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Sample records for citrullus lanatus watermelon

  1. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  2. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  3. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe;

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolut...

  4. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

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    Mohd Khairul Amran Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx and supplementation (Tx groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P<0.05. Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  5. Characterization of seed oils from different varieties of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.] from Pakistan

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    Mahmood, Z.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oils from different varieties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in Pakistan, namely Sugar Baby, Q-F-12, D-W-H-21 and Red Circle-1885. The oil and crude protein contents from watermelon seeds, within the range of 28.25 to 35.65% and 20.50 to 35.00%, respectively, varied significantly (p -1 of oil, saponification index (190.20-205.57 mg KOH g-1 of oil, unsaponifiable matter (0.54-0.82% and color (1.12-4.30 R + 12.20-33.40 Y. The oils revealed a reasonable oxidative parameter range as depicted by the determinations of specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm (2.90-4.40 and 2.05- 3.09, respectively, p-anisidine value (5.60-7.70 and peroxide value (2.90-5.06 meqO2 kg-1 of oil. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid found in all the seed oils with contributions of 45.30-51.80% of the total fatty acids (FA. Other fatty acids detected were known to be oleic acid (20.2- 23.5%, palmitic acid (15.1-16.9% and stearic acid (11.5- 14.4%. The contents of α- and δ-tocopherol in the oils accounted for 120.6-195.6 and 9.1-58.3 mg kg-1, respectively. The physicochemical attributes of the watermelon seed oils showed a wider variation among the varieties tested. The results of the present study indicate that the seeds of the tested watermelon varieties from Pakistan are a potential source of high-linoleic oil and thus can be explored for commercial use and value addition.Se presentan las características físico-químicas de aceites de diferentes variedades de semillas de sandías (Citrullus lanatus cultivadas en Pakistán: Sugar Baby, QF-12, DWH-21 y Círculo rojo-1885. El aceite y el contenido de proteína cruda de las semillas de sandía están dentro de los rangos: 28,25-35,65% y 20,50-35,00%, respectivamente y varian significativamente (p -1 de aceite, índice de saponificación (190,20-205,57 mg de KOH g-1 de aceite, insaponificable (0,54-0.82% y color (1.12-4.30 de I + 12.20- 33.40 y

  6. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-03-04

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit.

  7. Analytical Characterization of Pure and Blended Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus oil: Impact of Blending on Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqar Azeem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of pure, blended watermelon (Citrulluslanatus oil and impact of blending on oxidative stability was investigated. Watermelon oil was added with mango (Mangiferaindica L. kernel oil at four different concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20% (B1, B2, B3 and B4 and referenced with a control (100% watermelon oil. All the blends were stored in transparent PET bottles at ambient temperature (25-28oC for 3 months; storage stability was assessed at the interval of 1 month. Free fatty acid, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, refractive index and iodine value of watermelon seed oil and mango kernel oil was 1.38%, 0.34%; 0.71%, 1.68%; 198, 193; 1.468, 1.457; 107.51, 54.62, respectively. The α tocopherol content of watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 127.49, 205.44, 135.24, 144.52, 156.81 and 169.34 mg/kg. δ tocopherol in watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 55.26, 34.81, 53.64, 51.27, 50.14 and 48.23 mg/kg. Concentration of linoleic acid decreased from 50.78% to 30.17% when 40% mango kernel oil was added to watermelon oil. Oleic acid increased from 22.89% in watermelon oil to 25.19%, 28.84% and 30.64% in B1, B2, B3 and B4. The increase in peroxide value of watermelon oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 10.07, 9.56, 7.62, 5.17 and 2.87 (meqO2/kg in a time dependent manner. Induction period of pure watermelon oil was less than mango kernel oil and blends. These results suggest that chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pure watermelon oil can be improved by blending with mango kernel oil.

  8. Combining Ability Analysis in Complete Diallel Cross of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14 × P3 (6372-4, which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  9. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries.

  10. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... from Peru. Cantaloupe, netted melon, vegetable melon, and winter melon (Cucumis melo L. subsp....

  12. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  13. 赤霉素处理对西瓜种子发芽率的影响%Influences of Gibberellin on the Germination Rate of Watermelon(Citrullus lanatus) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于延球; 杨谦

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of gibberellin on the germination rate of watermelon, and provide a scientific basis for good quality and high effective breeding during watermelon cultivation. [Method] Five kinds of watermelon seeds( Jingxin No. 2, Jinlongbao, Xinhongbao, Jinzhongguanlong, Kangbingsumi) were treated with 5 different concentration gibberellin solutions(0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L) under the constant temperature of 30℃ , and then determined their germination rate. [Result] The most suitable gibberellin solution of different watermelon variety seeds was different. Jinxing No. 2 seeds treated with 100 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 94.000% ; Jinlongbao seeds treated with 150 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 84. 667% ; Xinhongbao seeds treated with 50 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 94.667% ; Jinzhongguanlong seeds treated with 50 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 72.667% ; Kangbingsumi seeds treated with 150 mg/L gibberellin solution had the highest germination rate, reached 81.333%. [ Conclusion ] Using suitable concentration gibberellin solution to treat watermelon seeds improves their germination rate, and 50 - 150 mg/L gibberellin solution is better.%[目的]研究赤霉素对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)种子发芽率的影响,为西瓜栽培过程中优质高效育苗提供科学依据.[方法]在恒温30℃条件下,分别用5种不同浓度的赤霉素溶液(0、50、100、150、200、250 mg/L)处理5个西瓜品种(京欣2号、金龙宝、新红宝、金钟冠龙、抗病苏蜜)种子,测定发芽率.[结果]不同西瓜品种的种子所需最适赤霉素溶液浓度不同.用浓度100 mg/L赤霉素对京欣2号种子进行处理发芽率最高,为94.000%;浓度150 mg/L赤霉素对金龙宝来说发芽率最高,为84.667%;浓度50 mg/L赤霉素对新红

  14. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  15. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

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    O A Oseni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  16. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  17. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  18. Produtividade de sete genótipos de melancia em Dourados Yield of seven genotypes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus in Dourados

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    Liliane A.K. Leonel

    2000-11-01

    a dystrophic Red Latosol of clay texture, after liming. Dourados county has an average altitude of 430 m and it is located at 22º 13' 16" S latitude and 54º 17' 01" W longitude. The climate of Dourados region is classified as Wet Mesothermic, with an annual average temperature varying from 20 to 24ºC and an annual average precipitation, ranging from 1,250 mm to 1,500 mm. About 90% of watermelon crop in Mato Grosso do Sul is basically cultivated with the 'Crimson Sweet' genotype. For this reason this research has had the objective to evaluate the yield and quality of the following watermelon genotypes: Crimson Glory, Jetstream, Madera, Rubi, Starbrite, Verona and Crimson Sweet. The trial was carried out in a randomized block with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of a crop row with five plants, spaced 2 m apart. The main crop parameters measured at harvest as a function of fruits weight and number were total yield; commercial and non-commercial yield, and total soluble solid contents (°Brix of all fruit classes. Total yield of Rubi and Jetstream hybrids were superior to the others and only Crimson Glory was significantly different. Rubi hybrid produced 87% of commercial fruits, the highest yield, and it was superior in 429% to Crimson Glory yield, which had the smallest yield. In general, hybrids presented higher commercial yield than Crimson Sweet variety. The Rubi hybrid produced 77% more commercial fruits and it provided 214% profit higher than the Crimson Sweet cv. The total soluble solid contents of the fruits were dependent on genotypes and fruit classes. Verona and Starbrite hybrids presented the sweetest pulp.

  19. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus.

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    Kwang-Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR, seed size (SS, and fruit shape (FS were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS, 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02, explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76. This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM. The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78. The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37 and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM. Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) may be imported into the United States from the Republic...

  1. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  2. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  3. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  4. Effects of Grafting Combinations on the Plant Growth and Fruit Quality in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)%不同嫁接组合对西瓜植株生长及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小军; 别之龙; 孙德玺; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 刘君璞

    2011-01-01

    采用优质中大果型西瓜品种中科1号为接穗,常规一段嫁接用抗生王、超丰F1、西嫁强生、京欣砧3号、野生西瓜1号、野生西瓜2号为砧木,二段嫁接采用西嫁强生作基砧、超丰F1作中间砧,研究了常规一段嫁接法与二段嫁接法对西瓜生长发育及果实品质的影响.结果表明,采用二段嫁接的西瓜植株生长势、抗枯萎病能力、单果质量、小区产量、中心可溶性固形物含量、瓜瓤果胶含量在所有嫁接组合中表现最佳,果实脆度与对照差异不显著.南瓜类砧木西嫁强生、京欣砧3号在生产上可大量推广,同时二段嫁接法具有一定的推广价值.%Two different grafting methods,one-stage(one rootstock + one scion)and two-stage(rootstock 1 + rootstock 1 + scion),were used to test the effects of grafting combinations on watermelon plant growth and fruit quality. Watermelon cultivar Zhongke No.l ,a high quality seeded watermelon with large fruit size,was the scion for all rootstock varieties and combination. For one-stage grafting, Kangshengwang, Chaofeng F1, Xijia Qiangsheng,Jingxinzhen No.3, Wild Watermelon No. 1 and Wild Watermelon No.2 were used as rootstocks. For two-stage grafting,Xijia Qiangsheng was used as the base rootstock and Chaofeng F1 was used as the inter-stock. The results showed that plant growth,disease resistance,fruit weight,yield,central sugar content,flesh pectin content of the two-stage grafted watermelon were the best among all grafting combinations. The flesh crispness of the two-stage grafted watermelon was not significantly different from other combinations tested. Interspecific squash rootstocks Xijia Qiangsheng and Jingxinzhen No.3 are recommended for watermelon grafting production,and two-stage grafting method has some value for watermelon production.

  5. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikau, Michael; Andala, Dickson M.; Masika, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96 ± 0.16 nm.

  6. Identification of citrullus lanatus germplasm lines tolerant to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for use in watermelon; however, crop tolerance is marginal and the recommended use rates (0.07 to 0.1 kg ai ha-1) are lower for watermelon than for some other crops. In a greenhouse germplasm evaluation experiment including 56 germplasm accessions and watermelon cu...

  7. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  8. Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained tremendous interest, and plants and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources for this process because of their rich content of bioactive metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced utilizing the aqueous extract of watermelon rind (WRA), an agricultural waste material under photo exposed condition at room temperature, and tested for their antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities. The synthesized AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance at 425nm with an average size of 109.97nm. The morphology and elemental composition was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) confirmed that the bioactive compounds from the WRA extract were involved in the synthesis and capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallite nature of the AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against five different foodborne bacteria with zones of inhibition 9.12-14.54mm in diameter. When AgNPs were mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin the mixture exhibited strong antibacterial synergistic activity. The AgNPs also exerted strong synergistic anticandidal activity when they were combined with amphotericin b. The AgNPs had high antioxidant activity and reducing power. Overall, the results confirmed the bio-potentials of the synthesized AgNPs using WRA, which could have applications in the biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food preservation and packaging industries.

  9. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2014-01-30

    In this present study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was applied to extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus Lanatus fruit rinds. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are microwave power (160-480 W), irradiation time (60-180s), pH (1-2) and solid-liquid ratio (1:10-1: 30 g/ml) and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the extraction yield of pectin. Optimum MAE conditions for the highest pectin yield from waste C. Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value.

  10. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T4 on Bacterial Community in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Rhizosphere Soil%生防菌哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum T4对西瓜根围土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 张于; 旭热; 王伟

    2013-01-01

      采用平板培养、末端限制性片段长度多态性(terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP)以及变性梯度凝胶电泳(denatured gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)的方法相结合探讨生防菌哈茨木霉 Trichoderma harzianum T4对大棚西瓜根围土壤细菌群落及氨氧化细菌群落的影响,为其在田间应用的生态安全性的评估提供支撑。末端限制性片段长度多态性以及变性梯度凝胶电泳的结果均表明哈茨木霉 T4施入田间约四周内对根围土壤细菌群落产生明显的影响,随后这种扰动现象逐渐减小。对 DGGE中受影响条带的测序结果表明,生防菌 T4促进了假单胞菌 Pseudomonas,芽孢杆菌 Bacillus,苍白杆菌Ochrobactrum 以及中慢生根瘤菌 Mesorhizobium 等细菌类群的生长,对短杆菌 Brevibacterium,克雷白氏肺炎杆菌 Klebsiella pneumoniae,根瘤菌 Rhizobium sp 等表现出抑制作用。生防菌 T4对根围土壤中氨氧化细菌群落并没有产生明显的影响。可见,生防菌木霉 T4引入初期对根围土壤中细菌群落产生明显的扰动,但这种干扰是短暂的,并没有对根围土壤细菌群落形成持续的影响。%The effects of biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum T4 on bacterial and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rhizosphere soil were studied using plate colony calculation, T-RFLP and DGGE method, in order to provide a theoretical basis and technique for assessing the microbial ecology risk of biocontrol agents application. Both T-RFLP and DGGE method demonstrated that T. harzianum T4 had short-term influence on rhizosphere soil bacterial communities which lasted about four weeks. Biocontrol strain T. harzianum T4 increased population of some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum and Mesorhizobium. Meanwhile population of other bacteria such as Brevibacterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae were

  11. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC finger printing analysis of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumam Varghese; R. Narmadha; D. Gomathi; M. Kalaiselvi; K. Devaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To find out the secondary metabolites present in the various extracts ofCitrullus lanatus(C. lanatus)(Thunb.) and mineral content present in the plant material.Methods:The powdered plant material was extracted using different solvents.Phytochemical screening and HPTLC fingerprinting analysis were then carried out.Result:The ethanolic seed extract of C. lanatusshowed the presence of majority of secondary metabolites when compared to other solvent system.The quantitative analysis of the plant material also revealed the presence of various amount of carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, proteins, fibre, phosphorus and irons. TheHPTLC fingerprinting analysis was carried for flavonid and phenolic compounds by using CAMAGLINOMAT5 instrument which revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compound especially quercetin in the ethanolic seed extract ofC. lanatus.Conclusions:The results scientifically validate the use ofC. lanatusin the traditional medicine and it can be used to treat various disorders caused by free radical and chemical substances due to presence of secondary metabolites.

  12. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

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    lalitha govindaraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt respectively. Consequently, the watermelon proved as a good source of antioxidant, could be used as a raw material in drug formulation.

  13. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okunrobo O Lucky; Uwaya O John; Imafidon E Kate; Osarumwense O Peter; Omorodion E Jude

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals;flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg). The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001). Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds ofCitrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  14. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长发育及产量的影响%Effects of Different Rootstock on the Yield and Development of Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常高正; 张慎璞; 杨红丽; 赵卫星; 徐小利; 李晓慧; 张四普; 杨帆

    2009-01-01

    研究了豫园砧木王(Citrullus lanatus var.citroides cv.Yuyuanzhenmu)、超丰F1(Lagenaria siceraria cv.Chaofeng F1)、新土佐(Cucurbita maxima xC.moschata,Sintozwa)3个西瓜砧木嫁接对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus)生长发育、根系的分布及产量的影响.结果表明,3种不同砧木西瓜嫁接苗与自根苗相比,根系发达,茎叶生长旺盛,且有增产作用.其中豫园砧木王和新土佐砧木的嫁接效果最好,其能明显增强嫁接苗的长势,可分别使西瓜增产21.4%和25.0%.因此,建议选择豫园砧木王和新土佐嫁接西瓜为好,以达到丰产的目的.%Effects of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides cv. Yuyuanzhenmu,Lagenaria siceraria cv. Chaofeng Fl and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) on the development,distinction of the roots and the yield of C. lanatus var. lanatus were studied. The results showed that,compared with non-grafted seedling,the roots and shoots of the grafted seedlings with three rootstocks developed faster,and the yield increased. Of the three rootstocks,the grafting effect of C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) was better. The growth vigor and yields of grafted seedlings increased by 21.4% and 25.0% respectively. So,to grain high production,C. lanatus var. citroides Yuyuanzhenmu and Sintozwa (Cucurbita maxima ×C. moschata) were recommended to be used as rootstocks of C. lanatus var. lanatus.

  15. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

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    Swapnil Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  16. Sources of wild germplasm to improve whitefly resistance in commercial watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex is well known as a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive number of plant species (over 1,000). Yet, th...

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most devastating watermelon diseases worldwide, Fusarium wilt, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). Spread of the particularly virulent Fon race 2 in the United States, coupled with the lack of resistance in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lan...

  18. Phytophthora fruit rot-resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR, and USVL020-PFR are watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) germplasm lines that exhibit high levels of resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Resistance in these germplasm lines is ...

  19. Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    lalitha govindaraj; Suseela vivek

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, isolation of lycopene of the Citrullus lanatusis fruits which were collected from the local market in around sulur area, India. The phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts revealed the presence of   bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoids in the extract. The isolation of lycopene were quantified by using column chromatography that depicted (lycopene - 68.0285 mg/k fresh wt) respe...

  20. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SAYYARI; Fardin GHANBARI; Sajad FATAHI; Fatemeh BAVANDPOUR

    2013-01-01

    Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus) by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA) was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the see...

  1. Seed germination and seedling growth of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Mansf. in relation to certain growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. BHANDARI

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cycocel, gibberellic acid and kinetin was investigated on the seed germination and seedling growth of C. lanatus. Cycocel favoured germination in total darkness and largely inhibited it in diffuse light. The growth of radicule and hypocotyl was promoted only in total darkness. Gibberellic acid accelerated the pace of germination in total darkness more than diffuse light in the firs 24 hours. The growth of the radicule as well as the hypocotyl was more in diffuse light, whereas only the radicule indicated an enhanced growth in total darkness in low concentration. The known influence of this chemical on the shoot elongation largely remained ineffective. In kinetin cent percent germination was obtained in total darkness which was not so in diffuse light , except for high concentration. It enhanced the pace of germination in total darkness in the first 24 hors. The seedling growth was promoted in diffuse light, while it was inhibited in total darkness. The increase in the size of the cotyledons took place only in diffuse light. It became apparent that kinetin and gibberellic acid could partly substitute the requirements of total darkness for seed germination in this species.

  2. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR and USVL020-PFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Phytophthora capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then...

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of polygalacturonase genes in Cucumis sativus and Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Wu, Jian; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG, EC3.2.1.15), one of the hydrolytic enzymes associated with the modification of pectin network in plant cell wall, has an important role in various cell-separation processes that are essential for plant development. PGs are encoded by a large gene family in plants. However, information on this gene family in plant development remains limited. In the present study, 53 and 62 putative members of the PG gene family in cucumber and watermelon genomes, respectively, were identified by genome-wide search to explore the composition, structure, and evolution of the PG family in Cucurbitaceae crops. The results showed that tandem duplication could be an important factor that contributes to the expansion of the PG genes in the two crops. The phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggested that PGs could be classified into seven clades, and that the exon/intron structures and intron phases were conserved within but divergent between clades. At least 24 ancestral PGs were detected in the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and Cucumis sativus. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most CsPGs exhibit specific or high expression pattern in one of the organs/tissues. The 16 CsPGs associated with fruit development could be divided into three subsets based on their specific expression patterns and the cis-elements of fruit-specific, endosperm/seed-specific, and ethylene-responsive exhibited in their promoter regions. Our comparative analysis provided some basic information on the PG gene family, which would be valuable for further functional analysis of the PG genes during plant development.

  4. Evapotranspiración del cultivo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus en la costa de Hermosillo, Sonora, México

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    Leonardo Román Román

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La sandía (Citrullus lanatus es una hortaliza que para su manejo demanda una mayor necesidad de agua; sin embargo no existen estudios que muestren las cantidades utilizadas de agua con cierta precisión y menos que utilicen técnicas como la covarianza de vórtices para medir la evapotranspiración (ET, debido al alto costo de la instrumentación. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la ET en sandía (Citrullus lanatus para una región árida en la Costa de Hermosillo Sonora (29° 00´ N y 111° 08´ O. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante los meses de agosto a Noviembre de 2014. Se utilizó la técnica de covarianza de vórtices para medir ET y se empleó la ecuación Penman-Monteith para determinar la evapotranspiración de referencia (ETo. El predio constaba de un sistema de riego por goteo, en el cual se aplicaron 166.1 mm de agua y tuvo una aportación por precipitación de 291.5 mm. La ET fue de 214.4 mm para todo el ciclo del cultivo, mientras que la ETo fue de 498.3 mm. Se observaron valores de Kc de 0.15, 0.65 y 0.35 para etapa inicial, intermedia y final del cultivo respectivamente.

  5. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

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    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  6. Genotype Main Effect and Genotype x Environment (GGE Bi-Plot Model of Multi-Environmental Trial of Melon (Citrullus lanatus

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    O.O. Olaniyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of yield data of eighteen accessions of "egusi" melon across four environments was determined. Genotype main effects and genotype x environment interaction (GGE biplot method has been described as a very efficient tool for the analyses of multi-environment yield trial of crop varieties, especially where there exists a genotype x environment interaction. Thus, eighteen accessions of “egusi” melon (Citrullus lanatus were evaluated in four environments in Southwest Nigeria. Strong genotype x environment interaction was confirmed. Among the accessions, DL99/75, DL 99/76 and DD98/506 performed best in Abeokuta 2 environment while L1, DD98/4, DD98/3, 131DA and L4 performed best in Abeokuta 1, Ilaro 1 and Ilaro 2. Accession DD98/550, DD98/7, DD98/533, DD98/511, DD95/549, L3, DL99/71, V2, L2 and L6 did not perform well in all the environments. GGE biplot also ranked the accessions in their order of greater value. Accession DL99/75 was ranked first followed by DD98/506 and the least performed accession was DD98/511.

  7. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

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    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  8. Assesing the Efficacy of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Some Botanicals for Control of Field Insects of Watermelon (Citrillus lanatus In Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

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    E. Ndor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season to assess the efficacy of leaf extract of some botanicals for production of watermelon (Citrillus lanatus in Southern Guinea Savanna Nigeria. The treatments consisted of leaf extracts from 3 botanicals: Bush tea (Hyptis suaveolens, Moringa (Moringa oleifera and Pawpaw (Carica papaya and one synthetic insecticide Labdacyalothrin (karate. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated 3 times to form fifteen plots. The results showed that, there was significant effect among the different botanicals used on all the parameters assessed except on the vinelength of watermelon, at various stages of growth in both years. Application of leaf extract of pawpaw gave better performance in all the parameters assessed when compared to the other botanicals in both years. Application of karate produced the best results in both years; while poor result were obtained from the control plots. Application of pawpaw leaf extract conferred high protection on the fruit when compared to other botanicals, which is statistically similar with result of karate in both 2009 and 2010 cropping season. Pawpaw leaf extracts appears to be a better botanical option in watermelon production.

  9. Effects of Watermelon Seed Extract (Citrullus Vulgaris on Spermatogenesis in Rat

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    Mohammad Nouri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrullus vulgaris is an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidative stress. Worldwide studies have been done in order to use as herbal medicine in different fields of medicine. Based on ancient Persians traditional books use of herbal medicine has positive effect on treatment of different diseases. Previous studies confirmed antioxidants have significant effect on infertility by their role on reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to see effect of this herb on spermatogenesis.Material and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=20 were allocated into two groups, control group (n=10 and citrullus vulgaris (C.V group (n=10 that received 55mg.kg-1.day-1 C.V by gavage method for 4 weeks; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 28th day, testicle tissues were collected then prepared for sperm analysis.Results: sperm parameters significantly increased in experimental group in comparison to control group (PConclusion: Since in our study 55mg.kg-1 (C.V has significantly increased sperm population, motility and viability,it seems that using it in infertile patients has beneficial effects.

  10. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra JK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea Abstract: Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones. ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%, nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%, ABTS scavenging (29.42%, and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16% could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a

  11. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  12. 西瓜和黄瓜乙烯受体ETR1基因片段的克隆与序列比较分析%Cloning and Sequence of ETR1 Gene from Citrullus lanatus and Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹迪; 许勇; 郭绍贵; 赵越; 宫国义; 张海英

    2009-01-01

    乙烯受体基因ETR1是乙烯信号转导过程中的关键调控基因.研究根据ETR1基因的保守序列设计引物,以西瓜(Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nadai var.lanatus)和黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的基因组DNA为模板进行PCR扩增,获得序列长度分别为1 633 bp和1 491 bp的基因片段CLETR1和CSETR1.序列分析表明,CLETR1和CSETR1与Genebank中收录的多条ETR1基因的核苷酸序列同源性在80%~98%,氨基酸序列同源性在75%~98%.西瓜和黄瓜ETR1基因片段的编码序列存在明显的单核苷酸变异,共23个核苷酸位点存在SNPs(Single nucleotide polymorphisms),其中5个SNPs导致4个编码氨基酸的改变.%ETR1 was the controlling gene in ethylene signal transduction. A pair of oligo nucleotide primers were de-signed from conserved domain of ETR1 gene family. PCR amplifications were performed on genomic DNA template of Cit-rullus lanatus (Thunb. ) Matsum & Nadai var. lanatus and Cucumis sativus L., they produced two fragments of 1 633 bp and 1 491 bp,named CLETR1 and CSETR1 respectively.The results of Blastn on NCBI Genebank database indicated that many highly matched homologous nucleic acid sequences and amino acid sequences were all ethylene receptor gene, the ratio were 80% -95% and 75% -90% respectively. The single nucleotide variations were found in the conserved sequences between CLETR1 and CSETR1,there were 23 SNPs(single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the encoding region, and 5 of them resulted 4 amino acids difference.

  13. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

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    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  14. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

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    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  15. Caracterización de compuestos volátiles durante el secado por aspersión de jugo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus ThunB.)

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Manuel González Sánchez; Salvador González Palomares; Tábata Rosales Reyes

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maltodextrina y goma arábiga en la retención de compuestos volátiles durante el secado por aspersión de jugo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). Se utilizó sandía de la variedad Alena. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos de encapsulantes, T1: 0.5% p/p de maltodextrina, T2: 0.5% p/p de goma arábiga y T3: 0.5% de una mezcla de maltodextrina DE-10 y goma arábiga (1:1) p/p. Las condiciones del secado fueron constantes: flujo de alimentación del 15%...

  16. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pulp Buah Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) Untuk Pembuatan Nata De Watermelon Pulp Dengan Menggunakan Bakteri Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah

    2011-01-01

    This research done to know can or not the waste of watermelon pulp use to produce nata and how the effect of mass variation using to nata’s quality. This research was done with mass variation of watermelon pulp that is 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g, 50 g, 60 g, and watermelon pulp without adding sugar as control. Statistical analysis count the thickness, water content, ash content, fiber content and organoleptic test of texture, color, aroma, and taste of nata de watermelon pulp. The result show...

  17. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: another example of museomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-01-01

    Type specimens are permanently preserved biological specimens that fix the usage of species names. This method became widespread from 1935 onwards and is now obligatory. We used DNA sequencing of types and more recent collections of wild and cultivated melons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Citrullus and the correct names for its species. We discovered that the type specimen of the name Citrullus lanatus, prepared by a Linnaean collector in South Africa in 1773, is not the species now thought of as watermelon. Instead, it is a representative of another species that is sister to C. ecirrhosus, a tendril-less South African endemic. The closest relative of the watermelon instead is a West African species. Our nuclear and plastid data furthermore reveal that there are seven species of Citrullus, not four as assumed. Our study implies that sweet watermelon originates from West, not southern Africa as previously believed, and that the South African citron melon has been independently domesticated. These findings affect and explain numerous studies on the origin of these two crops that led to contradictory results because of the erroneous merging of several distinct species.

  18. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-mediated Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩波; 高秀武; 郭金华; 黄群策; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 ℃ for 5 hours. By twogenerations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  19. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  20. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis transcriptome during water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R; McElroy, J Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

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    Shaogui Guo

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our

  2. EVALUATION OF THE REACTION OF WATERMELON PARENT AND F1 PLANTS TO Meloidogyne enterolobii

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    LÉIA SANTOS DAMACENO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of progenies from Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (cultivated watermelons when crossed with progenies from C. lanatus var. citroides (fodder watermelon with a historic of resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii. The parents and their F1s were evaluated for resistance to this nematode. In the initial stages of eleven treatments, watermelon seedlings plantlets were transplanted to plastic bags of six kilograms once the first leaves developed. Ten inoculated plants with 5,200 eggs in the soil near the stem of the plant and four non-inoculated ones were used in each treatment, in a complete block design. Sixty-two days after sowing, the following characteristics were evaluated: the length of the aerial part of the plant (LAP, in m, fresh mass of the aerial part (FMAP, in g, root fresh mass (RFM, in g, egg number (EN and reproduction factor (RF. A comparison between the averages of inoculated and non-inoculated plants was performed using Scott-Knott test at 5% and the diallelic analysis was performed using the GENES program. The morphological characteristics did not allow for the identification of the parent plants or the F1s with respect to nematode resistance, but the variables EN and RF were useful for such identification. The analyses of the general and specific combining abilities indicate highly significant effects with respect to this resistance, showing additive gene effects as well as dominance and epistatic gene effects, allowing for identification of parents and F1s that can be used in watermelon breeding programs to improve resistance to the M. enterolobii.

  3. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  4. A poliploidia artificial na obtenção de melancia sem sementes Artificial polyploidy in the production of seedless watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1958-01-01

    tetraplóides.Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. are in general provided with numerous seeds: large in the "American" varieties and small in the "Japanese" varieties. Triploids (2n=33 of the "Japanese" varieties are already under cultivation by American farmers who import the hybrid seeds from Japan and seedless fruits are being produced in ever increasing amounts. In Brazil the Japanese diploid (2n=22 varieties are only of recent introduction; among the American varieties (2n=22, "Keckley Sweet" is one of the best known and preferred for its good taste. For the obtention of seedless watermelons it seemed advisable to start the work with such a variety because of its commercial significance. The first step was the obtention of tetraploids (2n=44; the adopted method consisted in the treatment of germinating seeds in an aqueous colchicine solution; best results were achieved using an 0.1% solution for 8 to 12 hours. The tetraploids are of more stunted growth, with larger leaves and flowers; the fruits are smaller, round and few-seeded. In attempting to cross tetraploids with diploids, successfull results were obtained when ♀ 4n flowers were pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. Triploid (2n=33 plants, obtained from hybrid seeds, were completely male sterile but set fruits when pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. The triploid plants are somewhat intermediate between di- and tetraploids as to the size of leaves and growth habit; the fruits are less elongated than in the diploids and not round as in the tetraploids. Some fruits are seedless, i.e. with aborted seeds that can be eaten together with the pulp; others show from few to many empty seeds which are flacid, but not quite fit to be eaten. Comparative studies have been made of pollen, stomata and seeds of 2n, 3n and 4n plants. Studies are in progress to solve some problems encountered in the mass production and germination of tetraploid and triploid seed; up to now they are handicaps to the commercial

  5. 黄瓜、西瓜和南瓜EIN3基因片段的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence of EIN3 Gene from Cucumis sativus, Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠明; 卢向阳; 许亮; 许勇; 张海英; 刘晓虹

    2007-01-01

    EIN3(ethylene insensitive 3)位于细胞核的核蛋白,为乙烯信号转导的下游调控基因,根据GenBank植物EIN3基因家族的保守序列设计了1对引物,以黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)和南瓜(Cucurbita maxima)总DNA为模板PCR扩增到3个725 bp的基因片段CsEIN3、ClEIN3和CmEIN3,并提交GenBank,登录号分别为AY973275、DQ023225和DQ023224.将片段序列在NCBI数据库中Blastn同源搜寻,显示151条有同源性的序列全部是EIN3基因.NCBI网站的ORF(open reading frame)Finder找到正确的开放式阅读框,翻译成为氨基酸序列,对CsEIN3、ClEIN3及CmEIN3氨基酸序列在NCBI网站进行Blastp比对,在大分子结构数据库(molecular modelling database,MMDB)搜索,3个推测蛋白保守结构域三级结构与拟南芥EIN3的DNA结合域(MMDB:30598;PDB:1WIJ)完全相同,系统进化分析表明,黄瓜、西瓜和南瓜与双子叶植物甜瓜、绿豆、蒺藜状苜蓿、烟草、番茄、拟南芥及单子叶水稻、桃红蝴蝶兰等的EIN3家族成员都有较高的相似性.

  6. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  7. Serological Identification of Virus in Watermelon Production Fields in the Tocantins State

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    Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in almost all tropical and subtropical regions of the world, has its largest output in China, and then, according to FAO data, Turkey, Iran and Brazil, being one of the main crops cultivated in State of Tocantins, Brazil. In this work was investigated the occurrence and distribution of the watermelon viruses, totaling 752 samples taken in a stratified experimental design in four representative regions of production: Gurupi (150, Lagoa da Confusao (232, Formoso do Araguaia (265 and Porto Nacional (105. The sampling and collecting the leaves of plants with the presence of symptoms were performed once a week during the entire cultivation cycle. As a result, were observed by Dot-ELISA method, different types of viruses, such as Papaya ringspot W (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (potyvirus, Cucumber mosaic virus ( CMV (Cucumovirus and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV (Tospovirus. Of these, PRSV-W was predominant (22%, followed by WMV (15%, ZLCV (11%, CMV (5% and ZYMV (4%. Mixed infections with PRSV-W + WMV and PRSV-W + ZLCV were also observed around 20% frequency (expressed with symptoms differently from a single infection. The results provide important support for the program management viruses.

  8. Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

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    Fekete D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.. The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C* showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

  9. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

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    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  10. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  11. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  12. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of conserved and novel microRNAs in grafted watermelon by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and

  13. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants. PMID:27749935

  14. High-Throughput microRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals that microRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus Lanatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs. We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  15. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress.

  16. Citrullus Germplasm Lines Vary in Clomazone Herbicide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences between Citrullus germplasm lines in clomazone injury were first observed when the herbicide was used for weed control in fields containing germplasm lines of watermelon breeding project at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. The objectives of this investigation were to asses...

  17. Proteomic study participating the enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Wang, Liping; Tian, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin; He, Lizhong; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    An insertion grafting technique to do research on salt tolerance was applied using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf. cv. Xiuli) as a scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. cv. Chaofeng Kangshengwang) as a rootstock. Rootstock-grafting significantly relieved the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis induced by salt stress in watermelon plants. Proteomic analysis revealed 40 different expressed proteins in response to rootstock-grafting and/or salt stress. These proteins were involved in Calvin cycle, amino acids biosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS defense, hormonal biosynthesis and signal transduction. Most of these proteins were up-regulated by rootstock-grafting and/or susceptible to salt stress. The enhancement of the metabolic activities of Calvin cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, carotenoids and peroxisomes, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in rootstock-grafted seedlings under condition without salt. The accumulation of key enzymes included in these biological processes described above seems to play an important role in the enhancement of salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Furthermore, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase and phospholipase may be involved in transmitting the internal and external stimuli induced by grafting and/or salt stress.

  18. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  19. AFLP Fingerprint and SCAR Marker of Watermelon Core Collection%西瓜核心种质的AFLP指纹图谱和SCAR标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车克鹏; 许勇; 梁春阳; 宫国义; 翁曼丽; 张海英; 金德敏; 王斌

    2003-01-01

    西瓜(Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.)种质资源的鉴定与评价是对其有效利用的基础.以往的研究表明, 西瓜是一种遗传资源特别狭窄的作物,在用同工酶、RAPD及SSR技术对西瓜种质资源进行鉴定时,发现很难将品种完全区分开来.本研究利用高效可靠的AFLP技术,对30个西瓜核心种质材料进行了遗传分析,最终建立了这30个材料的DNA指纹图谱.在该图谱中,每个材料均有其独特的"指纹",材料之间可以相互区分开来.为了进一步利用AFLP分子标记,将重要抗病种质材料"PI296341"的AFLP特异带转化成了生产上可以直接利用的SCAR标记.%The identification of germplasm is an important step for effective utilization of the available germplasm. In previous studies, isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR techniques had been used to conduct the genetic identification of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.), but their effectiveness was limited due to the extremely narrow genetic background among watermelon genotypes. In this research, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), which was reported as a reliable technique with high efficiency in detecting polymorphism, was used to conduct genetic analysis and variety identification of thirty genotypes of watermelon core collection that represent a wide range of breeding and commercially available germplasm. As a result, a DNA fingerprint based on 15 bands amplified with four primer combinations was developed. In this fingerprint, each genotype has its unique fingerprint pattern and can be distinguished from each other. Furthermore, in order to facilitate the utilization of AFLP marker in practice, one specific AFLP band of genotype "PI296341" coming from fragment amplified by primer combination E-AT/M-CAT was successfully converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker.

  20. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

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    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  1. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  2. 西瓜番茄红素测定方法的研究%Measurement of Lycopene Contents in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平丽; 路绪强; 刘文革; 赵胜杰; 芦金生; 阎志红; 何楠; 关立颖; 朱红菊

    2012-01-01

    西瓜果实中番茄红素含量很高,对人体保健和疾病的预防有着重要的意义.以同基因型不同倍性的西瓜果实为材料,分别用HPLC(高效液相色谱法)和分光光度法测定其中番茄红素的含量并进行比较,确定简便准确测定西瓜番茄红素的方法.结果认为:HPLC法用甲醇-乙腈-二氯甲烷(20∶75∶5)为流动相,502 nm为检测波长能较好的对西瓜样品中番茄红素做定性定量分析;分光光度法测得的番茄红素含量平均是HPLC法的1.45倍,2种方法结果基本一致,均可对不同品种间番茄红素含量高低进行比较;另外试验结果显示多倍体西瓜番茄红素的含量要高于二倍体.%Watermelon(Citrullus lanatus )is one of the few species that accumulate a large amount of lycopene in fruits with health-benefits to human. The contents of lycopene in different ploidy watermelon fruits were determined by HPLC and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods to develop an accurate and convenient method for watermelon lycopene content measurement. The HPLC method was simple and accurate with the mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile:dichloromethane at ratio of 20 : 75 : 5 and detected at 502 nm. The amount of lycopene measured by U. V. visible spectrophotomelric method was 1.45 times of that by HPLC. Both methods can be used to compare lycopene content in different watermelon cultivars. In addition, our results indicated that polyploidy watermelons have much more lycopene than diploid one.

  3. Effects of gibberellic Acid and gold light on germination, enzyme activities, and amino Acid pool size in a dwarf strain of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, K B; Loy, J B

    1978-07-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA(3)) promotes and continuous gold light inhibits germination of seeds of a dwarf strain (WB-2) of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsu. and Nakai]. Osmotic inhibition of germination with mannitol in light-grown seeds of WB-2 was only slightly reversed by GA(3) at the concentrations used, whereas, GA(3) substantially relieved osmotic inhibition in dark-grown seeds.The effects of GA(3) and gold light on development of catalase and invertase activities and on levels of free amino acids in germinating seeds of WB-2 were examined. Light depressed development of catalase and invertase activity. Levels of free amino acids increased more slowly in embryonic axes of light- than dark-incubated seeds, but in cotyledons higher levels of amino acids were maintained in light-grown seeds. GA(3) accelerated the development of catalase activity in whole embryos and invertase activity in embryonic axes, but did not significantly affect invertase activity in cotyledons during germination. GA(3) had little effect on amino acid pools in cotyledons and embryonic axes.

  4. Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, I.J. van der; Faber, K.N.; Keizer-Gunnink, I.; Gietl, C.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector downstr

  5. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  6. Níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira em dietas para ovinos Levels of forage watermelon meal in diets for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luiz Nunes Vaz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a inclusão de 20, 35, 50, 65 ou 80% de farelo de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus cv. citroides (FMF em dietas à base de feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, foi realizado um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 20 cordeiros com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo de 11,2 ± 1,2 kg. O experimento constou de 20 dias de adaptação e 5 de coleta total de sobras e de fezes. O farelo de melancia forrageira e o feno de guandu apresentaram 95,3 e 95,75% de matéria seca (MS, 18,7 e 16,8% de proteína bruta (PB e 38,8 e 64,3% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira determinaram aumento quadrático nos consumos de MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA, hemicelulose e carboidratos totais. O consumo de extrato etéreo não foi alterado, mas o consumo de CNF teve aumento linear conforme aumentaram os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS (58%, PB (69%, FDN (41% e EE (85% não foram influenciados pelo nível de farelo de melancia forrageira. As digestibilidades de MO (54 a 62%, FDA (36 a 49% e carboidratos totais (47 a 58% variaram linear e positivamente, enquanto a digestibilidade da hemicelulose teve comportamento inverso. As dietas proporcionaram consumo de matéria seca que atendeu a exigência dos animais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade observados foram satisfatórios. O farelo de melancia forrageira pode ser indicado para compor dietas à base de feno de guandu em níveis de 35 a 66% da matéria seca.In order to study the inclusion of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides meal (FWM in pigeon pea hay based diets (Cajanus cajan (PPH, a digestibility trial in sheep was carried out for testing five levels of FWM (20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%. Twenty lambs with an average age of six months and live weight of 11.2 kg (± 1.2 were used. The experimental period was twenty days for adaptation and five days for total refuses and feces collection. The chemical

  7. Effect of nitrogen doses on disease severity and watermelon yield Influência de doses de nitrogênio na severidade de doenças e na produtividade da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de

  8. Effects of Different Storage Factors on Pollen Viability of Watermelon Variety‘Zaojia’%不同保存因子对早佳西瓜花粉活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燚; 杨瑜斌; 王驰; 杨景华; 张明方

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied watermelon〔Citrullus lanatus(Thunb.)Matsum. et Nakai〕pollen cryopreservation methods and pollination technique.The result indicated that pollens of ‘Zaojia’ water-melon can be stored at -18 ℃ or -25 ℃under vacuum condition for 186 to 223 days with over 50% ac-tivity. Pollen activity can be varied under different storage conditions,of which -25 ℃ can have longer storage time than -18 ℃,and the pollen vitality is higher.The stored pollens should be activated at 25 ℃ for 30 min before usage,so as to achieve higher fruit setting rate.The application of stored pollen will not influence the quality of watermelon.%研究了西瓜花粉低温保存及授粉技术,结果表明:早佳西瓜花粉在-18℃或-25℃的温度下,真空保存186~223 d仍有50%以上的活力。花粉活力因花粉保存条件不同有较大差异,-25℃比-18℃保存的时间长、活力高。保存花粉使用前应在25℃条件下放置30 min激活活力,以取得较高的坐果率。使用保存花粉授粉不影响西瓜品质。

  9. In vitro organogenesis in watermelon cotyledons Organogênese in vitro em cotilédones de melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziela Zagatto Krug

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in vitro organogenesis of Citrullus lanatus, by the induction of adventitious buds in cotyledon segments cultured in medium supplemented with cytokinin. Explants were collected from one, three and five-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings, considering the distal and proximal cotyledon regions. The data obtained showed that in vitro organogenesis of watermelon occurred with higher efficiency, when cotyledon segments from the proximal region collected from three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in medium MS, supplemented with BAP (1 mg L-1 and coconut water (10%. The histological study showed that the organogenesis occurs directly, without callus formation, on epidermal and subepidermal layers of the explants. Adventitious shoots were characterized by the development of shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. The formation of protuberances, that do not develop into adventitious buds, was also observed.O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a organogênese in vitro de C. lanatus, pela indução de gemas adventícias, em segmentos de cotilédones, cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com citocinina. Os explantes consistiram de segmentos das regiões distal e proximal de cotilédones, coletados de plantas germinadas in vitro com um, três e cinco dias de idade. Os dados obtidos mostram que a organogênese de melancia, in vitro, ocorre com maior eficiência em segmentos da região proximal dos cotilédones, coletados de plântulas com três dias de idade e cultivados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com a combinação BAP (1 mg L-1 e água de coco (10%. Pelo estudo histológico, verificou-se que a organogênese ocorre diretamente, sem a formação de calo, na epiderme e subepiderme do explante. As gemas adventícias foram caracterizadas pela presença de meristema apical e primórdios foliares. Observou-se, também, o desenvolvimento de protuberâncias que não se desenvolvem em gemas adventícias.

  10. Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli 危害新寄主籽瓜和病菌的快速检测%Edible Seed Watermelon as a New Host of Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli and Rapid Detection of this Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毓忠; 李国英; 李晖; 孙岚春

    2007-01-01

    Through observation of field symptoms,identification of the isolated bacterial strains based on biological characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests including Gram reaction,catalase,oxidase and oxygen requirement test,and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection,Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli was first reported infecting edible seed watermelon (citrullus lanatus var.Lanatus) in Xinjiang province of China.This pathogen mainly infected fruit and cotyledon of edible seed watermelon,especially causing spots with black and star-shaped cracks in fruit.To control this disease,rapid detection method of A.avenae subsp.Citrulli in plant seed was studied.It was shown that pecific primer PCR could detect the pathogen in seed rapidly and sensitively.Seed suspension could be directly used as PCR template when seed infection was more than 4%. When extracted DNA from seed suspension was used as template,target pathogen could be easily detected with seed infection at or less 2%.%根据病原菌的生物学特性、生理生化特性包括革兰氏染色反应、氧化酶反应、过氧化氢酶反应、氧需求等和特异性PCR扩增结果,以及病原菌危害造成的田间症状,发现燕麦嗜酸菌属西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli)可在新寄主-籽瓜上造成严重危害.该病菌在田间主要侵染籽瓜的果实和子叶,症状在果实上尤为明显,形成黑色的星状开裂.为了控制该病的发生,对种子携带病原菌的快速检测方法进行了研究.结果表明,特异性PCR作为检测种传病原菌具有快速、准确和灵敏的特点.当种子浸出液为PCR反应的模板时,可检测出的种子带菌率极限最低为4%;当以种子浸出液提取的DNA为模板时,种子带菌率检测极限为2%甚至更低.

  11. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  12. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  13. Herança da resistência a Watermelon mosaic virus em melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Maria da Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as doenças que ocorrem na cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus, a virose ocasionada por Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV se destaca entre as principais, sendo a resistência genética a forma mais indicada de controle. Dessa forma, é importante o conhecimento do controle genético da resistência que se pretende trabalhar. Objetivando estudar a herança da resistência ao WMV em melancia, foram realizados cruzamentos entre o cultivar Crimson Sweet (CS suscetível e a linha L26 resistente. Populações segregantes e não segregantes obtidas dos cruzamentos foram inoculadas com um isolado de WMV e avaliadas quanto ao aparecimento de sintomas e à presença do vírus por testes de ELISA indireto contra antissoro específico para WMV. A hipótese de herança monogênica foi avaliada em diferentes graus médios de dominância e pelo método da máxima verossimilhança. Foram obtidas variâncias genética (σ²G, ambiental (σ²E, fenotípica (σ²F2, aditiva (σ²A e de dominância (σ²D, herdabilidades nos sentidos amplo (h²a e restrito (h²r. A herança monogênica foi rejeitada. O grau médio de dominância indicou efeito de dominância completa. As herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram baixas; portanto, constatou-se que o controle da resistência a WMV nas populações de melancia estudadas é do tipo oligogênica, com presença de efeitos aditivos e não aditivos e presença de genes maiores e poligenes.

  14. PRÉ-MELHORAMENTO DE UMA POPULAÇÃO DE MELANCIA COM SISTEMA MISTO DE REPRODUÇÃO PRE-IMPROVEMENT OF A WATERMELON POPULATION WITH A MIXED REPRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Duarte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A melancia, introduzida na região Nordeste do Brasil durante a escravatura, apresenta grande variabilidade genética, sendo importante o emprego de seu germoplasma em programas de pré-melhoramento. Este trabalho visou promover o prémelhoramento de uma população, sintetizada pelo cruzamento entre um acesso coletado no Nordeste e uma variedade comercial. As progênies, obtidas de polinização livre e de autofecundação, foram avaliadas no campo com respeito à: produção e número de frutos por planta; peso, diâmetro longitudinal, diâmetro transversal e formato de fruto; espessura, cor e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa; número e peso de cem sementes. O potencial da população em produzir linhagens promissoras foi avaliado conforme o grau de depressão endogâmica e a resposta para os caracteres produção de frutos por planta, cor e teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa. A maioria das progênies foi superior às testemunhas para os caracteres relacionados à produção de frutos. Em média, a depressão endogâmica não foi drástica, contudo em algumas progênies obteve-se um efeito equivalente ao que ocorre em populações de espécies estritamente alógamas. Em 9,4% das progênies de polinização livre, a produção de frutos por planta, o teor de sólidos solúveis e a cor da polpa, foram superiores à média da população.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Citrullus lanatus; germoplasma; depressão endogâmica; cor da polpa; teor de açúcar.

    The watermelon introduced in the Northeast of Brazil during the slavery period, presents great genetic variability. This germplasm is important in pre-breeding programs. This work aimed to perform pre-breeding work in a population synthesized by crossing an accession collected access in the Northeast of Brazil and a commercial variety

  15. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  16. Taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho agronômico de melancia sob enxertia Grafted watermelon survival rate and agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Natália C de S Gama

    2013-03-01

    those obtained with conventional farming. This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate and the agronomic and quality performance of BRS Opara grafted by approach in four genotypes of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata: BGC 186, BGC 217, BGC 830 and BGC 830.1; and in two genotypes of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus variety citroides: BGCIA 223 and BGCIA 857. We quantified the survival rate, in a greenhouse, under a completely randomized design; the grafted and non-grafted productivity and the fruits were characterized by the following parameters: fruit shape, internal and external color, fresh weight, pulp firmness, center pulp soluble solids and pulp homogenized, titratable acidity, ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity and pH. To evaluate agronomic and qualitative fruit parameters we adopted the randomized block design with four replicates of five plants. The survival rate of grafted seedlings, after weaning, varied depending on the rootstock. Compared to the performance of the control (23.5 t ha-1, there was an average increase of 66.5% in the productivity of plants grafted on BGCIA 223, BGC 830, BGC 217 and BGCIA 857. For the 'BRS Opara', initially these rootstocks may be recommended, for they have determined increased productivity without affecting fruit quality.

  17. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  18. Growth and Yield Response of Watermelon to in-row Plant Spacings and Mycorrhiza Respuesta del Crecimiento Vegetativo y Producción de Sandía a Diferentes Distancias entre Plantas y a Micorrizas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Ban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a significant increase in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai growing areas has been registered in the last few years. In-row plant spacing has a significant effect on the growth and yield of watermelon, and can enhance competition for water and nutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in-row plant spacing (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi Glomus mosseae inoculations on watermelon growth and yield under field conditions during 2003, 2004, and 2005 year. In 2003, the main vine length, number of leaves, and number of lateral branches were increased quadratically as the in-row plant spacing increased from 1.0 to 2.5. With an increase in the in-row plant spacing the early yield of watermelon decreased in 2004, while the fruit number decreased in 2003 and 2004. The total yield and fruit number decreased with an increase in the in-row plant spacing in all 3 yr; however, the fruit mass increased at wider plant spacings in 2003. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the main vine length and the number of lateral branches in 2003. Compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal plants presented higher early yield in 2005 and a higher early fruit number in 2003 and 2005. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total yield in 2005; however, the fruit weight was not affected by mycorrhizal inoculation during early or total harvest. In this study, an in-row plant spacing of 1.0 m provided the best early and total yield while maintaining high fruit weight. The growth and yield enhancement of watermelon due to mycorrhizal colonization was not consistent; therefore, mycorrhizal inoculation could not be recommended as a standard production practice.En los últimos años se ha registrado un significativo aumento en las áreas cultivadas con sandía (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai a nivel mundial. La distancia entre plantas en la hilera tiene un efecto significativo en su

  19. 11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂在西瓜根区土壤的释放分布及在西瓜中的残留量分析%Release and distribution of 11 . 1% imidacloprid in root zone of watermelon field soil with applicaton of sustained release tablet formulation and its residue in watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓静; 吴迪; 周春江; 恽友兰; 李松林; 田晓莉

    2014-01-01

    为了评价11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果和安全性,于2012-2013年通过田间试验于西瓜移栽时施药,研究了11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果,及其在瓜秧、果实和土壤中的残留量。结果表明:西瓜苗移栽时将11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂(吡虫啉有效成分0.08 g/株)施入其根部下方,施药后42 d对西瓜蚜虫的防治效果为83.3%,基本可满足全生育期防治的需要。2012和2013年,11.1%吡虫啉缓释片剂在西瓜采收期(药后/移栽后60 d)的累积释放率分别为15%和32%。与吡虫啉原药处理相比,片剂中的吡虫啉在土壤中的迁移范围较小,药后30 d,施药点下方10 cm外、水平方向6 cm外的吡虫啉残留量低于0.2 mg/kg。此外,施药点下方2~4 cm处、水平方向2~4 cm处土壤中吡虫啉的残留动态基本呈单峰曲线变化,峰值均出现在药后30 d,分别为1.91和0.10 mg/kg;药后120 d 分别为0.17和0.03 mg/kg。基部瓜秧中(2012年:0~30 cm;2013年:1~3节)吡虫啉的含量于药后14 d检出,其余时期均未检出;2年试验中,西瓜果实中的吡虫啉残留量均低于最低检测浓度(LOQ)0.05 mg/kg,也低于食品法典委员会( CAC)规定的西瓜中最大残留限量( MRL)0.2 mg/kg。%In order to evaluate the control effect of 11. 1% sustained release tablet ( SRT ) of imidacloprid on melon aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover ) in watermelon and its application safety to watermelon and environment, the experiments were conducted in open field during growing season of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) at Beijing in 2012 -2013 . The 11. 1% sustained release tablets of imidacloprid ( equivalent to 0. 08 g imidacloprid per plant) were applied under the roots of watermelon seedlings while transplanting. The results indicated that the control effect of imidacloprid SRT on melon aphid basically covered the whole growing season ( 60 d ) of watermelon

  20. Geographic variation in Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fonseca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the geographic variations in the shape and size of the cranium and mandible of two woolly opossums, Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus. Using geometric morphometrics we analyzed 202 specimens of C. derbianus and 123 specimens of C. lanatus, grouped in 7 and 9 populations, respectively. We found sexual dimorphism in shape variables only in the dorsal view of the cranium of Caluromys derbianus, which is not associated with geographical origin. We detected geographic variation in the size of the mandible in two populations (Nicaragua and Northern Panama, but no geographic variation in shape. The size of the cranium of C. lanatus varies significantly, with clinal variation in peri-Amazon populations, with a break between two populations, Bolivia and Paraguay. Shape analyses also revealed some separation between the Paraná population and all other populations. Our results suggest that the available name, Caluromys derbianus, should be maintained for all individuals throughout the geographic range of the species. The same is true for Caluromys lanatus, which can be separated into two distinct morphologic units, Caluromys lanatus ochropus, from the Amazon and Cerrado, and Caluromys lanatus lanatus, from the Atlantic forest.

  1. Geographic variation in Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Fonseca; Diego Astúa

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the geographic variations in the shape and size of the cranium and mandible of two woolly opossums, Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus. Using geometric morphometrics we analyzed 202 specimens of C. derbianus and 123 specimens of C. lanatus, grouped in 7 and 9 populations, respectively. We found sexual dimorphism in shape variables only in the dorsal view of the cranium of Caluromys derbianus, which is not associated with geographical origin. We detected geographic variation...

  2. Story: A Bleeding Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor bzang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bleeding Watermelon was written by Norsang (Nor bzang;b. 1988, a native of Dpa ris (Rab rgyas (Huazangsi 华藏寺 Township, Tianzhu 天祝 Tibetan Autonomous County,Gansu 甘肃 Province. Norsang writes: I heard that a university student opened an elevator door in a campus building still under construction. The elevator shaft was empty and he fell to his death. Many people had questions about his death. This inspired me to write this story.

  3. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  4. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  5. Energy use and economical analysis of seedy watermelon production for different irrigation systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource and energy use efficiency is one of the principal requirements of eco-efficient and sustainable agriculture. Seedy watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris; Joboni population is irrigated by two methods including full and reduced irrigation systems in Iran. The objective of the present study was to compare seedy watermelon production in full (high input and reduced (low input irrigation systems in terms of irrigation water energy use efficiency (IWEUE, energy budget and economic analysis. Data were collected from 116 full irrigated and 93 reduced irrigated farms in northeast of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in 2011–2012. The results showed that the total energy consumed under high input systems was 25625.94 MJ ha−1, whereas under low input was 3129.3 MJ ha−1. IWEUE and all of the energy indexes were improved in the reduced irrigation system compared to the full condition. The direct and renewable energies in the reduced irrigation system were higher than full irrigation. The economical analysis indicated that higher return was gained by the full irrigation system due to higher yield compared to the reduced irrigation system. Human labor had the highest impact on seedy watermelon among the other inputs based on the Cobb–Douglas production function.

  6. Avaliação de caracteres morfológicos úteis na identificação de plantas poliplóides de melancia Evaluation of morphological characters useful in the identification of poliploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de F. Souza

    2004-09-01

    watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated in three diploids, three tetraploids and three triploids hybrids, in relation to the number of chloroplasts per leaf stomata (NCF; width and length of the leaves (LFH e CFH; leaf width/length ratio (LF/CF; stem diameter (DCE; petal diameter in male and female flowers (DCM and DCF; ovary diameter (DOV; fruit weight (PMF; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF; fruit diameter axial/diameter transversal ratio (DL/DT and rind thickness (EMC. A randomized block design was employed with three replications and five plants per plot. A nested analysis was performed and the ploidy level was considered the main factor. The genotypes were clustered at a dendrogram based on generalized Mahalanobis distance and also plotted on Cartesian plain using scores of the first and second canonic variables. Relative contribution of the variables to clustering was estimated by the Singh Method and the matrix of correlation was obtained using the Principal Component Analysis. The NCF presented higher relative importance (41% to set divergence clusters, while DCF, DCM, DOV and DT/DL when analyzed together showed themselves efficient to discriminate diploids, triploids and tetraploid plants. So, they are recommended to aid watermelon breeding programs to obtain polyploid plants.

  7. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  8. EST-SSRs of Watermelon (Citrullus sp.) Useful in Assessing Genetic Diversity among Lagenaria Siceraria Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) facilitated the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (termed EST-SSRs) in different plant species. EST-SSRs represent coding regions that are known to be more conserved than genomic regions represented by SSR markers generated from genomic DNA libraries...

  9. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    We report here a 72-year-old man with severe, persistent, iron deficiency anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed red stripes radiating to the pylorus, characteristic of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia). The patient was found to have scleroderma with calcinosis, scl...

  10. Effects of Soil Depth and Season Variation on Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Greenhouse Soils Planted with Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Run-Jin; LI Yan; DIAO Zhi-Kai; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure in various soil depths and growing seasons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) grown in commercial greenhouses in Daxing of Beijing and Weifang and Laiyang of Shandong,China were investigated using both morphological identification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.The sampled soils had been used for continuous greenhouse production of watermelon for 0,5,10,15,or 20 years.Glomus claroideum was the dominant species in the greenhouse soils planted for 5,10,and 15 years in Laiyang,while Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were dominant in the nearby open farmland soil.Sorenson's similarity index of AMF community composition ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 in the soils planted for 5 years,and from 0.29 to 0.33 for 20 years among the three locations.Spore abundance,species richness,and the Shannon index were highest near the soil surface (0-10 cm) and decreased with soil depth,and higher in June and October than in August and December.Canonical correspondence analysis showed that available P and the number of years that soil had been used for greenhouse production were the main factors contributing to the variance of AMF community composition.It was concluded that the community structure of AMF was mainly influenced by soil available P and planting time of watermelon as well as by soil depth and seasonal variation in the commercial greenhouse.

  11. Response of Watermelon to Gravel-Mulch and Supplementary Irrigation:Yield,Water Use Efficiency and Root Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-shan; LI Xin-rong; ZHANG Pei-dong; ZHANG Jing-guang; WANG Xin-ping; LIU Li-chao

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementary irrigation on watermelon (Citullus lanatus) yield, water-use efficiency (WUE) and root distribution in gravel-mulched field in northwest Loess Plateau, China, during 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. The results showed that gravel mulch significantly improved seedling emergence,increased yield and WUE, and alleviated the influence of drought on plant growth. Regardless of gravel mulch application, supplementary irrigation increased watermelon yields, average fruit weight and number of fruit, especially yield increased as the amount of irrigation increased (P<0.05). Generally, WUE of irrigated treatments were higher than that of non-irrigation treatment in gravel-mulched field. The effect of water supply on root distribution was different in two years. In 2001, average root length density (RLD) and root weight density (RWD) whole the soil profile increased. In 2002, however, RLD and RWD decreased as water supply increased. The average RLD and RWD in 2001 were significantly higher than those in 2002. Maybe we can interpret the phenomenon with the theory that there is a need to optimize root distribution (in termsof water relations) and aboveground biomass for a given water supply. The yield may not depend as much on root growth as on the amount of water required at critical stages. A significant effect of soil depth on RLD and RWD were observed in both years, but did not rapidly decrease with depth.

  12. Cucurbitacins from the Leaves of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chawech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new tetracyclic cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis leaves together with four known cucurbitacins. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data (mainly NMR and mass spectrometry. Evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds against two human colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and Caco-2 and one normal rat intestine epithelial cell line (IEC6, revealed that one of the isolated compounds presented interesting specific cytotoxic activity towards colorectal cell lines.

  13. Combined toxicity of Cassia senna and Citrullus colocynthis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

    2001-04-01

    Body weight loss, inefficiency of feed utilization, diarrhea, ruffled hair and enterohepatonephrotoxicity were effects on male Wistar rats fed diet containing 10% Cassia senna or 10% Citrullus colocynthis ripe fruits for 6w. Rats fed a 1:1 mixture (5% + 5%) of fruits from these plants were more adversely affected and had deaths than rats fed the individual plants. The changes associated with the macrocytic hypochromic anemia and leukopenia were increased serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, increased urea, and decreased total protein, albumin and calcium. Serum bilirubin concentration did not change.

  14. A New Flavone C-glycoside from Citrullus colocynthis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Jing; ZHANG Jie; DENG Shi-ming; DAI Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Citrullus colocynthis.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 and recrystallization as well.NMR spectra and physicochemical property were characterized for structural identification.Results Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as β-sitosterol (1), α-spinasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2),α-spinasterone (3),bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (4),p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5),6-C-p-methylbenzoylvitexin (6),dihydrocucurbitacin E (7),cucurbitacin E (8),dihydro-epi-iso-cucurbitacin D (9),dihydroisocucurbitacin B-25-acaetate (10),and cucurbitacin E 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11).Conclusion Compound 6 is a novel compound.Compounds 1-5,7,9,and 10 are isolated from C.colocynthis for the first time.

  15. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  16. Tolerance to the Herbicide Clomazone in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pre-emergence herbicide clomazone (trade name: Command 3ME), is widely used in watermelon production in the US for suppression of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds growing in between plastic beds. Exposure of young watermelon plants to clomazone can cause moderate or severe injury that is expr...

  17. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  18. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  19. Screening of watermelon rootstocks resistant to physiological wilt disease%抗生理性凋萎症西瓜砧木筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦志扬; 韦莉萍; 韦昌联; 覃泽林; 麻小燕; 何毅; 温国泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]筛选抗生理性凋萎症的西瓜嫁接砧木品种应用于生产.[方法]选用葫芦类、南瓜类、冬瓜类及野生西瓜类等17个砧木与广西三号无籽西瓜进行嫁接试验、田间栽培试验,观察嫁接成活率及嫁接栽培对西瓜生长势、抗病性、产量和果实品质的影响.[结果]嫁接成活率葫芦类91.20%~95.60%,南瓜类73.20%~80.40%,冬瓜类81.20%~86.40%,野生西瓜类82.40%~91.20%;嫁接组合生长势强的砧木品种为广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、日本南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、白籽南瓜、农友野生西瓜、伙伴野生西瓜;坐果容易的砧木品种为广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、日本南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、白籽南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜;高抗生理性凋萎症的砧木品种为白籽南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、日本南瓜、广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜、超丰F1、伙伴野生西瓜;产量在22500.00 kg/ha以上且按产量由高到低排序为白籽南瓜、铁力金钢白籽南瓜、广西本地葫芦、日本南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜、杂交葫芦、大蒲瓜;17个嫁接组合的西瓜果实在瓤色、果实质地、口感风味方面差别不明显,但在果实可溶性固形物含量、瓜形及剖面、皮厚等方面存在一定差异.[结论]广西本地葫芦、杂交葫芦、白籽南瓜、伙伴野生西瓜与广西三号无籽西瓜嫁接表现高抗西瓜生理性凋萎症,且综合性状表现优良,可进一步扩大试验和示范.%This research screened the grafted watermelon rootstock varieties resistant to physiological wilt disease in order to apply relevant information to watermelon production. [ Method]Seventeen different stocks of Lagenaria siceraria, squash, Benincasa, and wild Citrullus vulgaris were selected to undergo the grafting test and filed cultivation test with seedless watermelon Guangxi 3; the relevant

  20. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  1. FLAVONE C-GLYCOSIDES AND CUCURBITACIN GLYCOSIDES FROM CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBAS DELAZAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae is an Iranian medicinal plant that has traditionally been used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. As part of our on-going studies on Iranian medicinal plants, thorough phytochemical investigation was carried out on this plant. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC was employed to isolate compounds from the butanol fraction of the hydro-methanolic (70% extract of the fruits of the locally grown C. colocynthis. Structures of the isolated compounds [1-5] were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The antioxidant property of the flavonoids 1-3 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Three flavone glucosides, isosaponarin [1], isovitexin [2] and isoorientin 3’-O-methyl ether [3] and two cucurbitacin glucosides, 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin I [4 and 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin L [5] were isolated and identified. Flavonoids 1-3 showed significant antioxidant properties. Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to tissue injury, inflammation, cancer and many other ailments, the antioxidant properties of 1-3 probably contribute, at least to some extent, to the pharmacological and traditional medicinal uses of the C. colosynthis.

  2. The nature of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a method to extract and separate phytochelatins (PCs)-metal(loid) complexes using parallel metal(loid)-specific (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and organic-specific (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) detection systems-and use it here to ascertain the nature of arsenic (As)-PC complexes in plant extracts. This study is the first unequivocal report, to our knowledge, of PC complex coordination chemistry in plant extracts for any metal or metalloid ion. The As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus and the As hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica were used as model plants. In an in vitro experiment using a mixture of reduced glutathione (GS), PC(2), and PC(3), As preferred the formation of the arsenite [As((III))]-PC(3) complex over GS-As((III))-PC(2), As((III))-(GS)(3), As((III))-PC(2), or As((III))-(PC(2))(2) (GS: glutathione bound to arsenic via sulphur of cysteine). In H. lanatus, the As((III))-PC(3) complex was the dominant complex, although reduced glutathione, PC(2), and PC(3) were found in the extract. P. cretica only synthesizes PC(2) and forms dominantly the GS-As((III))-PC(2) complex. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the existence of mixed glutathione-PC-metal(loid) complexes in plant tissues or in vitro. In both plant species, As is dominantly in non-bound inorganic forms, with 13% being present in PC complexes for H. lanatus and 1% in P. cretica.

  3. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without

  4. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Tania

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal

  5. 78 FR 10104 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend the Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan (Plan)...

  6. 76 FR 25619 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch..., advertising, and promotion designed to strengthen the watermelon's position in the market place and...

  7. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation.

  8. A lectin extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) inhibits digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramzi; A. Sahragard

    2013-01-01

    A lectin was extracted from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae) by column chromatography using Sepharose 4BGalactose and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow. The inhibitory effects of the extracted lectin on digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae were studied using pH, temperature, time of incubation and kinetic parameters. Different concentrations of extracted lectin, Citrullus colocynthis agglutinin (CCA), inhibited digestive amylolytic activity by 22-49%. The highest inhibiti...

  9. Influence of fruit age on Phytophthora fruit rot development on susceptible and resistant watermelon germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in the southeastern United States. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers in GA, SC, and NC, and is considered a top-research priority by the National Watermelon Association. We releas...

  10. Isolation and genetic mapping of NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogs in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-six watermelon disease resistance gene analogs (WRGA) were isolated from genotypes possessing disease resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 0, 1, and 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain, cucumber mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus. Deg...

  11. 76 FR 42009 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ..., advertising, and promotion designed to strengthen the watermelon's position in the market place and to... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and... changes the boundaries of all seven districts under the Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan (Plan)...

  12. The Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Pulp Extract on the Liver of Diabetic Rats a Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The goal of the current investigation was to clarify the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the structure of the liver of diabetic rats at both light and scanning electron microscopic levels. Approach: Forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: Group1: control, Group 2: Citrullus colocynthis-treated, Group 3: diabetic rats and Group4: diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis. All treatments were administered via an intragastric tube. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 3 and 4 by an intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Results: The liver of Citrullus colocynthis-treated rats revealed minor histological changes versus the control animals. In group 3 animals, diabetes caused degenerative alterations in the form of disorganization of the hepatic cords, cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknosis of the nuclei of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration. Scanning electron microscope examination of these livers revealed numerous lipid droplets within hepatocytes, damaged blood sinusoids and hemorrhage of erythrocytes between hepatocytes and inside Disse’s spaces. On the other hand, the normal histological and scanning ultrastructural features were nearly resumed in the liver of diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract. Conclusion: The present study proved a lessening effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the liver of diabetic rats. In light of these advantageous influences, it is advisable to widen the scale of its use in a trial to alleviate the diabetic hepatic adverse effects.

  13. Nutritional status of watermelon fertirrigation with nitrogen and phosphorus rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sobreira de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of N and P2O5 rates through irrigation water on the uptake of macro and micronutrients by watermelon crop. The study was conducted at the farm Santa Luzia, in Mossoró, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (5° 05’ 57”S e 37° 33’ 16”W. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with strip cropping (4 x 4 x 2, resulting and thirty two treatments with three replicates. The treatments consisted in the application of four N rates (0; 48; 121; 218 kg ha-1 combined with four rates of P2O5 (0; 88; 220; 397 kg ha-1 with two cultivars of watermelon. No deficiency of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn in the watermelon leaves was found in any treatment, excepting Cu and Zn. The N and P2O5 rates, as well as the interaction, provide significant effect on contents of macronutrients in the watermelon leaves. Macronutrients most absorbed by the leaves of watermelon were N>Ca>K>Mg>P.

  14. Phomentrioloxin: A phytotoxic pentasubstituted geranylcyclohexentriol produced by Phomopsis sp., a potential mycoherbicide for Carthamus lanatus Biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria C; Troise, Ciro; Santini, Antonello; Tuzi, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-06-22

    A new phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol, named phomentrioloxin, was isolated from the liquid culture of Phomopsis sp., a fungal pathogen proposed for the biological control of Carthamus lanatus, a widespread and troublesome thistle weed belonging to the Asteraceae family causing severe crop and pastures losses in Australia. The structure of phomentrioloxin was established by spectroscopic, X-ray, and chemical methods as (1S,2S,3S,4S)-3-methoxy-6-(7-methyl-3-methylene-oct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-5-ene-1,2,4-triol. At a concentration of 6.85 mM, the toxin causes the appearance of necrotic spots when applied to leaves of both host and nonhost plants. It also causes growth and chlorophyll content reduction of fronds of Lemna minor and inhibition of tomato rootlet elongation. Finally, in preliminary bioassays, phomentrioloxin did not show any antibacterial, fungicidal, or zootoxic activities.

  15. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  16. Assessment of anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis Avaliação do efeito antihiperlipidêmico de Citrullus colocynthis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyieh Zamani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a well-known risk factor for several illnesses including atherosclerosis, heart and vascular diseases and stroke. In the search for potential anti-hyperlipidemic agents from plants to prevent these conditions, the pulp and the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis were assessed for their effects on the lipid profile of hyperlipidemic New Zealand rabbits. In the experimental groups that received the pulp of C. colocynthis or 100 mg/kg of seeds, the lipid profiles were significantly reduced when compared to the control group (PHiperlipidemia é um fator de risco bem conhecido para diversas doenças inclusive aterosclerose, doenças cardíacas e derrame cerebral. Na procura de potenciais agentes antihiperlipidêmicos a partir de plantas para prevenir essas doenças, a polpa e as sementes de Citrullus colocynthis foram testadas para verificar seus efeitos no perfil lipídico de coelhos Nova Zelândia hiperlipidêmicos. Nos grupos experimentais que receberam a polpa de C. colocynthis ou 100 mg/kg das sementes, os perfis lipídicos foram significantemente reduzidos quando comparados ao grupo de controle (P<0,05.

  17. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  18. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  19. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  20. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  1. Enhanced arsenate reduction by a CDC25-like tyrosine phosphatase explains increased phytochelatin accumulation in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M; Hakvoort, Henk W J; Bliek, Mattijs; Souer, Erik; Schat, Henk

    2006-03-01

    Decreased arsenate [As(V)] uptake is the major mechanism of naturally selected As(V) hypertolerance in plants. However, As(V)-hypertolerant ecotypes also show enhanced rates of phytochelatin (PC) accumulation, suggesting that improved sequestration might additionally contribute to the hypertolerance phenotype. Here, we show that enhanced PC-based sequestration in As(V)-hypertolerant Holcus lanatus is not due to an enhanced capacity for PC synthesis as such, but to increased As(V) reductase activity. Vacuolar transport of arsenite-thiol complexes was equal in both ecotypes. Based on homology with the yeast As(V) reductase, Acr2p, we identified a Cdc25-like plant candidate, HlAsr, and confirmed the As(V) reductase activity of both HlAsr and the homologous protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene appeared to be As(V)-inducible and its expression was enhanced in the As(V)-hypertolerant H. lanatus ecotype, compared with the non-tolerant ecotype. Homologous ectopic overexpression of the AtASR cDNA in A. thaliana produced a dual phenotype. It improved tolerance to mildly toxic levels of As(V) exposure, but caused hypersensitivity to more toxic levels. Arabidopsis asr T-DNA mutants showed increased As(V) sensitivity at low exposure levels and enhanced arsenic retention in the root. It is argued that, next to decreased uptake, enhanced expression of HlASR might act as an additional determinant of As(V) hypertolerance and As transport in H. lanatus.

  2. Fruit age and development of Phytophthora fruit rot on resistant and susceptible watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. and has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers especially in GA, SC, and NC. We recently released four germplasm lines (USVL203-PFR, USVL020-PFR, USVL782-PFR,...

  3. Introduction of Bottle Gourd DNA into Watermelon by Soaking Embryo for Resistance to Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to utilize wilt disease resistance of bottle gourd, total DNA of bottle gourd was introduced into watermelon through the method of soaking embryo. The DNA-introduced variant offsprings were cultured in contaminated soil to elect the wilt disease resistance for more than 3 generations. 2 high- resistant and 2 middle-resistant watermelon materials were obtained.

  4. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  5. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  6. MSW-28 a full flavor crisp watermelon line with high lycopene and medium brix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional breeding techniques have increased the immediately-available sugar content in watermelon, up to 14%. This results in a sweet flavor but greatly limits the watermelon serving size for people concerned about dietary sugar intake. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States De...

  7. Neural network modeling of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of watermelon production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine energy consumption, model and analyze the input–output, energy efficiencies and GHG emissions for watermelon production using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the Guilan province of Iran, based on three different farm sizes. For this purpose, the initial data was collected from 120 watermelon producers in Langroud and Chaf region, two small cities in the Guilan province. The results indicated that total average energy input for watermelon production was 40228.98 MJ ha–1. Also, chemical fertilizers (with 76.49% were the highest energy inputs for watermelon production. Moreover, the share of non-renewable energy (with 96.24% was more than renewable energy (with 3.76% in watermelon production. The rate of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy was calculated as 1.29, 0.68 kg MJ−1 and 11733.64 MJ ha−1, respectively. With respect to GHG analysis, the average of total GHG emissions was calculated about 1015 kgCO2eq. ha−1. The results illustrated that share of nitrogen (with 54.23% was the highest in GHG emissions for watermelon production, followed by diesel fuel (with 16.73% and electricity (with 15.45%. In this study, Levenberg–Marquardt learning Algorithm was used for training ANNs based on data collected from watermelon producers. The ANN model with 11–10–2 structure was the best one for predicting the watermelon yield and GHG emissions. In the best topology, the coefficient of determination (R2 was calculated as 0.969 and 0.995 for yield and GHG emissions of watermelon production, respectively. Furthermore, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the seed and human labor had the highest sensitivity in modeling of watermelon yield and GHG emissions, respectively.

  8. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the varieties sown directly by seeds. The success of the graft system in the described patterns was 90%. The Lagenaria and Cucurbita graftholders produced greater amount of foliate area than Luffa which reduced it greatly. Graftholders did not reduce the organoleptic characteristics of the fruits from the two varieties. - Pests infection in fruits of plants over Cucurbita and Luffa graftholders were reduced.

  9. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  10. Prediction of lycopene degradation during dehydration of watermelon pomace (cv Sugar Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Pal Singh Oberoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene retention in watermelon pomace during drying was investigated in fluidized-bed and cabinet dryer at 50–70 °C using 2–6 kg/m2 tray loads. Page’s model described the drying behaviour of watermelon pomace better than other models. Lycopene content of watermelon pomace dried in fluidized-bed dryer was 5.67–9.86 mg/100 g (db whereas in cabinet dryer 4.82–8.12 mg/100 g (db under experimental conditions. Lycopene retention was lower in cabinet dryer due to longer drying time. Degradation kinetics of lycopene in watermelon pomace followed first order model over 50–90 °C. Thermal degradation showed higher lycopene retention than drying under similar conditions of temperature and time indicating that circulating air increased the rate of lycopene degradation. Lycopene loss during drying of watermelon pomace was 19.02–60.57% whereas 7.46–43.28% was observed during thermal treatment of watermelon pomace. Fluidized bed dryer can be employed preferably over cabinet dryer to stabilize the watermelon pomace with higher lycopene retention.

  11. Prediction of lycopene degradation during dehydration of watermelon pomace (cv Sugar Baby)

    OpenAIRE

    Davinder Pal Singh Oberoi; Dalbir Singh Sogi

    2017-01-01

    Lycopene retention in watermelon pomace during drying was investigated in fluidized-bed and cabinet dryer at 50–70 °C using 2–6 kg/m2 tray loads. Page’s model described the drying behaviour of watermelon pomace better than other models. Lycopene content of watermelon pomace dried in fluidized-bed dryer was 5.67–9.86 mg/100 g (db) whereas in cabinet dryer 4.82–8.12 mg/100 g (db) under experimental conditions. Lycopene retention was lower in cabinet dryer due to longer drying time. Degradation ...

  12. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Katia Leani [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman [Embrarad Ltda. Av. Cruzada Bandeirante, 269, 06700-000 Cotia, SP (Brazil); Teresa Destro, Maria [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Landgraf, Mariza [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2008-06-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  13. QUALIDADE SENSORIAL DE GELÉIA MISTA DE MELANCIA E TAMARINDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAELLA MARTINS DE ARAUJO FERREIRA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of jelly is an alternative to the use of fruits that did not meet the classification standard, helping to reduce post harvest losses of up to 40% of total production. This study aimed to evaluate the sensory quality of jelllies produced mixed with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad. and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.. Six jelly formulations were prepared using pulp from watermelon and tamarind in different proportions: F1 (100% watermelon pulp, F2 (87.5% watermelon pulp and 12.5% tamarind pulp, F3 (75% watermelon pulp and 25% tamarind pulp, F4 (12.5% tamarind pulp and 87.5% water, F5 (25% tamarind pulp and 75% water and F6 (37.5% tamarind pulp and 62.5% water. All jellies containing pulp and sucrose in the ratio 1: 0.6 and the final soluble solids was 67 ºBrix. The attributes of color, texture, taste and preference of the jellies were evaluated by 50 untrained panelists using a hedonic scale of nine points (ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely". The worst consistency was found in F4 and the largest concentration of tamarind in jelly impaired color impacting negatively on the product acceptance. The jelly mixed F2 had the best score for taste and preference attributes that jelly F6.

  14. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic tetraploid plants have been used for production of seedless triploid watermelon lines being pollinated with diploid plants. When compared to their diploid or triploid counterparts, the tetraploid exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Though many factors, including alternative splicing (AS),...

  15. Standardized Sampling Plan for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Watermelon Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pinto, Cleovan; Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Visintin da Silva Galdino, Tarcísio; Silvestre Pereira, Poliana; Gomes Barbosa, Breno; Henrique Oliveira Lima, Carlos; Rodrigues da Silva, Nilson; Coutinho Picanço, Marcelo

    2017-02-11

    Sampling plans are essential components of integrated pest management programs. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an important pest of watermelon crops. Despite the importance of sampling plans and of F. schultzei as a pest of watermelon crops, no research has been previously conducted on this subject for this crop. The objective of this work was to create a standardized sampling plan for F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Over two consecutive years, weekly samplings were performed in commercial watermelon crops. The aim of these assessments was to select the best sampling unit and the best sampling technique for F. schultzei assessment and to determine the number of samples necessary for a standardized sampling plan for this pest. In watermelon crops in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, the ideal location for sampling F. schultzei was the most apical leaf of the branches. The best sampling technique was a direct count of F. schultzei individuals. The F. schultzei sampling plan involved the evaluation of 69 samples per plot. The execution duration of this sampling plan in 1- to 15-ha plots was sampling). This has not been reported for watermelon before.

  16. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L(-1)) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH(-1) and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst.

  17. Enhanced biocidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extracts by green nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shawky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an attractive research area for their divers and potential implications in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, production of nanoparticles by biosynthetic method employing live plant or plant extract has emerged a simple and viable alternative to traditional methods. In the present study the biocidal; antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and larvicidal activities of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNPs in aqueous extracts (AEs of Citrullus colocynthis were investigated. SNPs Formed in C. colocynthis AEs were spherical and homogenous and their average mean sizes were 19.267 nm, 16.578 nm, 13.376.nm and 7.398 nm in AEs of fruits, seeds, leaves and roots respectively. The biosynthesized SNPs greatly enhanced the activities of C. colocynthis AEs. It showed  a significant inhibitory action against different bacterial species; Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes; antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotricum candidum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with inhibition zones ranging from 15.1 ± 0.44 to 25.2 ± 0.37 mm. Transmitted electron microscopic (TEM analysis of the morphological changes in S. aureus and E. coli cells revealed SNPs aggregated and located non-specifically on the cell wall, also, SNPs were seen within the cell wall or the cell of bacteria. The cells became severely distorted and disrupted showing a bactericidal action. Interestingly, a size dependence of SNPs' antiviral activity was observed. We found that the SNPs/ C. colocynthis roots AEs showed the strongest antiviral activity causing 70%, 73% and 75% reduction of the Cytopathic effect (CPE of hepatitis A virus, Herpes simplex virus type I and Herpes simplex virus type II respectively. Also, the SNPs/C. colocynthis showed a significant larvicidal activity against the 3

  18. Próby uprawy Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. i wstępna ocena przydatności nasion [An attempt at Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. cultivation and the initial estimation of the seeds utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kostecka-Mądalska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trials of cultivating Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. were carried out in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Medical Academy to Wrocław. The seeds were obtained from Bucarest and stored for one year. The plants obtained from those seeds developed well, produced flowers and fruited. The seeds germinated in darknees in about 90%. Light distinctly inhibited germination. Urease activity was determinated initially in the seeds by the method of Sumner. One kilogram of whole seeds has an activity of about 12000 Summer units.

  19. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  20. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J W; Slaughter, D C; Boyden, L E; Barrett, D M

    2016-06-01

    The textural properties of 5 seedless watermelon cultivars were assessed by descriptive analysis and the standard puncture test using a hollow probe with increased shearing properties. The use of descriptive analysis methodology was an effective means of quantifying watermelon sensory texture profiles for characterizing specific cultivars' characteristics. Of the 10 cultivars screened, 71% of the variation in the sensory attributes was measured using the 1st 2 principal components. Pairwise correlation of the hollow puncture probe and sensory parameters determined that initial slope, maximum force, and work after maximum force measurements all correlated well to the sensory attributes crisp and firm. These findings confirm that maximum force correlates well with not only firmness in watermelon, but crispness as well. The initial slope parameter also captures the sensory crispness of watermelon, but is not as practical to measure in the field as maximum force. The work after maximum force parameter is thought to reflect cellular arrangement and membrane integrity that in turn impact sensory firmness and crispness. Watermelon cultivar types were correctly predicted by puncture test measurements in heart tissue 87% of the time, although descriptive analysis was correct 54% of the time.

  1. Chilling Tolerance and Physiological Parameters as Influenced by Grafting in Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ying; ZHU Zhu-jun; LU Guo-hua; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of different rootstocks on chilling tolerance and physiological parameters in wa-termelon seedlings have been studied. The results showed that grafting improved the chilling tolerance. Com-pared with own-rooted watermelon seedlings, the grafted watermelon seedlings had lower chilling injury index,lower electrolytic leakage (%), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, higher chlorophyll and proline con-tent, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and de-hydroascorbate reductase (DR) in the leaves under iow temperature stress. There was a considerable differenceof chilling tolerance among different grafted watermelon seedlings due to the difference of rootstock chillingtolerance. After low temperature treatment, the grafted seedling with higher chilling tolerance had lower elec-trolytic leakage ( %), lower MDA content, higher proline content and higher activities of SOD, AsA-POD andDR in the leaves compared with the grafted seedling with weaker chilling tolerance. From these, we could con-clude that chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings may be related to higher antioxidative ability and mem-brane stability in the plants. The chilling tolerance of grafted seedling could be properly evaluated by compre-hensive physiological indexes but not a single physiological index.

  2. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  3. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits.

  4. Biological Control of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli) with Rhizosphere Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Mahesh; Yadav, Dil Raj; Kim, Sang Woo; Um, Young Hyun; Kim, Hyun Seung; Lee, Seong Chan; Song, Jeong Young; Kim, Hong Gi; Lee, Youn Su

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22), Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27) showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse experiment result revealed that SN-22 and NSB-27 significantly reduced BFB and had significant stimulatory effect on total chlorophyll content, plant height, total fresh weight and total dry weight compared to uninoculated plants across the tested three watermelon varieties. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences revealed that strains SN-22 belong to P. polymyxa and NSB-27 to S. atrocyanea with the bootstrap value of 99% and 98%, respectively. The isolates SN-22 and NSB-27 were tested for antagonistic and PGP traits. The result showed that the tested isolates produced siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes (protease and cellulose), chitinase, starch hydrolytic enzymes and they showed phosphate as well as zinc solubilizing capacity. This is the first report of P. polymyxa (SN-22) and S. atrocyanea (NSB-27) as biocontrol-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on watermelon. PMID:28381964

  5. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  6. 含硝化抑制剂复合肥对西瓜黄瓜产量和营养品质的影响%Effects of Compound Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor on the Yield and Nutritional Quality of Watermelon and Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍少福; 吴良欢; 尹一萌; 李强; 杨曙东

    2006-01-01

    采用田间试验研究了含硝化抑制剂3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐(3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate,DMPP)复合肥(ENTEC,12-12-17)对西瓜(Citrullus lanatus M.)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)生长和品质的影响.结果表明,含DMPP复合肥可以显著提高西瓜、黄瓜产量,与对照(普通复合肥)相比,分别提高6.50%(浙蜜1号)、44.55%(浙蜜2号)、8.40%(津春4号),均达到了显著性水平.西瓜、黄瓜的硝酸盐含量与对照相比,分别降低了2.42%(浙蜜1号)、10.70%(浙蜜2号)、27.44%(津春4号).西瓜、黄瓜的糖分、可溶性固形物、VC、氨基酸、N等含量都明显提高,从而提高了营养品质.从总的趋势来看,含DMPP复合肥在西瓜浙蜜2号上的施用效果优于浙蜜1号.

  7. Evaluation of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN/PB induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajangam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:The present work was aimed to study the biochemical effect of methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits (MECC against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatic damage in male rats.Rats received with DEN/PB showed the elevated levels of cholesterol (p<0.05, triglycerides (TG, p<0.01, free fatty acids (FFA, p<0.01, low density lipoprotein (LDL, p<0.01, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, p<0.05 and decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL, urea and creatinine. Administration of MECC 200,400 mg/kg.p.o to rats orally for 28 days significantly reduced the biochemical alterations induced by DEN/PB. Moreover results from invitro antioxidant studies revealed that, maximum percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals by MECC was about 62% at 800 µg/mL. In the nitric oxide radical scavenging model, the maximum percentage inhibition by MECC is about 56% at 800µg/mL and in reducing power method, MECC demonstrated dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with Ascorbic acid. Thus, results from our preliminary studies clearly indicates that Citrullus colocynthis might be beneficial in attenuating the elevated biochemical parameters during DEN/PB induced hepatic damage and the results suggested the ability of the extract to combat oxidative stress by quenching free radicals which reveals that, the attenuation due to its anti-oxidant property. Industrial relevance: Citrullus Colocynthis fruits are traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. But the experimental background has not been sufficient. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of terpinoids,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,phytosterols,tannins and phenolics along with cucurbitacins, caffeic acid derivatives.In view of the above fact, the present study was designed to study the biochemical effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN

  8. MARKETING MARGIN AND DETERMINANTS OF NET RETURN OF WATERMELON MARKETING IN YENAGOA METROPOLIS OF BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainga Prince Ebiowei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted from May, 2013 to July, 2013 for determining the marketing margin and examines the determinants of net return of watermelon marketing in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was adopted in drawing the sample. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, marketing margin analysis, and multiple regression models. The results showed that watermelon marketing was female dominated (73.3% with mean marketing experience of 5 years which can conclude that watermelon marketing in the Niger Delta Area is gaining ground. In age group, majority (70.0% were within the age of 21-40 years, while majority (38.3% had household size of 5–10, and (61.7% had secondary education. Marketing of watermelon in the area was profitable with monthly marketing margin and net return of N 16, 466.35 and N 14, 767.51 respectively. Marketing efficiency and benefit- cost ratio was 0.588 and 1.53 respectively, meaning that marketing of watermelon was inefficient (0.588 < 1.The study further showed that price of watermelon had positive and significant relationship with net return (t = 8.682; p<0.05, suggesting that the higher the price of watermelon, the higher the net returns. Major constraints of watermelon marketing were spoilage of fruits, .transport risk, small size watermelon, irregular supply, and inadequate capital. Thus improved storage facilities, electricity, good road network linking distributing centers, pooling of accumulated capital is imminent to sustain availability of watermelon and enhance price stability in the area

  9. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30–80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  10. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  11. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  12. Analysis on differentially expressed genes in watermelon rind color based on RNA-Seq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨侃侃; 梁志怀; 吴才君

    2016-01-01

    In order to screen the genes controlling watermelon rind color and luster, the experiment was carried out with yellow watermelon skin mutants as tester and green wild type watermelon as control, and transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were done. The results show that 34.27Gb clean data were got by transcriptome sequencing. There are 261 differentially expressed genes among Y1_vs_G1, Y2_vs_G2 and Y3_vs_G3.The pathways contenting most differentially expressed genes are plant hormone signal transduction pathway, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, photosynthesis pathway, starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (Cla002942), alcohol dehydrogenase (Cla004992), photosystem I reaction center subunit III, chloroplastic (precursor) (Cla009181), long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase (Cla017341), threonine dehydratase biosynthetic (Cla018352) candidates genes were screened out.

  13. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  14. Influence of soil properties and phosphate addition on arsenic uptake from polluted soils by velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska, K; Karczewska, A

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of soil material were used in a pot experiment with velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus). Two unpolluted soils: sand (S) and loam (L) were spiked with sodium arsenite (As II) and arsenate (As V), to obtain total arsenic (As) concentrations of 500 mg As kg(-1). Two other soils (ZS I, ZS III), containing 3320 and 5350 mg As kg(-1), were collected from Zloty Stok where gold and arsenic ores were mined and processed for several centuries. The effects of phosphate addition on plants growth and As uptake were investigated. Phosphate was applied to soils in the form of NH4H2PO4 at the rate 0.2 g P/kg. Average concentrations of arsenic in the shoots of velvetgrass grown in spiked soils S and L without P amendment were in the range 18-210 mg As kg(-1) d.wt., whereas those in plants grown on ZS I and ZS II soils were considerably lower, and varied in the range 11-52 mg As kg(-1) d.wt. The addition of phosphate caused a significant increase in plant biomass and therefore the total amounts of As taken up by plants, however, the differences in As concentrations in the shoots of velvetgrass amended and non-amended with phosphate were not statistically significant.

  15. Plant, soil microbial and soil inorganic nitrogen responses to elevated CO 2: a study in microcosms of Holcus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Romain; Leadley, Paul W.; Lensi, Robert; Barthes, Laure

    2005-05-01

    The impact of elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on the nitrogen cycle was evaluated in a 2-month experiment in monospecific grassland microcosms ( Holcus lanatus L.) grown on reconstituted grassland soil. The responses of the N pools in the plants, soil, and soil microbes were studied. The impact of high CO 2 on key stages of the N cycle, especially nitrification and denitrification processes, were also measured. Our study showed a strong plant response to high CO 2: total biomass increased by 76% ( P modified by high CO 2, because the percent N in the plant decreased by 40% ( P resin bags (-8%, P = 0.019). Soil nitrifying enzyme activity (NEA) had a tendency to increase (+17%; P = 0.061) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) decreased (-12%; P = 0.013). We found evidence of increased microbial N sink (microbial N increased by 17%, P = 0.004). This and other studies suggest that rising CO 2 often reduces soil nitrate concentrations, which may lead to decreased nitrate leaching. Elevated CO 2 led to environmental conditions that were less favourable for denitrification in our study.

  16. Extraction conditions affecting supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of lycopene from watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine, L S Vaughn; Edgar, C Clausen; Jerry, W King; Luke, R Howard; Julie, Carrier Danielle

    2008-11-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid linked to protection against certain forms of cancer, is found in produce such as papaya, red-fleshed tomatoes, grapefruit and watermelon. The preparation of a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) watermelon-lycopene extract could serve as a food grade source of this carotenoid. This study established preliminary conditions for enhancing SC-CO2 extraction of lycopene from watermelon. Freeze-dried watermelon was extracted with SC-CO2 and ethanol as an organic co-solvent. The lycopene concentration was determined by HPLC, with absorbance measured at 503 nm. In an initial set of experiments, the effects of extraction temperature (70-90 degrees C), pressure (20.7-41.4 MPa) and co-solvent ethanol addition (10-15%) were evaluated. A lycopene yield of 38 microg per gram of wet weight was obtained at 70 degrees C, 20.7 MPa, and 15% by volume ethanol. The extraction of fresh (non-freeze-dried) watermelon yielded 103+/-6 microg lycopene per gram fresh fruit weight. Of the parameters tested, temperature had the most effect on lycopene yield. Thus, in another set of experiments, the temperature was varied from 60-75 degrees C at an extraction pressure of 20.7 MPa in the presence of 15% ethanol. Studies showed that freeze-dried watermelon flesh loses lycopene in storage. In accounting for lycopene storage losses, lycopene yields at 60 degrees C extraction temperature were 14% greater than those obtained at 70 degrees C.

  17. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  18. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ramanathan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, wound dressings, and biomedical devices. In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2 cell line. Methods The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Results The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2, while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1. This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment.

  19. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  20. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV): a new potyvirus species in the PRSV cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, Soumaya; Lecoq, Hervé; Desbiez, Cécile

    2008-08-01

    A potyvirus was isolated from a naturally infected squash plant in Algeria in 1986. Biological and serological data have revealed that the virus, initially described as H4, is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, particularly Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). To establish unequivocally the taxonomic status of H4, its full-length genome sequence was established. H4 shared identities of 70% and 65% at the amino acid level with MWMV and PRSV, respectively, indicating that H4 is a distinct species of the PRSV cluster. The name Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV) is proposed for this new potyvirus species.

  1. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  2. A lectin extracted from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae inhibits digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectin was extracted from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae by column chromatography using Sepharose 4BGalactose and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow. The inhibitory effects of the extracted lectin on digestive α-amylase of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae were studied using pH, temperature, time of incubation and kinetic parameters. Different concentrations of extracted lectin, Citrullus colocynthis agglutinin (CCA, inhibited digestive amylolytic activity by 22-49%. The highest inhibition was obtained at pH 8 and 9, which corresponds with the highest enzymatic activity in the control. The highest inhibition of E. ceratoniae α-amylase was found at 40°C, which corresponds with the optimal temperature for enzymatic activity. Timecourse experiments revealed the highest amylolytic activity at 20-40 min post-incubation, while the highest inhibition was found after 20- 30 min. Kinetic analysis showed that incubation of α-amylase with CCA significantly decreased Vmax, indicating non-competitive inhibition, but no statistical difference was found in the Km value. Our results indicated that CCA significantly inhibited activity of digestive α-amylase in E. ceratoniae larvae, suggesting its possible application as a potential alternative control method against this pest.

  3. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  4. 转基因西瓜研究进展%Progress of Research in Transgenic Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金超; 马三梅; 王永飞; 孙小武

    2014-01-01

    综述了西瓜转基因常用的方法、目前已获得的转基因西瓜性状以及转基因西瓜安全性等方面的研究进展,并提出了今后进一步的研究方向。西瓜转基因常用方法为叶盘转化法;将外源基因导入到西瓜基因组中常用的方法主要有农杆菌介导法和花粉管介导法;常采用PCR、Southern和Western等方法来检测和鉴定外源基因是否成功整合到西瓜基因组中;目前利用转基因技术改良的西瓜性状主要集中在培育抗病毒、抗枯萎病和耐旱、耐盐碱等方面;对转基因西瓜的安全性研究主要包括生态安全性和食品安全性2个方面。今后应利用转基因技术进一步提高西瓜营养品质、耐贮性和抗冻性等性状,并进一步加强对转基因西瓜安全性的研究。%In this paper,the general methods of transgenic watermelon were summarized,the transgenic watermelon suc-cessfully developed currently was introduced,the security concern of transgenic watermelon was reviewed. The further re-search directions of transgenic watermelon were proposed. The general method of transgenic watermelons was leaf disc trans-formation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and pollen-tube-mediated transformation were commonly used to intro-duce exogenous gene into the watermelon genome. PCR,Southern and Western methods were used to detect and identify if exogenous genes weresuccessfully integrated into the watermelon genome . Currently the watermelon characters that using transgenic technology to improve mainly included disease resistance,blight resistance,drought resistance and alkali resis-tance,etc. Research on the safety of transgenic watermelons mainly included the ecological safety and food safety. For the transgenic technology of watermelons,it should further be applied to improve the quality of the watermelon nutrition traits, and storage resistance and freeze resistance. And research on the safety of transgenic should be

  5. The distribution of arsenate and arsenite in shoots and roots of Holcus lanatus is influenced by arsenic tolerance and arsenate and phosphate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Mieke; Rengel, Zdenko

    2003-07-01

    The recent discovery that phytochelatins are important for arsenic (As) detoxification in terrestrial plants results in the necessity to understand As speciation and metabolism in plant material. A hydroponic study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of different levels of phosphate and arsenate [As(V)] on As speciation and distribution in tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Holcus lanatus. Speciation of As in tissue (using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) revealed that the predominant species present were the inorganic As species (As(V) and arsenite [As(III)]), although small levels (<1%) of organic As species (dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid) were detected in shoot material. In roots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally increased with increasing levels of As(V) in the nutrient solution, whereas in shoots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally decreased with increasing levels of As(V). H. lanatus plants growing in the high-phosphorus (P) (100 micro M) solution contained a higher proportion of As(V) (with regard to total As) in both roots and shoots than plants supplied with low P (10 micro M); in addition, tolerant clones generally contained a higher proportion of As(V) with regard to total As than non-tolerant clones. The study further revealed that As(V) can be reduced to As(III) in both roots and shoots. Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus.

  6. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... ``marketer'' and defining it within the regulation to avoid repeating the terms ``producer,'' ``handler,'' and ``importer.'' The commenter believes using the term marketer would be easier for the reader to.... Importers import watermelons into the United States. In the field of agriculture, marketers are...

  7. Waste cotton as a biodegradable mulching material for transplanted watermelon and cantaloupe production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch is commonly used in transplanted vegetable crop production in the southeastern U. S. Cantaloupe and watermelon growers use a system of hybrid transplants, grown on narrow LDPE mulch-covered seedbeds with overhead irrigation, and use the mulch cover for only one...

  8. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in Watermelon in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  9. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  10. Evaluation of watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew and Phytophthora fruit rot, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. This study was undertaken to determine the performance of seeded and seedless commercial watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew (PM) and Phytophthora fruit rot as...

  11. Tolerance to powdery mildew conferred in susceptible watermelon scion by grafting on resistant rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open field production. We have developed several watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible cultivar Mickey Lee ...

  12. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  13. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  14. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila; Benariba; Rabeh; Djaziri; Wafaa; Bellakhdar; Nacera; Belkacem; Marcel; Kadiata; Willy; J.Malaisse; Abdullah; Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis(C.colocynthis)seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging.Methods:Phytochemical screening,total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C.colocynthis seeds extracts,including a crude aqueous extract(E1),a defatted aqueous extract(E2),a hydromethanolic extract(HM),an ethyl acetate extract(EA)and a n-butanol extract(n-B)was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.Results:None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid,quinone,antraquinone,or reducing sugar.Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1,MM and EA,whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM.Coumarins were found in E2,EA and n-B.Polyphenols,expressed as gallic acid equivalent,amounted,per 100 g plant matter,to 329,1002 and 150 mg in EA,HM an E1 respectively.Flavonoids,expressed as catechin equivalent,amounted.per 100 g plant matter to 620,241 and 94 mg in EA,HM and E1 respectively.Comparable values were found in n-B and E1,with lower values in E2.Quercetin,myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography,The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded,when tested at a concentration of 2000μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay,a reducing percentage of 88.8%with EA,74.5%with HM and 66.2%with E1,and corresponding IC50of 350,580and 500μg/mL as compared to 1.1μg/mL for ascorbic acid.Conclusions:These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C.colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity,as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  15. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila Benariba; Rabeh Djaziri; Wafaa Bellakhdar; Nacera Belkacem; Marcel Kadiata; Willy J Malaisse; Abdullah Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids ofC. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2000 μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 μg/mL as compared to 1.1 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  16. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  17. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-04

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  18. Frequency and Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Mosaic Virus from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is widespread in cucurbit crops, most commonly occuring in temperate and Mediterranean regions. In Serbia WMV has been detected in single and mixed infections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in field-grown pumpkin and squash crops. Among pumpkin-affecting viruses WMV is the most frequent one, both by the number of localities and its incidence at each location. During the growing season of 2009, samples from 583 plants of Cucurbita pepo cvs. Olinka, Belgrade zucchini and Tosca (Zucchini group, as well as from C. maxima and C. moschata showing symptoms of virus infection were collected from 12 commercial fields at eight localities and analyzed by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific to six most important cucurbit viruses. Interestingly, WMV was detected at fewer sites and had lower ncidence rate than in two previous years. In single infections, WMV was found in 11% of tested plants in three fields; in mixed infections with ZYMV, it was recorded in 9.9% of plants in five fields and with CMV in only 0.2% in one field. The partial coat protein gene and 3’ non-translated region from two representativeisolates of WMV originating from different localities and host plant species were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GenBank database. The PCR-amplified fragment of predicted size of approximately 1017 bp was obtained. The sequences of isolates 137-08 (Acc. No. GQ259958 and 159-08 (GU144020 proved to be 94-99% identical at the nucleotide level with those from other parts of the world. The sequences of these two isolates differed from each other only at two nucleotide positions, without any amino acid substitution. Phylogenetic analysis of 57 isolates based on 750 bp sequences of the coat protein gene showed no correlation between isolates and their geographic origin, and italso indicated that these isolates fell into three molecular groups of

  19. 微培养条件下西瓜种子的萌发试验%Influence of Microcuiture on the Germination of Citrullus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珍; 杨冬业; 靳振江

    2011-01-01

    为获得无菌西瓜(Citrullus vulgaris)实生苗材料,对西瓜种子进行无菌微培养试验.结果表明,导去种皮的西瓜种子用无菌水浸泡30 min,以MS为基本培养基,在25~30℃的条件下暗培养3d,种子发芽率达100%.%The seeds of Citrullus vulgaris were germinated by microculture to obtain aseptic seedlings. The peeling seeds were decontaminated in steril water for 30 min and inoculated in MS base medium, and the coulture was performed in dark at 25~30 ℃ for 3d, 100% germination rate was achieved by the method.

  20. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  1. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Samar eRamzi

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are the heterogeneous proteins in plants that serve as storage proteins via defensive mechanisms against herbivores. In the current study, a lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae finding out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macrom...

  2. Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidative stress in testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovan, Fereshteh; Gol, Ali; Javadi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases in humans, affecting 100 million people around the world. Objective: Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidant and antioxidant factors of testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8) 1) N (normal) group, 2) N+C group, 3) D (diabetic) group and 4) D+C group. Groups N and D received normal saline 2 ml orally for two weeks and groups N+C and D+C received 10 mg/kg.bw Citrullus colocynthis pulp orally for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg. Results: D group had a significant increase in H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) concentrations, and CAT (catalase) activity, and also a significant decrease in Peroxidase (POD) activity compared to N group. D+C group had a significant decrease in H2O2 and MDA concentrations and, CAT activity and significant increase in POD activity compared to D group. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp in two weeks had beneficial effects on oxidants and antioxidants changes in reproductive system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:28280799

  3. Evolution of watermelon fruit physicochemical and phytochemical composition during ripening as affected by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, G A; Kyriacou, M C; Siomos, A S; Gerasopoulos, D

    2014-12-15

    Flesh reflectance colorimetry, mechanical texture analysis, pH, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solid (SS), soluble carbohydrate, lycopene and citrulline content of watermelon fruit were assessed throughout ripening (30-50 days post-anthesis; dpa) in grafted and self-rooted plants. Grafting increased firmness, TA, and lycopene content though it delayed its peak. Lycopene content was mostly ripening-dependant, highly correlated and synchronous with changes in pulp chroma (C) and colour a. The sweetness was affected only by ripening. However, total sugars and SS peaked later in fruit of grafted plants than in non-grafted ones, and significant interaction of ripening with grafting was observed. Citrulline content increased with ripening in fruit of grafted plants, reaching a peak at 45 dpa; whereas in non-grafted ones it was unchanged between 30 and 45 dpa and declined at 50 dpa. As ripening overall was retarded by grafting, fruit quality of grafted watermelon may benefit from belated harvest.

  4. Multifocal Gastric Neoplasia after Recurrent Laser Therapy for the Watermelon Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Bernstein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated laser therapy has become an accepted therapeutic approach in the treatment of watermelon stomach, and to date no important negative sequelae have been reported. The case of a patient who underwent repeated sessions of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser therapy over a five-year period for the treatment of the watermelon stomach is presented. Postlaser therapy the patient developed deep ulcerations that would heal; however, he ultimately developed a nodular antrum. Random biopsies of antral nodules revealed carcinoma-in-situ. A Billroth I gastrectomy revealed two foci of carcinoma-in-situ/high grade dysplasia and multiple foci of lower grades of dysplasia. This case suggests a possible association between use of laser therapy and development of gastric neoplasia.

  5. Genetic differentiation of watermelon landrace types in Mali revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Andersen, Sven Bode; Jensen, Brita Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the genetic differentiation of a collection of 134 watermelon landrace accessions from Mali, representing red fleshed dessert and white fleshed seed and cooking type watermelons from five regions, plus three commercial dessert type cultivars with red flesh. The material...... was represented by in total 397 plants and was analysed using 24 microsatellite primer sets, which differentiated 129 alleles across all loci. Analyses of molecular variance ascribed 51 % of the variation among the landrace accessions, and 14 % of the variation could be ascribed to the regions. Partitioning...... the accessions into use groups (dessert, cooking, seed processing) explained 25 % of the variation. When categorising the accessions further into 10 landrace types, differentiated on the basis of use groups, local accession name, flesh colour and seed phenotype, these landrace types explained 26...

  6. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html.

  7. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html. PMID:28066557

  8. Exogenous Melatonin Confers Salt Stress Tolerance to Watermelon by Improving Photosynthesis and Redox Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chang, Jingjing; Chen, Hejie; Wang, Zhongyuan; Gu, Xiurong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin, a pleiotropic signal molecule, has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. Since a few species have been investigated to unveil the effect of exogenous melatonin on salt stress, the underlying mechanism of melatonin-mediated salt stress tolerance in other plant species still remains largely unknown. In this study, the effects of melatonin on leaf photosynthesis and redox homeostasis in watermelon were examined under salt stress (300 mM NaCl) along with different doses of melatonin (50, 150, and 500 μM) pretreatment. NaCl stress inhibited photosynthesis and increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage in leaves of watermelon seedlings. However, pretreatment with melatonin on roots alleviated NaCl-induced decrease in photosynthetic rate and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The protection of photosynthesis by melatonin was closely associated with the inhibition of stomatal closure and improved light energy absorption and electron transport in photosystem II, while the reduction of oxidative stress by melatonin was attributed to the improved redox homeostasis coupled with the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. This study unraveled crucial role of melatonin in salt stress mitigation and thus can be implicated in the management of salinity in watermelon cultivation. PMID:28298921

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  10. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  11. The effect of watermelon frost on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in inflamed pulp tissue (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulp inflammation can be marked by the increase of prostaglandin E2(PGE2 level compared to normal pulp. The increase of PGE2 may lead to vasodilatation, increase of vascular permeability, pain and bone resorption. Watermelon frost has been well known in Chinese society for pain relief and inflammation in oral cavity and teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level. Method: 27 samples of pulp tissues used in this in-vitro study, were extirpated from the patients’ teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis referred to clinic of Conservative Dentistry, RSPGM Faculty of Dentistry, USU. Trial materials were applied to 27 samples i.e. watermelon frost as a trial material and commercial watermelon frost and eugenol to observe their effect on PGE2. PGE2 level of each material was detected through ELISA method by measuring and comparing the absorbance reading of the wells of the samples against standards with a micro plate reader at W1 = 650 nm and W2 = 490 nm. Result: The result showed the biggest effect was found in the third group (eugenol, mean 4.6933, followed by the first group (watermelon frost as a trial material, mean 18,1578 then the second group (commercial watermelon frost, mean 82,2689. OneWay ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among all trial materials (p < 0.001 on PGE2 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level in inflamed pulp tissue and led to the acceptance of traditional medicine and natural products as an alternative form of dental care.

  12. Energy-use pattern and carbon footprint of rain-fed watermelon production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Mohammadi-Barsari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy-use patterns and carbon footprint is useful in achieving sustainable development in agriculture. Energy-use indices and carbon footprint for rain-fed watermelon production were studied in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Data were collected from 58 farmers using a self-structured questionnaire during the growing season of 2013. The Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the effects of energy input on rain-fed watermelon yield. The findings demonstrated that chemical fertilizers consumed the highest percentage of total energy input (75.2%, followed by diesel fuel (12.9%. The total energy input was 16594.74 MJ ha−1 and total energy output was 36275.24 MJ ha−1. The results showed that the energy-use ratio was 2.19, energy productivity was 1.15 kg MJ−1, energy intensity was 0.87 MJ kg−1, and net energy gain was 19680.60 MJ ha−1. Direct and indirect energy for watermelon production were calculated as 2374.4 MJ ha−1 (14.3% and 14220.3 MJ ha−1 (85.7%, respectively. The share of renewable energy was 1.4%. This highlights the need to reduce the share of non-renewable energy and improve the sustainability of rain-fed watermelon production in Northern Iran. The study of carbon footprint showed that the chemical fertilizer caused the highest percentage of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG followed by machinery with 52.6% and 23.8% of total GHG emissions, respectively. The results of the Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing one MJ of energy input of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, biocides, and seed changed the yield by 1.03, 0.96, 0.19, −0.97, 0.16, and 0.22 kg, respectively, in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Providing some of the nitrogen required for crop growth through biological alternatives, renewing old power tillers, and using conservation tillage machinery may enhance energy efficiency and mitigate

  13. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from xi-gua-mian (fermented watermelon, a traditional fermented food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI-SHENG CHEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Young watermelon fruit was peeled and pickled for fermentation to produce a unique fermented food named xi-gua-mian (fermented watermelon in Taiwan. In this study, we investigated the LAB microflora in xi-gua-mian. A total of 176 LAB isolates were identified; 118 cultures were isolated from the xi-gua-mian sample collected from three different farmers markets and 58 from six young watermelon fruit samples. These isolates were characterized phenotypically and then divided into seven groups (A to G by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA and other genotypic analysis. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in xi-gua-mian samples collected in southern Taiwan, Tainan City and Pediococcuspentosaceus was the most abundant LAB in northern Taiwan, Taoyuan County. We found that LAB stains are similar in samples collected in the same geographic region but significant variationswere observed between samples collected among different regions. On the other hand, a greater LAB diversity was observed in the young watermelon fruit samples. In addition, 10 Lactococcuslactis subsp. lactis showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain L. sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157T. This is the first report describing the distribution and varieties of LAB existing in the xi-gua-mian and the young watermelon fruits.

  14. 功能性西瓜醋酸饮料工艺研究%Study on Technology of Functional Watermelon Vinegary Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 翟金兰; 杨文侠; 颜海燕; 王利

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,using watermelon as a major material,watermelon vinegar was produced by way of alcoholic ferment and acetic acid ferment.The technology of functional watermelon drink by acetic acid ferment was introduced,that is mix watermelon juice,strawberry juice,sugar,etc.with watermelon vinegar.This drink is of great nutritive function.%介绍以西瓜为主要原料,经酒精发酵和醋酸发酵制成西瓜醋后,再与西瓜汁、蜂蜜、草莓汁、白糖等调配而成的功能性西瓜发酵醋酸饮料的工艺。

  15. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  16. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.

  17. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils.

  18. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. (CCT fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w. 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs. In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P<0.0001. At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  19. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding.

  20. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  1. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (σ) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  2. 西瓜交替氧化酶AOX2基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of the alternative oxidase-2(AOX2) gene in watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李严曼; 朱磊; 杨景华; 张明方

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the possible functions of the alternative oxidase gene family in watermelon plants,high-quality RNA was extracted from cold-tolerant watermelon(Citrullus lanatus) germplasm IVSM No.9 and then cDNA was obtained through reverse transcription kit.A cDNA fragment of alternative oxidase was amplified using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the conserved domain of alternative oxidase genes in other plants.According to the cDNA fragment sequence,the 5' and 3' end fragment sequences were obtained using RACE technology respectively.The full length cDNA of ClAOX2 was obtained by DNAMAN5.22 from the above three sequences.The cDNA fragment exhibited high homology to the alternative oxidase-2(AOX2) of other species and could be referred to as ClAOX2.Then the full lengths of cDNA and DNA were obtained by PCR according to the known cDNA sequence.The full-length cDNA of ClAOX2 was 1 263 bp in size with a 1050 bp open reading frame(ORF).The full-length DNA was 1 983 bp which has consisted of four exons interrupted by three introns.The accession number of ClAOX2 in GenBank database is ADD84880.Real-time PCR showed that the ClAOX2 gene expressed in root,stem,leaf,flower,and fruit of watermelon seedling and significantly higher in the fruit.These results demonstrated that ClAOX2 may play a role during fruit development.%为了研究西瓜交替氧化酶基因家族在西瓜植株中可能发挥的功能,以西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)耐冷种质IVSM9为材料,根据植物不同物种交替氧化酶基因核苷酸保守区序列设计兼并引物,得到西瓜交替氧化酶(alterna-tive oxidase)AOX基因的中间片段。在已知序列的基础上,分别设计5’和3’末端扩增的特异引物,采用cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)的方法得到西瓜交替氧化酶基因的5’端和3’端序列,用DNAMAN5.22软件对3个序列进行拼接和分析,获得全长序列。得到的基因片段同其

  3. Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Azizi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27–85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous and gram-negative (Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications.

  4. Development of Watermelon Peel Fruit Wine%西瓜皮果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟; 王林山

    2011-01-01

    Watermelon peel and sugar were used as main raw materials to produce watermelon peel fruit wine by yeast fermentation. The suitable technical parameters were determined by single factor experiments as follows: 18 %-22 % sugar content, 6 h alcoholic fermentation time, 3% yeast use level and pH value between 3.0-5.0. The optimum technical parameters were summed up as follows by orthogonal experiments: sugar content was 22 %, the use level of yeast was 3 % and pH value was 4.%以西瓜皮和白砂糖为主要原料,经酵母茵发酵后制成西瓜皮果酒。通过单因素实验确定了酒精发酵过程中较适宜的糖度为18%~22%,最佳酒精发酵时间为6h,酵母用量为3%,pH值为3.0-5.0。正交实验确定酒精发酵的最佳工艺组合为:糖度为22%,酵母茵用量为3%,pH值为4。

  5. A Novel Agricultural Waste Adsorbent, Watermelon Shell for the Removal of Copper from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the application of Watermelon Shell, an agricultural waste, for the adsorptive removal of Cu(II from its aqueous solutions. This paper incorporates the effects of time, dose,temperature, concentration, particle size, agitation speed and pH. Analytical techniques have been employed to find pore properties and characteristics of adsorbent materials. Batch kinetic and isotherm studies have also been performed to understand the ability of the adsorbents. The adsorption behavior of the Cu(II has beenstudied using Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. The monolayer adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir adsorption equation has been found as 111.1 mg/g. Kineticmeasurements suggest the involvement of pseudo-second-order kinetics in adsorptions and is controlled by a particle diffusion process. Adsorption of Cu(II on adsorbents was found to increase on decreasing initial concentration, increasing pH up to 8, increasing temperature, increasing agitation speed and decreasing particlesize. Overall, the present findings suggest that watermelon outer shell is environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent which is useful for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous media.

  6. Coupling of the chemical niche and microbiome in the rhizosphere: implications from watermelon grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SONG,Chen ZHU,Waseem RAZA,Dongsheng WANG,Qiwei HUANG,Shiwei GUO,Ning LING,Qirong SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is commonly used to overcome soil-borne diseases. However, its effects on the rhizodeposits as well as the linkages between the rhizosphere chemical niche and microbiome remained unknown. In this paper, significant negative correlations between the bacterial alpha diversity and both the disease incidence (r = -0.832, P = 0.005 and pathogen population (r = - 0.786, P = 0.012 were detected. Moreover, our results showed that the chemical diversity not only predicts bacterial alpha diversity but also can impact on overall microbial community structure (beta diversity in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, some anti-fungal compounds including heptadecane and hexadecane were identified in the rhizosphere of grafted watermelon. We concluded that grafted watermelon can form a distinct rhizosphere chemical niche and thus recruit microbial communities with high diversity. Furthermore, the diverse bacteria and the antifungal compounds in the rhizosphere can potentially serve as biological and chemical barriers, respectively, to hinder pathogen invasion. These results not only lead us toward broadening the view of disease resistance mechanism of grafting, but also provide clues to control the microbial composition by manipulating the rhizosphere chemical niche.

  7. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  8. The concentration of trans-lycopene in postharvest watermelon: An evaluation of analytical data obtained by direct methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrovski, D.; Bicanic, D.D.; Luterotti, S.; Twisk, van C.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Doka, O.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the newly proposed laser-based optothermal window (OW) method and colorimetry for quantification of trans -lycopene in 10 watermelon homogenates has been evaluated. Reverse phase HPLC served as an established reference method. Both, OW and colorimetry are direct methods as they, c

  9. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across Southeastern United States (NC, SC, and GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici has been documented as a pathogen on a wide variety of vegetable crops in the family Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and plants belonging to 23 other families. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelons caused by P. capsici is particularly severe in southeastern U.S where optima...

  10. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Logistics institude, CJ Korea Express, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability.

  11. Effect of processing parameters on fouling resistances during microfiltration of red plum and watermelon juices: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Himan; Alemi, Azam; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the total (R t ), reversible (R rev ), irreversible (R irr ), and cake (R c ) resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice (as a juice with colloid particles) and red plum juice (as a juice without colloid particles). Results showed that the total resistance decreased by about 45% when the feed velocity was increased during clarification of red plum juice due to change in cake resistance. Also, increasing the feed temperature from 20 to 30°C decreased the total fouling resistance by about 9% due to decreases in the irreversible and reversible fouling resistances. Also, mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane (which is hydrophilic) had a lower cake resistance compared to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (which is hydrophobic). Examination of the microfiltration of watermelon juice showed that R t decreased by about 54% when the feed temperature was increased from 20 to 50°C, partially due to the reduction of reversible fouling resistance by 78%. Also, increasing transmembrane pressures from 0.5 to 2.5 bars greatly increased total fouling resistance. The feed velocity had a different effect on fouling resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice compared to red plum juice: in contrast with red plum juice, increasing the feed velocity for watermelon juice increased cake resistance.

  12. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogy...

  13. Identification of Watermelon silver mottle virus infecting watermelon in Yunnan%云南西瓜银灰斑驳病毒病害的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹跃艳; 卢训; 李婷婷; 李红祥; 郭淼; 赵丽玲; 张晓云; 丁铭

    2016-01-01

    应用DAS-ELISA和RT-PCR方法从褪绿和银色斑驳的西瓜叶片中检测到病毒分离物(WSMoV-YN),感病样品能与WSMoV/GBNV复合抗血清(Agdia)呈阳性反应.获得WSMoV N蛋白的多克隆抗体,抗体能与WSMoV血清组成员CaCV和TZSV反应,但不能与INSV、TSWV、HCRV和GYSV反应.为明确引起该病害的病毒种类,采用Tospovirus通用引物对样品的总RNA进行RT-PCR扩增,获得长度为3 554 nt的S RNA全序列,经Blastn比对分析与WSMoV中国台湾分离物同源性最高,为95.8%,其N和NSs蛋白氨基酸序列同源性分别为99%和97.6%.构建系统进化树发现,西瓜银灰斑驳病毒云南分离物(WSMoV-YN)与其他WSMoV聚为一支.确定引起云南西瓜病害的病毒为WSMoV.%Using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR,a viral isolate (WSMoV-YN) was detected in watermelon showing chlorotic and silver mottle.Diseased samples were positive for antibodies to Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (Agdia,USA).The polyclonal antiserum of N protein were obtained and could react with Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV),the members of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) serogroup,but not react with Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV),Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV),Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) and Groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV).To further confirm the presence of WSMoV,the samples were examined by RTPCR using tospovirus universal primer pairs.Full-length sequence of WSMoV-YN S RNA with a length of 3 554 nt was obtained and sequence alignment indicated that WSMoV-YN shares 95.8% identity with WSMoV isolates from Taiwan,China (NC_003843) at the nucleotide level.The nucleocapsid protein (N) and non-structual (NSs) shared 99% and 97.6% amion acid identity with the Taiwan (China) isolates,respectively.Taken together,our results suggested that the WSMoV-YN formed a distinct cluster with the other WSMoV isolates.

  14. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem.

  15. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  16. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  17. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  18. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  19. Intensified removal of copper from waste water using activated watermelon based biosorbent in the presence of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metals having significant effects on the living organisms and hence effective removal of copper from waste water is crucial. The current work investigates the application of activated watermelon shell based biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The effect of activation using calcium hydroxide and citric acid as well as the effect of operating parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, pH, initial concentration and ultrasonic power on the extent of removal has been investigated. Experiments performed in the presence of ultrasound to investigate the degree of intensification as compared to the conventional agitation based treatment revealed that the adsorption rate significantly increases in the presence of ultrasound and also the time required for reaching the equilibrium reduces from 60 min in conventional approach to only 20 min in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of adsorption of Cu(II) on adsorbents was found to increase with an increase in the operating pH till an optimum value of 5. The extent of adsorption also increased with a decrease in the initial concentration and particle size as well as with an increase in ultrasonic power till an optimum. Kinetics and isotherm study revealed that all the experimental data was found to best fit the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 31.25mg/g for watermelon treated with calcium hydroxide and 27.027 mg/g for watermelon treated with citric acid. Overall present study established that activated watermelon is an environmentally friendly, low cost and highly efficient biosorbent that can be successfully applied for the removal of copper from aqueous solution with intensification benefits based on the ultrasound assisted approach.

  20. The effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in drip irrigated grafted and ungrafted watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seluk zmen; Rza Kanber; Nebahat Sar; Mustafa nl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in grafted and ungrafted watermelon. The study was conducted in Çukurova region, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, between 2006 and 2008, and employed 3 irrigation rates (ful irrigation (I100) with no stress, moderate irrigation (DI70), and low irrigation (DI50);DI70 and DI50 were considered deifcit irrigation) on grafted (CTJ, Crimson Tide+Jumbo) and the ungrafted (CT, Crim-son Tide) watermelon. The amount of irrigation water (IR) applied to the study plots were calculated based on cumulative pan evaporation that occurred during the irrigation intervals. Nitrogen consumption was 16%lower in CTJ plants than in CT plants. On the other hand, consumption of nitrogen was 28%higher in DI50 plants than in DI70 plants while it was 23%higher in DI50 plants than in I100 plants. By grafting, the average amount of nitrogen content in seeds, pulps and peels for CTJ was 30, 43 and 56%more than those of CT, respectively. The yield and the quality were not signiifcantly affected by the deifcit irrigation. In this respect, grafting of watermelon gave higher yield, but, it had a slight effect on fruit quality. The highest yield values of 16.90 and 19.32 kg plant–1 in 2008 were obtained with I100 and in CTJ plants, respectively. However, DI50 treatment could be taken into account for the development of reduced irrigation strategies in semiarid regions where irrigation water supplies are limited. Additional y, the yield increased by applying CTJ treatment to the watermelon production.

  1. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  2. A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Newport gastroenteritis in Europe associated with watermelon from Brazil, confirmed by whole genome sequencing: October 2011 to January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, L; Fisher, I; Peters, T; Mather, A; Thomson, N; Rosner, B; Bernard, H; McKeown, P; Cormican, M; Cowden, J; Aiyedun, V; Lane, C

    2014-08-07

    In November 2011, the presence of Salmonella Newport in a ready-to-eat watermelon slice was confirmed as part of a local food survey in England. In late December 2011, cases of S. Newport were reported in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Ireland and Germany. During the outbreak, 63 confirmed cases of S. Newport were reported across all six countries with isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from the watermelon isolate.A subset of outbreak isolates were whole-genome sequenced and were identical to, or one single nucleotide polymorphism different from the watermelon isolate.In total, 46 confirmed cases were interviewed of which 27 reported watermelon consumption. Further investigations confirmed the outbreak was linked to the consumption of watermelon imported from Brazil.Although numerous Salmonella outbreaks associated with melons have been reported in the United States and elsewhere, this is the first of its kind in Europe.Expansion of the melon import market from Brazil represents a potential threat for future outbreaks. Whole genome sequencing is rapidly becoming more accessible and can provide a compelling level of evidence of linkage between human cases and sources of infection,to support public health interventions in global food markets.

  3. GRAFTING FOR CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON BELL PEPPER, TOMATO, AND MELONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, microplot, and field trials were conducted over three-years to evaluate rootstocks for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance. Rootstocks were evaluated for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum esculentum), cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lan...

  4. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change.

  5. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  6. Effect of diurnal temperature alternations on plant growth and mineral composition in cucumber, melon and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthichack, Phommy; Nishimura, Yasuyo; Fukumoto, Yasufumi

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated plant growth and mineral composition in three cucurbit crops of cucumber, melon and watermelon grown under four constant day and night temperatures (DIF) of 25/15, 22.5/17.5, 17.5/22.5 and 15/25 degrees C. As expected, the growth and development of the three cucurbits were strongly temperature dependent. Plant height and relative chlorophyll content of the three crops decreased linearly along with decreases in day temperature. Leaf and stem dry weight decreased significantly under negative DIFs and the lowest value was in DIF plot 15/25 degrees C. However, the negative DIF of 15/25 degrees C resulted in increased content of all mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu) in both the leaf and stem of the three cucurbit crops. The data suggest that a negative DIF as low as 15/25 degrees C may be beneficial to greenhouse-grown cucurbit crop producers, by controlling vegetative growth that facilitates crop management, with no negative effect on or enhancement of the uptake rates of mineral nutrients which are required to determine yield and fruit quality at the production stage. Effective utilization of diurnal temperature alternations is one strategy that can be used to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses.

  7. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  8. Cutin from watermelon peels: A novel inducer for cutinase production and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sandeep A; Singhal, Rekha S

    2015-08-01

    Cutin a polymeric biological macromolecule made up of esterified polyacids which acts as an inducer of cutinase. The present work was based on screening and characterization of newer cutin source from the agro industrial wastes as inducers of cutinase production by Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 2480. Cutin isolated from peels of multi green colored watermelon (WMC) yielded 6.77 U/mL as compared to that 9.64 U/mL of cutinase using apple cutin. The FTIR and (13)C CP-MAS solid state NMR studies indicated the nature of WMC to be an aliphatic polyester of polyhydroxy fatty acids. A further FTIR spectroscopic study on dewaxed cutin confirmed that the ester linkages in WMC were completely hydrolyzed during submerged fermentation. GC-MS data clearly indicated the critical structural feature of WMC viz. hydroxyl groups at ω-position and middle of the fatty acid chain. The amorphous nature of WMC was confirmed by XRD. DSC of WMC showed two endothermic transition peaks, one broad appearing at 30-60 °C and other at 145 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis of WMC suggested it to be thermally stable up to 200 °C. This study warrants further work on using WMC as a substrate for fermentative production of cutinase.

  9. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on cut cantaloupe, honeydew and watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-04-01

    A recent outbreak linked to whole cantaloupes underscores the importance of understanding growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in cut melons at different temperatures. Whole cantaloupe, watermelon, and honeydew purchased from a local supermarket were cut into 10 ± 1 g cubes. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes from food related outbreaks was used to inoculate fruit, resulting in ~10(3) CFU/10 g. Samples were stored at 4, 10, 15, 20, or 25 °C and L. monocytogenes were enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was used to describe L. monocytogenes growth rate as a function of temperature. The model was compared to prior models for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth on cut melon, as well as models for L. monocytogenes on cantaloupe and L. monocytogenes ComBase models. The current model predicts faster growth of L. monocytogenes vs. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 at temperatures below 20 °C, and agrees with estimates from ComBase Predictor, and a corrected published model for L. monocytogenes on cut cantaloupe. The model predicts ~4 log CFU increase following 15 days at 5 °C, and ∼1 log CFU increase following 6 days at 4 °C. The model can also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk assessments.

  10. 西瓜枯萎病土壤拮抗菌的筛选%Screening of Soil Antagonistic Bacteria for Watermelon Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芹; 张洪斌; 苏晓飞

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to screen bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt from soil and investigate the biological control of watermelon fusarium wilt by applying the antagonistic bacteria strains into soil. [Method] Actinomycete strains, fluorescent bacteria strains and bacillus strains were isolated from soil samples by the dilution-plate method, then its resistance was screened respectively by the improved confront culture method after colonies were purified. Finally, bacteria strains with better antagonistic effect were identified. [Result] 29 bacteria strains with stable antagonistic effect against watermelon fusarium wilt were screened from 39 soil samples, which contained 15 fluorescent bacteria strains, 5 bacillus strains and 9 actinomycete strains. Furthermore, three antagonistic bacteria strains of FM2, FM3 and FM4 with the strongest antagonism were identified primarily. [Conclusion] According to cultural characteristics, morphological observation, biochemical and physiological tests, FM2 belongs to bacillus subtilis, while FM3 and FM4 belong to micrococcus.

  11. Study on Fertilizer Effect of Nanyang Biological Organic Fertilizer on Watermelon%南阳生物有机肥在西瓜上的肥效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文芳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索南阳生物有机肥对西瓜品质及产量的影响。[方法]以不施生物有机肥+常规施肥为对照,设置施用生物有机肥3000、4500和6000kg,hm。3个处理,分析有机肥对西瓜生长品质及产量的影响、[结果]增施南阳生物有机肥能有效促进西瓜植株生长发育,降低坐瓜节位.提高单个瓜重,提高西瓜中心糖分含量,改善西瓜口感和品质,达到增产增收的目的。[结论]南阳生物有机肥对西瓜生产有增产增收的效果,适合大面积推广。%[Objective] The aim was to explore the influence of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer on yieht and quality of watermelon. [Method] The treatment of no biological organic fertilizer and conventional fertilizer was taken as control, analyzed the influence of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer on yield and quality of watermelon by setting three treatments: applied Nanyang biological organic fertilizer 3 000,4 500,6 000 kg/hm2. [Result] The result indicated that increasing application of Nanyang biological organic fertilizer could effectively promote plant growth and development of watermelon, reduce fruiting node, improve single melon weight, raise watermelon center sugar content, improve the taste and quality of watermelon and achieve the purpose of increasing income. [Conclusion] Nanyang biological organic fertilizer was suitable to be popularized in large area for increasing production of watermelon.

  12. Regulation of plant growth, photosynthesis, antioxidation and osmosis by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in watermelon seedlings under well-watered and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eMo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and MDHAR in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2- compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances in the knowledge of AM-induced drought tolerance.

  13. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and [Formula: see text] compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes

  14. Africanidades na paisagem brasileira Africanities in the brazilian landscape Africanidades en el paisaje brasileño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Marcus de Souza Correa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguesAs paisagens do Brasil foram marcadas desde o período colonial por vários componentes alienígenas. Entre eles, destacam-se as plantas de origem africana e asiática. O presente estudo trata de evidências da melancia (Citrullus lanatus nos arredores de São Salvador da Bahia. Integrada à dieta alimentar dos brasileiros desde o século XVI, ela “africanizou” a paisagem baiana, embora sua posterior expansão pelo território nacional tenha ocorrido devido a vários fatores internos; inclusive, ao seu “abrasileiramento”. No entanto, o olhar dos viajantes europeus distinguia, ainda no século XIX, os elementos exóticos da paisagem brasileira, como as bananas, as mangas e as melancias, apesar de sua “naturalização” no ambiente e na percepção dos brasileiros em relação à paisagem.EnglishSince the colonial period, the landscapes of Bahia have been marked by various foreign characteristics, among which plants of African and Asian origin stand out. The present study deals with the evidence of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus in the outskirts of São Salvador da Bahia. As an integral component of the Brazilians’ diet since the XVI century, it “africanized” the Bahian landscape, although its subsequent expansion on the national territory occurred due to various internal factors, including its “Brazilianization”. Nevertheless, still in the XIX century, the view of the European travelers distinguished the exotic elements of the Brazilian landscape, such as bananas, mangos and watermelons, despite their “naturalization” on the area and on the perception of the Brazilians in relation to the landscape. EspañolLos paisajes de Brasil fueron marcados desde el periodo colonial por varios componentes alienígenas. Entre ellos, se destacan las plantas de origen africano y asiático. El presente estudio trata de evidencias de la sandía (Citrullus lanatus en los alrededores de San Salvador de Bahia. Integrada a la dieta

  15. Effect of watermelon silver mottle virus on the life history and feeding preference of Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.

  16. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Samar; Sahragard, Ahad; Sendi, Jalal J; Aalami, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are the heterogeneous proteins in plants that serve as storage proteins via defensive mechanisms against herbivores. In the current study, a lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae finding out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macromolecules. It was found that CCA (C. colocynthis Agglutinin) increased life span from 23.44 days in control to 28.59 days in the treated individuals. Survival of larvae on control and CCA diets were 93.3 and 66.6%, respectively. Different concentrations of CCA significantly affected α-amylase and general proteolytic activities except for TAG-lipase activity. Activities of all specific proteases decreased when larvae were fed on different concentrations of CCA except for aminopeptidase. Meanwhile, amount of storage macromolecules in the larvae fed on different concentrations of CCA statistically decreased vs. control. These results demonstrated that CCA could intervene in physiology of E. ceratoniae and survival of larvae. Therefore, it can be taken into consideration in IPM of the pest through plant breeding programs.

  17. Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar eRamzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are the widespread and heterogeneous proteins of plants that serve as storage proteins in defensive mechanisms against herbivores. A lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae to find out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macromolecules. It was found that CCA increased life span from 23.44 days in control to 28.59 days in the individuals fed on 2% of CCA. Larval survivals on control and CCA diets were 93.3 and 66.6%, respectively. Different concentrations of CCA significantly affected α-amylase and general proteolytic activities in larvae but TAG-lipase activity had no significant changes. Activities of all specific proteases decreased when larvae were fed on different concentrations of CCA except for aminopeptidase. Meanwhile, amount of storage macromolecules in the larvae fed on different concentrations of CCA statistically decreased versus control. These results demonstrated that CCA could intervene in physiology of E. ceratoniae and survival of larvae. Therefore, it can be taken into consideration in IPM of the pest through plant breeding programs.

  18. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfa- tos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.

  19. Effects of Extraction and Purification Methods on Degradation Kinetics and Stability of Lycopene from Watermelon under Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, Abu; Eun, Jong Bang; Sagor, Md Shafiul Azam; Rahman, Atikur; Akter, Mst Sorifa; Ahmed, Maruf

    2016-09-28

    Lycopene was extraction, isolation and purification using recrystallization, column chromatography, and preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods as well as degradation kinetics of lycopene were studied at refrigerated temperature and room temperature for 3 wk from watermelon. Higher lycopene degradation was observed at refrigerated temperature as compared to ambient temperature throughout the storage periods. The highest amount of lycopene retained in recrystallization (101.69 μg/g) followed by column chromatography (18.20 μg/g) and preparative TLC (15.57 μg/g). Color parameters, half-life time (t1/2 ), and color retention (%R) were dependent on extraction, isolation, and purification methods and storage life. Recrystallization and preparative TLC were followed by first order reaction model. Preparative TLC exhibited higher activation energy than did the recrystallization and column chromatography. Therefore, the result shows that recrystallization method could apply to extract and purify lycopene from watermelon that would also be used as a natural colorant as well as value-added product.

  20. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using watermelon rinds and their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ch.; Gangadhara, S.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2016-08-01

    Novel and bio-inspired magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using watermelon rinds (WR) which are nontoxic and biodegradable. Watermelon rind extract was used as a solvent and capping and reducing agent in the synthesis. The Fe3o4 MNPs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques (VSM). XRD studies revealed a high degree of crystalline and monophasic Fe nanoparticles of face-centered cubic stricture. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process in an excellent candidate for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles that is simple, easy to execute, pollutant free and inexpensive. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of highly stable and small-sized iron nanoparticles with a narrow distribution from 2 to 20 nm is reported. Also, the MNPs present in higher saturation magnetization (Ms) of 14.2 emu/g demonstrate tremendous magnetic response behavior. However, the synthesized iron nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for the preparation of biologically interesting 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives in high yields. These results exhibited that the synthesized Fe3O4 MNPs could be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

  1. Effects of Different Rotation Modes on Microbial Population in Gravel Mulched Field%砂田轮作模式对土壤微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚慧; 吴宏亮; 康建宏; 许强; 杨金娟; 姚姗; 尹冠华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究砂田轮作模式对土壤微生物区系的影响,从而通过制定合理的栽培制度创造良好的土壤生态环境,为促进农业的可持续发展提供理论依据.[方法]对宁夏中卫市香山地区压砂地土壤进行取样,并进行了微生物区系的分析.[结果]西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)与绿豆(Vigna radiata)、南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)、油葵(Helianthus annuus)、西葫芦(Cucurbita pepo L.)、芝麻(Sesamum indicum)轮作,土壤微生物多样性指数均高于西瓜连作.[结论]轮作能有效调节土壤微生物区系,有利于微生物群落的多样性和稳定性的提高,最终改善了土壤的微生态环境,其中以西瓜→南瓜效果最好.%[ Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of different rotation modes on microbial population in gravel mulched field, then create good soil ecological environment by drawing up reasonable cultivation system to provide a theoretical basis for promoting agricultural sustainable development of agriculture, [Method] Soil samples were taken from gravel mulched field in Xiangshan Area, Zhongwei City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and their microbial population was analyzed. [Result] Compared with the watermelon continuous crop, the microbial diversity index was higher in the planting mode of mung bean( Vigna radiata) , pumpkins( Cucurbita moschata) , oil sunflower(Helianthus arm-uus) , squash(Cucurbitapepo L. ) and sesame(Sesamum indicum) rotating with watermelon( Citrultus lanatus). [Conclusion] Rotating effectively adjusts soil microbial population, which is conducive to improving microbial population diversity and stability, and eventually improving the soil ecology environment. Among these rotation modes, squash rotation with watermelon was the best.

  2. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswaran Guru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also

  3. 西瓜汁的澄清工艺及营养成分变化研究%Watermelon Juice Clarification Technology and Nutrition Changes Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋波

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon deep processing which could digest part and greatly enhance the added value of agricultural products was reseached to solve the difficult problem of watermelon seasonal storage. Chitosan and filter aid diatomite in different ratio were selected to clarify the watermelon juice. Watermelon juice clarification experiments showed that, the clarification effect of 400 ppm of chitosan and diatomite was good. The analysis filter, light transmission rate of fruit juice was 96.03%. Clarification and watermelon juice nutritious component analysis shows, vitaminC, total sugar, soluble solid content and protein content decreased slightly. Watermelon juice pH increasing, watermelon juice concentrated fructose content reached 26.5% which could be refered in further development and utilization.%为了解决西瓜应季储存困难的问题,试验拟从西瓜深加工入手,既能消化掉一部分又能极大提高农产品附加值。研究了西瓜汁的澄清及澄清前后的营养成分变化及浓缩后果糖的含量。试验选用壳聚糖和助滤剂硅藻土按照不同的配比澄清西瓜汁。西瓜汁的澄清试验结果表明,壳聚糖和硅藻土含量均为400×10-6时澄清效果好,再经分析滤纸过滤,果汁透光率达到96.03%。澄清前后的西瓜汁营养成分分析表明,维生素C、总糖、可溶性固形物和蛋白质的含量略微降低。西瓜汁pH有升高,西瓜汁浓缩后果糖含量达到26.5%,可供进一步开发利用。

  4. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  5. Contribution à l’étude de l’effet antidiabétique des extraits de graines de Citrullus colocynthis Chez le rat Wistar rendu diabétique par la streptozotocine

    OpenAIRE

    Benariba, Nabila

    2014-01-01

    L’ethnopharmacologie, une discipline qui se partage entre la tradipratition et l’expérimentation aux laboratoires, a pour but d’argumenter scientifiquement les effets thérapeutiques des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Parmi ces plantes Citrullus colocynthis ou coloquinte, plante de la famille des cucurbitacées, anciennement utilisée par la population de diabétiques, sous forme d’infusion des graines ou du fruit entier pour traiter le diabéte sucré. De ce fait, l’obje...

  6. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Technique for Watermelon Seed Oil%西瓜籽油微波辅助提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昌贵; 孟宇竹; 蔡花真

    2013-01-01

    以西瓜籽为原料,研究了微波辅助提取西瓜籽油的工艺条件,通过单因素试验和正交试验,探讨了溶剂种类、微波功率、提取温度、料液比、以及提取时间对西瓜籽油得率的影响.确定最佳提取剂为正已烷,最佳工艺条件为:微波功率200 W,提取温度80℃,料液比1∶12,提取时间21 min,此条件下西瓜籽油得率可达51.77%.西瓜籽油中的脂肪酸以不饱和脂肪酸为主,尤以亚油酸质量分数最高,达62.30%.%Taking watermelon seeds as the raw materials, we studied the technical conditions for extracting watermelon seed oil by microwave - assisted method, discussed solvent types, microwave power, extraction temperature, solid - liquid ratio and the influence of extraction time on watermelon seed oil yield through single factor and orthogonal experiments. As the experimental results showed,the optimal extractant was n -hexane,and the optimal technical conditions were as follows: microwave power of 200 W, extraction temperature of 80℃ , solid - liquid ratio of 1: 12 and extraction time of 21 min. The extraction yield of watermelon seed oil could reach 51.77% in the optimal conditions. The major component of fatty acid in watermelon seed oil was unsaturated fatty acid with the highest linoleic acid content proportion of up to 62. 30% particularly.

  7. Separation and Analysis of Carotenoids in Watermelon Flesh%西瓜中类胡萝卜素的分离与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡利强; 郭晓伟; 赵文恩; 王军伟; 张广瑞

    2011-01-01

    采用超声波辅助提取法从不同瓤色西瓜果肉中提取类胡萝卜素,经柱色谱分离和重结晶纯化,获得纯度为90%左右的番茄红素、β-胡萝卜素和ζ-胡萝卜素,用作分析的标样.采用高效液相色谱法,通过特征吸收光谱和保留时间鉴别,初步分析西瓜中类胡萝卜素的组成.结果表明,红瓤西瓜中的类胡萝卜素以番茄红素(18.55%)和β-胡萝卜素为主(11.71%);黄瓤西瓜中含较多新黄质(52.02%);白瓤西瓜中不含番茄红素.%Carotenoids were extracted from the fruit flesh of five watermelon varieties using ultrasonic method,and separated by open-column chromatography using recryctallization. Lycopene, β-carotene,and ζ-carotene in 90% purity were obtained and used in analysis of watermelon carotenoids as the standard samples. Watermelon carotenoids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with the photodiode array detector. The results showed that lycopene (18. 55%) and p-carotene (11. 71%) were the major pigments in the red-fleshed watermelon. In the yellow-fleshed watermelon,the neoxanthin content(52. 02%) was relatively high. Lycopene was not detected in the white-fleshed wtaremelon.

  8. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  9. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  10. Identification of the subgenomic promoter of the coat protein gene of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus and development of a heterologous expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2016-06-01

    Heterologous gene expression using plant virus vectors enables research on host-virus interactions and the production of useful proteins, but the host range of plant viruses limits the practical applications of such vectors. Here, we aimed to develop a viral vector based on cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, whose members infect cucurbits. The subgenomic promoter (SGP) in the coat protein (CP) gene, which was used to drive heterologous expression, was mapped by analyzing deletion mutants from a CaMV 35S promoter-driven infectious CFMMV clone. The region from nucleotides (nt) -55 to +160 relative to the start codon of the open reading frame (ORF) of CP was found to be a fully active promoter, and the region from nt -55 to +100 was identified as the active core promoter. Based on these SGPs, we constructed a cloning site in the CFMMV vector and successfully expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Co-inoculation with the P19 suppressor increased EGFP expression and viral replication by blocking degradation of the viral genome. Our CFMMV vector will be useful as an expression vector in cucurbits.

  11. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants.

  12. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... morphology, but in particular for seed traits. On average, the three landraces produced a fruit yield of 11·6 t/ha and an estimated seed yield of 364 kg/ha, with no significant differences among landraces. Kaneye showed the highest stability of fruit number/ha in different field environments, suggesting...... this landrace is the best among the three for a poor growing environment, whereas Fombou and especially Musa Musa responded positively to more favourable environments. Seed weight revealed a different trend, with Fombou as the most responsive to favourable conditions, while Kaneye and Musa Musa were less...

  13. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  14. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  15. 野西瓜果致接触性皮炎12例%Wild watermelon fruit caused 12 cases of contact dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕丽; 谢泽初

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨因野西瓜果导致接触性皮炎的临床案例。方法:收集因野西瓜果接触导致接触性皮炎患者12例,给予抗组胺药物配合局部用药对症治疗,无禁忌者系统使用糖皮质激素。结果:治疗总有效率为100%。%Objective:To discuss the clinical cases and treatment of Contact dermatitis caused by wild watermelon fruit. Methods:Col ect 12 patients of Contact dermatitis caused by wild watermelon fruit, which were treated by antihistamines ,the Local drug and glucocorticoid with no contraindications. Results:The total effective of the treatment was 100%.

  16. Fontes de resistência em melancia aos principais potyvírus isolados de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Vanuzia B. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A melancia, Citrullus spp., pode ser infetada por várias espécies de vírus, dentre as quais se destacam as pertencentes à família Potyviridae. Visando identificar fontes de resistência a potyvírus, foi iniciado na UFC um programa de indexação do banco de germoplasma de melancia da Embrapa Semi-Árido. Foram utilizadas as espécies de potyvírus, isoladas de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste: Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W; Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2 e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. Dos 50 acessos de melancia avaliados, 37 pertencem a Citrullus lanatus, 9 a C. lanatus var. citroides e 4 a C. colocynthis. Em casa-de-vegetação foram inoculadas 4 plantas envasadas de cada acesso com PRSV-W, 4 com WMV-2 e 4 com ZYMV, ficando 4 sem inoculação. As inoculações foram efetuadas 8 dias após o plantio, e 15 dias depois. As plantas assintomáticas foram reinoculadas. As plantas que persistiram sem sintomas, após um período de 25 dias após a primeira inoculação, foram testadas por ELISA contra os anti-soros correspondentes. Dentre os acessos avaliados, 5 mostraram-se resistentes aos 3 vírus, um resistente somente ao PRSV-W, 21 resistentes somente ao ZYMV e nenhum com resistência isolada ao WMV-2. No entanto, 45 acessos apresentaram resistência ao ZYMV isoladamente ou em combinação com outro potyvírus. Os acessos suscetíveis, apresentaram sintomas 10 dias após a primeira inoculação enquanto que os resistentes permaneceram sem sintomas após a segunda inoculação e com resultados negativos em ELISA. Alguns acessos poderão ser cruzados visando obter populações segregantes para a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos recessivos e, juntamente com os acessos com resistência tripla identificados, ampliar a variabilidade genética de fontes quanto a características de planta e fruto.

  17. Intense association of non-culturable endophytic bacteria with antibiotic-cleansed in vitro watermelon and their activation in degenerating cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious

    2011-12-01

    The study was undertaken with a view to unravel the source of bacterial colony growth observed in a section of micropropagated triploid watermelon cultures that were supposedly cleansed of the associated endophytic bacteria through antibiotic treatment, and thereafter maintained under stringent sterility checks to prevent lateral intrusion of contaminants. Five different bacteria were retrieved from colony growth-displaying watermelon cultures that were previously treated with gentamycin and five isolates from cefazolin-treated stocks with the organisms showing tolerance to the respective antibiotic. These watermelon cultures were in degeneration phase (over 6 months after the previous sub-culturing), while the actively maintained counterpart stocks appeared healthy with no colony growth on different bacteriological media during tissue-screenings. The latter cultures, however, revealed abundant motile, tetrazolium-stained bacterial cells in microscopy, suggesting tissue colonization by non-culturable endophytes. PCR screening on healthy cultures endorsed tissue colonization by different bacterial phylogenic groups. A few organisms could be activated to cultivation from healthy watermelon stocks through host tissue extract supplementation, which also enhanced the growth of all the organisms. The study indicated that a fraction of antibiotic-tolerant bacteria survived intra-tissue in non-culturable form during the preceding cleansing activity, multiplied to substantial numbers thereafter, and turned cultivable in degenerating cultures contributed by tissue breakdown products. This study brings out the existence of a deep endophyte association in tissue cultures which is not easily dissociable. It also signifies the utility of in vitro system for investigations into plant-endophyte association and to bring normally non-culturable novel organisms to cultivation facilitating their future exploitation.

  18. 有机肥对西瓜品质和产量的影响%Effect of Commercial Organic Fertilizer on the Quality and Yield of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆伟; 张亚菲; 王应君; 张丹

    2015-01-01

    为大面积推广有机肥在西瓜生产中的应用,探究有机肥对西瓜品质和产量的影响。结果表明:施用有机肥均能改善植株生长状况,提高植株抗性;明显增加西瓜果实的心糖和边糖含量,心糖含量增长率达14.35%~39.16%,边糖含量增长率达14.02%~34.10%;明显增加果实直径和产量,增产幅度为13.25%~42.52%。综合考虑产投比及生产风险,认为施用9000 kg·hm‐2金满意有机肥对西瓜生产可达到理想效果。%For promotion of organic fertilizer in watermelon production application ,commercial organic fertilizers on quality and yield of watermelon were explored .The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer could improve the growth status of plants and increased plant resistance ;and then it increased the center sugar and edge sugar content in watermelon fruit sugar content ,the growth rate achieved 14 .35% ~39 .16% ,the edge of sugar content in the growth rate was 14 .02% ~34 .10% ;fruit diameter and yield were increased ,yield increased by 13 .25% ~42 .52% .Considering the output and input ratio and production risk ,Jinmanyi organic fertilizer for 9 000 kg·hm‐2 could achieve the desired effect on watermelon production .

  19. Precise control of clamping force for watermelon picking end-effector%西瓜采摘末端执行器夹持力精确控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志勇; 张学炜; 张伟; 王琳

    2014-01-01

    为实现西瓜的机械化采摘,该文提出了采用液压驱动型末端执行器采摘大型果实的思路。在抓取西瓜时,为避免末端执行器夹持力不稳定引起的果实损伤,需对夹持力进行精确控制,该文建立了末端执行器负载模拟平台和AMESim&Simulink联合仿真模型,模拟西瓜采摘夹持力的加载情况。针对执行器夹持力加载过程中位置控制系统对力控制系统产生干扰,影响夹持力精确加载的问题,该文基于速度同步控制原理,设计了简化的加载误差补偿环节,开展了加载误差补偿理论、仿真及试验研究。结果表明,速度同步控制方法能够有效地减小加载误差,提高末端执行器负载模拟精度。该研究可为末端执行器输出力的精确控制和抓取控制策略提供参考。%Certain agricultural work requires a very stable robot end-effector to reduce vibration and damage to products. However, the structures of conventional articulated robots tend to be too weak to manipulate heavy objects, such as the watermelon. To achieve mechanized harvesting of the watermelon, we compared the characteristics of different end-effectors with the motor, pneumatic and hydraulic drives. By contrast, the hydraulic drive has many advantages, such as high power-weight ratio, compact structure and convenient layout. Therefore, the end-effector with hydraulic drive is more suitable for heavy fruit harvesting such as the watermelon. The hydraulic drive system based on force perception can output appropriate clamping force according to actual situation. When picking robot crawls and picks, it needs to avoid the damage to fruits and vegetables caused by unstable clamping force and to achieve the precise control of the clamping force for picking robot end-effector. Therefore, how to improve output force’s control precision of the valve control cylinder and reduce interference are key to improve the picking performance. Two

  20. Dicty_cDB: VFE826 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmelon lambda zap library Citrullus lanatus cDNA clone WMLS336 5' similar to acetyl...of Vitis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVC055H06 5, mRNA sequence. 60 3e-08 2 AI563047 |AI563047.1 EST00171 wate

  1. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2005-06-01

    populações de plantas prolíficas e de frutos pequenos.Genetic dissimilarity among 31 watermelon genotypes was evaluated through the canonic analysis and cluster analysis (Tocher Method and Ward Method based on Mahalanobis distance (D²ii' Thirty lines obtained from accesses collected in the Northeast of Brazil and the cultivar Crimson Sweet were evaluated to determine the number of days to appearance of the first male and female flower (NDM and NDF; number of shoots to the appearance of the first male and female flower (NGM and NGF; number of fruits per plant (NFP; length of the main vine (CRP; fruit mean weight (PMF; total solid soluble content (TSS; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF and rind thickness average (EMC. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replicates and seven plants per plot. The characteristics that contributed more to the genetic dissimilarity among the genotypes were number of fruit per plant, axial diameter of fruit, total solid soluble content and fruit mean weight. Three clusters were formed by Tocher's optimization method and by the Ward Method, while four clusters were formed by the graphic dispersion, based on two first canonic variables. In the last case, cluster I was composed of seven lines from Pernambuco and one line from Bahia; cluster II was formed by all the 21 lines from Maranhão; clusters III and IV were composed of line 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco and of 'Crimson Sweet', respectively. Lines 87-019.021 and 87-019.022 were the closest related, while line 87-019.023 and Crimson Sweet presented the biggest dissimilarity by the Mahalanobis distance (D²ii'. The hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from the cluster II will be the most promising. Hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from cluster I will be interesting to obtain populations of prolific plants, which give small fruits.

  2. Interferência de plantas daninhas no cultivo da melancia Weeds interference periods in watermelon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de G Maciel

    2008-03-01

    crop is an agricultural activity explored regionally, representing one of the most important sources of family income in small cities of the Médio Paranapanema, São Paulo State, Brazil, where nowadays, significant changes in the yield process are verified, changing from intensive labor to the use of promising technologies, as weed management, for instance. An experiment was carried out at Oscar Bressane municipal district, São Paulo State, Brazil, to study the weed interference on watermelon cultivation, in 2002/2003. Statistical procedure was based on randomized blocks with ten treatments and four replications, represented by plots with useful area of 18 m², containing four water melon plants and infestation of Sidaspp, Brachiaria humidicola, Commelina benghalensisand Portulaca oleraceaspecies. Weed infestation was estimated through randomized samples from the plots, using an iron drained square with 0,5 m sides. Treatments consisted of checks with and without hand weeded and different periods of weeds control, so that, crop was sustained in weeds presence or absence up to 7; 14; 28; 56 and 63 days after emergency (DAE. Initial period occurrence of possible coexistence greater than the final period established the Critical Period of Interference Prevention from the 9th to the 13th days (CPIP = 9-13 DAE. The reduction in yield due to the weed interference during all water melon crop cycle was about 41,4%. The diameter and thickness of fruits peel were also influenced by the coexistence with weed infestation during all the crop cycle, with decreases of 7,9% and 23,3%, respectively, against the characteristics length and diameter of branch and ºBrix of fruits pulp, when significant differences were not observed.

  3. Extraction of lycopene from watermelon%西瓜提取番茄红素工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪雁; 麦汸汸; 陈惠兴

    2011-01-01

    实验主要以西瓜为原料,利用番茄红素可溶于有机溶剂的性质,采用单因数实验,并结合正交实验进行对比,结果表明:采用混合溶液石油醚-丙酮1:6为提取溶剂,在原料与提取溶剂的比例为1:8,提取温度为50℃,提取时间为70min,浸提液的pH为6的条件下可得到最佳效果;搅拌和重复提取能提高提取效率。%Watermelon as the raw material extraction and use of the nature of lycopene soluble organic solvents. for the identification of lycopene extracted factors, a single-factor test and experiment with orthogonal contrast, The results showed: mixed solution of petroleum ether - acetone 1:6 as the extraction solvent, raw materials and solvents at a ratio of 1:8, extraction temperature of 50 ℃, extraction time 70 min, extracts of pH 6 extraction conditions can be extracted to achieve the best effect.

  4. Watermelon stomach: clinical aspects and treatment with argon plasma coagulation Ectasia vascular do antro gástrico ("watermelon stomach": aspectos clínicos e tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton M. Chaves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a disorder whose pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. The endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation has been considered one of the best endoscopic therapeutic options. AIM: To analyze the endoscopic and clinical features of gastric antral vascular ectasia and its response to the argon plasma coagulation treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were studied and classified into two groups: group 1 - whose endoscopic aspect was striped (watermelon or of the diffuse confluent type; group 2 - diffuse spotty nonconfluent endoscopic aspect. RESULTS: Group 1 with eight patients, all having autoimmune antibodies, but one, whose antibodies were not searched for. Three were cirrhotic and three had hypothyroidism. All had gastric mucosa atrophy. In group 2, with 10 patients, all had non-immune liver disease, with platelet levels below 90.000. Ten patients were submitted to argon plasma coagulation treatment, with 2 to 36 months of follow-up. Lesions recurred in all patients who remained in the follow-up program and one did not respond to treatment for acute bleeding control. CONCLUSION: There seem to be two distinct groups of patients with gastric antral vascular ectasia: one related to immunologic disorders and other to non-immune chronic liver disease and low platelets. The endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation had a high recurrence in the long-term evaluation.RACIONAL: "Watermelon stomach" ou ectasia vascular do antro gástrico é uma doença de etiopatogenia desconhecida. O tratamento endoscópico através da coagulação com plasma de argônio é considerado uma das melhores opções terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clínicos e endoscópicos da ectasia vascular do antro gástrico e a resposta ao tratamento com coagulação com plasma de argônio. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram estudados e classificados em dois grupos: grupo I - oito pacientes que

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION METHODS AND NITROGEN FORMS WITH VARIOUS AMOUNTS ON THE YIELD AND SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS OF WATERMELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas SENYIGIT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out at Research and Production Farm of Agricultural Faculty, Cukurova University during 1996 and 1997 growing season. In this experiment, different irrigation methods (S: Sprinkler; D: Drip, nitrogen forms (L: Liquid; G: Granule with various amounts (based on applied line source sprinkler irrigation method, N1; N2; N3 kg/da and two varieties of watermelon (P: Paladin; M: Madera were studied. Free water surface evaporation was used to determine irrigation water amount. In only SL and SGL treatments, three different nitrogen levels were formed providing gradient situation during the irrigation season. Based on the results, irrigation water ranged from 119.2 mm (first year to 350.5 mm (second year. Nitrogen applications varied from 5.1 kg da-1 (SL to 10 kg da-1 (SG in the all treatments. Total yield changed between 1325 kg da-1 (first year and 5013 kg da-1 (second year depending on year and treatments. Although, the highest yield was taken from treatments in which liquid fertilizers were applied for both of the varieties in the first year. The varieties have different response to form and amounts of nitrogen in the second year. In this year, the highest yield was obtained from SG treatment in Paladin variety. The yield decreased only by 12% in SL treatments that nitrogen was applied in liquid form. In Madera variety, the highest yield was taken from SGL treatments that granule and liquid fertilizer were applied together. The effects of irrigation methods and nitrogen levels on some quality parameters of watermelon were found to be insignificant (P>0.05. However, fruit diameter of Madera was larger than Paladin variety. The longest fruit length was measured in Paladin-DL treatment. As a result, it was determined that watermelon yield was increased by nitrogen which was applied through irrigation water. Therefore, it could be said that watermelon yield increased considerably with applying nitrogen together with irrigation

  6. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  7. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E- glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  8. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael; Schroder, Robert F W; Matsuo, Koharto; Li, Betty W

    2002-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E-glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW) that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillusspp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose) makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  9. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  10. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  11. 正交实验法优化西瓜番茄红素的提取工艺%The Orthogonal Experiment Method Extracting Lycopene in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义庆

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, lycopene was extracted from watermelon with the component solvent of ethyl acetate and acetone,the volume ratio was 7∶1. Effect of extraction time, extraction temperature, solid-liquid ratio, pH on extraction of watermelon lycopene were studied. The last orthogonal experiments showed the optimum conditions:solid-liquid ratio was 1∶4, the temperature was 45℃, the time was 50 min, pH=6.%采用了体积比为7∶1的乙酸乙酯-丙酮混合溶剂,提取新鲜西瓜中的番茄红素,考察了提取溶剂、提取时间、提取温度、料液比、pH等因索对提取液吸光度的影响,最后用正交试验确定了最佳工艺条件,分析结果表明:料液比为1∶4,温度为45℃,时间为50 min,pH=6时提取效果最好。

  12. 控释肥对西瓜生长发育的影响%Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer on Growth and Development of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元秀; 井大炜; 刘春生

    2011-01-01

    Taking the watermelon Heitong K-8 as meterial,the field experiment was conducted to study effect of controlled-release fertilizer on growth period,plant growth and yield of watermelon.The results showed that controlled-release fertilizer could promote wat%以黑彤K-8西瓜为试验材料,用田间小区试验的方法研究了控释肥对西瓜生育期、植株生长及产量的影响。结果表明,控释肥能促进西瓜早熟3~6 d;相对于习惯施肥,控释肥对植株的生长也有明显的作用;而且对西瓜的产量具有显著的提高作用,在等养分施用情况下与习惯施肥相比,增产幅度为22.32%,而且在减少20%养分用量的情况下,增产幅度仍可达到10.60%;等量控释肥、减量控释肥、减氮控释肥处理的肥料生产率分别为习惯施肥处理的2.28、2.01、1.32倍。

  13. 菌渣有机肥对大棚西瓜产量和品质的影响%Effect on Yield and Quality of Greenhouse Watermelon with Using Bacteria Residue Organic Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振国; 薛宇; 王子勤; 刘玉然

    2014-01-01

    本文通过田间试验,研究在施用氮、磷、钾肥的基础上,增施菌渣有机肥对西瓜产量、品质及主要农艺性状的影响。实验结果表明:增施菌渣有机肥,不仅提高了西瓜的产量和产值,而且有利于西瓜果实品质的改善,促进西瓜果实中Vc以及可溶性固形物的积累。%In the paper, the effect on watermelon yield, quality and major agronomic traits were studied by adding organic bacterial residue fertilizer on the basis of the regular application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizer through a field trial. .The results showed that: Adding bacteria residue organic fertilizer can not only raise the watermelon production and value, but also improve the quality of watermelon fruit, and promote the accumulation of watermelon fruit Vc and soluble solid.

  14. 打瓜白粉病药剂防治技术研究%Study on the Technique of Controling Seed- used Watermelon Powdery Mildew with Bactericides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛; 李新辉; 于建新; 王艳; 杨渡; 李承业; 潘竟海; 李妍娥; 杨静飞; 严丽; 刘同业; 侯秀芳

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] Because seed - used watermelon powdery mildew induced serious damage in Xinjiang Region, we study the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed - used watermelon powdery mildew in the field. [Method] Comparison of the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed -used watermelon powdery mildew was made in the field plot experiment. [Result]Fourteen days after using these bactericides twice, thecontrol efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 5 ,000 times solution is 73. 80% , achieving the highest control efficacy in all the six used bactericides And the control efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 1,0000 times solution, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG 3 ,000 times solution, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC 7 ,500 times solution and 25% Ethirimol wp 1,500 times solution are also effective, reaching the effect of 69. 69% , 69.56% , 68. 48% , and 67. 32% respectively after being used 14 days later. [ Conclusion]The control efficacy of ZJ0712 wp, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC and 25% Ethirimol wp are quite effective, so it is suggested that they could be used in production by turn, and the rule for controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is made. The primary sources of infection and suitable time for controlling this disease have been clearly made, too. The key to controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is to spray effective bactericide in time.%[目的]针对打瓜白粉病在新疆严重危害的现状,研究6种杀菌剂对打瓜白粉病的田间防治效果.[方法]采用田间小区试验,比较6种药剂的防效差异.[结果]两次施药后第14 d,10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂5000倍液防效最高,防效达73.80%.10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂10 000倍液、50%醚菌酯水分散粒剂3 000倍液、400 g/L氟硅唑乳油7 500倍液和25%乙嘧酚悬浮剂1 500倍液的防效也较好,药后14 d分别达69.69%、69.56%、68.48%和67.32%.[结论]4种药剂防效较好,推荐在生产中交替使用.提出了打瓜白粉病防治原则,明

  15. “福青源”叶面营养液在大棚西瓜上的应用试验%Application of "Fu Qing Yuan" Foliar Nutrient Solution on the Greenhouse Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单建明; 马运涛; 孔小龙

    2011-01-01

    【目的】对“富青源”叶面营养液在大棚西瓜上的应用效果进行研究。【方法】试验设3个处理,分别为20000倍叶面营养液喷施、30000倍叶面营养液喷施及清水喷施对照,进行效果对比试验。【结果】叶面喷施“富青源”叶面营养液能提高大棚西瓜产量21.5%~25.6%,并提高西瓜的糖分含量;结合西瓜产量和糖分含量分析,“富青源”叶面营养液20000倍稀释,在西瓜苗大田移栽14d后分3次喷施,隔7d喷施1次,施用效果最好。[结论】施用“富青源”叶面营养液能显著提高西瓜产量和改善西瓜品质。%[Objective] The application effects of "Fu Qing Yuan" foliar nutrient solution on watermelon were studied. [Method] 3 treatments of spraying diluted foliar nutrient solution 20 000 times, 30 000 times and water control were set up to study their efficacy in field. [Result] Spraying "Fu Qing Yuan" foliar nutrient solution could increase the yield of greenhouse watermelon in 21.5%- 25.6%, and improve watermelon sugar content. Combined the anlysis of watermelon yield and sugar content, 14 days after watermelon seedlings field transplanting using 20 000 times diluted of "Fu Qing Yuan" Foliar nutrient to spray watermelon seedlings weekly 3 times in total can achieve best results. [Conclusion] The application of "Fu Qing Yuan" foliar nutrient solution can significantly improve the yield and quality of watermelon.

  16. 外源ABA对西瓜幼苗抗冷性和某些生理指标的影响%Effect of Exogenous ABA on Chilling Resistance and Some Physiological Index in Watermelon Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲高斌; 张凯; 张陆阳; 赵书民

    2011-01-01

    以5、10,15、20、25 mg/L 5种质量浓度的ABA处理三叶一心西瓜幼苗,研究ABA对西瓜幼苗抗冷性的影响.结果表明,叶面喷施ABA能有效提高西瓜苗的抗冷性,其中以20 mg/L的效果最好.ABA能显著增加西瓜苗叶片的SOD和CAT活性,有效减缓低温胁迫过程中西瓜苗叶片叶绿素和GSH含量的降低,以及MDA的积累,促进脯氨酸含量和可溶性糖含量增加,使AsA含量保持在相对稳定的水平.%The seedlings of watermelon at 3 leaf stage were treated with 5,10,15,20 and 25 mg/L of ABA and then exposed at 5 ℃ for 24 h in order to study the effects of ABA on chilling-tolerance. The chilling-tolerance of watermelon seedling can be increased with ABA treatment. The concentration of ABA at 20 mg/L showed the most effective results. The results showed that ABA could improve the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT),remarkably delay the decrease of chlorophyll and reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) content aswell as the increase of malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the leaves of watermelon seedling during low temperature stress. On the other hand,ABA could effectively promote the increase of contents of proline and soluble sugar in the leaves of watermelon seedling during low temperature stress. The ascorbic acid (ASA) content was maintained a steady level in leaves of watermelon seedling by ABA treatment.

  17. Investigation and Analysis of Watermelon Production in a Family Farm-A Case Study of a Large Watermelon Planting Grower in Yanqing District of Beijing City%家庭农场模式下的西瓜生产调查分析--以北京市延庆区某西瓜种植大户为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲凯; 胡宝贵

    2016-01-01

    以北京市延庆县西瓜生产较为成熟的家庭农场经营模式为例,对其生产经营过程进行了调研,分析了家庭农场模式下从事西瓜生产的优势与不足,进而总结了北京市家庭农场普遍存在的经营主体短缺、农业社会化服务体系建设滞后、资金短缺等问题,提出了加强农业科技推广与应用、提高农场主科技素质、创新家庭农场金融政策等建议,为北京西瓜产业推广家庭农场模式提供依据。%The production and management process of watermelon in a family farm were investigated and studied .The advantages and disadvan-tages of watermelon production in the family farm were analyzed , and then common problems such as shortage of operators , lagging of agricultural socialized service system construction, and capital shortage existing in family farms in Beijing City were summarized .Finally, some suggestions such as strengthening the popularization and application of agricultural science and technology , improving farmers’ quality of science and technol-ogy, and innovating financial policies of family farms were proposed to provide scientific references for the popularization of family farms in water-melon industry in Beijing City .

  18. Evaluation of Nutritional and Physical Properties of Watermelon Juice during the Thermal Processing by Using Alumina Nano-fluid in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

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    Farinaz Saremnejad Namini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Thermal processing is an effective method in preventing microbial spoilage but high heat transfer in a long time process that leads to quality loss and increased energy consumption. Also it is important to consider sensitive nature of food products during the thermal processing. Due to the nano-fluids' unique thermo–physical properties compared with the conventional fluids (steam and hot water, their use in various industries to enhance the efficiency of equipment and energy optimization has increased. Materials and Methods: The effects of alumina–water nano-fluids (0, 2, and 4% concentrations on some nutritional properties (lycopene and vitamin C content, and some physical properties (color, pH and TSS of watermelon juice treated by high temperature–short time (75, 80, and 85°C for 15, 30, and 45 seconds in a shell and tube heat exchanger were evaluated. Results: In compared with water, process time reduced by 24.88% and 51.63% for 2% and 4% nano-fluids, respectively. It had a significant effect on improving the properties of watermelon juice (P<0.05. Under the treatment conditions (75°C and 15s, with 0, 2, and 4% nano-fluids, 81.15, 84.81, and 91.28% of lycopene and 61.11, 63.70 and 67.04% of vitamin C were maintained, respectively. &DeltaE* values for the fruit juices processed with 0, 2 and 4% nano-fluids were 3.26, 2.21 and 1.14, respectively. Also pH and TSS changed in the range of 5.58–5.82 and 9.00–9.40%, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that qualitative and nutritional properties of watermelon juices processed with nano-fluids in terms of lycopene and vitamin C retention, and color were, respectively, 9.89, 6.18 and 50.38% better than the samples processed with water.

  19. Contribuição das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento de plântulas de cucurbitáceas Cotyledonary leaf contribution for growth and establishment of cucurbit seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As cucurbitáceas apresentam germinação epigeal, cujos cotilédones têm a dupla função de fornecer substâncias de reserva e fotoassimilados para o crescimento e o estabelecimento da plântula. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nível de dependência de plântulas de abóbora híbrida (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, pepino (Cucumis sativus e porongo (Lagenaria siceraria em relação às folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento e estabelecimento inicial. Foi efetuada a remoção de um ou dois cotilédones aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a emergência (DAE, comparando-se o crescimento das plântulas com o de plântulas controle (sem remoção. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado a cada três dias, da emergência até 21 DAE, determinando-se a taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o período de tempo até a equivalência entre área foliar e cotiledonar e a produção de matéria seca. A abóbora apresentou a maior taxa de expansão das folhas cotiledonares, o menor período até a emissão e expansão das folhas verdadeiras e a maior produção de matéria seca. As plântulas de abóbora e pepino apresentaram a maior dependência em relação às folhas cotiledonares. Os resultados obtidos mostram que danos às folhas cotiledonares, dependendo da espécie, da intensidade e da idade da plântula, podem afetar drasticamente o crescimento inicial e o estabelecimento das plântulas, com reflexos evidentes no rendimento de frutos em cucurbitáceas.Cucurbit species have epigeal cotyledons adapted for both storage and photoassimilation functions. Seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for initial growth and establishment was quantified for hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria. One or both cotyledons were excised at 3; 6; 9; and 12 days after emergence (DAE and initial growth was compared to control

  20. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar em Roraima = Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight in Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rodrigues Youssef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar isolados do fungo Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar, obtidos de hospedeiros de importância econômica no estado de Roraima. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, soja (Glycine max, seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, alface (Lactuca sativa e feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan. Os parâmetros utilizados foram números de núcleos, grupo de anastomose e as características culturais da colônia, taxa de crescimento micelial e a formação de escleródios nos meios de cultura: batata dextrose agar (BDA, BDA+asparagina, BDA+extrato de levedura, Czapek Agar, maltose-peptona-agar, soil extract agar, sacarose-yeast-asparagina e V-8. Todos os 10 isolados estudados foram caracterizados como multinucleados e pertencentes à espécie Rhizoctonia solani. Três isolados de feijão-caupi, um de soja e o isolado de melancia foram identificados como AGI-1A e um isolado de feijãocaupi, um de soja e o isolado de feijão-guandu como AGI-1B. O isolado de seringueira não foi identificado como nenhum dos padrões de anastomose utilizado. Para a maioria dos isolados as maiores taxas de crescimento micelialforam obtidas no meio de cultura Soil Extract Agar. Dois tipos de escleródios, característicos do grupo AGI, foram observados: formação de 2-20 tufos placa-1 coloração variável, 1-2 mm e formação de 38-611 microescleródios placa-1, de coloração marrom, medindo 100 μm. A produção e o tipo de escleródio variaram com o isolado e o meio de cultura utilizado.The aim of this work was to characterize Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight symptom from hosts with economic importance at Roraima state. The isolates were recovered from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, soybean (Glycine max, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, lettuce (Lactuca sativa and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan. The evaluated characteristics were nuclear

  1. Extraction of Lycopene in Watermelon by Ultrasonic-assisted%西瓜番茄红素的超声波辅助提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋波

    2015-01-01

    This experiment mainly studied the watermelon pulp pigment of lycopene in the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process. Orthogonal test results showed that:ultrasonic intensity was 3 W/cm2, ratio of solid to liquid was 1:7 (g/mL),extraction time 15 minutes, for the optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions, the relatively extraction rate of 98.23%.%主要研究西瓜果肉中的色素即番茄红素的超声波辅助提取工艺,正交试验结果表明:超声强度为3 W/cm2,固液比为1:7(g/mL),提取时间为15 min时,为超声提取的最佳工艺条件,相对提取率达到98.23%.

  2. 西瓜·火龙果复合凝固型酸奶的研究%Research on Solidified Yoghurt with Watermelon and Pltaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文彬; 张翠媚; 刁艳莹; 曾婷婷; 谢玩莲

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 探讨制作西瓜、火龙果复合凝固型酸奶的最佳配方.[方法] 以西瓜汁、火龙果浆和全脂奶粉为主要原料制备西瓜、火龙果复合凝固型酸奶,研究混合果浆添加量、蔗糖添加量、奶粉用量、接种量对酸奶品质的影响,通过正交试验确定最佳配方,并评价该产品的感官指标.[结果] 正交试验结果表明,混合果浆添加量对感官评定的影响最大,其次为奶粉用量、蔗糖的添加量和接种量的影响.该酸奶的最佳配方为:西瓜汁与火龙果的比例为7:1,混合果浆添加量为40%,蔗糖添加量为17%,奶粉用量为25%,接种量为16%,在43℃发酵4.5h,所得酸奶品质最佳.[结论] 该产品色泽均匀一致,呈浅红色,凝乳均匀细腻,无气泡,有发酵乳味与西瓜、火龙果混合果浆味,且酸甜适口.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum formula for preparing the composite solidified yoghurt with watermelon and pitaya. [ Method] The watermelon juice,pitaya plasma and whole milk powder were taken as the main raw materials to prepare the compound solidified yogurt with the watermelon and pitaya,the effects of the mixed fruit pulp,sugar and milk dosage,and the inoculation amount on the yogurt quality were studied, the optimum formula was confirmed through the orthogonal experiment and the sensory index of the product was evaluated. [Result] The orthogonal experiment results showed that,the adding amount of the mixed fruit pulp had the greatest influence on the sensory evaluation,followed by that of sugar,milk and dosage,and the inoculation amount. The optimum formula for preparing the yoghurt was as follows: the ratio of watermelon juice to pitaya was 7:1 ,the adding amount of the mixed fruit pulp was 40% ,the sugar dosage was 17% ,the milk dosage was 25% ,the inoculation amount was 16% ,and when they were fermented at 43 ℃ for 4.5 h the quality of the produced yoghurt was best. [Conclusion] The product showed

  3. 番茄与西瓜中番茄红素生物合成途径基因的比较分析%Comparison of Lycopene Biosynthetic Genes between Tomato and Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 李文丽; 王富

    2015-01-01

    为了阐明番茄和西瓜中番茄红素生物合成途径的相关基因,借助比较基因组学,在全基因组水平上对两物种间该代谢途径进行了比较分析。在番茄中共鉴定了12个番茄红素生物合成途径基因,在西瓜中发现了14个相应的番茄红素生物合成途径基因,同时将所有基因定位到相应的染色体上。番茄和西瓜中直系同源番茄红素生物合成基因在核酸水平保持在54.8%~75.0%的一致性,而西瓜中相应的旁系同源基因在核酸水平上的一致性为70.5%~74.8%。番茄与西瓜中番茄红素直系同源基因间在基因结构上高度相似。且系统进化分析发现西瓜中番茄红素生物合成关键基因PSY (Cla005425)和LCYE(Cla016840)可能与胡萝卜中的直系同源基因拥有共同的祖先。%In order to elucidate the genes related to the lycopene biosynthetic pathway in tomato and watermelon , we conducted comparative genomic analyses of lycopene biosynthetic pathway in these two crop species at a genome -wide level .We identified 12 lycopene biosynthetic genes in tomato , and found 14 relevant lycopene biosynthetic genes in watermelon .All these genes were suc-cessfully mapped on the related chromosomes .The orthologous lycopene biosynthetic genes between tomato and watermelon shared 54.8%~75.0% nucleotide sequence identity , while the relevant paralogous lycopene biosynthetic genes in watermelon shared 70.5%~74.8%nucleotide sequence identity .The structure of lycopene biosynthetic genes in tomato was highly similar to that of their orthologous genes in watermelon .Moreover, the phylogenetic trees indicated that the lycopene biosynthetic genes PSY (Cla005425) and LCYE (Cla016840) in watermelon maybe shared the same ancestor with their orthologous genes in carrot .

  4. 花皮无籽西瓜新品种花花牛的选育%A New Triploid Seedless Watermelon Variety "Huahuaniu"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪敏; 朱佩; 马长江

    2013-01-01

    Seedless watermelon "Huahuaniu" is a main season hybrid MD05-8 ?MD03-6 that meets watermelon production and market demand. The whole growth period is 106 d and fruit development 35 d. The fruit is round with deep green skin and dark green narrow stripes. The central soluble solids content is 10.6%-11.83%. The average fruit weight is 4.5 kg. Yield on 667 m2 is about 2 510 kg, highest yield up to 3 500 kg per 667 m2. Field trials showed that the plants are easy to set fruit, slightly susceptible to anthracnose, and tolerant to virus disease and Fusarium wilt. This variety is suitable for planting in North, Northeast, Northwest China.%花花牛无籽西瓜是根据西瓜生产和市场需求,用MD03-6×MD05-8杂交选育而成的中熟花皮无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期106 d,果实发育期35 d,圆形果,果皮灰绿覆墨绿色锯齿条带,条纹清晰;瓜瓤红色,质脆汁多,无空心;品质优,中心可溶性固形物含量10.6%~11.83%.平均单果质量4.5 kg,平均667 m2产量2 510.0 kg,高产地块在3 500 kg以上.田间表现植株易坐果,轻感炭疽病,较耐病毒病、枯萎病.适宜我国华北、东北、西北等广大瓜区种植.

  5. Effects of L-citrulline diet on stress-induced cold hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-citrulline is an amino acid discovered in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae and is a known component of the nitric oxide (NO cycle that plays an important role in adjusting blood circulation and supplying NO and a key component of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of L-citrulline on a newly established stress-induced cold hypersensitivity mouse model. Materials and Methods: When normal mice were forced to swim in water at 25°C for 15 min, their core body temperature dropped to 28.9°C, and then quickly recovered to normal temperature after the mice were transferred to a dry cage at room temperature (25°C. A 1-h immobilization before swimming caused the core body temperature to drop to ca. 24.1°C (4.8°C lower than normal mice, and the speed of core body temperature recovery dropped to 57% of the normal control. We considered this delay in recovery from hypothermia to be a sign of stress-induced cold hypersensitivity. Similar cold hypersensitivity was induced by administration of 50 mM L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, a NO synthesis inhibitor. Results: In this study, we showed that recovery speed from the stress-induced hypothermia remarkably improved in mice fed a 1% L-citrulline-containing diet for 20 days. Furthermore, the nonfasting blood level of L-arginine and L-citrulline increased significantly in the L-citrulline diet group, and higher serum nitrogen oxide levels were observed during recovery from the cold. Conclusions: These results suggested that oral L-citrulline supplementation strengthens vascular endothelium function and attenuates stress-induced cold hypersensitivity by improving blood circulation.

  6. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  7. A major latex-like protein is a key factor in crop contamination by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Sawada, Mami; Goto, Junya; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Noriko; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-04-01

    This is the first report, to our knowledge, to reveal important factors by which members of the Cucurbitaceae family, such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), melon (Cucumis melo), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), squash (C. pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo), are selectively polluted with highly toxic hydrophobic contaminants, including organochlorine insecticides and dioxins. Xylem sap of C. pepo ssp. pepo, which is a high accumulator of hydrophobic compounds, solubilized the hydrophobic compound pyrene into the aqueous phase via some protein(s). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of xylem sap of two C. pepo subspecies revealed that the amount of 17-kD proteins in C. pepo ssp. pepo was larger than that in C. pepo ssp. ovifera, a low accumulator, suggesting that these proteins may be related to the translocation of hydrophobic compounds. The protein bands at 17 kD contained major latex-like proteins (MLPs), and the corresponding genes MLP-PG1, MLP-GR1, and MLP-GR3 were cloned from the C. pepo cultivars Patty Green and Gold Rush. Expression of the MLP-GR3 gene in C. pepo cultivars was positively correlated with the band intensity of 17-kD proteins and bioconcentration factors toward dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Recombinant MLP-GR3 bound polychlorinated biphenyls immobilized on magnetic beads, whereas recombinant MLP-PG1 and MLP-GR1 did not. These results indicate that the high expression of MLP-GR3 in C. pepo ssp. pepo plants and the existence of MLP-GR3 in their xylem sap are related to the efficient translocation of hydrophobic contaminants. These findings should be useful for decreasing the contamination of fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family as well as the phytoremediation of hydrophobic contaminants.

  8. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides.

  9. Biological Studies of Bagous Hydrillae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    garis L. cultivated beans Raphanus sativus L. cultivated radish Sedum sp. introduced, ornamental Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.)L. native Appencix A...watermelon Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus Citrus sp. cultivated citrus Crassula argentea Thunb. introduced, ornamental Cucumis sativus L. cultivated cucumber

  10. Effects of Humic Acid Liquid Foliar Fertilizer on Yield and Quality of Greenhouse Watermelon%腐植酸液体叶面肥对大棚西瓜产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 周传余; 徐婷; 赵索; 武琳琳; 许健; 柴丽丽; 李青超

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively use humic acid foliar fertilizer rationally in production of watermelon ,the effects of different concentrations of liquid humic acid foliar fertilizer on yield and quality of watermelon Jingxin 1 were studied by randomized block design .The results showed that the most effective concentration of liquid humic acid foliar fertilizer was 600 times ,the yield was increased 43 .75% than control significantly ,and in the quality of watermelon ,soluble protein ,vitamin C and total soluble sugar content were improved significantly .%为在西瓜生产中合理使用腐植酸液体叶面肥,采用大棚小区随机区组设计,研究了不同浓度腐植酸液体叶面肥对西瓜品种京欣1号产量和品质的影响。结果表明:腐植酸液体叶面肥最佳喷施浓度为600倍液,此时西瓜产量较对照显著增加43.75%,并显著改善了西瓜品质,其中可溶性蛋白、维生素C及可溶性总糖含量增加显著。

  11. Efficacy Test of Thiamethoxam 70%WS for Controlling Underground Pests of Watermelon by Seed Treatment%70%噻虫嗪WS处理打瓜种子防治地下害虫的药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 林哲; 张映合

    2014-01-01

    为验证70%噻虫嗪种子处理可分散粉剂(WS)对打瓜地下害虫的防治效果,采用拌种法,分别用种子量0.1%、0.2%和0.4%的剂量处理打瓜种子进行防治地下害虫的药效试验。结果表明:不同剂量药剂处理出苗率均在85%以上;对苗期地下害虫的平均防效分别为77.55%、83.67%、87.75%,且对打瓜生长无不良影响。%In order to prove the control effects of thiamethoxam 70% WS for underground pests, efficacy tests were carried out using thiamethoxam 70% WS dressed as 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% of the seeds of watermelon. The results showed that seeding emergence rates of watermelon exceeded 85%, the control effects of three treatments were 77.55%, 83.67%, 87.75%, respectively. Thiamethoxam 70%WS had no effect on the growth of watermelon.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Marigold Fungicide Ⅰ and Its Affection to Watermelon Seedling%万寿菊杀菌素Ⅰ抑菌作用及对西瓜幼苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志宏; 郭春绒; 王金胜

    2011-01-01

    研究了万寿菊杀菌素Ⅰ对西瓜枯萎病菌、辣椒枯萎病菌和辣椒疫霉病菌的抑菌作用及对西瓜幼苗的影响.结果表明,万寿菊杀菌素Ⅰ能有效抑制西瓜枯萎病菌、辣椒枯萎病菌和辣椒疫霉病菌.在西瓜枯萎病的主要发病期苗期施用万寿菊杀菌素Ⅰ,能提高西瓜幼苗的POD和SOD活性,并维持CAT活性,有效减轻西瓜枯萎病菌对植株的毒害作用.%Antifungal activity of marigold fungicide Ⅰ and its affection to watermelon seedling was studied.The results showed that marigold fungicide Ⅰ remarkable inhibited mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthpra capsici Len..The marigold fungicide Ⅰ was applied at the main infection period of watermelon Fusarium wilt of seedling, it enhanced the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)and peroxidase (POD), maintained the CAT activity,and reduced the harm of crude toxin of FON to watermelon plant.

  13. Case Analysis of Agricultural Judicial Identification on A Fungicide Phytotoxicity to Watermelon%一起西瓜药害的农业司法鉴定案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾双平; 蔡立旺; 姚立生

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed a judicial identification case of fungicide phytotoxicity to watermelon. Because the fungicide manufacturer arbitrarily changed the mark of fungicide "propiconazole", this fungicide was misused by a peasant, and caused his watermelon seedlings to appear the following harmed symptoms; stiff seedling, deformity watermelon fruit and so on. Through the methods of field test and documentary evidence examination, the paper affirmed that the economic loss of the peasant was correlative with the misusing of " propiconazole", and used the scientific method to estimate the economic loss of the peasant.%分析了一起因农药生产商擅自删改农药标签致使农民在种植西瓜时误用“丙环唑”农药,出现西瓜幼苗僵苗、幼果畸形等药害的司法鉴定案例.通过田间试验和书证审查等方法,认定农民的经济损失与误用“丙环唑”农药有因果关系,并用科学的方法估算出农民的经济损失.

  14. Comparison of the Efficacy of Watermelon Frost and Cydiodine Buccal Tablets in Treatment of Oral Ulcer%西瓜霜喷剂与西地碘含片治疗口腔溃疡的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏峰

    2016-01-01

    目的:对比西瓜霜喷剂与西地碘含片治疗口腔溃疡的疗效。方法喷剂组、含片组各入选患者142例,分别采用西瓜霜喷剂、西地碘含片治疗。结果喷剂组痊愈率、愈显率高于含片组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论西瓜霜喷剂治疗口腔溃疡疗效更优。%Objective Comparison of watermelon frost spray and West iodine tablets in the treatment of oral ulcer curative effect. Methods Spray group, tablet group each selected 142 patients, respectively by watermelon frost spray, cydiodine buccal tablets in the treatment. Results Spray agent group, the cure rate, markedly rate is higher than the tablet group, the difference has statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Watermelon frost spray in the treatment of oral cavity ulcer curative effect better.

  15. 外源激素和青霉素处理对西瓜幼苗抗寒性的影响%Effects of Exogenous Hormone and Penicillin on the Cold Resistance of Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明; 向承勇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选可提高西瓜幼苗抗寒性的外源激素的种类及其有效浓度.[方法]以西瓜幼苗为材料,用不同外源物质处理幼苗,测定其主要的生长指标、冷害指标和保护性酶的活性,评价各处理的抗寒性.[结果] ABA、BA和青霉素能提高西瓜幼苗的抗寒性,以25mg/L ABA处理体效果最佳,50 mg/L ABA次之;1 000 mg/L青霉素和25 mg/L BA也有一定的效果;而乙烯利降低西瓜幼苗的抗寒性.[结论]用ABA处理可以促进西瓜幼苗的生长,同时能提高西瓜幼苗保护性酶的活性,可作为提高西瓜幼苗抗寒性的有效手段.%[Objective] The aim' was to screen exogenous hormone species and effective concentration for improving cold resistance of water melon seedlings. [ Method] With watermelon seedlings as materials, dealing with different foreign substances seedlings, the main growth indi cators , chilling injury index and the activity of protective enzymes were determined, and cold hardiness of each treatment was evaluated. [ Re sult] ABA, BA and penicillin can improve the cold tolerance of watermelon seedlings, 25 mg/L ABA treatment as the best, 50 mg/L ABA treatment followed; 1 000 mg/L penicillin and 25 mg/L BA also have some effect; while ethephon reduced the cold tolerance of watermelon seedlings. [ Conclusion ] Treatment with ABA can promote the growth of watermelon seedlings, at the same time can improve protective en zymes activity of watermelon seedlings, which could be used as an effective means of improving seedling cold tolerance.

  16. 多倍体西瓜种壳性状的基因效应分析%Genetic study on seed coat characteristics in multiploid watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2007-01-01

    [目的]通过遗传效应分析,为三倍体西瓜种壳性状改良提供依据.[方法]选用西瓜4个生态型的6个四倍体自交系作母本和同一生态型的6个二倍体自交系作父本,按NCII (North Carolina II) 遗传交配设计方法配制6×6个杂种F1,采用加性-显性遗传模型分析西瓜种壳性状的遗传效应.[结果]剖面种壳数受基因的加性效应、显性效应以及环境效应共同控制.败育种壳长和宽的加性效应显著,环境(机误)方差达到显著或极显著水平.剖面种壳数与边缘可溶性固形物含量呈加性显著负相关,相关系数为0.631;与番茄红素和干物质含量呈显性负相关,相关系数为0.288和0.386.败育种壳长与种壳宽成极显著加性正相关,相关系数为0.983.[结论]该研究为三倍体西瓜育种中的基因改良提供参考.%[Objective] This study is to provide basis for the genetic improvement of triploid watermelon cultivars from seed coat characteristiscs by analyzing its genetic properties.[Method] Genetic effects of seed coat characteristics and their related characteristics in triploid watermelon were analyzed by additive dominant genetic model based on 36 F1 hybrids which were crossed by six female parents of four ecotypes and six male parents of same ecotype according to North Carolina II crossing design.[Result] The seed coat number characteristics was controlled by additive effects, dominant effects and error variance of genetic together.The additive effects of the length and width of abortive seed coat were significant, and the error variance was significant or highly significant.It was observed that there was a significant negative correlation of additive effects between the seed coat number and fringe soluble sugar.Also there was a significant negative correlation of dominant effects between lycopenes, dry matter and the seed coat number.However, there was a highly significant positive correlation in additive effects between the

  17. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  18. Temperatura base para emissão de nós e plastocrono de plantas de melancia Base temperature for node appearance and plastochron of watermelon plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionéia Daiane Pitol Lucas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da temperatura do ar sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas pode ser representado usando-se o método da soma térmica. Para o cálculo da soma térmica é necessário conhecer-se a temperatura base, abaixo da qual o desenvolvimento não acontece ou acontece a uma taxa desprezível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a temperatura base para emissão de nós, bem como comparar as datas de cultivo para a variável plastocrono para a cultura da melancia. Três experimentos em campo foram conduzidos em Santa Maria, RS, com oito datas de semeadura durante os anos agrícolas 2006-2007 (05/09/2006 e 21/09/2006, 2008/2009 (20/09/2008, 06/10/2008 e 20/10/2008 e 2009/2010 (20/09/2009, 21/10/2009 e 30 /11/2009. Usou-se o cultivar "Crimson Sweet" aleatorizado em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições por época. O número de nós acumulados na haste principal (NN da melancieira foi observado em três plantas por parcela, três vezes por semana. O plastocrono foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da regressão entre NN e soma térmica acumulada. A temperatura base estimada usando a metodologia do menor valor de Quadrado Médio do Erro (QME foi de 7,0 °C. O plastocrono em melancieira não diferiu entre as datas de plantio nos três anos agrícolas, sendo em média 23,4 ºC dia nó-1. A implicação para a modelagem é que um único valor de plastocrono pode ser usado para estimar a emissão de nós da cultivar "Crimson Sweet", independente da data de semeadura.The air temperature effect on plant development can be represented using the thermal time approach. In order to calculate the thermal time, the base temperature, below when development stops or takes place at very low rates, is needed. This work was carried out to estimate the base temperature for node appearance and compared dates for cultivation for variable plastochron in watermelon crop. Three field experiments were conducted in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, with eight sowing dates

  19. Optimization of the most important operational parameters of a pneumatic seeder using real-time monitoring for Cucumber and Watermelon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Abdolahzare

    2016-04-01

    devices for online measurement of various parameters, including: the actual forward speed, wheel sleep percent, drawbar pull, motor RPM, and fuel consumption. Wheel drive of the seed metering mechanism was equipped with Rotary Encoder model S48-8-0360ZT (TK1 to determine the seed disk rotation. For more precise vacuum pressure monitoring, a Vacuum Transmitter model BT 10-210 was used to measure relative pressure from 0 mbar to -1000 mbar. Investigation of seed falling trajectories was conducted using the AVI video acquisition system consisted of CCD (charge-coupled device camera (Fuji F660EXR capable of capturing images with a constant speed of 320 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 320×240 pixels. All data were transmitted to a data logger and displayed online on the PC's screen. For optimization of the factors affecting the performance of the pneumatic planter, the experiments were conducted with: two ranges of forward speeds [3 to 4 km h-1, and 6 to 8 km h-1; three levels of vacuum pressure [-2.5kPa, -3.5kPa and -4.5 kPa]; and two types of seed [cucumber and watermelon], keeping a three-factor factorial experimental design. The tests were replicated three times. The uniformity of seed spacing was measured with indicators described by kachman and smith (1995 which are defined as: I_miss=N_1/N×100 (1 I_mul=N_2/N×100 (2 I_qf=100-(I_mul+I_miss (3 P=s_d/x_ref (4 Which for planting distance of 45 cm, N1 is number of spacing > 1.5Xref; N2 is number of spacing ≤ 0.5Xref and N is total number of measured spacings, Sd is standard deviation of the spacing more than half but not more than 1.5 times, the set spacings Xref, Imiss is the miss index, Imul is the multiple index, quality of feed index Iq is the percentage of spacings that are more than half but not more than 1.5 times, the set planting distance and P is error index. Results and Discussion: According to the studies on both watermelon and cucumber, the ‘quality of feed index’ value in forward speed

  20. Development of Watermelon Variety —— 'Heitong'%高产优质西瓜新品种黑彤的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安杰; 史宣杰; 凌华; 蔡毓新; 高冠英; 师恭耀

    2009-01-01

    Watermelon variety Heitong was developed by crossing HY-18 as female parent and LC-6 as male parent. It is a high yield variety with excellent quality,vigorous plant and easy fruit-set. The total growing period is about 105 days and the fruit matures about 34 days after pollination. The fruit is oval-shaped with fruit shape index of 1.40. The skin color is dark green skin without stripes. The rind thickness is 1.2 cm and is suitable for long distance shipping. The average fruit weight is about 6 kg,and the yield on 667 m2 is 3 000-4 000 kg in open field. The flesh is red with fine crisp texture and sweet flavor. The center sugar content is over 12.5%. It has good adaptability and can be grown in most watermelon production areas in China. It was officially approved for registration by Henan Commercial Variety Registation Authority in 2008.%黑彤西瓜是以HY-18为母本,LC-6为父本配制而成的中晚熟、高产、优质、大果型黑皮西瓜新品种.植株生长健壮,易坐果.全生育期105 d左右,果实发育期34d左右.果实椭圆形,果形指数1.4,黑皮,外形美观;果皮厚1.2 cm.硬韧,耐贮运.单果质量6 kg左右,最大可达12kg左右,普通栽培667m2产量3000-4000 kg.鲜红瓤,瓤质硬脆,少籽,中心可溶性固形物11%左右,边部9%左右,品质优良.适应性广,全国各地均可栽培.2008年通过河南省农作物品种审定委员会审定,审定编号:豫审西瓜2008011.

  1. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Arnold; K. J. Musil

    1983-01-01

    The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to...

  2. The plant PTS1 receptor : similarities and differences to its human and yeast counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, C; Schmid, M; Veenhuis, M; Gietl, C

    1998-01-01

    Two targeting signals, PTS1 and PTS2, mediate import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. We have cloned and sequenced the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cDNA homologue to the PTS1 receptor gene (PEX5). Its gene product, CvPex5p, belongs to the family of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) containin

  3. The use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbit species when there is no gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; Webster, Craig G; Duan, Jingyi; Roberts, Pamela D; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. At present, there is not a gold standard diagnostic test for determining the true status of SqVYV infection in plants. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (TB), and expression of visual symptoms. A quantitative assessment of the performance of these diagnostic tests is lacking, which may lead to an incorrect interpretation of results. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR, TB, and visual assessment of symptoms as diagnostic tests for SqVYV. The LCA model assumes that the observed diagnostic test responses are linked to an underlying latent (nonobserved) disease status of the population, and can be used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the individual tests, as well as to derive an estimate of the incidence of disease when a gold standard test does not exist. LCA can also be expanded to evaluate the effect of factors and was done here to determine whether diagnostic test performances varied among the type of plant tissue being tested (crown versus vine tissue), where plant samples were taken relative to the position of the crown (i.e., distance from the crown), host (i.e., genus), and habitat (field-grown versus greenhouse-grown plants). Results showed that RT-PCR had the highest sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98) of the three tests. TB had better sensitivity than symptoms for detection of SqVYV infection (0.70 versus 0.32), while the visual assessment of symptoms was more specific than TB and, thus, a better indicator of noninfection (0.98 versus 0.65). With respect to the grouping variables, RT-PCR and TB had

  4. Changes in carotenoid profiles and in the expression pattern of the genes in carotenoid metabolisms during fruit development and ripening in four watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Gu, Huihui; Zhao, Wen-En

    2015-05-01

    Changes in carotenoid profiles during fruit ripening were investigated in four watermelon cultivars: red-fleshed "CN66", pink-fleshed "CN62", yellow-fleshed "ZXG381" and white-fleshed "ZXG507". The expression pattern of twelve genes (GGPS, PSY, PSY-A, PDS, ZDS, CRTISO, LCYB, CHYB, ZEP, NCED1, NCED2 and NCED3) was analysed. In "CN66" and "CN62", lycopene appeared at 12 DAP and became a main carotenoid increased at the later stages. The transcript levels of carotenogenic genes in "CN66" sharply increased during 18-30 DAP, and concomitantly, fruit accumulated the massive amounts of carotenoids. In "ZXG381", violaxanthin and lutein contents were positively correlated, respectively, with CHYB and ZEP transcript levels during fruit ripening. The trace amounts of carotenoids in "ZXG507" were accompanied with the low transcript levels of most biosynthetic genes. The results suggest that differential transcriptional regulation of carotenoid metabolic genes is very important in determining the amount and type of specific carotenoids accumulated during fruit development and ripening.

  5. Fertilization of Watermelon Grown with Wheat Straw Substrate in Passive Plastic Greenhouse%大棚西瓜秸秆基质栽培施肥量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁培祥

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization was studied using watermelon "Xiuli' grown in wheat straw substrate in passive plastic greenhouse. The tests included 5 levels of chicken manure + ammonium phosphate. The measurements included plant growth, yield and fruit quality. With the levels tested in this experiment yield was increased with the increase of fertilizer amount, the best treatment was 30 kg chicken manure + 1.5 kg ammonium phosphate per plot(19.87 m2).%以西瓜品种秀丽为试材,在大棚中采用秸秆基质栽培,腐熟鸡粪+磷酸二铵作为施肥配方,分析比较了5种施肥量对西瓜生长发育、产量及品质的影响,结果表明,在一定施肥量的范围内,产量随施肥量的增加而增加,综合所有因素,最佳施肥配方为每小区腐熟鸡粪30 kg+磷酸二铵1.5 kg.

  6. Cultivation techniques of new watermelon variety "Heibao"%西瓜新品种“黑宝”栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海滨; 许丽松; 陈丹

    2012-01-01

    A new watermelon variety "Heibao" was introduced from Taiwan.The results of planting trials in multi-sites for several years and participating in provincial quality competition showed that,it had the characteristics of wide suitability,high disease resistance,high yield and excellent quality.Detaired management practices for high-yielding cultural techniques of "Heibao" including its characteristics,sowing and seedling raising,land preparation and fertilization,field planting and management,pruning and pressing of vine,pest control,and so on,were summarized in this paper.%引进西台湾瓜新品种黑宝,经多年多地试种试验和参加省级品质比赛,表现适应性广、抗病力强、产量高、品质佳,该文总结黑宝西瓜高产栽培技术,包括特征特性、播种育苗、整地施肥、定植、田间管理、整枝压蔓、病虫害防治等管理细节。

  7. 基于省域的广西西瓜生产比较优势空间特征分析%Provincial Comparative Advantages of Watermelon Production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宇明; 张棵; 柳唐镜; 覃武; 洪日新; 覃斯华; 杨景峰

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]This study aimed to clarify the spatial patterns of comparative advantage of watermelon production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, to pro-vide theoretical basis for the development of watermelon industry in China. [Method] Based on the agricultural statistics data of Guangxi and al over China, yield com-parative advantage (YCA) index, efficiency comparative advantage (ECA) index, scale comparative advantage (SCA) index, concentration ratio comparative advantage (CRCA) index, comprehensive comparative advantage (CCA) index, ratio of yield per unit area (RYPA) index and sowing area ratio (SAR) index were established and calculated to determine the watermelon production comparative advantages in 31 provinces (cities) in China. Spacial patterns of the comparative advantages were produced by using GIS software. [Result] Nine provinces Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Hunan, Zhejiang and Guangxi were the dominant regions in watermelon production al over the country. The Central and Eastern China showed the integrated comparative advantage in watermelon production, while the Southern, Northeastern, Northern and Northwestern China can be considered as the potential places for watermelon production in future. Southwest China gave more priority to watermelon production, so the comparative advantages kept increasing here. [Con-clusion] Based on this study, watermelon production should be a prior consideration among the agricultural products in Guangxi. Related measures should be developed to optimize the regional distribution of watermelon in Guangxi and China to promote healthy competition in watermelon production.%[目的]阐明西瓜生产比较优势区域的空间特征,为广西及中国西瓜产业战略决策提供重要的参考依据。[方法]利用广西及中国的农业统计资料,以产量比较优势指数、效率比较优势指数、规模比较优势指数、集中度比较优势指数、综合比较优势、单位面积

  8. Effects of Vermicompost on Quality and Phy­chemical Properties in Rhizosphere Soil of Watermelon%施用蚯蚓粪对西瓜品质及根际土壤理化性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝林生; 苏厚谊

    2014-01-01

    Vermicompost was an important organic amendment that regulated the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there was little information on the effect of vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer on the ecological environment at rhizosphere soil and yield of watermelon. Considering the benefits of vermicompost, a field experiment was conducted to determine whether the vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer benefits the ecological environment of watermelon rhizosphere soil. There were four treatments in the field experiment, CK (neither urea nor vermicompost was applied), CF (100%of nitrogen was provided by urea), VC (100%of nitrogen was provided by vermicompost), and VC+CF (50%and 50%of nitrogen was provided by vermicompost and urea, respectively). The study was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer on soil phy­chemical properties, enzyme activities at rhizosphere soil and yield as well as quality of watermelon. The results showed that compared to the CF treatment, the VC+CF treatment significantly decreased the pH value and apparently increased the contents of available N, available P and available K, as well as EC value in rhizosphere soil. At the same time, the activity of urease enzyme, catalase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase enzyme and invertase enzyme in VC+CF treatment was also improved, showing 51.13%, 17.19% and 12.84% increases on urease enzyme activity than in CK, CF and VC treatments, respectively. Additionally, the VC+CF treatment also significantly improved the yield and quality of watermelon. In comparison with the VC+CF treatment, the VC treatment had less effect on soil biological characteristics and yield as well as quality of watermelon. As a result, vermicompost co­applied with inorganic fertilizer had better effect on watermelon, which was an ideal fertilization practices.%以‘黑彤K­8’西瓜为试材,通过大田试验研究了 CK(不施肥)、CF

  9. Effect of Pre-treatment Methods on Lycopene Extraction from Watermelon%预处理方法对西瓜中番茄红素提取的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周剑青; 何春玫

    2012-01-01

    采用离心脱水、冷冻、异丙醇、无水乙醇处理等方法对西瓜浆样进行预处理,考察了各预处理方法对番茄红素提取的影响.结果表明:从西瓜浆样中提取番茄红素的最佳处理条件为西瓜浆样离心脱水或冷冻预处理,以石油醚∶丙酮(1∶1)为提取溶剂、料液比为1:5、提取时间为20 min、提取温度为45℃,西瓜经离心脱水处理或冷冻处理后,可缩短提取时间、降低料液比,且在提取过程中受提取温度影响较小.%The watermelon paste was pre - treated by centrifugal dehydration, frozen, isopropanol treatment, and ethanol treatment. The effect of pre-treatment method on lycopene extraction was studied. The results showed that the optimum lycopene extraction conditions from watermelon were as follows: the watermelon paste was pre-treated by centrifugal dehydration or frozen, extraction solvent was petroleum ether plus acetone (1:1) , ratio of material to liquid was 1: 5, extraction time was 20 minutes, and extraction temperature was 45℃.

  10. 利用近红外高光谱图像技术快速鉴别西瓜种子品种%Fast identification of watermelon seed variety using near infrared hyperspectral imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张初; 刘飞; 孔汶汶; 章海亮; 何勇

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon seed variety selection plays a vital role in watermelon planting, and the variety of watermelon seeds directly affect the yield and quality of watermelons. In this study, we aimed to identify the cultivars of watermelon seeds by using a novel, rapid, non-invasive, and low cost technique named hyperspectral imaging. 121 samples of four different cultivars of watermelon seeds were investigated, and a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system (874-1734 nm with 256 bands) was established to acquire the hyperspectral images of the samples. A region of interest (ROI) with 15×15 pixels of the hyperspectral image of each sample was defined, and the average reflectance spectrum of the ROI were extracted. To remove the absolute noises of the spectra, only the spectral range 1 042-1 646 nm was used for analysis, and to reduce the noises existed in spectral range 1 042-1 646 nm, the extracted 121 reflectance spectra were preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), and Wavelet Transform (WT) methods. The preprocessed spectra were then used to select sensitive wavelengths by Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) and Genetic Algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) methods. Different numbers of sensitive wavelengths were selected by different variable selection methods with different preprocessing methods. 24, 16, and 15 sensitive wavelengths were selected by SPA with spectra preprocessed by SG, EMD, and WT, respectively. Moreover, 38, 33. and 32 sensitive wavelengths were selected by GA-PLS with spectra preprocessed by SG, EMD. and WT, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build discriminant models with the full spectra, and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were applied to build discriminant models with the selected wavelength variables. A PLS-DA model with spectra preprocessed by EMD obtained the best identification rate among all PLS-DA models

  11. 桂林西瓜霜对宫颈糜烂组织细胞的影响研究%Study on the effect of Guilin watermelon frost on cervical columnar ectopy tissue and cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董林红; 蒋秋燕; 宋金玲; 张琪; 李艳林; 莫海霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of Guilin watermelon frost on cervical columnar ectopy tissue and cells. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients with cervical columnar ectopy were randomly divided into observation group and control group; the patients in observation group were treated with sprayed coating of Guilin watermelon frost on the erosion surface; while the patients in control group were treated with external application of bFGF - collagen sponge. The hyperplasia of mucosal epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial fibroblast proliferation in the two groups were observed under light microscope. Results: Guilin watermelon frost used in observation group had a promoting effect on hyperplasia of squamous epithelial cells, decrease of the inflammatory cells, formation of granulation tissue and fibroblast, and angiogenesis. The intact rate of covering epithelium of cervical tissue in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (P0.05) . Conclusion; Guilin watermelon frost has anti - inflammatory effect and anti - bacterial effect, which can promote the healing of the erosion surface.%目的:探讨桂林西瓜霜对宫颈糜烂组织细胞的影响.方法:将160例宫颈糜烂患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组用桂林西瓜霜喷敷宫颈糜烂面;对照组采用bFGF -胶原蛋白海绵外敷.光学显微镜下观察两组治疗前后的黏膜上皮细胞增生、炎细胞浸润、间质成纤维细胞增生情况.结果:观察组采用的桂林西瓜霜对鳞状上皮细胞增生、炎性细胞减少、肉芽组织及成纤维细胞形成、血管新生等有促进作用.经组织细胞病理形态学积分差比较,观察组对宫颈组织被覆上皮完好率高于对照组,经积分差u检验(P<0.05)差异有统计学意义;成纤维细胞增生积分差经u检验(P>0.05)差异无统计学意义.结论:桂林西瓜霜具有消炎抗菌、促进糜烂面愈合的作用.

  12. Antioxidant activity of watermelon juice affected by thermal and vacuum treatment%真空结合热处理对西瓜汁抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘野; 邹磊; 宋焕禄

    2013-01-01

    为了研究氧气和温度对西瓜汁抗氧化活性的影响,采用真空结合高低温对西瓜汁进行处理.结果表明,在真空和非真空热处理条件下,西瓜汁多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性随着处理时间和温度的增加呈逐渐下降的趋势;在同一温度和处理时间条件下,真空和非真空处理西瓜汁中PPO的残存活性差异不显著(p>0.05).并且在30℃,无论真空或非真空条件下,西瓜汁中番茄红素含量、对DPPH自由基清除率和Fe2+螯合率变化均较小;而在70℃真空条件下,西瓜汁中番茄红素含量、对DPPH自由基清除率和Fe2+螯合率的降低均较小,70℃非真空条件下,各指标变化均较大.说明氧气对西瓜汁中PPO活性的影响较小,而真空对其番茄红素含量可以起到一定的保护作用,从而保持对DPPH自由基清除率和Fe2+螯合率稳定.%In order to investigate the effect of oxygen and temperature on antioxidant of watermelon juice, vacuum with high and low temperature treatment was applied. Under vacuum and non-vacuum thermal treatments, PPO activity of watermelon juice decreased with treatment time and temperature. And the differences of PPO activities of watermelon juice after vacuum and non-vacuum treatments were not significant at the same temperature and treatment time(p>0.05). At 30℃,lycopene content,DPPH free radical scavenging ratio,and Fe2+ chelate ratio did not change significantly regardless of vacuum or non-vacuum. While the indexes above decreased slightly at 70℃ of vacuum condition,but that decreased greatly at 70℃ of non-vacuum condition. It suggested that oxygen had little effect on PPO activity of watermelon,and lycopene could be protected under vacuum condition.

  13. 酸法水解提取西瓜皮中果胶工艺研究%Study on Extraction Technique of Pectin from Watermelon Peel by Acid Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯婉; 高斌; 李梦月; 尹建香; 郭彩娇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]获得西瓜皮中果胶提取的最佳工艺条件,为西瓜皮功能成分的利用提供技术支持.[方法]以西瓜皮为原料,采取酸法水解,对果胶制备的工艺条件进行了研究.在单因素试验的基础上,采用L9(34)正交试验确定西瓜皮中果胶提取的最佳工艺条件.[结果]西瓜皮中果胶提取最佳工艺条件为:水解时间60 min,水解温度85℃,水解酸度(pH)为2.5,料液比1∶10,按照此务件进行3次提取,测得西瓜皮中果胶的平均产率为13.3%.[结论]研究提高了西瓜深加工产品的附加值,对农业资源综合利用和降低环境污染具有重要意义.%[Objective] The aim was to obtain optimum conditions for extracting pectin from watermelon peel, which will provide technique support for utilizing functional components of watermelon peel. [Method] With watermelon peel as material, by using acid hydrolysis, the technique conditions for preparing pectin were studied. Based on single factor test, the optimum technique conditions were obtained by using L9 (34) orthogonal test. [ Result ] The optimal processing conditions were as follows: the hydrolysis time was 60 min, the hydrolysis temperature was 85 ℃ , the pH value was 2.5, the solid-liquid ratio was 1: 10, the extraction times was three, the average rate of pectin production was up to 13. 3% under this condition. [ Conclusion] The study will improve added value for watermelon further processed products, and has significance for comprehensive utilization of agricultural resources and reducing environment pollution.

  14. Evapotranspiração da cultura da melancia irrigada com água de diferentes salinidades Evapotranspiration of watermelon irrigated with different salinity waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Figueirêdo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que a determinação precisa da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc é de grande importância para o uso eficiente da água, principalmente em regiões áridas e semiáridas onde se faz necessária a utilização de água salina para irrigação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a evapotranspiração da melancia, cultivar Mickylee, com o uso de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental da Alagoinha, pertencente à Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró - RN. Os níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação foram: S1 = 0,55; S2 = 1,65; S3 = 2,35; S4 = 3,5, e S5 = 4,5 dS m-1, sendo os tratamentos dispostos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A determinação da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi realizada pelo método FAO-Penmam-Monteith, e a ETc, pelas leituras obtidas em lisímetros de pesagem, instalados nos tratamentos S1 e S5. Os resultados mostraram que a ETc da melancia diminui com o aumento da salinidade da água aplicada e que a evapotranspiração total durante o ciclo foi de 245 e 214 mm, respectivamente, para os tratamentos S1 e S5. Os valores médios de Kc obtidos para cada fase fenológica foram 0,23; 0,68; 1,12; 0,90 e 0,24; 0,61; 0,98 e 0,78, respectivamente, para as águas S1 e S5.The knowledge of crop evapotranspiration (ETc is very important for efficient water use in irrigated crops, mainly in arid and semi-arid regions, where the use of saline water is common. The objective of this study was to determine watermelon crop evapotranspiration (cv. Mickylee in plants submitted to different irrigation water salinity levels. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental field of the Semi-Arid Federal Rural University, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. The irrigation water salinity levels were of S1 = 0.55; S2 = 1.65; S3 = 2.35; S4 = 3.5 and S5 = 4.5 dS m-1, with the treatments set up in randomized blocks with

  15. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio na qualidade de melancias minimamente processadas Effect of calcium chloride on the quality of minimally processed watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de melancias minimamente processadas, tratadas com cloreto de cálcio, durante o armazenamento sob refrigeração. Utilizaram-se melancias 'Crimson Sweet', maduras, adquiridas no comércio de Piracicaba, SP, oriundas do Rio Grande do Sul. Os frutos foram lavados e desinfetados com água clorada (200 mg L-1. A polpa foi cortada em cubos (2,5 cm de aresta, os quais foram imersos, por 3 min nas soluções que corresponderam aos tratamentos, imersão em água pura (controle, solução de cloreto de cálcio a 1%. Em seguida foram escorridos por 3 min, acondicionados em copos de tereftalato de polietileno (PET transparente de 450 mL de capacidade, com tampa, e armazenados sob refrigeração a 10,0 ± 3,2°C e 79% UR. A cada dois dias, os pedaços foram avaliados sensorialmente e quanto à perda de massa fresca, aparência, coloração interna, textura, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT, pH, relação SS/AT e conteúdos de ácido ascórbico e de pectinas, solúvel e total. O uso da solução de cloreto de cálcio promoveu maior firmeza na textura de melancias minimamente processadas, porém não se mostrou efetivo no prolongamento da vida útil, que foi de 2 dias do ponto de vista sensorial.This study evaluated the refrigerated storage and quality of minimally processed watermelon treated with calcium chloride. Ripe Crimson Sweet watermelons produced in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and acquired at a local market in Piracicaba, SP, were washed and the surface sanitized with chlorated water (200 mg L-1. Samples were then cut into pulp cubes (2.5 cm across. Cubes were subjected to two treatments: immersion for 3 min in pure water (control and 1% calcium chloride. Subsequently, the cubes were drained for 3 min and packaged in transparent polyethylene terephthalate cups and stored at 10.0 ? 3.2?C and 79% RH. Every two days cubes from each treatment were sensorially evaluated as well as the loss of fresh

  16. Breeding of A New Edible Seed Watermelon Hybrid——Linzi No.1%籽瓜杂交种林籽1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾; 林淑敏; 刘彤; 王诚忠; 丁禹琪; 陶东

    2011-01-01

    林籽1号是以92707为母本、88708为父本育成的早熟、优质、高产籽瓜杂交种.植株生长健壮,抗病抗逆性强,适应性广,易坐果.全生育期95~103d.果实圆形,果皮浅绿色覆深绿核桃纹;单瓜产籽250~480粒,种子纵、横径1.75 cm×1.13 cm,片面平整、黑白分明,翘片、二青片、秕籽极少,商品率在97%以上.667m2干籽产量160 kg.适宜在新疆、内蒙古、甘肃、宁夏以及东北部分地区种植.%Linzi No.1 is a new edible seed watermelon variety with early maturity, high quality and high yield.It was developed by using line 92707 as female and line 88708 as male parent.The variety produce plants with strong vigor,good resistance and adaptability.The plant set fruit easily.The whole growing period is 95-103 days.The fruit is globe shaped with light green skin and pencil lines.The single fruit can produce 250-480 seeds.The seed size is 1.75 cm×1.13 cm.The seed is white in center portion and dark at edges.More than 97% seed are marketable.667 m2 yield of dry seeds is 160 kg.It is suitable for cultivation in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia province and part areas of Northeast.

  17. 西瓜中超声提取番茄红素的工艺研究%Research Progress on Ultrasonic Extraction of Lycopene in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国贞

    2015-01-01

    采用超声波辅助法在西瓜中提取番茄红素,先选取了5种因素进行单因素试验,比较单因素之间提取效果,然后选取对提取效果影响大的因素做正交试验。试验结果表明,影响番茄红素提取效果的主要因素是提取温度、提取时间、超声功率、添加剂,在温度45℃,超声功率140 W的条件下,1:3的料液比,加入浓度为0.5%的蔗糖溶液,提取6 min的效果最佳。%Ultrasonic wave auxiliary method was used to withdraw the Lycopene in the watermelon, selected 5 kind of factors to carry on the single factor experiment first, compared the withdraw effect with the single factor, the factor with the highest withdraw effect was selected to perform the orthogonal test. The test result indicated that the primary factor affected the Lycopene extraction was the extraction temperature, the extraction time, the supersonic power and the chemical additive. In the temperature of 45 ℃, under the supersonic power of 140 W, ratio of material to liquid of 1:3, added 0. 5% sucrose solution, withdrew 6 min, the effect was best.

  18. Preliminary Report on Efficiency Comparison Test of Application of Jianong Humic Acid Water Soluble Fertilizer to Open Field Watermelon%嘉农腐殖酸水溶肥在露地西瓜上的肥效试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈玉芳; 张骞; 艾凤舞; 马广福

    2014-01-01

    在宁夏灵武农场开展了嘉农腐殖酸水溶肥在露地西瓜上的肥效对比试验。结果表明,追施嘉农腐殖酸水溶肥可增加西瓜糖分,提高西瓜产量及品质,增加经济效益;在灵武农场露地西瓜生产中,嘉农腐植酸水溶肥可作追肥推广应用。%An efficiency comparison test of application of Jianong humic acid water soluble fertilizer to the open field watermelon was conducted at Lingwu farm in Ningxia. The result showed that the topdressing of Jianong humic acid water soluble fertilizer could increase the watermelon sugar content, increase watermelon yield and quality and increase the economic benefits. In the production of the open field watermelon, the Jianong humic acid water soluble fertilizer could be extended and applied as topdressing.

  19. Spatial by Characteristic Analysis of the Comparative Advantage of Watermelon and Melon Production in Hainan Province%海南省西瓜甜瓜生产比较优势空间特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳唐镜; 张棵; 别之龙; 许勇; 李劲松; 孔秋生

    2013-01-01

    [目的]阐明西瓜甜瓜生产比较优势区域的空间特征,为海南省西瓜甜瓜产业战略决策提供重要的参考依据.[方法]以基于县域的海南省西瓜甜瓜播种面积、总产量和单位面积产量为研究单元,系统分析海南省西瓜甜瓜产量、效率、规模、集中度、综合比较优势和单位面积产量比、播种面积比及其空间分布特征.利用海南省18个县市农业统计资料,以产量比较优势指数、效率比较优势指数、规模比较优势指数、集中度比较优势指数、综合比较优势、单位面积产量比指数和播种面积比指数分析海南省西瓜甜瓜生产比较优势状况,并通过“地图汇”软件在地图上进行空间表达.[结果]海南省西瓜优势区域依次是陵水、万宁、文昌、东方、三亚、乐东和昌江等7个县市,琼东和琼南地区为海南省西瓜生产的综合比较优势区,琼西和琼北地区可作为后备发展区域;海南省甜瓜优势区域依次是乐东、陵水、三亚和东方等4个县市,琼南地区为海南省甜瓜生产的综合比较优势区,琼西地区可作为后备发展区域.[结论]以研究结果为依据,确定西瓜甜瓜为海南省近期发展的优势瓜菜农产品,对西瓜甜瓜进行优势区域布局规划,优先予以重点扶持建设,尽快提高产品产量、质量和市场竞争能力.%[Objective] This study investigated the spatial characteristics of counties (cities) with comparative advantages in watermelon and melon production to provide reference bases in formulating strategies for the development of watermelon and melon industries in Hainan Province.[Method] By using the sowing area,total yield,and yield per unit area of watermelon and melon in Hainan Province as research units,the yield comparative advantage (YCA),efficiency comparative advantage (ECA),scale comparative advantage (SCA),concentration ratio comparative advantage (CRCA),comprehensive comparative

  20. 不同宽度地膜覆盖对西瓜栽培效果影响对比试验%Effects of Mulching Polythene Film with Different Widths on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文信; 樊学军; 李凤梅; 张力; 黄金艳; 李桂芬; 覃斯华; 何毅; 李天艳; 洪日新

    2013-01-01

      采用田间栽培对比试验,研究分析了不同宽度地膜覆盖西瓜种植畦对西瓜植株生长状况、产量和品质形成的影响,寻找适合华南地区冬、春、秋干旱,夏季多雨气候环境下,能很好调节土壤水分和肥料,满足西瓜植株正常健康生长所需的栽培技术方法。试验结果表明,在同等的栽培管理条件下,覆盖100 cm宽黑色地膜效果最好,在种植后遇到干旱或下雨季节,其对土壤的保水及防水能力,提高肥料的利用率,提高西瓜产量及品质等方面都有明显效果,可作为我国华南地区冬、春、秋干旱,夏季雨水偏多气候环境露地西瓜生产栽培模式技术。%In this paper, we studied the effects of covering polythene film with different widths on the furrow on the growth, yield and quality of watermelon, to find out suitable cultivation methods which met the require of watermelon plants' normal and healthy growth through adjusting soil moisture and fertilizer well in the south China environment, where was droughty in winter, spring and autumn but rainy in summer. The results showed that the best effect was gained by covering 100 cm wide black film on the furrow under the same cultivation method, and it had good water holding and water-proof effects in the droughty or rainy climate after planting, meanwhile it could increase the utilization rate of fertilizer and improve the yield and quality obviously, so it could be recommended as a suitable open field cultivation method of watermelon in the south China where was rainy in summer and droughty in winter, spring and autumn.

  1. 高压二氧化碳对西瓜汁中过氧化物酶钝化动力学的研究%Inactivation of peroxidase in watermelon juice by high pressure carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘野; 张超; 许勇; 李武; 赵晓燕

    2011-01-01

    The effect of high pressure carbon dioxide(HPCD)on peroxidase (POD) activity in watermelon juice was evaluated to extent its shelf-life with the thermal treatments as a control.The experimental plots were well fit by the two-fraction model (R2>0.975), suggested that the POD in the watermelon juice included labile and stable fractions.The two fractions had the different sensitivity to the temperature and pressure by the kinetics analysis. Moreover,it was concluded that the combined effects of temperature,pressure,treatment time,pH,and CO2 were suggested as the cause of POD inactivation.Consequently, HPCD treatment showed a great capacity to inactive POD of watermelon juice than the thermal treatment,being an option to extend its shelf-life.%为了延长西瓜汁的货架期,研究高压二氧化碳处理对西瓜汁中过氧化物酶(peroxidase,POD)的钝化效果.研究以热处理为对照,比较不同高压二氧化碳处理温度和压强对其POD活性残存率的影响.采用二段式模型模拟POD的钝化效果(R2>0.975),证明西瓜汁中POD存在敏感型和稳定型两部分.通过动力学分析考察两种类型POD对温度和压强的敏感性,确认高压二氧化碳处理温度、压力、时间、pH和CO2等因素共同导致了POD活性的降低.高压二氧化碳处理比热处理可以更加有效钝化西瓜汁中POD,有助于延长西瓜汁的货架期.

  2. 西瓜花叶病毒单克隆抗体及TAS-ELISA试剂盒的研制%Preparation of the monoclonal antibody against Watermelon mosaic virus and TAS-ELISA kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新苗; 李桂芬; 马洁; 邓丛良; 边勇; 张永江; 李建光; 骆卫峰; 周琦

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was injected to BALB/c mice whose spleen cells were fused with myeloma cells SP2/0 . One hybridoma cell line was obtained by the finite dilution and indirect ELISA. The line could secrete monoclonal antibody stably and were named as 6C6 . The subtype was identified as IgGl by ELISA . The ti-ter of 6C6 ascitic fluids was 1:105 by indirect - ELISA. A monoclonal antibody for capture and a rabbit polyclonal antibody as detection formed TAS - ELISA. The TAS - ELISA kit were demonstrated to react specifically to Watermelon mosaic virus, whereas the kit did not response to PVA (potato virus A ) , LMV ( Lettuce mosaic virus) , PPV (Plum pox virus) of the same genus,but weakly responsed to PRSV(papaya ringspot virus) of the same genus.%将纯化的西瓜花叶病毒(Watermelon mosaic virus,WMV)制剂免疫BALB/c小鼠,用SP2/0骨髓瘤细胞与经西瓜花叶病毒免疫的BALB/c小鼠的脾细胞融合,有限稀释法克隆和间接ELISA法筛选出1株稳定分泌西瓜花叶病毒单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株6C6.用间接ELISA方法对所获得的杂交瘤细胞株进行亚型鉴定为IgG1.间接ELISA方法测定腹水效价为1∶105.以单克隆抗体为包被抗体、多克隆抗体为检测抗体的TAS-ELISA试剂盒与引自ATCC的西瓜花叶病毒毒源PV-27、PV-379、PV-394、PV-511分离物均有反应,与同属的马铃薯A病毒(Potato virusA)、莴苣花叶病毒(Lettuce mosaicvirus virus)、李痘病毒(Plum pox virus)不发生交叉反应,与同属的番木瓜环斑病毒呈弱阳性反应..

  3. 硼胁迫对不同基因型西瓜部分生理指标的影响%Boron Stress on Some Physiological Indexes of Different Watermelon Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晟; 施木田; 吴宇芬; 李永裕

    2016-01-01

    为了研究硼胁迫对不同基因型西瓜细胞壁、细胞膜以及碳氮代谢的影响,以籽瓜、‘黑美人’西瓜和野生西瓜为材料,设4个硼浓度,测定3种类型西瓜细胞膜透性、游离脯氨酸、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白含量及PAL和PPO活性.结果表明:3种类型西瓜在硼胁迫下的PPO活性上升,细胞膜透性与游离脯氨酸含量上升,可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量有所减少.PAL活性在缺硼胁迫时下降,在高硼胁迫时应激上升.硼胁迫破坏了3种类型西瓜细胞壁结构,产生醌等大量次生产物损伤细胞膜,使细胞膜透性增强,细胞内离子浓度失衡脱水.进而阻碍了细胞正常功能运转,间接削弱西瓜碳代谢系统与氮代谢系统,减少了可溶性糖与可溶性蛋白质等代谢产物的生成.%In order to study the effect of boron stress on cytoderm,cell membrane and carbon-nitrogen metabolism of different watermelon genotypes,seed-used watermelon,‘ Heimeiren' and wild watermelon were used in this test,cell membrane permeability,free proline content,soluble sugar content,soluble protein content and PAL,PPO activity were measured under four boron concentrations.The results showed that the PPO activity,cell membrane permeability and free proline content increased under boron stress,soluble sugar and soluble protein content decreased.PAL activity decreased when boron was deficient,while it increased under boron stress.Boron stress destroyed cytoderm structure of these three varieties,and the secondary production such as quinone could damage cytomembrane,which could increase cell membrane permeability and lead to dehydration,then the normal motion function was blocked,weakening the carbon and nitrogen metabolic system,and reducing the production of metabolites such as soluble sugar and soluble protein.

  4. Effects of low phosphorus stress on iron,manganese,calcium and magnesium uptake in watermelon seedlings%低磷胁迫对西瓜苗期铁、锰、钙、镁吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥祥; 刘娜; 张莉; 杨景华; 张明方

    2011-01-01

    采用植物生长箱溶液培养方式,研究了低磷(P)胁迫对7个西瓜品种苗期铁(Fe)、锰(Mn)、钙(Ca)、镁(Mg)吸收的影响。结果表明,低磷胁迫会影响西瓜Fe,Mn,Ca,Mg的吸收。低磷胁迫使西瓜Fe的吸收降低,而对Mn、Ca和Mg吸收的影响则因品种而异。在低P胁迫条件下Ca,Mg的吸收表现出了极显著的正相关性。以相对元素含量为筛选指标研究低磷胁迫下7个品种Fe、Mn、Ca、Mg吸收的差异。结果表明,在低磷胁迫下,早佳和早春红玉为Fe高效吸收基因型,早佳为Mn高效吸收基因型,丽芳为Ca和Mg高效吸收基因型%Effects of low phosphorus(P) stress on iron(Fe),manganese(Mn),calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) uptake in watermelon seedlings of seven cultivars were studied in this paper by the method of plant solution culture.It has been demonstrated that low P stress can affect the Fe,Mn,Ca and Mg uptake in the seven watermelon cultivars.Low P stress can reduce Fe uptake of watermelon,but the effects of low P stress on Mn,Ca and Mg uptake were different among cultivars.There were significant and positive correlation between Ca and Mg uptake under low P stress.The differences of Fe,Mn,Ca and Mg content among the seven cultivars were studied with the relative content of elements as screening parameters.Our results showed that Zaojia and Zaochunhongyu were identified as the Fe high efficient uptake genotypes,Zaojia was identified as the Mn high efficient uptake genotype,Lifang was identified as the Ca and Mg high efficient uptake genotype under low P stress.

  5. Diurnal Photosynthetic Change in the Canopy of Greenhouse Watermelon at the Fruit-setting Stage%温室栽培西瓜座果期冠层光合作用日变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈年来; 王兴虎; 魏存龙

    2006-01-01

    在兰州春季塑料日光温室条件下研究了'宝冠'和'新金兰'两个品种西瓜(Citrullus lantus(Thunb.)Mansf.)冠层光合作用日变化特性.结果表明,日光温室两个西瓜品种间冠层光照分布和单叶光合作用日变化模式存在明显的差异,冠层光照条件影响各叶层的光合强度及其日变化态势.两品种冠层整体光合速率日动态呈单峰型,'宝冠'的光合生产力高于'新金兰'.'宝冠'西瓜单叶光合速率较高,高效光合时间较长,且表现出午休特征.'新金兰'西瓜单叶光合速率低,高效光合维持时间较短,未表现出明显午休特征.'宝冠'光合作用的瞬时水分效率(WUE)高于'新金兰',两品种上午的WUE高于下午,上层叶的WUE高于下层叶.

  6. Studies on the Tissue Culture of the Stems and Vitro-grafting Technology in Seedless Watermelon%无籽西瓜茎段组织培养与嫁接育苗技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王闯; 李中勇; 刘敏; 豆惠敏; 毛志泉

    2010-01-01

    以无籽西瓜(Citrullus lantus)墨童无菌苗的茎段为外植体,对组织培养与嫁接育苗技术研究进行了研究.结果表明:不同消毒剂对种胚萌发有一定影响,其中消毒剂二氧化氯250 mg/L处理有利于种胚萌芽,萌发率达82.5%;子叶芽诱导的最佳培养基配方为1/2MS+IAA0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂7g/L;不同激素浓度对芽丛增殖和单芽生根也有一定影响,其中MS+6.BA0.4 mg/L+IAA 0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂7 g/L继代培养增殖率最高;MS+NAA0.5 mg/L生根率最高(96.2%).

  7. Isolation and Identification of Antagonistic Streptomyces spp. Against Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon and Primarily Potted Inhibition Test%西瓜枯萎病拮抗链霉菌分离鉴定及盆栽抗病试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任迁琪; 宋星林; 吴洪生; 李季; 陈素云; 徐亚; 姚东良; 赵月; 陈健; 李美颖

    2016-01-01

    旨在筛选出能高效抑制西瓜枯萎病病原菌尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum)的天然拮抗菌。采用梯度稀释法分离连作辣椒根际土中的放线菌,纯化后用平板对峙法筛选出有拮抗作用的菌株,采用盆钵育苗基质拌菌法接种,进行盆栽抗病试验,并对拮抗效果最佳的菌株进行鉴定。结果显示,从连作辣椒根际土中,分离筛选出10株对西瓜枯萎病有拮抗作用的放线菌,其中菌株 F22、F23、F32的拮抗作用显著。96 h 抑菌圈直径分别达到1.70、1.17和1.47 cm。盆栽试验结果表明,拮抗菌株 F32对西瓜枯萎病30 d 的防治效果最佳,防效率达到66.7%,且抗菌谱性广。根据表型特征、生理生化特性和16S rDNA 分子鉴定结果可知,菌株 F32为链霉菌属(Streptomyces sp.),且对西瓜枯萎病有良好的防治作用,是一株具有应用价值的生防菌株。%The objective is to select a natural antagonistic bacterium efficiently controlling Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum that is the pathogenic bacterium of the fusarium wilt of watermelon. Using the method of gradient dilution to isolate actinomycetes from rhizosphere soil of continuous cropping pepper,it was purified and the plate confrontation method was applied to select an antagonistic strain. Then the method of basin nursery substrates mixed with bacteria was for inoculation,a potted plant disease-resistant experiment was carried out,and the strains with the optimal antagonistic effects were identified. The results showed that 10 strains of actinomycetes with the antagonistic effects to fusarium wilt of watermelon were isolated from the growing pepper rhizosphere soil,and 3 of them(F22,F23 and F32)presented the significantly antagonistic effects. After 96 hours the diameter of the inhibition zone was 1.70 cm,1.17 cm and 1.47 cm respectively. The result of the potted plant experiments demonstrated that the control effect of the

  8. Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Antagonistic Bacterium against Fusarium wilt of Cucumber and Watermelon%黄瓜、西瓜枯萎病拮抗细菌的初步分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洪生; 周晓冬; 李鹤; 刘正柱; 闫霜; 刘小雪; 王增辉; 孔祥云

    2013-01-01

    To screen and isolate the antagonistic bacteria that can control cucumber and watermelon wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum from the soil,the antagonistic bacteria from soil samples in the greenhouse where pepper was planted and could antagonize cucumber and watermelon wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum were conducted for the plate confrontation experiment.The results showed that,LX6,LX7,LX12,LX13 bacterial strains could antagonize Fusarium oxysporum of cucumber and watermelon and had clear inhibition zone;the inhibition zone diameter arrived at 19.3,18.2,17.4,25.5 mm and 16.2,15.0,15.9,14.8 mm after 96 h.In a 30-day-pot-test,control rates against F.oxysporum of LX6 strain treated in cucumber and watermelon were 85.3 % and 81.2 %,respectively.The results of plate culture,microscopy,16S rDNA-based molecular identification (1650bp fragment) and physiological and biochemical characterization showed that the isolated antagonistic bacterium was Bacillus amyloliquifacience and its molecular weight of 16sDNA fragment was 1650 bp.%为了从土壤中筛选能同时抑制黄瓜、西瓜枯萎病的致病菌尖孢镰刀菌的天然拮抗菌,从种植辣椒的大棚土样中分离培养多种能同时拮抗黄瓜和西瓜枯萎病的拮抗细菌,经平板对峙实验,从辣椒土样中分离出编号为LX6、LX7、LX12、LX13的细菌菌株对黄瓜和西瓜尖孢镰刀菌有明显的拮抗作用,抑菌圈显著,96h抑菌圈直径分别达到19.3、18.2、17.4、25.5 mm和16.2、15.0、15.9、14.8 mm;盆栽试验,拮抗菌LX6对黄瓜和西瓜枯萎病30 d的防治效果分别达到85.3%和81.2%.拮抗效果最显著的LX6菌株做分子生物学的进一步鉴定.经平板培养菌落特征、镜检、16S DNA分子鉴定和生理生化特征鉴定表明,所分离的拮抗菌LX6为淀粉液化芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens),16sDNA片段分子量为1650bp.

  9. Thermal Requirements of Development Phases and Simulation Model for Watermelon Seedlings%西瓜幼苗发育阶段热量需求及模型模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彭丽; 陈罡晓; 牛庆良; 黄丹枫; 孙治强

    2015-01-01

    通过5次穴盘育苗试验,量化了西瓜幼苗各生育阶段的累积热量单位需求,西瓜幼苗出苗期、子叶展平期、1片真叶期、2片真叶期、3片真叶期、3叶1心期平均所需的累积热量单位分别为2451.02、639.71、2240.85、1916.65、1802.19、670.22℃·h,完成整个苗期所需的累积热量单位为9720.64℃·h;基于累积热量单位驱动,构建了西瓜幼苗发育阶段模拟模型,检测结果表明,模型精度良好。%We conducted five seedling-raising experiments in plugs and quantified the thermal requirements of different development phases for watermelon seedlings. The results showed that, the accumulated thermal units were 2 451.02, 639.71, 2 240.85, 1 916.65, 1 802.19 and 670.22 ℃·h for seedling emergence phase, cotyledon spreading phase, one-leaf phase, two-leaf phase, three-leaf phase and three-leaf with one-shoot phase respectively, and total accumulated thermal unit was 9 720.64 ℃·h to accomplish the whole seedling phase. Based on accumulated thermal unit, we built a simulation model for development phases of watermelon seedlings, and the testing results showed that, the model possessed higher accuracy and practicality.

  10. Effect of Bio-organic and Foliar Fertilizer on Traits and Yield of Seed Watermelon%施用生物有机肥和叶面肥对籽瓜性状与产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯

    2015-01-01

    以“黑丰一号”籽瓜为试验材料,研究不同施肥方式对籽瓜性状和产量的影响。结果表明,生物有机肥1200kg/hm2+定量喷施叶面肥,能有效提高籽瓜大小、重量、千粒重、产籽率,降低白籽率,且施用生物有机肥+叶面肥能显著提高鲜瓜与种子产量。因此,施用1200kg/hm2生物有机肥+定量喷施叶面肥是一种比单一化肥更好的施肥方式。%In order to study the effects of different fertilization on traits and yield of seed watermelon with“Heifeng No.1”. The results showed that,bio-organic with 1200kg/hm2 and quantitative foliar fertilizer application could im⁃prove size,weight,kernel weight,producing seed ratio effectively,and also decrease white seed ratio,and bio-organ⁃ic and quantitative foliar fertilizer application could increase seed watermelon and seed production. Therefore ,appli⁃cation of bio-organic with 1200kg/hm2 and quantitative foliar fertilizer is a better fertilization mode than chemical fer⁃tilizer.

  11. 花粉不同保存方法对西瓜授粉效果及种子质量的影响%Effects of Different Pollen Storage Methods on Pollination and Seed Quality of Mini-watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹园凤; 党选民

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen out the simple storage method for mini-watermelon pollen, we analyzed the pollen viability, fruit setting rate, seed setting rate, thousand seeds weight, germination potentiality and seed germination rate of two different pollen storage methods, keeping pollen wet and dry respectively at normal temperature. The results showed that, taking the two storage methods, the pollen viability, fruit setting rate and seed setting rate had no significant difference with those of the control treatment (pollinating directly). Therefore, in practice we could keep pollen of mini-watermelon wet or dry in short term at normal temperature. Comprehensively, keeping pollen wet at normal temperature was better for possessing higher seed setting rate and saving time.%为筛选出适宜的简易花粉保存方法,采用常温保湿和干燥保存2种方法保存花粉,并对西瓜花粉活力、坐果率、结籽率、种子千粒质量、发芽势及发芽率进行了比较分析。试验结果表明,2种保存方法保存的花粉活力、授粉之后的坐果率、结籽率及种子质量均与对照(活体授粉)差异不显著,说明实践中可采用常温保湿保存和干燥保存方法短期保存花粉,综合分析表明短期常温保湿保存花粉效果较好且省力。

  12. Breeding of Interspecific Hybrid Squash Rootstock Jingxinzhen No.3 for Melon and Watermelon%甜瓜、西瓜专用砧木品种——京欣砧3号的选育和推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长才; 李海真; 张帆; 姜立纲

    2011-01-01

    Jingxinzhen No. 3 is interspecific hybrid squash rootstock for melon and watermelon. It was developed by using line 05-88 (Cucwbita maxima) as female parent and line 04-36 (Cucurbita moschata) male parent. Compared with check varieties , Jingxinzhen No. 3 has higher germination, uniform seedling, strong plant vigor. It has high grafting affinity with watermelon and melon scion. The grafted plants are tolerant to low temperature and weak light,resistant to Fusarium wilt,and tolerant to salinity. The grafted plant produces higher yield and good quality fruit.%京欣砧3号是用印度南瓜种05-88自交系作母本,中国南瓜系04-36自交系作父本配制而成的远缘南瓜(Cucurbita maxima×Cucurbita moschata)杂交种,主要用于甜瓜和西瓜嫁接栽培.采用京欣砧3号等不同砧木嫁接甜瓜和西瓜试验结果显示:与其他参试葫芦砧木和各类南瓜砧木相比,京欣砧3号发芽率高,出苗整齐,苗壮.与甜瓜、西瓜嫁接亲和性好,共生力强,结合面致密,成活率高.嫁接苗耐低温弱光.抗枯萎病,耐盐碱,叶部病害轻.嫁接后增产效果明显,对果实品质影响小.

  13. 9个西瓜新品种在兰州的引种试验初报%A preliminary Report on Introduction Test of 9 New Watermelon Varieties in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张化生; 杨永岗; 苏永全; 李晓芳

    2014-01-01

    In order to select suitable Lanzhou area cultivated watermelon varieties,the introduction of the three large fruit varieties and six small watermelon fruit watermelon varieties Variety. The results showed that large watermelon fruit good performance Longkang 11 and Black Beauty . The Longkang 11 average fruit weight 5.32 kg,sugar content of 11.5%,good flavor,good storage, the average yield of 79 857.14 kg/hm2 . Black Beauty the average fruit weight 4.87 kg,the sugar content of 11.8%,good flavor, good crack resistance,very good storage,the average yield of 73 071.43 kg/hm2. Small Watermelon good performance Jinglei and Longfengzaoxin . The Jinglei average fruit weight 4.32 kg, sugar content of 12.3%, good flavor, representing storage and transportation,equivalent yield 64 857.14 kg/hm2. The Longfengzaoxin average fruit weight 3.65 kg,the sugar content of 10.5%, crisp and refreshing,crack,very good storage,equivalent yield of 60 785.71 kg/hm2 . The performance of the tested varieties and integrated regional market demand Lanzhou believe that the large fruit watermelon varieties Longkang 11,Black Beauty Jinglei and Longfengzaoxin suitable Lanzhou areas cultivated .%为了筛选适合兰州地区栽培的西瓜新品种,对引进的3个中大果型西瓜品种和6个小果型西瓜品种进行品种比较试验,结果表明,中大果型西瓜表现好的有陇抗11号、大果黑美人,其中陇抗11号属中晚熟品种,平均单瓜重5.32 kg,中糖含量为11.5%,风味好,贮运性好,平均产量达79857.14 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇抗9号、丰抗8号分别增产2.76%、8.97%。大果黑美人熟性较早,平均单瓜重4.87 kg,中糖含量为11.8%,风味好,抗裂性好,极耐贮运,平均产量达73071.43 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇抗9号、丰抗8号分别减产5.97%、0.29%。小果型西瓜表现好的有金雷、陇丰早欣,其中金雷平均单瓜重4.32 kg,中糖含量为12.3%,风味佳

  14. Acúmulo e exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes Accumulation and exportation of macronutrients in seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C. Grangeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o acúmulo e a exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes, híbrido Nova, conduziu-se um experimento em Itápolis (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2001, em um ARGISSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 15; 30; 45; 60 e 70 dias após transplantio (DAT, sendo quantificados o acúmulo de massa seca e de macronutrientes na folha, caule + ramos e frutos. O acúmulo de peso seco foi lento até 30 DAT, intensificando-se a partir deste, alcançando no final do ciclo o total de 545,1 g planta-1, onde as folhas participaram com 30%, caule + ramos com 31% e os frutos com 39%. Até 30 DAT, o acúmulo de nutrientes também foi pequeno, sendo que com a frutificação, houve um forte incremento na quantidade de nutrientes acumulados, com maior demanda no período de 45 a 60 DAT. A ordem decrescente dos macronutrientes acumulados pela cultura foi: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. Os frutos exportaram 20,3 kg ha-1 de N; 4,0 kg ha-1 de P; 26,6 kg ha-1 de K; 1,4 kg ha-1 de Ca; 1,6 kg ha-1 de Mg e 1,4 kg ha-1 de S.The accumulation and exportation of nutrients of the seedless watermelon hybrid Nova was determined under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Typic Paleudult soil, in the Itápolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling of the plants was done at 15; 30; 45; 60 and 70 days after transplanting date (DAT and the accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients was quantified in leaves, stem + branches and fruits. The dry mass accumulation was slow until 30 DAT, intensifying with the beginning of the fruit development. At the end of the cycle, the average contribution of leaves, stems + branches and fruits, was respectively of 30; 31 and 39%. The accumulation of nutrients followed the curve of dry mass accumulation. The larger demand for macronutrients occurred from 45 to 60 DAT. The order of nutrients accumulation for the culture was: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. The fruits exported 20.3 kg

  15. Características produtivas da melancia em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio Yield characteristics of watermelon in different planting spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio foram avaliados na produção de melancia em experimento da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina, de outubro a dezembro de 1998. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, consistindo de dois espaçamentos entre linhas (2,50 e 3,00 m e três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,40; 0,60 e 0,80 m e 3 repetições, sendo utilizada a cultivar Crimson Sweet. O espaçamento entre linhas de 3,00 m apresentou maior produção (42,46 t/ha, sendo que entre plantas os espaçamentos de 0,60 e 0,80 m alcançaram as maiores produções com 42,50 e 45,29 t/ha, respectivamente, não mostrando diferenças entre si. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas para produção de frutos refugo nos espaçamentos entre linhas. No entanto, o menor espaçamento entre plantas proporcionou maior produção com 20,21 t/ha, seguido pelos espaçamentos de 0,60 m (12,86 t/ha e 0,80 m (8,62 t/ha. O incremento dos espaçamentos, tanto entre linhas como entre plantas, resultou em frutos de maior tamanho, tendo o espaçamento 3,00 x 0,80 m apresentado a maior massa fresca do fruto (8,83 kg/fruto. O maior número de frutos por planta (1,35 frutos foi obtido com o espaçamento de 3,00 x 0,80 m.The yield of watermelon as a result of different planting space was evaluated, from October to December 1998 in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized blocks in a 5 x 3 factorial scheme, with three replications. The cultivar Crimson Sweet was planted in 2.5 and 3.0 m row spacing and in 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m inside the row. The 3.0 m row spacing resulted in the highest marketable yield with 42.46 t ha-1. Higher yields (42.50 and 45.29 t ha-1 were obtained with the 0.2 and 0.4 m plant spacing, with no difference between them. No significant differences were observed for unmarketable fruit yield in the row spacings. However, the smallest plant spacing (0.4 m showed the highest yield

  16. Effects of 0.1%Forchlorfenuron Soluble Liquid on Fruit Growth and Quality of Triploid Watermelon%0.1%氯吡脲可溶性液剂对三倍体西瓜果实生长和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运强; 戴照义; 郭凤领; 刘志雄

    2014-01-01

    To explore effects of forchlorfenuron on fruit growth and quality of triploid watermelon, a filed experiment was carried out in 2013. The results showed that evenly sprayed 0.1% forchlorfenuron soluble liquid on triploid watermelon ovary could significantly improve the fruit setting rate, at the same time enlarged fruit stalk and thicken skin in a certain extent, but it could not significantly affect the center sugar content and hollow rate of triploid watermelon. And the appropriate concentration was 30 mg/kg (effective content).%为探索氯吡脲对三倍体西瓜果实生长和品质的影响,于2013年进行了田间试验。试验结果表明,0.1%氯吡脲可溶性液剂均匀喷洒三倍体西瓜子房可显著提高其坐果率,同时在一定程度上会使果柄增粗、果皮变厚,但对三倍体西瓜中心糖含量和空心率没有明显影响,适宜使用浓度为30 mg/kg(有效含量)。

  17. Mechanisms of Action and Dose-Response Relationships Governing Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, R P; Fravel, D R

    1999-12-01

    ABSTRACT Three isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium spp. (CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47), previously shown to reduce the incidence of Fusarium wilt diseases of multiple crops, were evaluated to determine their mechanisms of action and antagonist-pathogen inoculum density relationships. Competition for nutrients, as represented by a reduction in pathogen saprophytic growth in the presence of the biocontrol isolates, was observed to be an important mechanism of action for isolate Fo47, but not for isolates CS-1 and CS-20. All three biocontrol isolates demonstrated some degree of induced systemic resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plants, as determined by split-root tests, but varied in their relative abilities to reduce disease. Isolate CS-20 provided the most effective control (39 to 53% disease reduction), while Fo47 provided the least effective control (23 to 25% reduction) in split-root tests. Dose-response relationships also differed considerably among the three biocon-trol isolates, with CS-20 significantly reducing disease incidence at antagonist doses as low as 100 chlamydospores per g of soil (cgs) and at pathogen densities up to 10(5) cgs. Isolate CS-1 also was generally effective at antagonist densities of 100 to 5,000 cgs, but only when pathogen densities were below 10(4) cgs. Isolate Fo47 was effective only at antagonist densities of 10(4) to 10(5) cgs, regardless of pathogen density. Epidemiological dose-response models (described by linear, negative exponential, hyperbolic saturation [HS], and logistic [LG] functions) fit to the observed data were used to quantify differences among the biocontrol isolates and establish biocontrol characteristics. Each isolate required a different model to best describe its dose-response characteristics, with the HS/HS, LG/HS, and LG/LG models (pathogen/biocontrol components) providing the best fit for isolates CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47, respectively. Model parameters (defining effective

  18. 西瓜感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒后糖的变化与倒瓤关系的研究%The relation between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立梅; 吴元华; 赵秀香; 王文航; 王林; 蔡明

    2011-01-01

    By high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC), the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose, and the sweetness were analyzed in watermelon inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The relationship between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon was determined. The results indicated that the content of glucose was apparently increased compared to that of the control before maturity (within 28 days after pollination), but reduced to 24.8% of the control after maturity (at 35 days after pollination). The content of fructose was higher than that of the control within 14 days after pollination, and then decreased with a significant difference. In all cases, the content of sucrose increased with the growth of watermelon. However, compared with the control, the sucrose content of watermelon inoculated with CGMMV was lower. The ratios of glucose, fructose and sucrose in the total sugar were abnormal. Coincidence with the changes of the total sugar, the fruit sweetness before maturity was higher than that of the control, whereas decreased sharply after maturity ( lower than that of the control). The inner pulp of the mature fruit appeared to be water-soaked and dirty red with no edibility. In a word, after inoculation with CGMMV, the changes of sugars and sweetness affected the watermelon quality.%@@ 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物上的重要病毒,2006年12月被农业部列为全国检疫性有害生物,2007年5月又被列为中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物.西瓜感染该病毒后,果肉出现油渍状深色病变,种子周围形成暗紫红色空洞,变色组织软化溶解呈丝状纤维化,俗称血瓤或倒瓤,果味异样,丧失食用价值[1].

  19. Study on Light Response Curve of Photosynthesis of Different Watermelons%不同西瓜材料光响应曲线特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅; 张力; 康德贤; 宋利娜; 赵晓美; 黄金艳; 李凤梅; 李文信; 覃斯华; 何毅; 李天艳; 洪日新; 樊学军

    2013-01-01

    利用Li-6400便携式光合测定仪测定了9份不同西瓜材料伸蔓期的光响应曲线,分析各材料曲线的特征参数.结果表明不同材料的光响应特征参数存在差异:最大净光合速率为W4=W5=W6=圆形花皮特早熟=长梭绿皮特早熟=桂红2号>兴桂1号>W9>W 12;表观量子效率为圆形花皮特早熟>桂红2号>W4>兴桂1号>长梭绿皮特早熟>W9>W5 >W6>W12;暗呼吸速率为桂红2号>长梭绿皮特早熟>圆形花皮特早熟>W5>W4>兴桂1号>W9>W6>W12;光补偿点为长梭绿皮特早熟>W5>桂红2号>W4>圆形花皮特早熟>W12>兴桂1号>W6>W9;光饱和点为W6>W5>长梭绿皮特早熟>W9>兴桂1号>W4>W12>桂红2号>圆形花皮特早熟.由此说明:圆形花皮特早熟、桂红2号利用弱光能力较强,长梭绿皮特早熟光合能力较强,桂红2号暗呼吸较强.圆形花皮特早熟、桂红2号在较弱光强下仍能很好地进行光合作用,与其他材料相比较耐弱光.%The light-response curves of 9 different watermelon varieties were developed at vining stage using the LI-6400 instrument for measuring photosynthesis, and then their characteristic parameters were analyzed. The maximum photosyn-thetic rates Amax were W4/W5/W6/Yuanxing-huapi-tezaoshu/Changsuo-lupi-tezaoshu/Guihong No.2>Xinggui No.1>W9> W12. The apparent quantum yields were Yuanxing-huapi-tezaoshu>Guihong No. 2>W4>Xinggui No. 1> Changsuo-lupi-tezaoshu>W9>W5>W6>W12. The dark respiration rates ranked in decreasing order of Guihong No.2,Changsuo-lupi-teza-oshu,Yuanxing-huapi-tezaoshu,W5,W4,Xinggui No.,W9,W6 and W12. The light compensation point ranked in descending order of Changsuo-lupi-tezaoshu, W5, Guihong No.2, W4, Yuanxing-huapi-tezaoshu, W12, Xinggui No. 1, W6 and W9. The light saturation point was W6>W5>Changsuo-lupi-tezaoshu>W9>Xinggui No.l>W4>W12> Guihong No.2>Yuanxing-huapi-tezaoshu. These results show that Yuanxing-huapi-tezaoshu and Guihong No.2

  20. FAAS法测定打瓜不同部位微量元素的含量%Determination of microelement in different parts of watermelon by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波; 胡文忠; 姜爱丽; 田密霞; 马堃; 董珊

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and ultrasonic wave techniques were used for disposing watermelon samples. The contents of Ca,Cu,Zn, Fe, K, Mn, Mg and Na in different parts of watermelon were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The recoveries for each element were within the range of 95% to 105% ,the average recoveries were 96.2% to 104.0%,and RSD of the method for 10 times determinations were 0.23% to 2.98%,the method was accuracy and precise. The results showed that the contents of potassium ,calcium and magnesium were high in rind,endodermis,pulp and dried seed. The order of the content of Ca was rind〉seed〉endodermis〉 pulp, Cu was seed 〉rind 〉endodermis 〉pulp,Zn was seed 〉rind 〉pulp i〉 endodermis, Fe was seed 〉rind 〉pulp 〉 endodermis, K was seed 〉endodermis 〉rind 〉pulp, Mn was seed 〉rind 〉pulp 〉endodermis, Mg was seed 〉rind 〉 endodermis 〉pulp,Na was seed 〉rind 〉endodermis 〉pulp. The results of watermelon could provide theoretical basis for developing and utilizing the melon.%采用微波消解和超声波技术处理打瓜样品,空气-乙炔火焰原子吸收光谱法测定打瓜不同部位中的钙、铜、锌、铁、钾、锰、镁和钠含量。此方法的各元素加标回收率均在95%~105%之间,平均回收率在96.2%~104.0%之间,10次测定的相对标准偏差为0.23%~2.98%,准确性好、精密度高。研究结果表明,在新鲜的打瓜外皮、内皮、瓤和干燥的瓜籽中,钾、钙和镁含量较高,其中Ca含量顺序为外皮〉籽〉内皮〉瓤,Cu含量为籽〉外皮〉内皮〉瓤,Zn含量为籽〉外皮〉瓤≥内皮,Fe含量为籽〉外皮〉瓤〉内皮,K含量为籽〉内皮〉外皮〉瓤,Mn含量为籽〉外皮〉瓤〉内皮,Mg含量为籽〉外皮〉内皮〉瓤,Na含量为籽〉外皮〉内皮〉瓤,研究结果可为打瓜瓤、外皮和内皮的开发利用提供理论依据。

  1. 卧螺离心机对籽瓜皮瓤混合汁的固液分离效果试验%Separation effect of decanters in solid-liquid separation of watermelon juice mixed skin with flesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金梅; 吴劲锋; 石富硕; 朱自升

    2015-01-01

    卧螺离心机是实现籽瓜全利用加工生产线下游工艺中籽瓜皮瓤混合液固液分离的核心设备,其分离性能的好坏直接影响到后续设备的分离效果,从而最终影响到籽瓜皮瓤的利用率和产品品质.针对这一问题,以适用于籽瓜全利用加工生产线的 LW450×1800—N 型卧螺离心机,依据影响其分离效果的主要性能参数,对其工作性能进行正交试验研究.结果表明:影响卧螺离心机清液含固率的主次因素依次为:转鼓转速、转鼓与螺旋差转速、液位差半径;影响卧螺离心机清液还原糖保留率的主次因素依次为:转鼓转速、液位差半径、转鼓与螺旋差转速.综合考虑试验因素对卧螺离心机分离性能的影响大小与生产工艺要求,卧螺离心机的优化工作参数为:转鼓转速为2500 r/min、转鼓与螺旋差转速24 r/min、液位半径154 mm.重复试验验证结果表明:最优参数工作下的清液含固率为2.28%,还原糖保留率为96.69%.%Decanters is the key equipment to achieve watermelon flesh mixed skin solid-liquid separation in downstream processes of production line of full use of watermelon,the separation performance has a di-rect impact on the subsequent separation equipment,which ultimately affects the watermelon flesh mixed skin utilization and product quality.To solve this problem,to apply to LW450 × 1800-N-type Decanters of the production line,according to the separation of the effects of its main performance parameters,orthogo-nal experimental study on its performance.The results showed that the primary and secondary factors of affect the serum-containing solid rate of Decanters were as drum speed,drum and the screw speed differ-ence,level difference radius.The primary and secondary factors of affect the sugar retention rate of decant-ers were as drum speed,level difference radius,drum and the screw speed difference.Considering the exper-imental factors on the

  2. Qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita de melancia Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró Quality and postharvest shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil pós-colheita de melancia cv. Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró, RN. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada por local de venda e tamanho de fruto. As melancias de tamanho grande e médio apresentaram melhor aparência externa e maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis que aquelas de tamanho pequeno, enquanto as comercializadas na ocasião do desembarque apresentaram melhor aparência e maior firmeza. A avaliação da vida útil pós-colheita foi feita com frutos provenientes de um plantio comercial instalado em Mossoró, RN. A perda de peso foi de apenas 3,79%, o pH da polpa aumentou de 4,89 para 5,20, a acidez total titulável decresceu durante o armazenamento e os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis totais não apresentaram correlação com o armazenamento, sendo que o primeiro variou de 7,63 a 9,55%. Os açúcares redutores apresentaram leve diminuição no final do armazenamento. A vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos foi avaliada em 12 dias.The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró-RN. The quality of the fruits was evaluated by locality and fruit size. The large and middle sized watermelons presented better external appearance and higher soluble solids content than those of small size, while those marketed directly upon off loading, presented better appearance and higher firmness. The evaluation of the postharvest shelf life was done with fruits of a commercial plantation in Mossoró-RN. The weight loss was of 3.79%, the pH of the fruits increased from 4.89 to 5.20, the total titrable acidity decreased during storage. The soluble solids content and total soluble sugars did not present correlation with the storage, and the first varied from 7.63 to 9.55%. The reducing sugars a presented slight decrease at the end of the storage. The postharvest shelf life of the fruits was

  3. 防治绿色食品西瓜蚜虫的药剂筛选试验研究%Screening of Pesticides for Controlling Green Pharmaceutical Watermelon Aphids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈振兰; 王晓栋

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of 3 different types and 6 different kinds of insecticides were evaluated against aphids in watermelon field, and carried on the variance analysis by using new multiple range method, it screened the best insecticides against the aphids in watermelon field. The results showed that 6 kinds of tested insecticides including 1% matrine SL, 0.32% azadirachtin EC, 20% acetamiprid Hong Ding WP, 5% hypertonic imidacloprid EC, 2.5% efficient cyhalothrin AS and 48% chlorpyrifos EC could be used, 20% acetamiprid Hong Ding WP was optimal for comprehensive efficacy, 48% chlorpyrifos EC was worst for efficacy, the efficacy of different types of insecticides showed different features, people should choose flexibly suitable varieties of pesticides according to role of the characteristics of various pesticides and occurrence of aphis in production.%通过3个不同类型6种不同药剂对瓜蚜的防效试验,并采用新复极差法进行统计分析,筛选出防治西瓜蚜虫的最佳药剂.结果表明:1%苦参碱可溶性液剂、0.32%印楝素乳油、20%红鼎啶虫脒可湿性粉荆、5%高渗吡虫啉乳油、2.5%高效氯氟氰菊酯水剂和48%毒死蜱乳油等6种供试药剂均可使用,20%红鼎啶虫脒可湿性粉剂综合防效最理想,48%毒死蜱乳油防效最差,不同类型药剂防效显示出不同特征,生产中应根据各种农药的作用特点以及瓜蚜的发生情况灵活选用适宜的农药品种.

  4. 沿海不同棚架构型温度变化规律及西瓜种植研究%Temperature Change Rules of Different Steel Greenhouses and Their Effects on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴祥; 林红梅

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we studied the temperature change rules of different types of steel greenhouses and their effects on the growth and development of watermelon. The results showed that, as the greenhouse depth-width ratio became larger, the atmospheric temperature in the greenhouses increased and reduced quicker, and the difference of the day and night earth temperature became larger, indicating their better maintaining effects on atmospheric temperature but worse maintaining effects on earth temperature. In the watermelon cultivation in coastal areas of Jiangsu, the greenhouse A4 possessed the best temperature maintaining effects and comprehensive evaluation, and the structure of greenhouse A4 was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 2.5 m, 2.4 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 7.0 m, 6.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively. The greenhouse A1 was more affordable, and its structure was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 1.8 m, 1.7 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 5.0 m, 4.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively.%  研究了不同棚型内的温度变化,以及其对西瓜生长和发育的影响.研究结果表明,棚高宽比大,棚内气温升高快,降低也快,日夜气温温差大,日夜地温温差大,气温保温性差,但地温保温性好;沿海地区大棚西瓜种植采用A4型棚(外棚顶高2.5 m、宽7.0 m,内棚顶高2.4 m、宽6.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)效果好,采用A1型棚(外棚顶高1.8 m、宽5.0 m,内棚顶高1.7 m、宽4.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)较为经济.

  5. Status,Challenges and Trend of Watermelon and Melon Disease and Insect Control in China%我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控现状、存在问题与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵廷昌; 宋凤鸣; 古勤生; 张友军

    2014-01-01

    西瓜甜瓜病虫害危害严重,制约产业健康发展。概述了我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控技术现状、存在问题和今后发展趋势。现阶段我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控方法主要涵盖植物检疫、轮作和嫁接、抗病品种选育与应用、健康种子和种苗的生产与应用、药剂防治等措施,这些措施的应用推广在生产中取得了显著成效,但整体而言,我国西瓜甜瓜病虫害防控体系中依然存在优良抗病虫品种缺乏、农药使用不合理等问题。今后应继续坚持“预防为主、综合防治”的植保方针,加快研发关键的绿色防控技术,组建和完善以农业防治、物理防治、生物防治、生态调控和化学防治相结合的病虫害综合防治技术体系,并在西瓜甜瓜生产中推广应用。%Damage of diseases and insect on watermelon and melon is serious,hindering the healthy developing of the industry. We outline the control technique of diseases and pests,problems,and development trend in this article. Currently,plant quarantine,crop rotation,grafting,selection and application of resistant variety,use of healthy seeds and seedlings,and chemical control are all included in the control system of watermelon and melon. However,varieties with resistance to disease and insect are still lacking,and the chemicals are still improperly applied. In the future,the strategy of integrated management of pests should be insisted and the key green control technique be exploited.

  6. Waste Watermelon Peel for Single Cell Protein Production Through Solid State Fermentation%废弃西瓜皮固态发酵生产单细胞蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘百明; 李春惠

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the comprehensive utilization value of waste watermelon peel and reduce environmental pollution,taking waste watermelon peels as raw material,Anqi feeding yeasts were utilized for solid state fermentation in generating single-cell proteins.Crude proteins were utilized as indicators for the measurement of quality of product.The experiment studied influential factors included the addition volume of urea affecting single-cell protein production,original value of pH,volume of vaccinated strain, time consuming of fermentation and so on.Fermentation technology was further optimized by orthogonal test.As the results demonstrated,the optimum combination of the conditions was 2.0 g of urea,7.5 mL of vaccinated strain,48 hours of consumed fermentation and the original value of pH was 5.0.After the fermentation occurred,under the condition mentioned above,the product of crude protein was increased from 10.5% to 25.6%,crude fiber decreased from 1.7% to 0.5%,crude ash increased from 2.5% to 7.1%.%为了提高废弃西瓜皮的综合利用价值,减少环境污染,以废弃西瓜皮为原料,利用安琪饲料酵母固态发酵生成单细胞蛋白,以尿素添加量、初始 pH、菌种接种量、发酵时间为考察因素,以粗蛋白为指标,采用正交试验优化西瓜皮固态发酵工艺。结果表明:发酵的最佳组合条件为尿素2.0 g,菌种接种量7.5 mL,培养时间48 h,初始 pH5.0。在该条件下,单细胞蛋白由10.5%提高到25.6%,粗纤维由1.7%降低到0.5%,粗灰分由2.5%提高到7.1%。

  7. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol. Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml, total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml, starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml, cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml, hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml; high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method. Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml, which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml. In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and 69.63µg/ml and in alkali hydrolysis 62 and 170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml, hence among six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.

  8. Occurrence of Lysiphlebus testaceipes parasitizing Aphis gossypii in watermelon in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Ocorrência de Lysiphlebus testaceipes parasitando Aphis gossypii em melancia, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson as a biological control agent of the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover in watermelon crop in Vale do Açu, RN. It was observed that near the harvest, almost all collected aphids were mummified, and after analyzing the emerged parasitoids, the parasitoid L. testaceipes was identified. Therefore, in the future, this species may be included in A. gossypii integrated management programs.Este é o primeiro relato do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson como agente de controle biológico do pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover na cultura da melancia, na região do Vale do Açu, Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Observou-se que próximo da colheita quase todos os pulgões coletados encontravam-se mumificados e, na análise dos parasitoides emergidos, constatou-se o parasitismo por L. testaceipes. Essa espécie, portanto, poderá ser incluída em um programa de manejo integrado de A. gossypii futuramente.

  9. 控释BB肥对西瓜生长期土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Controlled-release BB Fertilizer on Soil Enzymes Activities during Watermelon Growing Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井大炜; 杨广怀; 马文丽; 刘春生

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to study the effects of controlled-release BB fertilizer (fertilizer blending) applied on soil enzymes activities and provided the theoretical base for the population of controlled-release fertilizer. In the field plot test, the effect of the controlled-release BB fertilizer on soil urease, neutral phosphatase and sucrose enzymes activities during different growth stages of watermelon were studied. The results showed with the application of controlled-release BB fertilizer, the activities of these three enzymes were better than conven-tional fertilizer treatment because of the significantly controlled release effects of the controlled-release BB fer-tilizer.%研究控释BB肥(掺混肥)对土壤中酶活性的影响,为控释肥的推广使用提供理论依据.采用田间小区试验法研究了控释BB肥对西瓜不同生育期土壤脲酶、中性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性的影响.在试验条件下,由于控释BB肥对养分的显著控释效果,它的施用对土壤中这三种酶活性的影响要好于习惯施肥处理.

  10. Curvas de absorción de nutrientes bajo dos métodos de fertilización en sandia, en Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Villalobos, Edgar V.; Salas Camacho, Rafael E.

    2012-01-01

    En la Finca Experimental de Santa Cruz, Guanacaste, en el año 2005, se evalúo el efecto de dos modalidades de fertilización en el cultivo de la sandía (Citrullus lanatus(Thunb) Matsum & Nakai cv. Mickeylee): fertilización líquida aplicada en el agua de riego y el abonamiento granular y foliar aplicado por el método convencional. Se prepararon dos lotes de 300 m2 y se realizaron muestreos al azar de plantas y se analizó el contenido de nutrimentos en su parte vegetativa, productiva y sistema r...

  11. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of some Fruit Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of secondary plant metabolite with an antioxidant character are present in the vegetal extracts, such as: tocopherols, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc. These compounds intervene in the cellular defense mechanisms against the free radicals and oxidative stress, as they possess anticancer and anti mutation effect. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of methanolic extracts obtained from seeds of fruits: Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Citrullus lanatus. Grape seeds have a high content of antioxidants and polyphenols compounds, due to this, it is recommended their used in obtaining functional food with benefit on the human body.

  12. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

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    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  13. AMMI-biplot analysis of yield stability and test-sites resolution of watermelon varieties%用 AMMI 双标图分析西瓜品种的产量稳定性及试点分辨力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 刘声锋; 郭守金; 于蓉; 田梅; 董瑞

    2013-01-01

      借助AMMI模型分析了2009年国家西瓜品种区域试验中的产量数据,结果表明:基因型与环境的互作效应小于基因效应和环境效应,但是也达到了极显著的水平,而且基因型的效应占比例较大,其次为环境效应。不同西瓜品种在各试点的品种稳定性和不同试点对品种的分辨力差异较大:品种G4(09-N2)的稳定性参数最大(Dg=15.53360),G7(09-N9)的稳定性参数最小(Dg=2.56881);8个西瓜品种中高产稳产的品种是G2(09-N1)和G1(09-N7),产量低且不稳定的品种是G4(09-N2)和G6(09-N12),产量高而稳定性一般的品种是G8(CK ,09-N15),产量低而稳定的品种是G7(09-N9),产量一般且稳定性一般的品种是G3(09-N5),产量一般稳定性差的品种是G5(09-N8);在4个参试点中,甘肃兰州试点对品种的分辨力强,宁夏中卫试点和宁夏中宁试点对西瓜品种的分辨力一般,宁夏海原试点对品种的分辨力较差。%The AMMI model was adopted to analyze the output data of watermelon varieties in regional trial in 2009 . The results showed that the genotype effect (G) accounted for the largest proportion ,followed by the environment effect (E) ,while G × E interactive effect was the smallest but still reached extremely significant level .There were significant differences in stability of the eight varieties and resolution of the four testing sites .Among the eight varieties ,the stability parameter of G4 (09 -N2) was the highest (Dg = 15 .53360) and that of G7 (09 -N9) was the lowest (Dg =2 .56881);G2 (09-N1) and G1 (09-N7) were the varieties with high -yield and high-stability ,G4 (09-N2) and G6 (09-N12) were the varieties with low-yield and low-stability ,G8 (CK ,09-N15) was the variety with high-yield and mid-stability ,G7 (09-N9) was the variety with low-yield and high-stability ,G3 (09-N5) was the variety with mid-yield and mid

  14. 高产抗病籽瓜新品种SWBB-01的选育%A High Yield and Disease Resistance New Variety of Seed Watermelon-'SWBB-01'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承业; 潘竟海; 林明; 白晓山

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of the project is to select the suitable seed of a seed - watermelon variety to be planted in Xinjiang which can yield high output and resist diseases. [Method] Female parent XR3110 was hybridized with male parent XR3110 and then XR3110 was used as recurrent parent to be backcrossed. Their offspring will go several rounds of sefling before the pure fine seeds are bred. Its stable high yield and adaptability can not be established until it experiences comparison and production trials in several plots. [Result] The yield of new variety of seed watermelon 'SWBB - O1 ' which is produced in three plots for two years is 155 .1 kg/667 m2 and is the highest of all varieties during the comparison trial, and meanwhile the yield of 'SWBB - 01' is 11.85% higher than th8t of SWBB - C and 13. 39% higher than that of the new seed - watennelon ( CX). In several production trial plots, the average yield of 'SWBB - 01' is 145 . 87 kg/667 m2, 14 .57 % higher than that of CK,and it can resist the disease of powder and wilt. The suitable density is 3 600 - 4 200 zhu/667 m2 . [Conclusion] The new high yield and disease - resistance variety ' SWBB - 01' has passed the identification of Xinjiang Incidental Crops Variety Releasing Committee in 2010. This variety is suitable to be planted in Urumqi, Changj,Ili, Bayingol Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture and some parts of Altay and Tacheng Prefectures.%[目的]选育适宜新疆种植的高产抗病籽瓜品种.[方法]以母本XR3110与父本IR5106杂交,再以XR3110作为轮回亲本进行回交,对后代进行连续自交纯化选育而成,并进行多点品种比较试验及生产试验,确定其高产稳产适应性.[结果]在品比试验中,籽瓜新品种SWBB-01两年三点平均产量155.1 kg/667 m2,较新籽瓜1号(CK)增产13.39%,较SWBB-C增产11.85%,居第一位.在多点生产试验中,新品种SWBB-01平均产2 145.87 kg/667 m2,较CK增产14.57%,呈极显著水平,抗白

  15. Capacidade de combinação entre linhas tetraplóides e diplóides de melancia Combining ability among tetraploid and diploid lines of watermelon

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    Flávio F. de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade de combinação entre três genitores tetraplóides (LT7-48.1, LT9-24.1 e LTCC-24 e quatro diplóides de melancia ('Crimson Sweet', 'Pérola', 'New Hampshire Midget' e 'Charleston Gray' foi avaliada num esquema de cruzamentos dialélicos parciais. Utilizou-se delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, formadas por parcelas de sete plantas. Genitores e F1's foram avaliados quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor masculina e feminina, número de frutos por planta, comprimento da rama principal, massa média dos frutos, teor médio de sólidos solúveis na polpa, diâmetros transversal e longitudinal do fruto, espessura da casca do fruto na região do pedúnculo e na região da cicatriz floral, cor da polpa e ocorrência de ocamento no fruto. Os genitores, tanto diplóides como tetraplóides, apresentaram-se bastante divergentes quanto às características estudadas. Os efeitos da capacidade geral de combinação (CGC foram superiores aos efeitos da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC para a maioria dos caracteres, especialmente daqueles relacionados com a produção da planta, indicando a maior importância dos efeitos gênicos aditivos. No entanto, algumas características, como precocidade e ocamento de frutos tiveram controle gênico não aditivo e, portanto, a avaliação e seleção de linhagens em combinações híbridas permitirão a síntese de híbridos triplóides superiores.Combining ability of three tetraploid (LT7-48.1, LT9-24.1 and LTCC-24 and four diploid lines of watermelon ('Crimson Sweet', 'Pérola', 'New Hampshire Midget' and 'Charleston Gray' was evaluated using a partial diallel scheme. A randomized block design, with three replications and seven plants in each field plot was used. Parents and F1's were evaluated regarding the number of days to the set of the first male and female flower, the number of fruits per plant and the length of the main vine, fruit mean

  16. Breeding Application of Tetraploid Few Seed Watermelon Hybrid Combination 403 × B 15%四倍体少籽西瓜杂交新组合403×B15选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 李文信; 洪日新; 李天艳; 樊学军; 覃斯华; 黄金艳

    2011-01-01

    Tetraploid few seed watermelon hybrid combination 403 X B15 was crossed by inbred B15 as male parent with tetraploid watermelon 403 as female parent. The fruit of combination 403 x B15 were circular and 3.0-3.5 kg weight, with tough, green with glosay, ghost line and 1.0-1.2 cm depth skin, the fruit was fresh red, succulent, refreshing, smooth profile and less fiber, over 11.2% soluble solids content. Combination 403 x B15 was middle ripening variety with 90 -100 d whole growth stage in spring cropping and 65 -80 d in autumn cropping. The results of demonstration test in 2009 and 2010 showed that the average yield of combination 403 x B15 were 31 775.9 and 34 377.2 kg/hm2 in open field experiment, which increased by 14.2 % and 21.3 % , respectively, compared to control variety Heimeiren. The average yield of combination 403 ×B15 were 50 274.0 and 47 401.2 kg/hm2, respectively, in 2009 and 2010, which increased by 22. 3 % and 15. 8 % , compared to control variety. Its average yield was 32 124.0 -48 499.5 kg/hm2 in multi-site demonstration test, which was 14. 0 % -23. 7 % higher than control variety Heimeiren. It indicated that combination 403 X B15 was suitable for planting both in open field and greenhouse.%四倍体少籽西瓜杂交新组合403 × B15是2007年秋利用中小果型优良高世代四倍体自交系B15作父本,中果型四倍体西瓜403作母本,进行杂交配组筛选出的四倍体新组合,一般单果重3.0~3.5 kg,果实正圆形,表皮深绿有光泽,布有隐暗花纹,皮质坚韧,皮厚1.0~1.2 cm,果肉鲜红色,汁多,清甜爽口,剖面光滑,纤维黄筋少,中心可溶性固形物含量11.2%以上;中熟品种,全生育期春造90~100d,秋造65~80d.2009~2010年,连续2年进行露地爬地、大棚立架栽培品比试验和多点生产栽培示范试验.结果表明,露地爬地品比试验平均产量分别为31 775.9和34 377.2 kg/hm2,分别比对照黑美人增产14.2%和21.3%;大棚立架栽培品比

  17. The Effect of Sprang "Shan Bai Song" Soft Improver on Small Watermelon is Remarkable%小型西瓜喷施“山佰松”士壤改良剂效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆; 吕娟; 侯庶恪; 王雪; 祈福盛

    2012-01-01

    “山佰松”(サンバィォ·エ-ス)土壤改良剂由日本东洋商社生产,是利用磁软化水和天然微生物合成的纯天然生物制剂,内含8种天然氨基酸、17种乳酸茵和多种单分子糖等,能改善土壤物理性状,提高土壤肥力,保水抗旱,降低发病率,使植株生长稳健,提高农产品质量和产量。在保护地小型西瓜应用“山佰松”土壤改良剂,试验结果显示土壤物理性状得到改善,小西瓜的生育性状、抗病性、产量及效益均可显著提高。%" Shan Bai Song " (サンバィォ·エ-ス) soil improver by Japanese Oriental trading company production was made of magnetic water softener and natural microbes in the synthesis of pure natural biological agents, which contained eight natural amino acid, 17 kinds of lactic acid bacteria and a variety of single molecule sugar. It could improve soil physical properties, increase soil fertility, drought resistance of water, reduce the incidence of a disease, make plant growth robust, improve agricultural product quality and output. The application in crops achieved remarkable effect. The application of "Shah Bai Song" soil improver on small watermelon in protected plantation had notable effect.

  18. 蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及整枝留果方式试验%Experiment of Plant Density and Fruit Pruning and Rentention Mothds of Mitong Small Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琪玖

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present work was to study plant density and fruit pruning and rentention mothds of Mitong seedless watermelon, the design of two factors were randomly divided into 4 groups, repeated 3 times, residential area of 15 m2 with a total of A and B factors. The results showed that optimum group of A2B4 with 400 plant/667 m2, the yield were to 5 818.47 kg by the mothds of 5 climbing and fruits pruning. We may conclude that plant density is the main factors effecting the fruit yield, the best combination of plant density and fruit pruning to stay is an important regulator of the factors to ob-tain high yield.%对蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及留瓜方式进行试验,采用复因素随机区组试验设计,重复3次,小区面积15 m2,设A、B共2个因素(各4个处理).结果表明:最优的处理为A284,即定植密度为400株/667 m2,采用5蔓留5果的整枝方式,产量达到5 818.47 kg.试验中密度是影响产量的主导因素,密度和整枝留果的最佳组合是获取高产重要调节因素.

  19. Comparative spatial spread overtime of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) in fields of transgenic squash expressing the coat protein genes of ZYMV and WMV, and in fields of nontransgenic squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Ferdinand E; Fuchs, Marc; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of aphid-vectored spread of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) were monitored over two consecutive years in plantings of nontransgenic and transgenic squash ZW-20H (commercial cv. Freedom II) and ZW-20B, both expressing the coat protein genes of ZYMV and WMV. All test plants were surrounded by nontransgenic plants that were mechanically inoculated with ZYMV or WMV, and served as primary virus source. Across all trials, none of the transgenic plants exhibited systemic symptoms upon infection by ZYMV and WMV but a few of them developed localized chlorotic dots and/or blotches, and had low mixed infection rates [4% (6 of 139) of ZW-20H and 9% (13 of 139) of ZW-20B], as shown by ELISA. Geostatistical analysis of ELISA positive transgenic plants indicated, (i) a lack of spatial relationship on spread of ZYMV and WMV for ZW-20H with flat omnidirectional experimental semivariograms that fitted poorly theoretical models, and (ii) some extent of spatial dependence on ZYMV spread for ZW-20B with a well structured experimental semivariogram that fitted poorly theoretical models during the first but not the second growing season. In contrast, a strong spatial dependence on spread of ZYMV and WMV was found for nontransgenic plants, which developed severe systemic symptoms, had prevalent mixed infection rates (62%, 86 of 139), and well-defined omnidirectional experimental semivariograms that fitted a spherical model. Geostatistical data were sustained by virus transmission experiments with Myzus persicae in screenhouses, showing that commercial transgenic squash ZW-20H alter the dynamics of ZYMV and WMV epidemics by preventing secondary plant-to-plant spread.

  20. Mudas de melancia produzidas com substrato à base de pó de coco e soluções nutritivas Watermelon seedlings produced with coconut powder and nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria RP Ramos

    2012-06-01

    mudas de melancia, em relação ao crescimento e status nutricional.The choice of substrate is one of the most important stages for the seedlings production and must take into account the nutritional requirements of cultivated species. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the substrate using coconut dust associated with nutrient solutions to produce seedlings of watermelon. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Arid in Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with ten replications in a factorial arrangement 2 x 10 (cultivars of watermelon and substrates. The cultivars used were: Opara and Top Gun. The coconut fiber was associated with nutrient solutions as follows: T1= control treatment composed of the commercial organic substrate Plantmax® (SC, T2= coconut powder (PC, T3= coconut powder + melon solution (PC+SM, T4= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 12.5% (12.5% PC+HS, T5= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 25% (PC+HS 25%, T6= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 50% (PC+HS 50%, T7= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 75% (PC+HS 75%, T8= coconut powder + solution of Hoagland and Arnon 100% (100% PC+HS, T9= coconut powder + Aminoagro Mol (PC+AM, T10= coconut powder Aminoagro Root (PC+AR. The solutions were applied eight times, 10 mL on each application, since the fourth day after sowing date (DAS, when the evaluation of seedlings emergence began. At 24 DAS we evaluated the fresh weight of shoots and roots, root length, number of roots in the upper third and contents of macro and micronutrients in the aboveground part. The cv. Top Gun presented higher levels of nutrients, except for iron and copper. The treatments T6, T7 and T8 presented levels of nutrients in plants similar to the commercial substrate Plantmax. In general, the combinations of coconut dust associated with the nutrient solution of Hoagland and Arnon at 50, 75 and 100% and Aminoagro Root proved to be

  1. 西瓜遗传图谱构建及果实相关性状QTL分析%Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Analysis of Fruit-Associated Traits in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传奇; 高鹏; 栾非时

    2014-01-01

    ,覆盖基因组1484.3cM,平均图距15.46cM。利用QTLNetwork2.0分析,检测到6个西瓜果实相关性状的8个QTL位点和1对上位效应位点,其中包括果形指数QFSI1、中心可溶性固形物QCBR、中心果肉硬度QCFF、边缘果肉硬度QEFF、种子长度QSL各1个,种子宽度QSWD1、QSWD2、QSWD33个;上位效应位点包括果形指数FSI2、FSI3。表型贡献率大于等于10%的QTL有6个,可解释11.7%-18.8%的遗传变异。以CAPS标记为主要标记构建西瓜遗传图谱,并且定位了控制西瓜果实相关性状的8个加性QTL与1对上位性QTL,可用于进一步精细定位与克隆西瓜果实优良性状基因。%[Objective]The purpose of this study is to construct a molecular genetic map and map the QTL of the fruit-associated traits with CAPS and SSR markers in watermelon, which will provide a theoretical basis for traits improving, gene fine mapping and gene cloning.[Method]Fruits of female parent PI186490, male parent LSW-177 and F2 population derived from the cross between the two watermelon strains were picked in 40 days after pollination. Fruit shape index, center and edge brix, center and edge flesh firmness, rind hardness, seed length, seed width, seed thickness and 100-seed-weight were investigated correspondingly, then the obtained data were analyzed by SPSS19. Both parent materials genomes were resequenced by Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform for high-throughput sequencing, outputed 10G each data sample, covered more than 20× of watermelon genome. With the published genome as a reference, the obtained data were assembled with bwa, and explored for the SNP by Samtools. The sequence 1 000 bp around the SNP loci was extracted by self perl script and then inputed into SNP2CAPS to transform into CAPS markers. Twenty CAPS restriction sites were selected evenly on the 11 chromosomes. CAPS primers were designed 100-500bp around the mutation by Primer Premier 5 for PCR amplification and digestion detection. 1% agarose gel

  2. Comparative Study of Solvent and Ultrasonic Extraction Methods of Watermelon Seed Oil%超声波与溶剂萃取西瓜籽油的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严小平

    2013-01-01

    The oil extraction from watermelon seed by different methods was studied. Results showed that the optimum conditions for solvent extraction were as:solvent:petroleum ether(b. P. 60℃~90℃ ) ,extraction temperature; 80 ℃ , time: 2 h, ratio of material to liquid; 1: 8 ( g: mL) , the extraction rate was up to 48. 2 % . The optimum conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction were: solvent; petroleum ether, extraction temperature; 50 ℃ , 150 W ultrasonic treating for 50 min, ratio of material to liquid; 1: 6( g: mL) , the extraction rate was up to 50. 8% . It is revealed that the ultrasonic assisted extraction is superior with advantages of lower temperature, short time and higher extraction rate.%以西瓜籽为原料,对2种提取西瓜籽油的工艺和效果进行比较.通过正交试验得到溶剂法提取西瓜籽油的最佳工艺条件为:溶剂选用石油醚(b.p.60~90℃),料液比1∶8(g∶mL),提取时间2h,提取温度80℃,西瓜籽油提取率为48.2%;超声波辅助法提取西瓜籽油的最佳工艺条件为:溶剂选用石油醚,料液比1∶6(g∶mL),超声温度50℃,超声时间50 min,超声功率150 W,西瓜籽油提取率为50.8%.结果表明,超声波辅助法提取的西瓜籽油得率比溶剂法高,并且超声波辅助法比溶剂法提取的时间短、温度低,是一种短时高效的提取方法.

  3. A New Watermelon Variety Suitable for Inter-cropping -‘Xinggui No.1’%间套种适用型西瓜新品种兴桂1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金艳; 李智; 李文信; 何毅; 洪日新; 覃斯华; 李天艳; 樊学军; 李桂芬

    2014-01-01

    ‘Xinggui No.1’is a new watermelon F1 hybrid suitable for sole cropping or inter-cropping with sugercane,cassava or young fruit tree. Its fruit is of short and oval shape with deep green peel and dark green stripes. The single fruit weight is 4.0-7.0 kg. The peel is tough and never dehiscent. It is 1.0-1.2 cm in thickness, The fruit is tolerant to storage and transportation. Its flesh is red with over 11.0% sugar content,sweet flavor and fine texture.‘Xinggui No.1’has strong growth vigor and is resistant to stress and disease. It can easily set fruit.Its fruit has high commodity rate. The total growing period is 110-120 days in spring and about 90 days in autumn. The fruit development period is 35-38 days. The yield of sole cropping and inter-cropping is 37.5-52.5 t·hm-2 and 30.0-36.0 t·hm-2,respectively. It is suitable to be cultivated in various regions of Guangxi both for sole cropping and inter-cropping.%兴桂1号是既适合于单纯种植也适宜与甘蔗、木薯或初植果树地间套种的有籽西瓜一代杂种。果实短椭圆形,果皮深绿底布黑条纹,单瓜质量4.0~7.0 kg,果皮厚1.0~1.2 cm,果皮坚韧,不裂果,耐贮运。肉色鲜红一致,肉质清甜爽脆,中心可溶性固形物含量11.0%以上。植株生长势强,抗逆抗病性强,易坐果,果实商品率高。全生育期春茬110~120 d(天)、秋茬90 d(天)左右,果实发育期35~38 d(天)。单纯种植每667 m2产量2500~3500 kg、间套种每667 m2产量2000~2400 kg,适宜广西各地单纯种植或者间套种。

  4. Volatile profile and physical, chemical, and biochemical changes in fresh cut watermelon during storage Perfil volátil e alterações físicas, químicas e bioquímicas na melancia minimamente processada durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Luiza Ramos Pereira Xisto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing data about the aroma of fresh-cut watermelon and the metabolic changes that occur with minimal processing are scarce. Given the close relationship that exists between aroma, texture, and quality characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the changes in the volatile profile and texture of watermelon, a fruit extensively sold in supermarket chains throughout Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the volatile profile using solid phase microextraction (SPME as well as texture changes in fresh-cut watermelon stored at 5 °C for ten days. Chromatography associated with sensory analysis (sniffing led us to conclude that 9-carbon (C9 alcohols and aldehydes are the major responsible for the flavor and aroma of minimally processed watermelon stored at 5 ± 1 °C/90 ± 5% RH for ten days, and also that the aroma diminishes in intensity with storage, but it does not affect the final quality of the product. It was noted that the amount of drained liquid, soluble pectin, and weight loss increased during storage concurrently with a reduction in firmness and a structural breakdown of the cells. Pectin methyl esterase activity remained constant and polygalacturonase activity was not detected.Existe pouca informação a respeito do aroma de melancia minimamente processada e das alterações metabólicas que ocorrem com o processamento mínimo. Sabendo-se que há estreita relação entre aroma característico, textura e qualidade torna-se necessário o conhecimento a respeito das alterações do perfil volátil e textura deste produto, que é intensamente comercializado nas redes de supermercados do Brasil. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o perfil volátil utilizando a técnica de microextração em fase sólida (SPME e as modificações relacionadas à textura de melancia minimamente processada armazenada a 5 °C, por dez dias. A cromatografia associada com análise sensorial ('sniffing' permitiu concluir que os

  5. Pyrolysis kinetics of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) seed husk

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the thermochemical fuel characteristics and kinetic decomposition of melon seed husks (MSH) under inert (pyrolysis) conditions. The calorific value, elemental composition, proximate analyses and thermal kinetics of MSH was examined. The kinetic parameters; activation energy E and frequency factor A for MSH decomposition under pyrolysis conditions were determined using the Kissinger and isoconversional Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods. The values of E for MSH ranged from 146.81 to 296 kJ/mol at degrees of conversion {\\alpha} = 0.15 to 0.60 for FWO. The decomposition of MSH process was fastest at {\\alpha} = 0.15 and slowest at {\\alpha} = 0.60 with average E and A values of 192.96 kJ/mol and 2.86 x 1026 min-1, respectively at correlation values of 0.9847. The kinetic values of MSH using the Kissinger method are E = 161.26 kJ/mol and frequency factor, A = 2.08 x 1010 min-1 with the correlation value, R2 = 0.9958. The results indicate that MSH possesses important characteristics ...

  6. Development of Water Melon (Citrullus vulgaris L. Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJOULDE Roger DARMAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at developing an alcoholic drink from water melon fruit in order to reabsorb the water melon surpluses and to reduce the pressure made on cereals (sorghum and corn for the manufacture of artisanal alcoholic drinks. Antioxidant effect of polyphenols, was studied, total polyphenols, ethanol, methanol and total acids content of red water melon wines were determined and compared to a product used in human therapeutic; an extract of the Ginkgo-biloba, one local sorghum beer, palm wine and few industrial wines. Results indicate that water melon based alcoholic drinks present an ethyl alcohol content varying from 8±1% to 13±1%, a total acidity from 1.2±0.1g/l to 1.7±0.0g/l. The newly produce water melon based wines present high content of polyphenols, and strong antioxidant capacity compare to the Ginkgo-biloba, sorghum beer and the tree other samples wines. A reasonable consumption of 240 ml/day of water melon wines represents a polyphenol contribution of 403 mg/day and an anti capacity oxidizing respectively of 4.25 or 2.4 mmol/day versus 0.18 mmol/day for the Ginkgo-biloba extract.

  7. Avaliação do número e posição de frutos de melancia produzidos em ambiente protegido Evaluation of the number and position of watermelon fruits cultivated in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santino Seabra Júnior

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a produção de melancia, cultivar New Kodama, avaliando 1 ou 2 frutos por planta fixados nos ramos entre o 8º e 11º nó e 1 ou 2 frutos por planta fixados nos ramos entre o 13º e 16º nó, no sistema tutorado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido na UNESP, em Botucatu (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2000. Avaliou-se a produção total de frutos por planta, peso médio de frutos e teor em sólidos solúveis totais (ºbrix. A produção foi menor (2,04 kg/planta quando manteve-se apenas um fruto fixado do 8º ao 11º nó, do que quando manteve-se dois frutos (2,57 kg/planta, mas não houve diferença significativa quando manteve-se um ou dois frutos fixados do 13º ao 16º nó, produzindo cerca de 2 kg por planta. Observou-se também maior peso médio de frutos (2,05 kg/fruto e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,78ºbrix quando mantidos apenas um fruto por planta e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,21ºbrix nos frutos mantidos do 8º ao 11º nó.The fruit production of watermelon, cultivar New Kodama, grown in two positions along the stem (8th-11th node and 13th-16th node, with one or two fruits per position was evaluated, under protected cultivation. The experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October to December, 2000. The total fruit production (kg/plant, the average fruit weight (kg/fruit and the total soluble solids were evaluated. When only one fruit was allowed to grow between the 8th and 11th node, total fruit production was lower (2,04 kg/plant than keeping two fruits (2,57 kg/fruit. However, the fruit production was similar (2,0 kg/plant to one or two fruits when they were allowed to grow between the 13th and 16th node. The average fruit weight (2,05 kg/fruit and total soluble solids (8,78ºbrix were higher in fruits grown from plants with only one fruit, than two fruits per plant. Total soluble solids were also higher in fruits grown from 8th to 11th (8,21ºbrix

  8. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Plant Defensin-like Gene (ClPDF2.1) from Watermelon%西瓜防御素基因ClPDF2.1的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼; 羊杏平; 王薇薇; 徐锦华; 刘广; 姚协丰; 李苹芳

    2013-01-01

    In this work,a defensin-like eDNA sequence was cloned from watermelon,named ClPDF2.1 (GenBank accession No.KC481267).Bioinformatics analysis showed that ClPDF2.1 encodes a putative polypeptide of 75 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 8.237 kD and a theoretical pI of 9.375.Sequence alignment showed that ClPDF2.1 had high homology to known PDF proteins from other plant species and contained the conserved eight cysteines motif.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ClPDF2.1 belonged to the Arabidopsis PDF2 cluster,and was close to Capsicum annuum PDF gene with an overall sequence identity of 59%.Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ClPDF2.1 expressed in all tissues examined,with the highest in leaves,second in roots and the lowest in stems.Expression profiles under different treatments such as abscisic acid (SA),methyl jasmonate (J A),ethephon (ETH) and Fusarium wilt were compared,and the results revealed that transcriptional level of ClPDF2.1 was obviously up-regulated.These results suggested that ClPDF2.1 is probably employed the signal pathways to defense against Fusarium wilt pathogen.%该研究从西瓜中克隆了西瓜防御素基因ClPDF2.1(GenBank登录号为KC481267).序列分析结果表明,ClPDF2.1基因开放阅读框为225 bp,编码75个氨基酸,预测蛋白质分子质量为8.237 kD,等电点为9.375.蛋白质结构分析表明,ClPDF2.1蛋白含有防御素特有的8个半胱氨酸结构域.进化分析显示,ClPDF2.1与拟南芥PDF2归为一类,与五彩椒的亲缘关系最近(59%).荧光定量PCR分析表明,ClPDF2.1在西瓜根、茎、叶器官中都有表达,叶中表达量高于根,茎中表达量最低.ClPDF2.1基因的表达也受到外源植物激素水杨酸、茉莉酸甲酯、乙烯利和西瓜枯萎病菌的诱导上调,表明ClPDF2.1基因通过信号传导途径参与对西瓜枯萎病菌株的防御反应.西瓜防御素基因的克隆及表达分析为其功能鉴定奠定了基础.

  9. 超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法测定戊唑醇、肟菌酯及代谢物肟菌酸在西瓜和土壤中的残留%Determination of Tebuconazole, Trifloxystrobin and Its Metabolite Trifloxystrobin Acid in Watermelon and Soil by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 贾春虹; 朱晓丹; 平华; 贺敏; 余苹中; 赵尔成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]建立同时测定西瓜和土壤中戊唑醇、肟菌酯及代谢物肟菌酸残留量的超高效液相色谱串联质谱法(UPLC-MS/MS).[方法]样品中的待测农药组分采用乙腈-水(体积比4:1)提取,硅藻土液液萃取小柱净化,采用UPLC-MS/MS法,ESI(+)电离方式,多反应监测(MRM)定量测定.[结果]仪器最低检测量为戊唑醇5.0x 10-13g,肟菌酯4.0×10-13g,肟菌酸2.5×10-13g;3种农药的最低检出质量分数均为0.02mg/kg,在西瓜和土壤中的添加回收率为81.8%~94.2%,变异系数为3.67%~7.04%.[结论]该方法快速、准确、灵敏度高,适合西瓜与土壤样品中戊唑醇、肟菌酯及肟菌酸的残留量测定.%[Aims] A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in watermelon and soil by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detection. [Methods] The pesticides were extracted using mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water (4:1, by vol), and were separated and purified with column of diatomite liquid liquid phase extraction. The pesticides were finally detected by UPLC-MS/MS-ESI(+), quantified with multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. [Results] The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.0x10" g for tebuconazole, 4.0×l0-13g for trifloxystrobin, 2.5×10-13 g for trifloxystrobin acid, while the quantification limit (LOQ) was 0.02 mg/kg for three compounds. The average recoveries of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid were 81.8-94.2%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.67-7.04% in watermelon and soil. [Conclusions] It is an effective method which attained the pesticide residue analysis demands in sensitivity, accuracy and precision for detecting residues of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid in watermelon and soil.

  10. 外源磷对西瓜生长发育过程中的几个生理生化指标的影响%Effect of exogenous phosphorus on several physiological and biochemical indexes in growth and development of watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 洪娟; 葛米红; 张利红; 叶莉霞; 王素萍

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical basis for rational application of phosphate fertilizer , a sand culture experiment was conducted to study the change of several important physiological indexes at different growth stages of watermelon under different amounts of exogenous phosphorus .The results indicate that the chlorophyll value-SPAD values are decreased under the excess phosphorus at the vegetative growth period , and thus the crop photosynthesis is affected .The phosphorus deficiency symptoms are appeared at the seedling stage .The nucleic acid content of leaves is decreased at the flowering stage under the phosphorus deficiency , which means the growth and development of watermelon is inhibited if there is no sufficient exogenous phosphorus .The cellulose contents of stems are decreased under the excess supply of phosphate fertilizer , which results in plant resistance reduction . Different trends of the pectin contents at different growth stages are observed under different amounts of exogenous phosphorus .%利用砂培试验研究西瓜在低磷、磷适量和磷过量情况下不同生长时期几个重要的生理生化指标的变化,以便为磷肥的合理施用提供理论依据。结果表明,营养生长期过多的磷素的供应,反映叶绿素含量的SPAD值降低,进而影响作物的光合作用;缺磷症状在苗期开始表现。西瓜开花期磷缺乏,叶片中核酸含量下降,说明此时如果磷的供应不充足,将会减少植物体内核酸的合成,从而影响和抑制作物的生长发育,导致生育期延长和植株瘦弱;过量磷会降低茎杆的纤维素含量,使抗逆性减弱;不同生育期,外源磷对果胶含量的影响趋势不同。

  11. 春大棚小型西瓜“2蔓1绳”不同栽培密度比较试验%The study on the different cultivation density of small fruit watermelon under the conditions of“two vines and one line”in spring greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 曾剑波; 穆生奇; 李琳; 陈艳利; 李婷

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to find the optimum small fruit watermelon cultivation methods on conditions which used“two vine and one line”in spring greenhouse. The author has studied the different cultivation density. The results showed that the optimum cultivation density was 2 300 plants per 667 m2 with two rows pattern, using the pruning modes of“two vines and one line”. In this cultivation density condition, small fruit watermelon can get the highest yield of 4 327.86 kg per 667 m2 and 288.52 kg per plot. The weight of single fruit (1.72 kg) and the highest center sugar content (13.20%) were the highest. The harvesting time was June 1 which ranked as no. 2, and the fruit setting rate was 109.4%which ranked as no. 3. The deformed fruit rate of 0.78%was the lowest. Thus this cultivation density was the optimal density, and has wide extension prospects.%为筛选出北京地区春大棚小型西瓜在“2蔓1绳”高密度栽培条件下的最佳栽培密度,对不同种植密度进行比较试验。结果表明,在“2蔓1绳”整枝方式双行种植情况下,每667 m2定植2300株产量最高,为4327.86 kg;小区产量最高,为288.52 kg;中心糖含量最高,达到13.20%;始收期为6月1日,排名第二;坐果率为109.4%,排名第三;单果重最高,为1.72 kg;畸形果率较低,为0.78%。由此可见,每667 m2定植2300株为最佳栽培密度,具有较好的推广应用前景。

  12. Influence of Different Approaches of Plastic Film Mulching on Soil Temperature, Yield and Quality of Watermelon in Gravel-mulched Field%不同覆膜方式对旱砂田西瓜土壤温度及产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜少平; 马忠明; 薛亮

    2011-01-01

    在传统砂田增温保墒基础上,为进一步提高对土壤的增温效果,提高砂田生产效率,在甘肃皋兰干旱山区的砂田上进行全地膜覆盖(FM)、起垄覆膜(RM)、半地膜覆盖(HM)、和不覆膜(CK)4种栽培模式试验.结果表明:各覆膜处理在5cm、10cm、15 cm、20 cm、25 cm土层的日地温、西瓜各生育时期平均地温及积温均为全覆膜>起垄覆膜>半覆膜>不覆膜,但随着土层的加深,增温效果逐渐减弱.各覆膜处理西瓜果实比不覆膜处理提前10 d左右成熟,并且西瓜产量和品质均以全覆膜(FM)最优,其产量及可溶性糖含量分别比传统半覆膜提高26%和10%.%Traditional gravel-mulched field has a certain capacity of water and heat preservation, in order to choose feasible covering techniques in enhancing the production efficiency on it, four different experiments were carried on the gravel and sand mulched field at the arid mountain area in GaoLan, Gansu, such as full plastic film mulching,ridge-forming and plastic film mulching, half flat-mulching and non-mulching. The results indicated that daily temperature, the average temperature and accumulated temperature in different soil depths (5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm) at each growth period followed the principles: full plastic film mulching (FM)>ridge and plastic film mulching(RM)>half flat-mulching(HM)>non-mulching(CK), but the effect weaken with the depth of soil. Ripe stage of watermelon were promoted 10days under plastic film mulching, full plastic film mulching was the best than other treatments at yield and quality of watermelon, it increased yield and soluble sugar content by 26% and 10% respectively, higher than that of the half fiat-mulching.

  13. Purification of a Watermelon mosaic virus Isolate from Shanshan County and Evaluation for the Virus Resistance of Various Melon Cultivars%西瓜花叶病毒新疆鄯善分离物的纯化及不同甜瓜品种的抗病性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 杜姗姗; 李冠

    2016-01-01

    从新疆哈密瓜(Cucumis melo L.)主产区之一的鄯善县采集表现病毒病症状的哈密瓜嫩叶,经昆诺藜连续3次单斑分离纯化后,采用RT-PCR扩增、克隆和测序分析,将该分离物鉴定为西瓜花叶病毒(Watermelon mosaic virus,WMV).利用该分离物,采用汁液摩擦接种法对12个常见的甜瓜商业品种和13个国际通用的甜瓜白粉病生理小种鉴别寄主进行室内抗病性鉴定,结果表明,所有供试品种中没有免疫和高抗品种,表现抗病、中抗、感病和高感的品种分别有1、11、10和3个,其中表现抗病的为Iran H.

  14. Research Effect Technology Integration on Watermelon Growth,Quality, Yield and Economic Benefit under Deference Covering Conservation Measures in Dry Lands%不同覆盖保墒措施对旱地西瓜生长、品质及经济效益影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 孙兆军; 韩磊; 焦炳忠

    2015-01-01

    For shortage of arid and water resources in arid areas ,less rainfall and uneven distribution of time and space ,in this arti‐cle ,through the field contrast test ,the test set three processing of white film mulch ,liquid film mulching and white film + grass lo‐tus mulching ,using randomized block arrangement ,repeat 3 times ,researched effect technology integration on watermelon growth , quality ,yield and economic benefit under deference covering conservation measures in Dry Lands .The results showed that the white film mulching + grass lotus mulching bulk density is 1 .17 g/cm3 in 0~20 cm average soil ,lower 0 .12 g/cm3 than white film mulc‐hing ,porosity is 53 .96% ,higher 1 .51% than white film mulching ;white film mulching ,liquid film mulching and white film +grass lotus mulching average ground temperature difference was not significant ,the difference between 0 .2~0 .8 ℃ ,white grass membrane and liquid membrane process average ground temperature was vary significantly difference between 1 .0~2 .0 ℃ ;The white film mulching + grass lotus mulching treatment mean temperature difference was lower than the white film and liquid film , white film and liquid membrane process mean temperature difference was not significant ,the white film + grass lotus mulching was1 .3~3 .1 ℃ lower than the white film mulching temperature difference;Soil microflora per gram dry soil fungi ,bacteria ,actinomy‐ces and the total number of bacteria of white film mulching + grass lotus mulching respectively increased by 20 .1% ,4 .3% ,7 .5%and 20 .1% than white film mulching treatment ;Ha output value and net income of white film mulching + grass lotus mulching were significantly higher than that of white film mulching ,respectively increased by 1 111 .4 yuan and 971 .4 yuan ,ratio of 3 .71∶1 ,the white membrane and liquid film mulching output value ,net income was generally low ;White film mulching + grass lotus mulching than white film mulching sugar content increased

  15. Occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in Guilan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamalizadeh, R; Vahdat, A; Keshavarz, T; Elahinia, A; Bananej, K

    2008-01-01

    During the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus L.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of Guilan province in Iran. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) or RT-PCR to detect Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W), Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV), and Ourmia melon virus (OuMV). The majority of tested samples (73.7%) were infected by at least one of the viruses considered. OuMV, ZYMV, WMV, and WmCSV were the most prevalent viruses and were detected in tested cucurbit plants. The incidence of multiple infections with 2 or more viruses was also relatively high, 63.3, 48.6, 42.7, and 26.7% of the infected samples of melon, cucumber, squash, and watermelon, respectively. The high incidence of OuMV and WmCSV suggested that these viruses might turn out to be an important threat for the melon and cucumber crops in the province.

  16. Respuesta de la sandía al acolchado plástico, fertilización, siembra directa y trasplante

    OpenAIRE

    S. Felipe Mendoza Moreno; Marco A. Inzunza Ibarra; Roque Morán Martínez; Ernesto A. Catalán Valencia; Magdalena Villa Castorena; Ignacio Sánchez Cohen

    2005-01-01

    En este estudio se determinó la producción, eficiencia en el uso del agua y la precocidad a cosecha del cultivo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus T.) regado con cintilla a 60 % de la evaporación de un tanque estándar tipo A, en tres tipos de establecimiento (siembra directa, trasplante a dos hojas verdaderas y trasplante a inicio de guías), con y sin acolchado de plástico negro, y dos niveles de fertilización de N y P2O5 (160N-80P y 240N-120P). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con ...

  17. 无纺布限根栽培对西瓜根域温度、植株生长和果实品质的影响%Root zone temperature,plant growth and fruit quality of watermelon affected by nonwoven-fabric-root-restriction-cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿磊; 孙亮; 冷平; 许小茜; 崔萌萌; 刘姝彤

    2011-01-01

    以'香秀'西瓜为材料,研究了无纺布限根栽培对西瓜根域温度、植株生长和果实品质的影响.结果表明:与对照组相比,无纺布限根栽培显著提高了地表下5、15和25 cm处的根域温度,其平均根域温度提高了2.31℃.西瓜植株早期的生长过程中茎长、叶片数和相对叶面积与对照相比均有不同程度的提高.西瓜的根系也受到限根栽培的影响,限根组的根系主要分布在地表下28 cm内的耕作层,主根系较短,侧根系发达,单位根域体积内根系密度较大,根系活力高.限根栽培显著改善了果实的品质,果实的可溶性固形物含量、出汁率、Vc含量和类黄酮含量均与对照组达到了差异的极显著或显著水平.无纺布限根栽培对西瓜果实的大小、可滴定酸含量和番茄红素含量均没有显著影响.%Effect of nonwoven root restriction method on root temperature, plant growth and fruit quality of ‘Xiangxiu' watermelon were investigated.Results suggested that this method restriction dramatically increased temperature of the roots around 5- 25 cm below the soil surface,with a mean root temperature increase of 2.31 ℃.The stem length, leaf number and relative leaf area of the early stage of plant growth increased by comparing to the control group.Root of watermelon was mainly restricted in cultivated layer,or 0- 28 cm below the soil surface.The main root was very short and has a high root density and root activity.Root restriction also improved fruit quality dramatically,for example,the SSC,juice yield, Vc content and flavonoid content were improved under this condition.The significant difference was observed between RR and CK (P<0.05 or P<0.01).However, there is no effect on fruit fresh weight, TA and lycopene content.

  18. La3+缓解碱性盐胁迫引起的西瓜幼苗光合能力下降的作用%Effect of La3+ on Alleviation of Decreased Photosynthetic Ability in Alkaline-Stressed Watermelon Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进成; 朱世东; 郝晓杰; 单国雷; 阮淑洁

    2012-01-01

    研究了在NaHCO3和NaCO3共同胁迫下,不同浓度的硝酸镧溶液预处理对西瓜苗叶片光合能力的影响,结果表明,叶面喷施0.1 mmol·L-1硝酸镧对碱性盐胁迫下西瓜苗的光合能力下降具有良好的缓解效果,有效减缓了西瓜幼苗叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率、Mg2+-ATP酶、RuBPCase活性的下降,缓解了碱胁迫对叶片PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、光化学猝灭(qp)、实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)的抑制,提高了非光化学猝灭(qN),促进了过剩光能的耗散.不同浓度硝酸镧处理对碱性盐胁迫下西瓜苗叶片乙醇酸氧化酶活性没有显著影响,不阻碍光呼吸的进行.而硝酸镧浓度超过一定值时则加重碱胁迫带来的伤害.因此,适宜浓度的硝酸镧预处理可减缓碱性盐胁迫引起的西瓜幼苗光合能力的下降.%The effects of foliar spray of different concentration La( NO3)3 on the photosynthesis under the stress of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 were studied. Foliar spraying 0.1 mmol·L-1 La (NO3)3 reduced the decrement of photosynthesis, the decrement of leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate,and the activities of Mg2+-ATPase and RuBPCase in chloroplast. The application of La(NO3)3 efficiently alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on PS II maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/ Fm),photochemical quenching (qP) and actual photochemical efficiency(ΦPSII ),enhanced the non-photochemical energy dissipation(qN) .promote excessive excitation energy to be consumed. Foliar spray of La(NO3)3 had no effect on glycolic acid oxidase activity, and it did not prevent photorespiration. When the concentration of La(NO3)3 was above a certain level,it aggravated the injury by alkaline stress on watermelon seedlings. These results suggested that the pretreatment of watermelon seedling with proper concentration of La( NO3)3 could decrease the decrement of photosynthesis caused by alkaline stress.

  19. 侵染南瓜的西瓜花叶病毒和黄瓜花叶病毒CP基因的克隆和序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analyses of the Coat Protein Genes of Watermelon mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus from one Mix-infected Squash Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金亮; 王凤婷; 魏毅; 张世宏; 潘洪玉

    2010-01-01

    为从分子水平鉴定山东聊城的一表现明显花叶、黄化、蕨叶及果实畸形的南瓜病毒病的病原,采用RT-PCR的方法,用马铃薯Y病毒属病毒3'-末端序列的简并引物和黄瓜花叶病毒(Cucumber mosaic virus,CMV)外壳蛋白(CP)基因的特异引物,对该样品进行了检测,并对克隆到的基因序列进行分析.结果表明,该样品受西瓜花叶病毒(Watermelon mosaic virus,WMV)和CMV 2种病毒的复合侵染,分别命名为WMV-liaocheng和CMV-liaocheng,与其他相应病毒分离物CP基因核苷酸序列的同源性分别为91.2%~98.0%和77.0%~97.9%,推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为96.4%~98.5%和81.2%~99.1%.根据完整CP基因核苷酸序列构建的系统进化树显示:18个WMV分离物可分为3组,其中WMV-liaocheng与HLJ、CHN及Habenaria等分离物表现出较近的亲缘关系,形成Ⅲ组;30个CMV分为2个亚组,其中CMV-liaocheng属于亚组Ⅰ,CMV-liaocheng可能发生过重组.

  20. Manejo da adubação potássica e da irrigação no progresso de doenças fúngicas e produtividade da melancia Potassium fertilizer and irrigation management in the progress of fungal diseases and yield of watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre as principais doenças da melancia, o crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis se destacam devido às grandes perdas que causam na produtividade e qualidade de frutos. Para investigar a influência da adubação potássica no progresso do crestamento gomoso e na produtividade da melancia e a influência da lâmina de água e do intervalo de irrigação no progresso do míldio, foram conduzidos dois ensaios em condições de campo em Gurupi-TO, nos anos de 2009 e 2010. O ensaio I foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso e os tratamentos se constituíram em três doses de potássio aplicadas em cobertura (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1 de KCl e 12 repetições, sendo avaliada a severidade do crestamento gomoso, por meio de uma escala de notas e os dados de produção e qualidade dos frutos. No ensaio II, utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial de 3 x 3, três lâminas de irrigação (100, 300 e 500 mm de água durante o ciclo da cultura e três intervalos de irrigação. Avaliou-se além da severidade do míldio, também a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Constatou-se que as doses de potássio não influenciaram no progresso do crestamento gomoso e no número, peso médio e qualidade dos frutos. As lâminas de irrigação aplicadas influenciaram no progresso do míldio. Maiores níveis de severidade do míldio foram observados nas plantas mantidas sob irrigação com lâmina de 500 mm de água. As lâminas de água aplicadas também influenciaram significativamente na produção e qualidade dos frutos. Observou-se a presença de maior número de frutos deformados ou tortos nas plantas mantidas sob déficit hídrico, na lâmina de 100 mm. As maiores produtividades comerciais e totais foram obtidas nas plantas irrigadas com a lâmina de 500 mm de água.Among the major diseases of watermelon, gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and downy mildew

  1. A new glucoceramide from the watermelon Begonia, Pellionia repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinggang; Liu, Yan; Qi, Huayi; Zhang, Guolin

    2004-10-01

    A new glucoceramide named pellioniareside (1) was isolated from the aqueous ethanolic extract of whole plants of Pellionia repens, together with lupeol (2), uracil (3), (22E,20S,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol (4), and daucosterol (5). The structure and relative configurations of pellioniareside were identified as (2S,3S,4R,6E,8E)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-[(2 R)-2-hydroxytetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-6,8-diene by analysis of spectral data and by chemical evidence.

  2. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Benariba

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  3. Investigating “Egusi” (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

  4. Investigating 'Egusi' (citrullus colocynthis l.) seed oil as potential biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giwa, S.; Adam, N. M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA)/Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, L. Ch. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel's acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 {sup o}C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm{sup 2}/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study. (author)

  5. Pengaruh Induksi Giberelin Terhadap Pembentukan Buah Partenokarpi Pada Beberapa Varietas Tanaman Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris Schard)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (i) mengetahui pengaruh giberelin terhadap pembentukan buah partenokarpi dan (ii) mengetahui interaksi giberelin dan varietas semangka terhadap pembentukan buah partenokarpi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Lubuk Pakam dari bulan November 2008 hingga bulan Januari 2009. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 2 faktor dan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah konsentrasi giberelin yang terdiri dari 4 taraf yait...

  6. EXTRACCIÓN DEL ACEITE DE LA SEMILLA DE PATILLA (Citrullus vulgaris POR LIXIVIACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Londoño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available L a extracción del aceite de la semilla de patilla c onsistió inicialmente en un estudio fisicoquímico de la semilla , con la finalidad de conocer su contenido nutricional mediante la realización de diferentes análisis como humedad, cenizas, grasas, fósforo, proteínas y carbohidratos . Posteriormente se procedió con la extracción del aceite utilizando el equipo de extracci ón sólido - líquido S oxhlet, empleando hexano como solvente mediante el diseño factorial del t ipo 2 3 . Luego de esto se realizó la caracterización del aceite crudo y ref inado siguiendo la metodologí a descrita por las normas COVENI N , donde el aceite presentó propiedades que le confieren gran potencial en la industria cosmética en la elaboración de ja bones. Por último se hizo un perfil lipídico por medio de una cromatografía de gases , arrojando un alto contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados (linoléico y oleíco que le dan la potencialidad de ser aplicado como un aceite apto para consumo humano de excelentes propiedades y calidad.

  7. EXTRACCIÓN DEL ACEITE DE LA SEMILLA DE PATILLA (Citrullus vulgaris) POR LIXIVIACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    L a extracción del aceite de la semilla de patilla c onsistió inicialmente en un estudio fisicoquímico de la semilla , con la finalidad de conocer su contenido nutricional mediante la realización de diferentes análisis como humedad, cenizas, grasas, fósforo, proteínas y carbohidratos . Posteriormente se procedió con la extracción del aceite utilizando el equipo de extracci ón sólido - líquido S oxhlet, empleando hexano como solvente mediante el diseño factorial del t ipo 2 3 . Luego de esto s...

  8. Thumba (Citrullus colocynthis L. seed oil: a potential bio-lubricant base-stock

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    Kamalakar, K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thumba seed oil, a minor, renewable tree borne oil, was exploited for the preparation of biolubricant base-stocks. The different base-stocks prepared were epoxy thumba oil (ETO, branched, 2-ethylhexyl ester (T2-EtHE, and polyol esters, namely, neopentyl glycol (TNPGE, trimethylolpropane (TTMPE and pentaerythritol (TPEE esters of thumba fatty acids. All the base-stocks were thoroughly characterized using spectral techniques. When evaluated for lubricant properties, ETO showed much higher viscosity (216.9 cSt, good oxidative stability (RBOT Method, ASTM D 2272 (20 min and weld load (ASTM IP 239 (180 kg behavior when compared to the branched and polyol esters. Polyol esters, T2-EtHE, TNPGE and TTMPE (−9 to −18 °C showed low pour points compared to ETO and TPEE. The thermal stabilities (Thermo gravimetric analysis, TGA of ETO and TPEE (425 °C were higher compared to other base-stocks. The lubricant properties of ETO matched well with ISO VG 220 and Aviation Grade 100 lubricant specifications, while polyol esters can be well exploited for hydraulic and metal working fluid applications.Las semillas de thumba producen un aceite de escasa importancia que ha sido explotado como base para la preparación de biolubricantes. Los diferentes derivados de thumba preparados fueron: éteres epoxi (ETO, éteres ramificados, éster de 2-etilhexilo (T2-ETHE, y los ésteres de poliol:, neopentil glicol (TNPGE, trimetilolpropano (TTMPE y pentaeritritol (TPEE. Todas las bases se caracterizaron en su totalidad utilizando técnicas espectrales. Cuando se evaluaron las propiedades del lubricante, ETO mostró una viscosidad mucho más alta (216,9 cSt, buena estabilidad a la oxidación (RBOT Método, ASTM D 2272 (20 min y buena carga (239 ASTM IP (180 kg en comparación con el comportamiento de los ésteres de poliol y los ramificados. Los ésteres de poliol, T2-EEl, TNPGE y TTMPE (−9 a −18 °C mostraron bajos puntos de fluidez en comparación con ETO y TPE. Las estabilidades térmicas (análisis termogravimétrico, TGA de ETO y TPE (425 °C fueron más altos en comparación con las otras bases. Las propiedades lubricantes de ETO coinciden bien con las especificaciones de los lubricantes, ISO VG 220 y Grado Aeronautica 100, mientras que los ésteres de poliol pueden aprovecharse bien para aplicaciones en fluidos hidráulicos y trabajos de metal.

  9. Identification des sources de tolérance au stress hydrique sur des espèces sauvages de la famille des Cucurbitacées en cutlture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudou A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of tolerance sources to the water stress on wild species of the cucurbitaceous family in in vitro culture. The objective of this survey is to identify sources of tolerance to the water stress. This will permit to choose the adequate material allowing the transfer of genes governing the drought tolerance to the gene pool of the main cultivated species. Indeed, a method has been developed to evaluate the water stress tolerance in vitro. It is based on the capacity of the calus recuperation after dehydration under a laminar flux hot until a loss of 50% of their fresh weight as a basis. The study included nine accessions of wild species and three cultivated varieties of the cucurbitaceous family. It comes out that the three cultivated varieties (melon, cucumber and watermelon, as well as some wild species accessions are sensitive to the water stress. The wild accessions of Cucumis africanus (L4, Cucumis dipsaceus, Citrullus colocynthis (Saudi Arabia and Citrullus colocynthis (Niger are obviously tolerant.

  10. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas = Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocaralterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanussativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can cause developmental changes in other plants or even in other organisms. Theobjective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of seedlings of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at 1g 10mL-1 (p/vconcentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations (100

  11. Understanding invasion history and predicting invasive niches using genetic sequencing technology in Australia: case studies from Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Razia S; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Clements, David R; Weston, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly facilitated the rapid and complete assessment of plant population genetics. Here, we apply our current understanding of the genetics and ecophysiology of plant invasions to recent work on Australian plant invaders from the Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. The Cucurbitaceae study showed that both prickly paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) and camel melon (Citrullus lanatus) were represented by only a single genotype in Australia, implying that each was probably introduced as a single introduction event. In contrast, a third invasive melon, Citrullus colocynthis, possessed a moderate level of genetic diversity in Australia and was potentially introduced to the continent at least twice. The Boraginaceae study demonstrated the value of comparing two similar congeneric species; one, Echium plantagineum, is highly invasive and genetically diverse, whereas the other, Echium vulgare, exhibits less genetic diversity and occupies a more limited ecological niche. Sequence analysis provided precise identification of invasive plant species, as well as information on genetic diversity and phylogeographic history. Improved sequencing technologies will continue to allow greater resolution of genetic relationships among invasive plant populations, thereby potentially improving our ability to predict the impact of these relationships upon future spread and better manage invaders possessing

  12. Understanding invasion history and predicting invasive niches using genetic sequencing technology in Australia: case studies from Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Razia S.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Clements, David R.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly facilitated the rapid and complete assessment of plant population genetics. Here, we apply our current understanding of the genetics and ecophysiology of plant invasions to recent work on Australian plant invaders from the Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. The Cucurbitaceae study showed that both prickly paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) and camel melon (Citrullus lanatus) were represented by only a single genotype in Australia, implying that each was probably introduced as a single introduction event. In contrast, a third invasive melon, Citrullus colocynthis, possessed a moderate level of genetic diversity in Australia and was potentially introduced to the continent at least twice. The Boraginaceae study demonstrated the value of comparing two similar congeneric species; one, Echium plantagineum, is highly invasive and genetically diverse, whereas the other, Echium vulgare, exhibits less genetic diversity and occupies a more limited ecological niche. Sequence analysis provided precise identification of invasive plant species, as well as information on genetic diversity and phylogeographic history. Improved sequencing technologies will continue to allow greater resolution of genetic relationships among invasive plant populations, thereby potentially improving our ability to predict the impact of these relationships upon future spread and better manage invaders possessing

  13. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  14. Africanidades na paisagem brasileira DOI:10.5007/1807-1384.2010v7n1p96

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    Silvio Marcus de Souza Correa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 As paisagens do Brasil foram marcadas desde o período colonial por vários componentes alienígenas. Entre eles, destacam-se as plantas de origem africana e asiática. O presente estudo trata de evidências da melancia (Citrullus lanatus nos arredores de São Salvador da Bahia. Integrada à dieta alimentar dos brasileiros desde o século XVI, ela “africanizou” a paisagem baiana, embora sua posterior expansão pelo território nacional tenha ocorrido devido a vários fatores internos; inclusive, ao seu “abrasileiramento”. No entanto, o olhar dos viajantes europeus distinguia, ainda no século XIX, os elementos exóticos da paisagem brasileira, como as bananas, as mangas e as melancias, apesar de sua “naturalização” no ambiente e na percepção dos brasileiros em relação à paisagem. Palavras-chave: história da paisagem. migração de plantas. Salvador da Bahia

  15. 一个园艺植物基因组序列和注释的在线批量实时提取平台%An Online, Batch, and Real-time Retrieval Platform for Genomic Sequences and Annotation of Horticultural Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长青; 上官凌飞; 李海玲; 王进

    2015-01-01

    目前,大量园艺植物基因组测序已经完成或接近尾声,它们的基因组序列和注释数据极大地促进了功能基因组学研究.为给科研人员提供批量下载特定的基因组区段序列和注释平台,笔者开发了一个称为OBRRP的生物信息学工具.OBRRP具有提取葡萄(Vitis vinifera)、桃(Prunus persica)、草莓(Fragaria vesca)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、西瓜(Citrullus lanatus)、番茄(Solanum lycopersicum)、甜橙Citrus sinensis)、苹果(Malus x domestica)、猕猴桃(Actinidia chinensis)、马铃薯(Solanumtuberosum)、香蕉(Musa acuminata)和拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana) 12种植物基因组序列及注释数据的功能;同时,也具有扩展到其它Gbrowser浏览器架构的数据库功能.测试结果表明,OBRRP是一个快捷简便的在线、批量和实时提取工具,其登录地址为http://bioinfo.jit.edu.cn/OBRRP/.

  16. Association between photosynthesis and contrasting features of minor veins in leaves of summer annuals loading phloem via symplastic versus apoplastic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Onno; Cohu, Christopher M; Stewart, Jared J; Protheroe, Johanna A; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

    2014-09-01

    Foliar vascular anatomy and photosynthesis were evaluated for a number of summer annual species that either load sugars into the phloem via a symplastic route (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Straight Eight; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Italian Zucchini Romanesco; Citrullus lanatus L. cv. Faerie Hybrid; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Autumn Gold) or an apoplastic route (Nicotiana tabacum L.; Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Brandywine; Gossypium hirsutum L.; Helianthus annuus L. cv. Soraya), as well as winter annual apoplastic loaders (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Giant Nobel; Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold Col-0, Swedish and Italian ecotypes). For all summer annuals, minor vein cross-sectional xylem area and tracheid number as well as the ratio of phloem loading cells to phloem sieve elements, each when normalized for foliar vein density (VD), was correlated with photosynthesis. These links presumably reflect (1) the xylem's role in providing water to meet foliar transpirational demand supporting photosynthesis and (2) the importance of the driving force of phloem loading as well as the cross-sectional area for phloem sap flux to match foliar photosynthate production. While photosynthesis correlated with the product of VD and cross-sectional phloem cell area among symplastic loaders, photosynthesis correlated with the product of VD and phloem cell number per vein among summer annual apoplastic loaders. Phloem cell size has thus apparently been a target of selection among symplastic loaders (where loading depends on enzyme concentration within loading cells) versus phloem cell number among apoplastic loaders (where loading depends on membrane transporter numbers).

  17. Evaluation agronomique de trois espèces de Egusi (Cucurbitaceae utilisées dans l'alimentation au Bénin et élaboration d'un modèle de prédiction du rendement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodouhe RS.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic evaluation for three Egusi species (Cucurbitaceae used as food in Benin and model analysis for yield prediction. Six varieties of Egusi from three species of cucurbit were evaluated for the fruit and the seed yield at the Agricultural Research Centre of Niaouli (South-Benin. Using randomised blocs, the agronomic characters such as the germination percentage, the fl owering date, the number of fruit per plant, the average fruit weight, the weight of 1,000 unhulled seed, the weight of 1,000 hulled seed, the ratio kernel/seed, the fruit yield, the unhulled seed yield and the hulled seed yield (kg.ha-1 were measured. Out of the six varieties, Aklamkpa (Lagenaria siceraria showed the highest yield for dehulled and unhulled seed. It is followed by Kilonon and Kakoun (Citrullus lanatus which yielded more than 200 kg.ha-1. In contrary Zohan (Cucumeropsis edulis, well appreciated by consumers for its organoleptic qualities, appeared to have the lowest yield in addition to the fact that it is a late variety. The prediction model analysis indicated that the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight are good estimators of the unhulled and hulled seed yield and could effectively contribute to the increase of seed yield in egusi crops.

  18. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  19. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) Seed Husk Using the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to characterize the thermochemical fuel properties of melon seed husk (MSH) as a potential biomass feedstock for clean energy and power generation. It examined the ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition of MSH. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was examined at 5, 10, 20 °C/min from 30-800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) was applied to determine the activation energy, E, and frequency factor, A. The results revealed that thermal decomposition of MSH occurs in three (3) stages; drying (30-150 °C), devolatization (150-400 °C) and char degradation (400-800 °C). Kinetic analysis revealed that the E values fluctuated from 145.44-300 kJ/mol (Average E = 193 kJ/mol) while A ranged from 2.64 × 1010 to 9.18 × 1020 min-1 (Average E = 9.18 × 1019 min-1) highlighting the complexity of MSH pyrolysis. The fuel characterization and kinetics of MSH showed it is an environmentally friendly solid biofuel for future thermal biomass conversion.

  20. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L. Seed Husk Using the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to characterize the thermochemical fuel properties of melon seed husk (MSH as a potential biomass feedstock for clean energy and power generation. It examined the ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition of MSH. Thermogravimetric (TG analysis was examined at 5, 10, 20 °C/min from 30-800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM was applied to determine the activation energy, E, and frequency factor, A. The results revealed that thermal decomposition of MSH occurs in three (3 stages; drying (30-150 °C, devolatization (150-400 °C and char degradation (400-800 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that the E values fluctuated from 145.44-300 kJ/mol (Average E = 193 kJ/mol while A ranged from 2.64 × 1010 to 9.18 × 1020 min-1 (Average E = 9.18 × 1019 min-1 highlighting the complexity of MSH pyrolysis. The fuel characterization and kinetics of MSH showed it is an environmentally friendly solid biofuel for future thermal biomass conversion.

  1. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive.

  2. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  3. Evidence for cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen races based on watermelon differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii occurs in open fields and greenhouses and can severely limit cucurbit production. Presently seven races of P. xanthii have been identified using melon (Cucumis melo) differentials. Physiological races of this pathogen have not been classified for ot...

  4. Evaluation of fungicide rotations for management of Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. For the past 6 years, the field has been infested with Phytophthora capsici. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Five-week-old seedli...

  5. Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is needed to minimize the economic loss by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infection seeds such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time polymerase chain reaction...

  6. Metal Removal and Antimicrobial Properties of Watermelon rind modified with clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid development of industrial activity indirectly discharged pollutant into the local water stream. One of the harmful industrial wastes that enter public drainage is heavy metal owing to its toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. Improper treatment of domestic waste also will discharged high amount of microbial. Various types of technology were developed for removing pollutant in wastewater, but most of the technology employed to address on removing organic content in wastewater. Other pollutant namely, heavy metals and microbial indirectly treated at low concentration of pollutant loading. Among various available technologies for water treatment adsorption process is considered a promising technology as compared to other methods because of convenience, easy operational and low cost of treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate potential used of local fruit rind modified with herb as adsorbent material. The rind present strong potential due to its high content of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as active binding sites for metal sorption. Modified rind improves absorption by having anti microbial properties to kill pathogenic organisms. The concentration of heavy metal ions was analysed using ICP-MS. E. coli and total colifrm were plated out using chromocult agar. The results showed significant reductions of heavy metals and microbial concentration after wastewater was treated with clove modified rind.

  7. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  8. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  9. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of Multiple Virus Resistant Lagenaria siceraria Lines Potentially useful for Watermelon Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous evaluations we identified numerous lines of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) with complete or partial resistance to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). In the present study, we were interested in developing bottle gourd lines with multiple virus resistance that could be useful as roo...

  10. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3592 Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Horácio Couto Bittencourt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can provoke development changes in other plants or even in other organisms. The objective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays seedlings. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at a 1g 10 mL-1 (p/v concentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations

  11. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  12. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes.

  13. 7 CFR 1210.320 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.326 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.323 - Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.323...

  16. 7 CFR 1210.322 - Term of office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.322 Term...

  17. 7 CFR 1210.328 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.328 Duties....

  18. 7 CFR 1210.327 - Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.327 Powers....

  19. 7 CFR 1210.324 - Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.324...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.325 - Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.325...

  1. An option for painful diabetic neuropathy with simultaneous AND#8216;antioxidativeAND#8217; and AND#8216;anestheticAND#8217; properties: topical Citrullus colocynthis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is probably the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. Secondary preventive measures for diabetic neuropathy with delaying, stopping or even reversing progressive course of neuropathy, pain control and prevention of ulceration can play important role in diabetic patients care. Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Treatments for diabetic neuropathy have been mainly focused on two purposes, pain control and repair of nerve ...

  2. Watermelon, Melon and Pumpkin of Ukraine%乌克兰的西瓜、甜瓜和南瓜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鼎新

    2005-01-01

    受合肥华夏西瓜甜瓜育种家联谊会派遣,笔者和陈会中秘书长以及新疆哈密瓜研究中心伊鸿平研究员、中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所徐志红副研究员一起,参加了以吴明珠院士为首的新疆哈密瓜研究中心赴乌克兰瓜类科技考察团。考察团于2004年9月先后访问了乌克兰农业科学院哈尔科夫瓜类蔬菜研究所(北方)和赫尔松瓜类蔬菜研究所(南方),并对乌克兰瓜类蔬菜进行了科技考察和学术交流。

  3. Utilization and Inheritance of Watermelon Resistance to Fusarium oxys porum f. sp. niveum Introduced from Bottle Gourd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sugar Baby susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was crossed with high resistant male parents D3 - 1 and D3 - 2, respectively. F1 hybrids showed high resistance. The segregation ratios of resistance to susceptibility of F2 and of BC1 hybrid population from Sugar Baby tallied with 3: 1 and 1: 1, respectively. The results indicated that the resistance to Fusarium wilt was a kind of dominant inheritance controlled by mono- gene or mono- segment DNA. Furthermore, 5 hybrid combinations with fine character were bred. Among them, 3 were high resistant to Fusarium wilt,and 2 were medium res stant

  4. Effect of maturity at harvest on lycopene content and antioxidant activity in 'Vanessa' personal-sized watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stage of maturity at harvest of fresh fruit has a profound effect on marketing and storage of a number of small to medium sized horticultural commodities. In many instances there are established USDA grades and maturity indices to assist growers and the produce industry alike. However, in the ...

  5. A rare case of watermelon stomach in woman with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinga, Mariana; Checheriţă, I A; Becheanu, G; Jinga, V; Peride, Ileana; Niculae, A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 42-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic kidney disease stage 5 undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, presenting asthenia, dizziness, abdominal pain and small efforts dyspnea. After a complete physical and clinical examination, including laboratory tests, esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy and gastric lesions biopsy, she was diagnosed with gastric antral vascular ectasia. We are facing a rare case of antral vascular ectasia in a patient associating both chronic kidney disease and autoimmune disease.

  6. 木薯间套作栽培研究概况及产业发展对策%Research survey on cassava intercropping cultivation and the countermeasures for developing cassava industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严炜; 刘光华; 娄予强; 刘倩; 李月仙; 郭容琦; 段春芳

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is recognized worldwidely as a great potential crop as a source of renewable energy. Its derivatives have a great development potential in national and international markets. The paper systematically describes the advantages, cultivation patterns and methods of cassava intercropping with different crops (Arachis hypogaea, Glycine max,Benincasa hispida, Citrullus lanatus, Zea mays, Volvariella volvacea, Arachis pintoi, and woody perennials), and the economic benefits of intercropping of cassava in recent years. Also the problem associated with cassava industry and their feasible suggestions and solutions have been discussed. The suggestions include the reinforcement of related policies,financial support for agriculture and personal with ability, guaranteed healthy development of cassava industry, quicken fund provision, new variety breeding and cultivation technique extension, development of cassava leading enterprises,exertion of energetic support to the driving functions of dragon-head corporations and promotion of the social-economic development.%木薯是世界公认的一种极具发展潜力的可再生能源作物,其已开发的衍生产品在国内外市场具有极大的发展潜力.文章系统介绍了木薯间套作栽培模式、效益和优势以及我国木薯产业中存在的主要问题,提出加强对木薯产业的政策、资金、人才投入,为木薯产业发展提供保障,积极引进、选育和推广木薯新品种与丰产栽培技术,推动木薯产业持续健康发展,延长木薯产业链,大力培育龙头企业,发挥龙头企业带动效应,推动区域经济发展等建议.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of some Brazilian marsupials (Didelphidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casartelli, C; Rogatto, S R; Ferrari, I

    1986-01-01

    Three species of marsupials from the Amazon region (Marmosa cinerea, Caluromys lanatus, and Didelphis marsupialis) and two from the region of São Paulo (Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris) were studied. The G-banding pattern of the species with 2n = 14 (M. cinerea and C. lanatus) was...

  8. Estudio del comportamiento agronómico de las zeolitas en la fertilización del cultivo de la sandía (citrullus vulgaris) en la zona de taura, Guayas

    OpenAIRE

    Idrovo, Jorge; Quilambaqui, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento y efecto de las zeolitas en la producción del cultivo de la sandía, se realizó un estudio agronómico en la zona de Taura, Guayas, Ecuador, donde se instaló un ensayo de campo, en un área experimental de 3300 m2. El diseño que se aplicó en este estudio fue de un Bloques Completos al Azar (DBCA), conformado por 7 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones, con un total de 28 unidades experimentales. Los tratamientos a evaluarse, fueron dosis total de fertilizantes con...

  9. Efecto de inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plántulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo-Castañeda T.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (producidos a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes
    en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla sembradas en un cultivo tradicional libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Se aislaron selectivamente microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y fijadores de nitrógeno -BFNescogiendo los de mayor eficiencia mediante métodos cuantitativos in vitro, para posterior fermentación
    bajo condiciones controladas. Los inoculantes obtenidos se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.

  10. 7 CFR 1210.330 - Policy and objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1210.330 Policy and objective... research, development, advertising, and promotion in order to: (a) Strengthen watermelons'...

  11. 利用Varian Cary 50分析西瓜汁中的铁%Determination of the Iron in the Watermelon Juice by Varian Cary 50

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉玲

    2006-01-01

    借助Varian Cary 50紫外可见分光光度计,用邻二氮菲分光光度法,对西瓜汁中铁进行测定;并对分光光度法的最佳条件,包括酸度、试剂用量、显色时间、显色温度以及干扰情况等进行了分析.

  12. 特色蟠桃西瓜苹果醋饮料的研究%Development of apple-vinegar beverage with flat peach juice and watermelon juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 杨雯侠; 翟金兰; 颜海燕; 王利

    2001-01-01

    介绍了苹果醋的酿制方法及最佳工艺条件,并以苹果醋为酸味剂,辅以蟠桃汁、西瓜汁、苹果汁、蜂蜜等,研制出集营养、保健、风味于一体的果醋果汁饮料.

  13. HYPOLIPEMIC EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDE IN SEED-WATERMELON FLESH%籽瓜瓤多糖降血脂作用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美枝; 赵雪平; 李正英

    2014-01-01

    The crude polysaccharide was fractioned by Sevage law to take off the protein,then separated and dialyzed by Sephadex G -75 gel filtration,the monosaccharide components can be obtained by efficient ion chromatography from polysaccharide component.The function of melon seed matures polysaccharide to reduce blood high blood fat were evaluated,the results showed:High doses melon seed matures polysaccharides could reduce the weight and Spleen index of high blood fat mice,meanwhile increase thymus index.And obviously improve mice serum TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C level%籽瓜瓤多糖降血脂试验结果表明:200mg/kg籽瓜瓤多糖灌胃小鼠可以降低高血脂小鼠的体重和胸腺指数,可以升高高血脂小鼠的脾脏指数,对血清中总胆固醇、甘油三酯、低密高密度脂蛋白水平有显著影响(P<0.01),籽瓜瓤具有一定的降血脂的功效.

  14. 西瓜中番茄红素提取工艺研究%Procedure of Extraction of Lycopene from Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋波; 赵晓燕; 马越; 杨秀娟; 马涛

    2005-01-01

    对有机溶剂法从西瓜中提取番茄红素的工艺条件进行了研究,通过单因素实验、正交实验及方差分析,考察了影响提取的主要因素,寻求最佳提取工艺.结果表明,溶剂选用乙酸乙脂提取效果好,提取条件为固液比1:7,温度35℃,时间100min.

  15. Progresso do crestamento gomoso e perdas na cultura da melancia Disease progress and crop losses due to watermelon gummy stem blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R. dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O progresso do crestamento gomoso e as perdas na cultura da melancia foram estudados em ensaios de campo com inoculação artificial de Didymella bryoniae. Para o estudo do progresso da doença foram utilizadas duas áreas indenes, cada uma com 24 x 32 m, e nenhuma medida de controle foi adotada. Para obtenção das curvas de progresso, quantificou-se a percentagem média de área foliar afetada em uma área de 768 m², aos 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 74, 80 e 87 dias após o plantio (DAP. Ficou demonstrado que a doença progride segundo o modelo exponencial, mesmo sob condições não muito favoráveis, na ausência de chuvas e com baixo nível de inóculo inicial. Os valores máximos de severidade foram observados aos 87 DAP (12,5-13,6% da área foliar doente. No ensaio de perdas, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cinco níveis de doença foram obtidos pela aplicação de doses decrescentes da mistura clorotalonil e tiofanato metílico (g/100 L de água: (a 0,0 g i.a. (testemunha; (b clorotalonil 25 g + tiofanato metílico 10 g; (c clorotalonil 75 g + tiofanato metílico; 30 g; (d clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g; (e clorotalonil 250 g + tiofanato metílico 100 g. A doença foi avaliada uma única vez, aos 78 DAP por meio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 9, baseada na porcentagem de área foliar doente. A severidade máxima foi observada aos 78 DAP na testemunha (26,5% de área foliar doente. Houve alta (r=-0,96 correlação negativa entre os níveis da doença nas folhas e a produção de frutos, com redução de até 19,2% na produtividade da melancia devido ao crestamento gomoso do caule. O controle químico foi eficiente a partir da dosagem de clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g.Progress and losses due to gummy stem blight were studied in field plots artificially inoculated with Didymella bryoniae. For the temporal disease progress study, two fields (24 x 32 m were established in areas free of the disease, without any history of cucurbit cultivation, and no control measures were applied. Data for the disease progress curves were obtained from the mean diseased leaf area in an area of 768 m², at 45; 50; 55; 60; 65; 74; 80 and 87 days after planting (DAP. Disease progressed according to the exponential model, even under marginally favorable environmental conditions. Maximum severity values were observed 87 DAP (12.5-13.6% diseased leaf area. The crop loss experiment was laid out in a randomized completed block design with five disease levels and four replicates. Disease levels were obtained with the application of five fungicide doses (per 100 L of water of a mixture of active ingredients chlorothalonil and methyl thiophanate, as follows: (a 0 g a.i. (control; (b chlorothalonil 25 g + methyl thiophanate 10 g; (c chlorothalonil 75 g + methyl thiophanate 30 g; (d chlorothalonil 125 g + methyl thiophanate 50 g; (e chlorothalonil 250 g + methyl thiophanate 100 g. Disease severity was evaluated once, 78 DAP, with a disease scale ranging from 0 to 9, based on the percentage of diseased leaf area. Maximum disease levels were observed 78 DAP in control plots (26.5% diseased leaf area. There was high negative correlation (r=-0.96 between disease levels and fruit yield. Yield losses due to gummy stem blight reached 19.2% and chemical control reduced disease levels significantly.

  16. Study on Photosynthetic Pigment of Different Ploidy Watermelon Plants%不同染色体倍性西瓜植株光合色素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文革; 阎志红; 王鸣

    2003-01-01

    以蜜枚和JM西瓜品种的纯合二倍体及人工诱导的同基因型的同源三倍体、四倍体植株为材料,对其植株叶片的光合色素进行了测定.结果表明:按单位鲜重测定光合色素,2个品种的叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素含量总的趋势是随着染色体倍性的增加而减少,不同染色体倍性之间差异显著;比叶重、叶片叶面积、单位叶面积的叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素含量是随着染色体倍性的增加而增加.测定多倍体西瓜植株的光合色素含量宜采用单位叶面积.

  17. 特色蟠桃西瓜苹果醋饮料的研究%Research on Characteristic Apple Vinegar Beverage with Flat Peach Juice and Watermelon Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 杨雯侠; 翟金兰; 颜海燕; 王利

    2001-01-01

    文中介绍了苹果醋的酿制方法及最佳工艺条件.并以苹果醋为酸味剂,辅以蟠桃汁、西瓜汁、苹果汁、蜂蜜等,研制出集营养、保健、风味于一体的果醋果汁饮料.

  18. HACCP体系在绿色食品西瓜汁加工中的应用%Application of HACCP System on Green Food Watermelon Juice Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张臻; 郭明月; 刘景景

    2013-01-01

    以HACCP体系为标准,研究分析了绿色食品西瓜汁加工过程中可能存在的危害,找出了原料验收及挑选、巴氏杀菌、罐装3个关键控制点,从而确定了绿色食品西瓜汁加工过程中各CCP的控制标准以及纠偏措施.

  19. Denoising Methods for Detecting Maturity of Watermelons by Acoustics%音频检测西瓜成熟度的噪声消除方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖珂; 高冠东

    2013-01-01

    针对音频检测西瓜成熟度中击打响应信号更类似噪声的特点,实现了信噪分离方法与小波消噪方法相结合消除环境噪声和信号微小噪声的方法.在消除嘈杂环境噪声方面,提出使用快速独立分量分析算法(Fast independent componment analisis,FastICA),利用不同两路混有环境噪声的混叠信号分离出噪声和击打信号,以获得能够用于西瓜成熟度检测的击打信号.在消除能量较小的噪声方面,提出了适合西瓜击打信号特点的小波消噪算法,能够有效降噪并保留高频信息.该方法经验证达到了较好的噪声消除效果.

  20. Improvement of grafted watermelon transplant survival as a result of size and starch increases over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty alcohol treatments can be used to eliminate the meristem of cucurbit (Family Cucurbitaceae) rootstocks which prevents regrowth when grafting, but the effects of the treatment on the rootstock have not been documented. Two rootstock types, ‘Emphasis’ bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and ‘Car...

  1. Karpuz Suyunun Meyve Suyu Karışımlarında Kullanım Olanakları Üzerinde bir Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    1993-01-01

    Ten different fruit juice cocktails containing various proportions of water melon, sour cherry and apple juices were prepared and subjected to sensory evaluation to determine the consumer acceptance. The sample containing 50% watermelon, 25% sour cherry and 25% apple juices received the highest acceptance whereas 100% watermelon juice was least preferred. Addition of sour cherry juice to watermelon juice provided better acceptance than apple juice.

  2. 7 CFR 1210.311 - Programs and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.311 Programs and projects. Programs and projects mean those research, development, advertising, or promotion programs or...

  3. Cultural techniques of in the cropping system of potato-watermelon -Brassica brocoli for high benefit%马铃薯-西瓜-青花菜高效栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应和平; 陈国华

    2001-01-01

    @@ 为提高种植业效益,1998年以来我们进行了诸多种植方式的探索.其中马铃薯-西瓜-青花菜种植方式,一般产量马铃薯22.5 t/hm2,西瓜45.0 t/hm2,青花菜 30.0 t/hm2,且马铃薯上市早、价格高,夏秋作西瓜在梅雨后座果,台风来临前采收, 风险小、成本低,秋冬作青花菜外销需求量大,全年3熟总产值可达15万元/hm2,深受农户欢迎.该种植方式推广应用面积已达300 hm2.

  4. Analysis on Yield-stablility and Adaptation of Watermelon Varieties with GGE-Biplot%西瓜新品种稳产性和适应性GGE双标图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先亮; 吴占清; 霍治邦; 程志强; 罗晓丹

    2014-01-01

    通过对西瓜新品种区试试验中的产量结果进行GGE双标图分析,从而获得了比简单联合统计分析更为详尽的品种与试验点的相关信息,更有利于对试验品种进行客观的综合评价,对于品种的审定具有一定的借鉴意义.该文对4个供试品种产量性状进行了GGE双标图分析,发现了各自品种特性与环境的适应性关系,对于这些品种的推广具有较强的指导作用.

  5. Chick lit as the new woman’s fiction: inscriptions in Marian Keyes’s novel Watermelon. Naujųjų moterų literatūra: atspindžiai Marian Keys romane Arbūzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ragaišienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje aptariama nauja tendencija moterų literatūroje. Ši tendencija apibūdinama kaip komerciniu požiūriu sėkmingų romanų protrūkis. Šiuo romanus vienijanti tema – jaunų moterų pastangos suderinti sėkmingą karjerą ir emancipuotos moters asmeninius poreikius. Kritinėje šios literatūros recepcijoje vyrauja dvi nuomonės. Vieni kritikai naująjį žanrą tapatina su meilės romanu, skirtu vartojiškumo dvasios apimtai skaitytojų auditorijai, kiti teigia, kad šis žanras įkūnija realistinio romano sugrįžimą ir nurodo akivaizdžias sąsajas su jo žanrinėmis variacijomis. Šiuo požiūriu ši literatūra atspindi svarbiausius laikmečio faktorius, lemiančius tapatybės raidą. Marian Keyes romane Arbūzas pastebimi charakteringiausi aptariamojo naujojo literatūros žanro bruožai, straipsnyje analizuojami pasitelkiant šio žanro tyrinėtojų vertinimus.

  6. Study on Processing Technology of Solidified Composite Yogurt of Flat Peach, Watermelon and Pineapple%凝固型蟠桃西瓜菠萝复合酸奶制作工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To develop a new type of solidified composite yogurt. [ Method ] The best production process of composite yogurt was obtained by single factor and orthogonal experiment. [Result] The best production process of composite yogurt was as follows; the composite juice amount was 4% , the sugar amount was 4% , the inoculation was 3% and the fermentation time was 3 h. [ Conclusion] The composite yogurt produced under the above technological condition show particular taste and have rich nutrition of both fruit and yogurt.%[目的]开发一种新型凝固型复合酸奶.[方法]通过单因素试验和正交试验得出凝固型蟠桃西瓜菠萝复合酸奶的最佳制作工艺.[结果]凝固型蟠桃西瓜菠萝复合酸奶的最佳制作工艺条件为:混合果汁加入量4%、白砂糖加入量4%、接种量3%、发酵时间3h.[结论]在此工艺条件下制得的复合酸奶口感独特、营养丰富,同时具有了水果和酸奶的营养价值.

  7. 西瓜幼苗根系发育过程中的蛋白质组分析%Proteomic analysis on root growth and development of watermelon seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊杏平; 张曼; 徐锦华; 刘广; 姚协丰; 李苹芳

    2015-01-01

    [目的]通过对西瓜幼苗根系不同发育时期的蛋白质组变化的研究,从蛋白质表达水平上来揭示西瓜幼苗根系发育的分子机制.[方法]采用双向电泳技术对西瓜根系不同时期的蛋白质组进行比较,对差异蛋白质点进行图谱分析和MALDI-TOF/TOF质谱鉴定,采用荧光定量PCR技术(RT-qPCR)对候选蛋白基因进行表达验证.[结果]共得到12个差异表达蛋白质点,12个差异蛋白表现不同的表达趋势,其中上调表达4个,下调表达2个,不规则表达6个.经质谱分析,11个蛋白得到鉴定,对鉴定出的蛋白进行功能分析,其中10个蛋白分别涉及蛋白质生物合成(20%)、代谢相关(40%)、防御应答(30%)和GA信号途径(10%),1个为功能未知蛋白.4个候选蛋白基因的RT-qPCR分析结果显示,茉莉酸诱导蛋白1和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶基因在mRNA水平的表达变化与蛋白水平一致,而赤霉素受体基因GIDlL2和茉莉酸诱导蛋白2基因的表达可能与转录后调控有关.[结论]本文揭示了西瓜幼苗根系发育蛋白质组的表达特征,获得了在西瓜根系发育过程中可能有重要功能的蛋白,为深入开展西瓜根系生长发育相关基因功能研究提供了数据资源.

  8. 连栋温室果菜高效茬口安排模式探讨%Research on efficient cropping arrangement for watermelon, melon and cucumber under multispan beam greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃明; 汪祖国

    2006-01-01

    对西瓜、甜瓜、黄瓜3种作物在"GSW7430型"连栋温室条件下的一年二茬和三茬的茬口安排模式进行了研究,提出了3种作物及不同品种一年二茬和一年三茬的最佳搭配模式和茬口安排的合理时间.

  9. 西瓜枯萎病拮抗细菌HD-5菌株的筛选及鉴定%The Screening and Identification of Antagonistic Bacterium Strain HD-5 against Watermelon Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷白时; 王笑颖; 郭晓军; 姜军坡; 朱宝成

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain antagonistic bacteria against Fusarium mysporum Schl. F. Sp. Niveum, 84 strains were isolated and screened with the improved agar plate diffusion method using the soil form different districts. The antagonistic activity of strains against F. Oxysporum Schl. F. Sp. Niveum was tested via secondary screening. As a results, strain HD-5 showing the strangest antagonistic activity against F. Oxysporum Schl. F. Sp. Niveum- was obtained. Thus the morphology characteristics, physiological and biochemical properties and 16 S rDNA sequence of this strain were studied to determine the species. The similarity of the 16SrDNA sequences between strain HD-5 and Bacillus sublilis were up to 99.78%. Finally, the strain HD-5 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.%筛选对西瓜枯萎病病原菌西瓜专化型尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum Schl.f.sp.niveum)具有拮抗作用的芽孢细菌.通过对土样中分离的产芽孢细菌进行初筛和复筛,得到一株具有较强抑菌活性的拮抗芽孢细菌HD-5菌株,并对该菌株进行了形态特征观察、生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA全序列分析.结合HD-5菌株的形态特征、生理生化特性和16 SrDNA全序列分析结果综合考察,判定该菌株为解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens).

  10. Studies on watermelon somatic cell mutant of resistance to fusaric acid (FA) by low energy Ar+ ion beam irradiation%离子束诱变西瓜体细胞抗镰刀菌酸突变体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩波; 高秀武; 谷运红; 程国旺; 余增亮

    2003-01-01

    将通过能量为25keV、注量为6.24×1016/cm2的Ar+辐射处理后的三份西瓜种子接种在含有15mg/L镰刀菌酸(Fusaric acid,FA)的MS(Murashige,Skoog)培养基上获得无菌苗,以其子叶为外植体接种在MS+2mg/L6-苄氨基嘌呤(Benzylaminopruine,BA)+15mg/L FA培养基上进行诱导生芽,将抗性再生芽转接到MS+0.2mg/L萘乙酸(Naphthylacetic acid,NAA)+15mg/LFA培养基上,进行抗FA的再生苗的生根诱导培养.结果表明,离子束辐射处理和FA对感病西瓜种子3-27和YH-5的发芽率及成苗都有显著抑制,两者的复合抑制作用更强;离子束辐射处理过的两个感病西瓜种子抗FA的芽诱导再生率和生根诱导率都高于对应的不经过离子束辐射处理的对照材料,提高幅度在材料之间、芽再生和根再生之间有差异.

  11. Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli in the positions of watermelon fruit and the treatment of seed%西瓜细菌性果斑病带菌部位检测及种子处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳媚; 王琳; 李小妮; 任小平; 林俊流; 刘琼光

    2011-01-01

    由燕麦噬酸菌西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli,简称Aac)引起的西瓜细菌性果斑病(Bacterial Fhat Blotch)是发生在西瓜、甜瓜上的一种毁灭性病害.对3种已有引物进行比较筛选,发现WFB1/WFB2引物对Aac的扩增效果最好.通过对发病西瓜果实不同部位的PCR检测发现,瓜皮、瓜囊、种子内外均可带菌.通过西瓜种子不同处理方法的比较筛选发现,带菌西瓜种子处理的最佳方法为1%的盐酸处理5 min.

  12. A Dangerous Disease on Watermelon and Muskmelon —— Bacterial Fruit Blotch%西瓜甜瓜危险性病害 --细菌性果腐病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王叶筠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 细菌性果腐病(Bacterial Fruit Blotch,简称BFB)由 Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Willems et al 引起,是西瓜、甜瓜的1种危险性新细菌病害,是国际规定的检疫性有害生物之一.

  13. Non-destructive detection method of watermelon maturity based on BMV features%基于BMV特征的西瓜成熟度无损检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冠东; 滕桂法; 肖珂; 张晓茹

    2010-01-01

    针对两瓜成熟度无损测定的难度较大这一问题,提出了一种基于音频响应频带幅值向量(BMV)特征的西瓜成熟度无损检测方法.搭建了一套简单的音频采集平台,检验了BMV音频特征与两瓜成熟度的相关性,并与4种已用于西瓜无损检测的音频特征进行了比较;测定了不同打击力度对音频响应和BMV的影响;使用PNN算法对2个品种西瓜的BMV样本进行了成熟度检测.试验结果表明:经过音频特征间的比较,BMV与西瓜成熟度相关性最高,并且打击力度对特征的影响较小,整套算法对2个品种的成熟度检测准确度较高.

  14. REGENERATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TETRAPLOIDS ORIGINATING FROM COTYLEDONS OF DIPLOID WATERMELON CULTURED 1N VITRO%西瓜子叶组织培养中四倍体的产生及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭启高; 宋明; 杨天秀; 梁国鲁

    2000-01-01

    5个二倍体西瓜品种子叶离体培养过程中,外植体分化频率、增殖系数、畸芽率及四倍体频率随基因型、外植体所处部位、激素浓度不同而存在着较大差异.用不定芽叶尖染色体计数可100%检出四倍体.试管苗快繁中四倍体对营养逆境有较强的适应性.

  15. Effect of phosphorus, boron nutrition on physiological and biochemical characteristics of watermelon seedlings under low temperature%低温下磷硼营养对西瓜幼苗生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 周谟兵; 谭斯坦; 吴礼树; 戴照义; 孙玉红

    2007-01-01

    为探索磷硼营养对西瓜苗期抗寒性的影响,为西瓜幼苗期养分管理提供依据,选用当地主栽品种-京欣一号为材料,采用营养液培养,设置缺磷、缺硼、缺硼磷及施硼磷4个处理,3叶1心时进行5 d低温及常温处理.结果表明,硼磷配合在低温下POD活性比常温下同一处理上升72.06%,但无论常温或低温施加磷、硼及其配合处理POD活性比对照下降;脯氨酸含量增加幅度高达260.01%,而缺硼磷处理仅上升191.18%;硼磷、硼、磷和不施硼磷的MDA含量较常温下分别上升27.84%、33.33%、33.01%和36.63%;缺硼磷处理电导率与硼磷配合比升高43.61%;磷、磷硼配合处理糖含量增加幅度较缺硼磷处理达极显著水平.总体而言,磷硼配合更有利于提高西瓜幼苗抗寒性.

  16. Study on Physiological Injury of Watermelon Leaves Under Boron Stress by Histological Stain Method%应用组织染色法研究硼胁迫对西瓜叶片的生理伤害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晟; 施木田; 吴宇芬; 李永裕

    2016-01-01

    为了研究硼胁迫对西瓜叶片的生理伤害,笔者以籽瓜、‘黑美人’西瓜和野生西瓜为材料,设4个硼浓度,应用组织染色法观察3种类型西瓜O2·-、H2O2积累量、POD活性及死亡细胞数量.结果表明:3种类型西瓜叶片的O2·和H2O2积累量在硼胁迫下均显著提高,POD活性上升,死亡细胞数量明显增加,且高硼胁迫的西瓜O2·-、H2O2积累量和死亡细胞数量都大于缺硼胁迫,野生西瓜活性氧清除能力强于其他2种类型西瓜.硼胁迫导致西瓜叶片的活性氧大量积累,抗氧化酶活性增强,细胞大量非正常死亡,高硼胁迫的生理伤害大于缺硼胁迫.野生西瓜在胁迫下的抗逆性最强.组织染色法准确、直观,可应用于西瓜等植物的逆境生理研究.

  17. 西瓜专用砧木——京欣砧4号的选育%Development of a New Watermelon Stock Cultivar, Jingxinzhen No.4 Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海真; 宫国义; 张帆; 贾长才; 姜立纲

    2009-01-01

    京欣砧4号是用母本04-63和父本04-217配制而成的南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)杂交种,是西瓜专用优良砧木,其发芽率高,出苗齐整、苗壮;与西瓜嫁接亲和性好,共生亲和力强,结合面致密;嫁接苗在低温弱光下生长强健,根系发达,吸肥力强,成活率高;嫁接瓜果实大、产量高,嫁接后对果实的品质影响小.高抗枯萎病,叶部病害轻.

  18. Effects of extract from root of Tagetes patula on watermelon resistance against Fusarium wilt disease%万寿菊根的提取物对西瓜枯萎病反应的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红兵; 王金胜; 张作刚; 王建明

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了万寿菊根的提取物对西瓜枯萎病菌和西瓜幼苗的影响.结果表明,万寿菊根的提取物对供试的西瓜枯萎病菌菌丝生长有明显的抑制作用;同时,经对西瓜幼苗根和叶的酶活性测定和过氧化物同工酶电泳分析的结果表明,该提取物能诱导西瓜保护酶如超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性提高,减轻西瓜枯萎病菌粗毒素对西瓜幼苗的毒害作用.

  19. 利用感应方法检测西瓜可溶性固形物的研究%Studies on the Inductive Methodology for Evaluating the Soluble Solid Content of Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨哪; 金亚美; 宾雍霖; 赵娟娟; 金征宇; 徐学明

    2015-01-01

    本研究模拟了降压变压器的基本结构并利用电磁感应原理探索了具有不同可溶性固形物含量西瓜的电学参数,于室温22℃的环境下进行测试,采用频率范围50~400 Hz以及激励电压5~20V作为初级线圈的激励条件.结果表明:西瓜汁样品的终端电压和λ值随频率的改变而维持在稳定的范围,但随可溶性固形物的含量的增加而降低,激励电压提高则终端电压也呈现提升的趋势.常用极低频50、120、200和400 Hz及激励电压10和20V下的电学参数与西瓜可溶性固形物含量呈现较显著的线性关系(a≤0.01),其中相关系数最高为R2=0.969 (50Hz、10V).采用该模型对60个验证样本进行预测,其预测标准差(SEP)为0.893 Brix%,偏差(Bias)为-0.238 Brix%.该研究可将液态食品原料作为变压器的次级线圈并通过检测其基于变压器特性的电学参数来量化其可溶性固形物含量,为食品理化指标检测手段提供了新的参考.

  20. Changes in Sb speciation with waterlogging of shooting range soils and impacts on plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao-ming; Tandy, Susan; Hockmann, Kerstin; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the solubility and redox species of antimony (Sb) in a relocated shooting range soil and its uptake by Lolium perenne L. and Holcus lanatus L. under different water regimes. After 1-week waterlogging, the total Sb concentration in soil solution decreased from ∼110 μg L(-1) to Sb in soil solution was reduced to Sb(III), which greatly affected the plant uptake of Sb. Waterlogging increased shoot Sb concentrations of L. perenne by ∼10 fold but decreased uptake in H. lanatus by 80%. Results indicate that Sb might primarily be taken up as Sb(III) by L. perenne and as Sb(V) by H. lanatus. Temporary waterlogging of soil may increase the risk of trace elements entering the food chain.

  1. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.303 - Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan. 1210.303 Section 1210.303 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.303 Plan. Plan means this watermelon research and promotion Plan issued by the Secretary pursuant to the Act....

  3. Reaction of Phytophthora fruit rot resistant germplasm lines to a broad range of Phytophthora capsici isolates from across the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora fruit rot limits watermelon production in most states in the Southeastern US (FL, GA, SC, NC and VA). It has also become a serious problem in recent years in northern states (IN, MD, DE). About 50% of the US watermelons are grown in the southeastern states where environmental conditions...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.313 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1210.313 Section 1210.313 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.313 Research. Research means any type...

  5. Accumulation of lycopene as an indicator of maturity in personal-size melons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant health benefitS can be derived from consumption of fresh fruit such as watermelon which are high in lycopene content. Therefore it is desirable to determine lycopene content of watermelons at various stages of development in order to harvest at optimal levels. Previous studies characteri...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.341 - Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... first handled in the United States and all watermelons imported into the United States for consumption...) Each importer shall be responsible for payment of the assessment to the Board on watermelons imported... the same fiscal, budget, and audit controls as other funds of the Board. (j) The Board may...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.331 - Programs and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., effectuation and administration of appropriate programs or projects for advertising and other sales promotion... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1210.331 Programs and..., or as a part of, this Plan; (c) The development and expansion of watermelon sales in foreign...

  8. Biomass partitioning, architecture and turnover of six herbaceous species from habitats with different nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Peter; Olff, Han

    2000-01-01

    Three grasses (Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Festuca ovina) and three herbs (Rumex obtusifolius, Plantago lanceolata and Hieracium pilosella) were grown in a greenhouse at 3 nutrient levels in order to evaluate plant allocation, architecture and biomass turnover in relation to fertility

  9. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Crotalaria, slenderleaf—Crotalaria brevidens Benth. var. intermedia (Kotschy... Roth Rescuegrass—Bromus catharticus Vahl Rhodesgrass—Chloris gayana Kunth Rice—Oryza sativa L... Velvetgrass—Holcus lanatus L. Vetch, common—Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa Vetch, hairy—Vicia villosa...

  10. Biomass partitioning, architecture and plasticity of eight herbaceous species in relation to their position in an old field succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Olff, H.

    2000-01-01

    Three grasses (Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Festuca ovina) and three herbs (Rumex obtusifolius, Plantago lanceolata and Hieracium pilosella) were grown in a greenhouse at 3 nutrient levels in order to evaluate plant allocation, architecture and biomass turnover in relation to fertility

  11. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. M

  12. 7 CFR 1210.351 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Reports, Books, and Records § 1210.351 Books and records. Each handler and importer subject to this Plan shall maintain, and during normal business...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.603 - Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... incurring advertising expense, to publicize the voting period, method of voting, eligibility...

  14. Hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in different flavors, such as apple, mint, cherry, chocolate, coconut, licorice, cappuccino, and watermelon. 1,2 Although ... use by youth 1,2,3 and college students is increasing. 5 In 2010, the Monitoring the ...

  15. 7 CFR 201.56-4 - Cucurbit family, (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., squash, and watermelon. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves... does not show any development within the test period. (4) Root system: A long primary root...

  16. Lycopene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color. It is one of a number of pigments called carotenoids. Lycopene is found in watermelons, pink ... the body to use as lycopene found in food. People take lycopene for preventing heart disease, "hardening ...

  17. Scientists Debunk the '5-Second Rule'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160990.html Scientists Debunk the '5-Second Rule' Germs can transfer ... he said in a Rutgers news release. The scientists dropped foods of different textures, such as watermelon, ...

  18. 7 CFR 1210.321 - Nominations and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND... Annual Summary Reports for 1979, 1980, and 1981 will be controlling as to any additional...

  19. Keeping Your Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is another way to keep your body cool! Pack peaches, oranges, watermelon, and grapes in your cooler ... tell ya! To keep your feet cool and blister-free, try wearing shoes that allow your feet ...

  20. Lycopene: Senyawa Fitokimia Pada Tomat dan Semangka

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian, Albiner

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in tomatoe and watermelon. It contributes to the brilliant hue-especially red-of many fruits and vegetables. It gives the red colour of tomato, watermelon, and pink grapefruit. Growing evidence suggests that lycopene has significant antioxidant potential. Other studies showed that low concentration of serum lycopene associated with the increased risk of atherosclerosis. Also, clinical and epidemiological evidence have showed that lycopene...