每4d灌溉1次)和低频(每6d灌溉1次),并做4因素3水平正交实验设计,共9个处理,各处理总灌水量相等。结果表明:各处理中,苗期中频、开花坐果期高频、果实膨大期中频、成熟期低频灌溉处理植株在生长势上表现最好,该处理植株的叶绿素含量、净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率以及叶片水分利用效率在全生育期中均能保持较高水平,且该处理植株具有较高的坐果率、单果质量,果实总产量和灌溉水分利用效率最高,分别达到63.72 t/hm2和303.64 kg/(hm2·mm)。品质方面,苗期中频、开花坐果期高频、果实膨大期中频、成熟期低频灌溉处理的果皮最薄,仅有8.30 mm,且具有较高含量的总维生素C和最高含量的可溶性蛋白质和中心边可溶性固形物。综合考虑生长势、产量、品质和灌溉水分利用效率,适用于西北地区早春大棚西瓜调亏灌溉的最佳灌溉频率方案为苗期中频、开花坐果期高频、果实膨大期中频、成熟期低频灌溉。该研究可为实现西北地区早春设施西瓜栽培高效节水灌溉提供理论与技术参考。%In the northwest of China, the area of facility watermelon cultivation continuously expands with popularization. In order to explore an efficient water-saving irrigation system of watermelon growth in plastic greenhouses, the experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different mulched drip irrigation frequency on growth, yield, quality, and water use efficiency of watermelons in plastic greenhouses during each growth stage under regulated deficient

  4. Status,Challenges and Trend of Watermelon and Melon Disease and Insect Control in China%我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控现状、存在问题与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵廷昌; 宋凤鸣; 古勤生; 张友军

    2014-01-01

    西瓜甜瓜病虫害危害严重,制约产业健康发展。概述了我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控技术现状、存在问题和今后发展趋势。现阶段我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控方法主要涵盖植物检疫、轮作和嫁接、抗病品种选育与应用、健康种子和种苗的生产与应用、药剂防治等措施,这些措施的应用推广在生产中取得了显著成效,但整体而言,我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控体系中依然存在优良抗病虫品种缺乏、农药使用不合理等问题。今后应继续坚持“预防为主、综合防治”的植保方针,加快研发关键的绿色防控技术,组建和完善以农业防治、物理防治、生物防治、生态调控和化学防治相结合的病虫害综合防治技术体系,并在西瓜甜瓜生产中推广应用。%Damage of diseases and insect on watermelon and melon is serious,hindering the healthy developing of the industry. We outline the control technique of diseases and pests,problems,and development trend in this article. Currently,plant quarantine,crop rotation,grafting,selection and application of resistant variety,use of healthy seeds and seedlings,and chemical control are all included in the control system of watermelon and melon. However,varieties with resistance to disease and insect are still lacking,and the chemicals are still improperly applied. In the future,the strategy of integrated management of pests should be insisted and the key green control technique be exploited.

  5. Combining Ability and Heritability Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits in Seedless Watermelon%无籽西瓜主要农艺性状配合力及遗传力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 刘童光; 任怀富; 王朋成; 王磊; 谈敏

    2011-01-01

    Twelve watermelon inbreds were used to create triploid hybrids with 6 × 6 incomplete diallel mating design and to study combining ability and heritability of yield and quality in seedless watermelon. Heterosis was observed on 11 traits (except main shoot length and rind thickness )among 13 traits evaluated. The general combining ability of the 6 male parental lines was Huaxin ( A 1 ) >Damingjingxinerhao ( A2 ) >Fengyuan W- 1 ( A6 ) >Zaokanglijia ( A5 ) >Yulinglong ( A4 ) >Jingxinerhao ( A3 ). The general combining ability of the 6 female parental lines was Tianba ( M5 ) >8424 ( M4 ) >Luqingqihao ( M6 ) >Tianxinerhao(M2)>Guoyuerhao(M1 )and Chunyi (M3). Inbred lines M5 and A1 are the best parental lines for improving hybrid yield and nutritional quality.%选用12个西瓜高世代自交系进行6×6不完全双列杂交试验,分析了后代产量及品质等性状的配合力和遗传力.结果表明:除主蔓长度、果皮厚度外,其余11个性状从育种角度,适宜采用优势育种.根据各个亲本的综合评价,6个父本一般配合力优劣顺序为:华欣(Al)>大明京欣2号(A2)>丰园W-1(A6)>早抗丽佳(A5)>玉玲珑(A4)>京欣2号(A3);6个母本一般配合力优劣顺序为:甜霸(M5)>8424(M4)>鲁青7号(M6)>甜欣2号(M2)>国豫2号(M1)、春一(M3).其中,自交系M5与Al在提高杂交一代果实产量和营养品质方面是表现良好的母本和父本.

  6. A new triploid seedless watermelon variety‘Zhongnong Wuzi No. 2’%椭圆黑皮无籽西瓜新品种‘中农无籽2号’的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文革; 何楠; 赵胜杰; 路绪强

    2015-01-01

    ‘中农无籽2号’是以‘MMD’为母本、‘K5M’为父本杂交育成的椭圆形大果型黑皮红瓤三倍体西瓜新品种。该品种中晚熟,全生育期105 d,果实发育期35 d。植株生长势强,果实椭圆球形,果皮黑色,覆蜡粉,外形美观。平均单果质量6~9 kg,畸形果少,商品果率超过95%。瓜瓤大红色,瓤质脆,汁液多,中心可溶性固形物含量12%左右,边部8.5%左右;果实剖面好,白瘪籽小、少,品质优。667 m2产量可达5000 kg以上,耐贮运,抗病性、适应性强,适合设施和露地栽培。2012年通过江西省农作物品种审定委员会认定。%‘Zhongnong Wuzi No. 2’is a new triploid seedless watermelon by crossing tetraploid line‘MMD’as female parent with diploid line‘K5M’as male parent. It’s a mid-late maturity variety. The total growing period is about 105 days,and the fruit development period is about 35 days. The plant grows vigorously and resistant to Fusarium wilt. The fruit has beautiful appearance,oval shape,dark skin with wax powder. The average fruit weight is about 6-9 kg. The bright red flesh is hard crisp with soluble solid content 12% in center. It has few small white blighted seed traces,en⁃riched juice,good profile and good flavor quality. It is about 5 000 kg yield per 667 m2 and good transportation. The fruit commodity rate is over 95%,The variety has good adaptability and can be grown in most watermelon production areas in China.

  7. Effect of Floating Nursing Seedling in Water- bed on Seedling Growth in Seedless Watermelon%漂浮育苗对无籽西瓜幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宜; 张峰; 张海清; 陈光辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of low seed germination and slow seedling growth for triploid watermelon, the seedling quality of seedless watermelon variety Hongxiaoyu was studied by means of the solid matrix priming treatment and matrix / floating nursing seedling on the nutrient water - bed, using the traditional method of nutrition pot nursing seedling as the control. The results showed that the leaf emergence of the floating nursing seedling was the same as that of the traditional nursing seedling before 2 leaves stage, but after 2 leaves stage, the seedling growth of floating nursing seedling obviously exceed the CK, and the plant height , blade width, stem diameter, root length , fresh plant weight as well as the root vigor and CAT activity were all significantly higher than that of the CK. It indicated that the floating nursing seedling technique had an obvious effect to seedling growth.%为解决三倍体西瓜种子萌发率低和苗期生长缓慢的问题,以无籽西瓜品种红小玉为材料,采用固体基质和引发剂结合进行种子引发处理,利用基质/营养液漂浮育苗,以传统营养钵育苗方法为对照,对西瓜幼苗素质进行了研究.结果表明:采用漂浮育苗,在2叶1心期前,其出叶速度与传统营养钵育苗基本相同,2叶1心期后,漂浮育苗的幼苗生长速度明显超过CK,株高、叶宽、茎粗、根长和鲜重均显著高于CK,根系活力、CAT活性在2叶1心期后都显著高于CK.表明漂浮育苗具有明显的壮苗效果.

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lowering of the MRL was proposed, and for tomatoes and aubergines, where it was concluded that no modification of the MRL would be required. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA on 6 January 2012. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.9 mg/kg for citrus fruit, 0.5 mg/kg for pome fruit, 0.5 mg/kg peaches/nectarines and plums, 0.7 mg/kg for grapes, 3 mg/kg for strawberries, 0.5 mg/kg for tomatoes and aubergines, 0.4 mg/kg for sweet pepper, 3 mg/kg for chilli pepper, 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits with inedible peel and 20 mg/kg for hops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bifenazate on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Since for some of these crops higher MRLs were proposed in a previously issued reasoned opinion of EFSA, they need to be considered to avoid trade disruption. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bifenazate on citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, table- and wine grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons, watermelons and hops will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  9. 防治绿色食品西瓜蚜虫的药剂筛选试验研究%Screening of Pesticides for Controlling Green Pharmaceutical Watermelon Aphids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈振兰; 王晓栋

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of 3 different types and 6 different kinds of insecticides were evaluated against aphids in watermelon field, and carried on the variance analysis by using new multiple range method, it screened the best insecticides against the aphids in watermelon field. The results showed that 6 kinds of tested insecticides including 1% matrine SL, 0.32% azadirachtin EC, 20% acetamiprid Hong Ding WP, 5% hypertonic imidacloprid EC, 2.5% efficient cyhalothrin AS and 48% chlorpyrifos EC could be used, 20% acetamiprid Hong Ding WP was optimal for comprehensive efficacy, 48% chlorpyrifos EC was worst for efficacy, the efficacy of different types of insecticides showed different features, people should choose flexibly suitable varieties of pesticides according to role of the characteristics of various pesticides and occurrence of aphis in production.%通过3个不同类型6种不同药剂对瓜蚜的防效试验,并采用新复极差法进行统计分析,筛选出防治西瓜蚜虫的最佳药剂.结果表明:1%苦参碱可溶性液剂、0.32%印楝素乳油、20%红鼎啶虫脒可湿性粉荆、5%高渗吡虫啉乳油、2.5%高效氯氟氰菊酯水剂和48%毒死蜱乳油等6种供试药剂均可使用,20%红鼎啶虫脒可湿性粉剂综合防效最理想,48%毒死蜱乳油防效最差,不同类型药剂防效显示出不同特征,生产中应根据各种农药的作用特点以及瓜蚜的发生情况灵活选用适宜的农药品种.

  10. 沿海不同棚架构型温度变化规律及西瓜种植研究%Temperature Change Rules of Different Steel Greenhouses and Their Effects on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴祥; 林红梅

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we studied the temperature change rules of different types of steel greenhouses and their effects on the growth and development of watermelon. The results showed that, as the greenhouse depth-width ratio became larger, the atmospheric temperature in the greenhouses increased and reduced quicker, and the difference of the day and night earth temperature became larger, indicating their better maintaining effects on atmospheric temperature but worse maintaining effects on earth temperature. In the watermelon cultivation in coastal areas of Jiangsu, the greenhouse A4 possessed the best temperature maintaining effects and comprehensive evaluation, and the structure of greenhouse A4 was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 2.5 m, 2.4 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 7.0 m, 6.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively. The greenhouse A1 was more affordable, and its structure was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 1.8 m, 1.7 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 5.0 m, 4.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively.%  研究了不同棚型内的温度变化,以及其对西瓜生长和发育的影响.研究结果表明,棚高宽比大,棚内气温升高快,降低也快,日夜气温温差大,日夜地温温差大,气温保温性差,但地温保温性好;沿海地区大棚西瓜种植采用A4型棚(外棚顶高2.5 m、宽7.0 m,内棚顶高2.4 m、宽6.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)效果好,采用A1型棚(外棚顶高1.8 m、宽5.0 m,内棚顶高1.7 m、宽4.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)较为经济.

  11. Qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita de melancia Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró Quality and postharvest shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil pós-colheita de melancia cv. Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró, RN. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada por local de venda e tamanho de fruto. As melancias de tamanho grande e médio apresentaram melhor aparência externa e maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis que aquelas de tamanho pequeno, enquanto as comercializadas na ocasião do desembarque apresentaram melhor aparência e maior firmeza. A avaliação da vida útil pós-colheita foi feita com frutos provenientes de um plantio comercial instalado em Mossoró, RN. A perda de peso foi de apenas 3,79%, o pH da polpa aumentou de 4,89 para 5,20, a acidez total titulável decresceu durante o armazenamento e os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis totais não apresentaram correlação com o armazenamento, sendo que o primeiro variou de 7,63 a 9,55%. Os açúcares redutores apresentaram leve diminuição no final do armazenamento. A vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos foi avaliada em 12 dias.The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró-RN. The quality of the fruits was evaluated by locality and fruit size. The large and middle sized watermelons presented better external appearance and higher soluble solids content than those of small size, while those marketed directly upon off loading, presented better appearance and higher firmness. The evaluation of the postharvest shelf life was done with fruits of a commercial plantation in Mossoró-RN. The weight loss was of 3.79%, the pH of the fruits increased from 4.89 to 5.20, the total titrable acidity decreased during storage. The soluble solids content and total soluble sugars did not present correlation with the storage, and the first varied from 7.63 to 9.55%. The reducing sugars a presented slight decrease at the end of the storage. The postharvest shelf life of the fruits was

  12. 西瓜砧木种传镰刀菌的种类鉴定及其致病性研究%Study on Identification of Seedborne Fusarium species of Rootstock for Watermelon Grafting and Their Pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鲁明; 张金利; 王丽君; 吴学宏; 黄俊生

    2013-01-01

    Two Fusarium isolates were obtained from seed embryo and seed coat of rootstock seeds (cvs. Shenl-izhenmu and Futianjiangjunzhenmu) for watermelon grafting, repectively. The two isolates were identified using morphological methods and DNA sequencing analysis. Effects on seed germination and pathogenicity to seedlings of these two Fusarium isolates were also determined. The results showed that the two Fusarium strains were identified to be Fusarium oxysporum. They had significant effect on seed germination, compared to control treatment, which causing reduction of germination energy, percentage germination, germination index and vigor index significantly;they were pathogenic to rootstock seedlings and caused typical wilt symptom on leaves, fulfilled Koch' s postulates. To our knowledge,it' s the first report of seedborne F. oxysporum of rootstock for watermelon grafting can be pathogenic to rootstock seedlings in China.%本研究针对神力砧木种胚和福田将军砧木种壳分离得到的2个镰刀菌分离物,结合形态特征及分子生物学的方法进行了鉴定,并研究了其对西瓜砧木种子发芽的影响和幼苗的致病性.结果表明:2个分离物均为尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum).2个尖孢镰刀菌分离物对西瓜砧木种子发芽有显著的影响,发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数等指标均显著降低,且能导致西瓜砧木幼苗出现典型的枯萎症状,经柯赫氏法则检验证明其具有致病性.西瓜砧木种子传带尖孢镰刀菌并具有致病性为国内首次报道.

  13. Waste Watermelon Peel for Single Cell Protein Production Through Solid State Fermentation%废弃西瓜皮固态发酵生产单细胞蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘百明; 李春惠

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the comprehensive utilization value of waste watermelon peel and reduce environmental pollution,taking waste watermelon peels as raw material,Anqi feeding yeasts were utilized for solid state fermentation in generating single-cell proteins.Crude proteins were utilized as indicators for the measurement of quality of product.The experiment studied influential factors included the addition volume of urea affecting single-cell protein production,original value of pH,volume of vaccinated strain, time consuming of fermentation and so on.Fermentation technology was further optimized by orthogonal test.As the results demonstrated,the optimum combination of the conditions was 2.0 g of urea,7.5 mL of vaccinated strain,48 hours of consumed fermentation and the original value of pH was 5.0.After the fermentation occurred,under the condition mentioned above,the product of crude protein was increased from 10.5% to 25.6%,crude fiber decreased from 1.7% to 0.5%,crude ash increased from 2.5% to 7.1%.%为了提高废弃西瓜皮的综合利用价值,减少环境污染,以废弃西瓜皮为原料,利用安琪饲料酵母固态发酵生成单细胞蛋白,以尿素添加量、初始 pH、菌种接种量、发酵时间为考察因素,以粗蛋白为指标,采用正交试验优化西瓜皮固态发酵工艺。结果表明:发酵的最佳组合条件为尿素2.0 g,菌种接种量7.5 mL,培养时间48 h,初始 pH5.0。在该条件下,单细胞蛋白由10.5%提高到25.6%,粗纤维由1.7%降低到0.5%,粗灰分由2.5%提高到7.1%。

  14. 控释BB肥对西瓜生长期土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Controlled-release BB Fertilizer on Soil Enzymes Activities during Watermelon Growing Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井大炜; 杨广怀; 马文丽; 刘春生

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to study the effects of controlled-release BB fertilizer (fertilizer blending) applied on soil enzymes activities and provided the theoretical base for the population of controlled-release fertilizer. In the field plot test, the effect of the controlled-release BB fertilizer on soil urease, neutral phosphatase and sucrose enzymes activities during different growth stages of watermelon were studied. The results showed with the application of controlled-release BB fertilizer, the activities of these three enzymes were better than conven-tional fertilizer treatment because of the significantly controlled release effects of the controlled-release BB fer-tilizer.%研究控释BB肥(掺混肥)对土壤中酶活性的影响,为控释肥的推广使用提供理论依据.采用田间小区试验法研究了控释BB肥对西瓜不同生育期土壤脲酶、中性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性的影响.在试验条件下,由于控释BB肥对养分的显著控释效果,它的施用对土壤中这三种酶活性的影响要好于习惯施肥处理.

  15. 不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of Different Culture Factors on Callus Induction of Watermelon Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎春; 刘君璞; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 孙德玺

    2015-01-01

    研究不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响,探讨适宜西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法。以HJ001(杂交种)、西农8号、大果黑美人为试验材料,分别研究取材时期、低温预处理时间、高温预培养时间、植物生长调节剂、附加物、基因型对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导率的影响。结果表明:HJ001经4℃低温处理2、3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率分别达到18.33%、15.67%,差异不显著。HJ001经高温预培养1、2、3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率最高达到14.33%,且3个处理间无显著差异,其余2个品种有效愈伤组织诱导率较低,但表现相同趋势。 HJ001和西农8号2个品种,NAA的诱导效果均较2,4-D好。在培养基上添加谷氨酰胺(Gln)70 mg/L和酸水解酪蛋白(CH)500 mg/L, HJ001有效愈伤组织诱导率较高,分别达到20.33%和19.00%。露地种植,晴天6:00—8:00采集的花蕾花粉活力较高,其中HJ001花蕾纵径2~4 mm、横径3~4 mm,萼片紧贴花瓣,花瓣闭合,呈深绿色,花药颜色呈淡黄色至黄绿色,且此时多为小孢子单核靠边期,不同品种间稍有差异。因此,在露地栽培条件下,晴天6:00—8:00,取单核靠边期花蕾,低温处理2~3 d,接种在 MS +NAA 1.0 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L+CH 500 mg/L ( Gln 70 mg/L )培养基上高温预培养1~3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率最高,此种方法为西瓜品种HJ001花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法,而西农8号、大果黑美人花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法还要进一步探讨。%The article studied the affection of different factors on induction of watermelon anther callus and explored the best way of watermelon anther callus induction. HJ001( hybrid ) , Xinong No. 8 and Daguoheimeiren were selected as materials in the experiment. The influence of different treatments on valid and invalid callus induction rate of watermelon anther, including the time of low temperature pre-treatment and high temperature pre

  16. 盐胁迫对小型西瓜幼苗体内离子分布的影响%Effect of salinity on distribution of ions in mini-watermelon seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志平; 郭世荣; 郑瑞娜; 束胜; 闫海霞

    2013-01-01

    采用营养液水培法,研究了不同NaCl浓度对耐盐性不同的两个小型西瓜品种(“秀雅”和“秀丽”)幼苗体内离子分布的影响.结果表明,NaCl胁迫抑制了西瓜幼苗的生长,“秀雅”生长受抑制程度明显小于“秀丽”;随NaCl浓度的提高,植株体内Na+和Clˉ含量增加,K+、Ca2+和Mg2+含量降低.5种离子在器官间呈区域化分布,Clˉ主要积累在茎中而Na+主要积累于茎和根中;K+含量在茎中降低幅度较大,叶中降低幅度较小;Ca2+和Mg2+主要存在于茎和叶中,且在叶中降低幅度较小.NaCl胁迫下,西瓜根向茎选择性运输K+和Ca2+的能力降低,而茎向叶选择性运输的能力提高,有利于减轻NaCl胁迫对叶片的伤害.与“秀丽”相比,“秀雅”叶中K+、Ca2+含量降低幅度较小,Clˉ和Na+积累量较少,K+/Na+和Ca2+/Na+比值均较高,茎向叶运输的SK.Na和SCa.Na值也较高.以上结果说明,向叶片运输Na+的选择性较低,是“秀雅”耐盐性较强的主要原因之一,离子在器官水平上的区域化分布是西瓜植株适应盐胁迫的重要生理机制之一.%A hydroponic cultivation experiment was carried out with two mini-watermelon cultivars differing in salt tolerance to study the effect of different NaCl concentrations on ions distribution in watermelon seedlings.The results show that NaCl stress inhibits the growth of watermelon seedlings,and the extent of inhibition for ‘ Xiuya' is less than that of ‘ Xiuli'.Increasing NaCl concentration,the Na + and Cl-contents of the seedlings are increased,while the K +,Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents decreased.The five ions present a compartmentalized distribution.Cl-mainly accumulates in the stems and Na + mainly concentrates in roots and stems.The decreased range of the K +contents is larger in stems and smaller in leaves,Ca2+ and Mg2+ mainly exist in stems and leaves and the declined extent in leaves is less.The abilities of selective transportation of K + and Ca

  17. 响应曲面法优化西瓜籽蛋白提取工艺%Optimization of protein extraction of watermelon seed by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘野; 邹婷婷; 宋焕禄

    2013-01-01

    以西瓜籽为原料,考察提取工艺对其蛋白提取率的影响.通过单因素实验对影响西瓜籽蛋自提取率的NaOH浓度、提取温度、提取时间和液料比四个因素进行研究,并通过Box-Behnken实验设计和响应曲面分析法确定西瓜籽蛋白提取的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:最佳工艺条件为提取温度50℃、NaOH溶液浓度1.2%、提取时间10min、液料比40∶1,在此条件下蛋白提取率为68.48%.%The effect of process on extraction rate of watermelon seed protein was discussed in this study.The factors of NaOH concentration,temperature,time,and liquid/solid ratio were studied by single factor experiments, and Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were applied to confirm the optimum experiment condition.The highest protein extraction rate was 68.48% under the condition; temperature ( 50℃), NaOH concentration(1.2%) .extraction time( 10min),liquid/solid ratio(40:1).

  18. 不同砧木对西瓜嫁接苗耐寒性的影响%Effects of different rootstocks on chilling-tolerance of grafted watermelon seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜; 田永生; 冷丹丹; 王宇; 邢国明

    2009-01-01

    以西瓜(Citrullus vulgarris)郑抗1号为接穗,日本南瓜(C. moschata)、黑籽南瓜(C. ficifolia)、葫芦(Lagenaria siceraia)为砧木,研究了嫁接苗和自根苗在(7.5±0.5)℃低温胁迫下叶片相关耐寒性指标的变化.结果表明:低温处理后嫁接苗丙二醛(MDA)含量、电解质渗透率显著低于自根苗;叶绿素、脯氨酸(Pro)、可溶性糖含量以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著高于自根苗.与处理前相比,12 d时日本南瓜砧、黑籽南瓜砧和葫芦砧嫁接苗叶绿素含量分别降低了30.48%、28.48%和52.69%;葫芦砧嫁接苗MDA含量6 d时较处理前增加了313.16%;3~12 d日本南瓜砧和黑籽南瓜砧嫁接苗电解质渗透率显著低于葫芦砧嫁接苗;低温处理期间,日本南瓜砧嫁接苗可溶性糖含量分别比黑籽南瓜砧和葫芦砧嫁接苗高出24.71%和31.17%,SOD、POD、CAT酶活性高于另外2个组合.综合各项指标显示:3种砧木均能提高接穗对低温的忍耐能力,其顺序为日本南瓜砧>黑籽南瓜砧>葫芦砧.

  19. 基于灰色关联度分析的旱砂地籽瓜/花生间作模式评价%Evaluation of Planting Modes of Intercropped Seed Watermelon and Peanut in Dry Sandy Land Based on Grey Relational Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 安力; 刘涛; 蒋志荣

    2016-01-01

    为了改善甘肃中部地区旱砂地籽瓜连作障碍严重的现象,在试验研究的基础上,采用灰色关联分析方法对旱砂地新型种植模式(籽瓜/花生间作模式)下3 种花生间作密度(株距40 cm、50 cm、60 cm)进行了评价. 结果表明,在等权重、权重侧重籽瓜产量和产籽率、权重侧重经济效益下,花生间作密度为株距60 cm的关联度均为最大,分别为0 . 718 0、0 . 692 3 和0 . 730 8 ,株距为40 cm次之,分别为0 . 657 3、0 . 647 0和0 . 662 4. 表明花生间作株距60 cm为该间作模式的最佳种植密度.%In order to improve the serious successive cropping obstacle of seed watermelon in dry sandy land in central region of Gansu,this paper evaluated three planting density( plant spacing of 40 cm,50 cm and 60 cm) in new cropping patterns( watermelon/peanut intercropping mode) in dry sandy land based on experimental studies and by the method of gray relational analysis. The research showed that whether under average or variable correlation of the yield of seed watermelon or economic benefits, the peanut plant spacing was 60 cm under intercropping was the best,with the correlation being 0. 718 0,0. 692 3, and 0. 730 8,followed by the peanut plant spacing was 40 cm under intercropping,the worst peanut plant spacing was 50 cm under intercropping,with the correlation being 0. 657 3,0. 647 0,and 0. 662 4. The study showed that the peanut intercropping spacing of 60 cm was the best planting density of planting modes of intercropped seed watermelon and peanut in dry sandy land.

  20. Capacidade de combinação entre linhas tetraplóides e diplóides de melancia Combining ability among tetraploid and diploid lines of watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F. de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade de combinação entre três genitores tetraplóides (LT7-48.1, LT9-24.1 e LTCC-24 e quatro diplóides de melancia ('Crimson Sweet', 'Pérola', 'New Hampshire Midget' e 'Charleston Gray' foi avaliada num esquema de cruzamentos dialélicos parciais. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, formadas por parcelas de sete plantas. Genitores e F1's foram avaliados quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor masculina e feminina, número de frutos por planta, comprimento da rama principal, massa média dos frutos, teor médio de sólidos solúveis na polpa, diâmetros transversal e longitudinal do fruto, espessura da casca do fruto na região do pedúnculo e na região da cicatriz floral, cor da polpa e ocorrência de ocamento no fruto. Os genitores, tanto diplóides como tetraplóides, apresentaram-se bastante divergentes quanto às características estudadas. Os efeitos da capacidade geral de combinação (CGC foram superiores aos efeitos da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC para a maioria dos caracteres, especialmente daqueles relacionados com a produção da planta, indicando a maior importância dos efeitos gênicos aditivos. No entanto, algumas características, como precocidade e ocamento de frutos tiveram controle gênico não aditivo e, portanto, a avaliação e seleção de linhagens em combinações híbridas permitirão a síntese de híbridos triplóides superiores.Combining ability of three tetraploid (LT7-48.1, LT9-24.1 and LTCC-24 and four diploid lines of watermelon ('Crimson Sweet', 'Pérola', 'New Hampshire Midget' and 'Charleston Gray' was evaluated using a partial diallel scheme. A randomized block design, with three replications and seven plants in each field plot was used. Parents and F1's were evaluated regarding the number of days to the set of the first male and female flower, the number of fruits per plant and the length of the main vine, fruit mean