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Sample records for citrullinated peptide antibodies

  1. Application of synthetic peptides for detection of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies

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    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Slot, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and represent an important tool for the serological diagnosis of RA. In this study, we describe ACPA reactivity to overlapping citrullinated Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1)-derived peptides...... (n=40), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=20), Sjögren's syndrome (n=40)) were screened for antibody reactivity. Antibodies to a panel of five citrullinated EBNA-1 peptides were found in 67% of RA sera, exclusively of the IgG isotype, while 53% of the patient sera reacted with a single peptide......, ARGGSRERARGRGRG-Cit-GEKR, accounting for more than half of the ACPA reactivity alone. Moreover, these antibodies were detected in 10% of CCP2-negative RA sera. In addition, 47% of the RA sera reacted with two or three citrullinated EBNA-1 peptides from the selected peptide panel. Furthermore, a negative...

  2. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients

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    Fakhr, A.; Ahmed, M.; Bashir, M.; Hakim, F.; Basri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To detect the anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (Anti-CCP) antibody in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to determine its diagnostic value in Pakistani patients. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi, from January 2013 to June 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 58 patients with complications of rheumatoid arthritis were recruited in the study using convenient sampling technique after their informed consent. Age and gender of the patients were recorded. Blood was collected from the patients subjected to ELISA based detection of anti-CCP and latex agglutination test for detection of Rheumatoid Factor (RF). Data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft excel 2010. Results: Among the fifty eight RA patients, 40 percent were males and 60 percent were females. Age ranged between 12 to 80 years (mean age 49.74 +- 16.81 years) of the males RA patients and was higher as compared to females (mean age 43.2 +-16.70 years). ELISA based detection of anti-CCP antibody showed that about 91 percent of RA patients were positive for anti CCP antibody. About 72 percent were positive for anti CCP antibody alone, 19 percent were positive for both anti-CCP and RF and 9 percent were positive for RF. Conclusion: The results concluded that a higher percentage of the RA patients are positive for anti-CCP antibody marking its importance as a diagnostic marker. Anti-CCP has more sensitivity as compared to RF in RA patients. (author)

  3. Affinity Purification and Comparative Biosensor Analysis of Citrulline-Peptide-Specific Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Eszter Szarka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA, anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs are responsible for disease onset and progression, however, our knowledge is limited on ligand binding affinities of autoantibodies with different citrulline-peptide specificity. Methods: Citrulline-peptide-specific ACPA IgGs were affinity purified and tested by ELISA. Binding affinities of ACPA IgGs and serum antibodies were compared by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. Bifunctional nanoparticles harboring a multi-epitope citrulline-peptide and a complement-activating peptide were used to induce selective depletion of ACPA-producing B cells. Results: KD values of affinity-purified ACPA IgGs varied between 10−6 and 10−8 M and inversely correlated with disease activity. Based on their cross-reaction with citrulline-peptides, we designed a novel multi-epitope peptide, containing Cit-Gly and Ala-Cit motifs in two–two copies, separated with a short, neutral spacer. This peptide detected antibodies in RA sera with 66% sensitivity and 98% specificity in ELISA and was recognized by 90% of RA sera, while none of the healthy samples in SPR. When coupled to nanoparticles, the multi-epitope peptide specifically targeted and depleted ACPA-producing B cells ex vivo. Conclusions: The unique multi-epitope peptide designed based on ACPA cross-reactivity might be suitable to develop better diagnostics and novel therapies for RA.

  4. The role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in predicting rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Tafaj, Argjend; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2011-01-01

    The study presents the results of predicting role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, compared to rheumatoid factor. 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were identified from a retrospective chart review. The results of our study show that presence of the rheumatoid factor has less diagnostic and prognostic significance than the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and suggests its superiority in predicting an erosive disease course.

  5. Contribution of peptide backbone to Anti-citrulline-dependent antibody reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Dam, Catharina; Olsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    for ACPA reactivity and to be cross-reactive between the selected citrullinated peptides. The remaining amino acids within the citrullinated peptides were found to be of less importance for antibody reactivity. Moreover, these findings indicated that the Cit-Gly motif in combination with peptide backbone...... found in up to 70% of RA patients’ sera, have received much attention. Several citrullinated proteins are associated with RA, suggesting that ACPAs may react with different sequence patterns, separating them from traditional antibodies, whose reactivity usually is specific towards a single target...... homology rather than sequence homology are favored between citrullinated epitopes. These findings are important in relation to clarifying the etiology of RA and to determine the nature of ACPAs, e.g. why some Cit-Gly-containing sequences are not targeted by ACPAs....

  6. Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody (Anti-CCP and Diagnostic Value for Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Mehmet Agilli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory multisystem disease of unknown etiology characterized by chronic destructive synovitis. It and #8217;s prevalence is about 1% all over the world. Serologic markers are also important beside some clinical situations upon RA diagnosis. Today, the most commonly used laboratory test is rheumatoid factor (RF in patients with suspected RA. RF is sensitive but not a specific biomarker for diagnosing RA. Early diagnosis of RA is essential to prevent of progressive joint damage. In recent years, anticyclic citrullinated peptide/protein antibody (anti-CCP attracts the attention as a remarkable biomarker for early diagnosis. Anti-CCP which is a family of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA family, showed quite satisfactory specificity in the diagnosis of RA. Due to the prescence of ACPA was included to 2010 RA diagnostic criteria, in a manner of speaking, importance of anti-CCP was registered. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 83-88

  7. Features of Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Children with Arthritis, which Have Increased Antibody Titers to Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide and Modified Citrullinated Vimentin

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    I.S. Lebets

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 77 children with inflammatory lesions of the joints have been examined in the study. The characteristics of clinical signs and laboratory parameters in patients with arthritis, who have increased antibody titers to cyclic citrullinated peptide (a-CCP and modified citrullinated vimentin (a-MCV are presented. The patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis which a-CCP positive were adolescents, they had polyarticular lesions, a significant number of active joints, and the trend to more rapid development of radiologic stage III by Steinbrocker. Positivity for a-MCV was often detected from an early age, but not only in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. These patients were seronegative for rheumatoid factor, high frequency of involvement of the knee joints with their swelling. Radiological changes in joints of these patients seldom exceeded II stage by Steinbrocker.

  8. The use of synthetic peptides for detection of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Heiden, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. A characteristic feature of RA is the presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Since ACPAs are highly specific for RA and are often present before the onset of RA symptoms, they have become valuable diagnostic...

  9. Antibodies to a strain-specific citrullinated Epstein-Barr virus peptide diagnoses rheumatoid arthritis

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    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Heiden, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are crucial for the serological diagnosis of RA, where Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been suggested to be an environmental agent in triggering the onset of the disease. This study aimed...

  10. Association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Michel Alexandre Yazbek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus exposure appears to be an environmental trigger for rheumatoid arthritis that interacts with other risk factors. Relationships among anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status have been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different populations. OBJECTIVE: To perform an association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In a case-control study, 140 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 143 healthy volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity were recruited. Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and shared epitope alleles were identified by genotyping. Smoking information was collected from all subjects. A comparative analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status was performed in the patient group. Logistic regression analysis models were used to analyze the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies were not associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, shared epitope alleles, or smoking status. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity was significantly higher in smoking patients with shared epitope alleles (OR = 3.82. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection, only anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were found to be independently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 247.9. CONCLUSION: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies did not increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and were not associated with the rheumatoid arthritis risk factors studied. Smoking

  11. Ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies

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    Vignesh AP

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammapati Paul Pandian Vignesh, Renuka Srinivasan Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and to correlate the role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP antibody with the ocular manifestations.Methods: Three-hundred and ninety-two eyes of the 196 rheumatoid arthritis patients who attended the ophthalmology outpatient department underwent a detailed ocular examination using slit lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. The tear function of all the patients was assessed using Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and ocular surface staining. The anti-CCP antibody titers for all the rheumatoid arthritis patients were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests.Results: Seventy-seven patients (135 eyes, 39% out of the 196 patients studied had ocular manifestations typical of rheumatoid arthritis. Dry eye was the most common manifestation (28%, 54 patients. Of the patients, 78% was females (60 patients. The mean duration of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with ocular manifestations was 5.4±2.7 years and without ocular manifestations was 2.1±1.6years. Three percent of the patients had episcleritis (six patients. Scleritis was present in 2% of the patients (four patients. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis and sclerosing keratitis was present in 1% of the population each (two patients each. Eighty-five percent (66 patients had bilateral manifestations 15% (eleven patients had unilateral manifestations. There was a strong association between the presence of anti-CCP antibodies and ocular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis which was shown by the statistically significant P-value of <0.0001.Conclusion: Ocular manifestations are a significant part of the extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Dry eye was the most common ocular manifestation. There was a

  12. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor in Sjögren's syndrome.

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    Barcelos, Filipe; Abreu, Isabel; Patto, José Vaz; Trindade, Hélder; Teixeira, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP-Abs), IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors (RFs) in primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS). We compared clinical and serological characteristics of 31 pSS and 31 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. Both, anti-CCP-Abs and RFs (IgM, IgA) directed against Fc determinants of IgG from humans and rabbit were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We included 31 blood donors as control group for the evaluation of RFs and anti-CCP-Abs. Nine (29%) pSS patients presented arthritis, and 10 (32,3%) RA patients also had secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS) RESULTS: IgM and IgA RFs prevalence was similar in pSS and RA, whichever the antigene (Human or Rabbit IgG) used. However, RA patients with sSS showed a tendency to present more often RF positivity, longer disease duration and higher ESR and CRP when compared with pSS patients with arthritis. Anti-CCP-Abs were detected in 64,5% of RA patients and in only 6,9% of pSS patients (p<0,0005). Anti-CCP-Abs were more often positive in RA patients with sSS (RA/sSS) (8 patients, 80%) than in RA patients without sSS (18 patients, 58,1%), and were absent in pSS patients with arthritis. RF-positive pSS patients presented more often pulmonary involvement and higher inflammatory parameters, and less often neuropathy compared to RF-negative patients. In controls, anti-CCP-Abs were absent and RFs were negligible. Anti-CCP-Abs were detected in only a few pSS patients, none of whom presented arthritis, which contrasts with the high frequency of these antibodies in RA/sSS. These results suggest that anti-CCP-Abs could be useful in the distinction between pSS and RA with sSS. Although not useful for the differential diagnosis between RA and pSS, RFs may have a prognostic role in pSS.

  13. Comparison of Two Assays to Determine Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis in relation to Other Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: Assaying Anti-Modified Citrullinated Vimentin Antibodies Adds Value to Second-Generation Anti-Citrullinated Cyclic Peptides Testing

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    Miriam Lizette Díaz-Toscano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA plays a relevant role in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To date, it is still unclear if the use of several tests for these autoantibodies in the same patient offers additional value as compared to performing only one test. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of using two assays for ACPA: second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides antibodies (anti-CCP2 and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV antibodies for the diagnosis of RA. We compared three groups: RA (n=142, chronic inflammatory disease (CIRD, n=86, and clinically healthy subjects (CHS, n=56 to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR of these two assays for the presence of RA. A lower frequency of positivity for anti-CCP2 was found in RA (66.2% as compared with anti-MCV (81.0%. When comparing RA versus other CIRD, sensitivity increased when both assays were performed. This strategy of testing both assays had high specificity and LR+. We conclude that adding the assay of anti-MCV antibodies to the determination of anti-CCP2 increases the sensitivity for detecting seropositive RA. Therefore, we propose the use of both assays in the initial screening of RA in longitudinal studies, including early onset of undifferentiated arthritis.

  14. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies – a role in rheumatoid arthritis and the possibility of seroconversion: A focus on abatacept

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    N. V. Chichasova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibodies plays a diagnostic and statistical predictive role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The decreased concentration of anti-CCP antibodies or their seroconversion is observed for not all groups of anti-inflammatory drugs. Seropositivity for anti-CCP antibodies is a predictor of the higher efficacy of abatacept (ABC. The possibility of seroconversion of anti-CCP antibodies, like rheumatoid factor, during treatment with ABC is associated with the more pronounced suppression of clinical symptoms of RA activity and progressive joint destruction, with remission achievement in a large proportion of patients.

  15. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

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    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies and Severity of Interstitial Lung Disease in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Alberto Daniel Rocha-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether serum titers of second-generation anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP2 are associated with the severity and extent of interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD. Methods. In across-sectional study, 39 RA-ILD patients confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT were compared with 42 RA without lung involvement (RA only. Characteristics related to RA-ILD were assessed in all of the patients and serum anti-CCP2 titers quantified. Results. Higher anti-CCP2 titers were found in RA-ILD compared with RA only (medians 77.9 versus 30.2 U/mL, P<0.001. In the logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, disease duration (DD, smoke exposure, disease activity, functioning, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and methotrexate (MTX treatment duration, the characteristics associated with RA-ILD were higher anti-CCP2 titers (P=0.003 and + RF (P=0.002. In multivariate linear regression, the variables associated with severity of ground-glass score were anti-CCP2 titers (P=0.02 and with fibrosis score DD (P=0.01, anti-CCP2 titers (P<0.001, and MTX treatment duration (P<0.001. Conclusions. Anti-CCP2 antibodies are markers of severity and extent of RA-ILD in HRCT. Further longitudinal studies are required to identify if higher anti-CCP2 titers are associated with worst prognosis in RA-ILD.

  17. Association of Distinct Fine Specificities of Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies With Elevated Immune Responses to Prevotella intermedia in a Subgroup of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontitis.

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    Schwenzer, Anja; Quirke, Anne-Marie; Marzeda, Anna M; Wong, Alicia; Montgomery, Anna B; Sayles, Harlan R; Eick, Sigrun; Gawron, Katarzyna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Davis, Simon; Potempa, Jan; Kessler, Benedikt M; Fischer, Roman; Venables, Patrick J; Payne, Jeffrey B; Mikuls, Ted R; Midwood, Kim S

    2017-12-01

    In addition to the long-established link with smoking, periodontitis (PD) is a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism by which PD could induce antibodies to citrullinated peptides (ACPAs), by examining the antibody response to a novel citrullinated peptide of cytokeratin 13 (CK-13) identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and comparing the response to 4 other citrullinated peptides in patients with RA who were well-characterized for PD and smoking. The citrullinomes of GCF and periodontal tissue from patients with PD were mapped by mass spectrometry. ACPAs of CK13 (cCK13), tenascin-C (cTNC5), vimentin (cVIM), α-enolase (CEP-1), and fibrinogen β (cFIBβ) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with RA (n = 287) and patients with osteoarthritis (n = 330), and cross-reactivity was assessed by inhibition assays. A novel citrullinated peptide cCK13-1 ( 444 TSNASGR-Cit-TSDV-Cit-RP 458 ) identified in GCF exhibited elevated antibody responses in RA patients (24%). Anti-cCK13-1 antibody levels correlated with anti-cTNC5 antibody levels, and absorption experiments confirmed this was not due to cross-reactivity. Only anti-cCK13-1 and anti-cTNC5 were associated with antibodies to the periodontal pathogen Prevotella intermedia (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001, respectively), but not with antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis arginine gingipains. Levels of antibodies to CEP-1, cFIBβ, and cVIM correlated with each other, and with smoking and shared epitope risk factors in RA. This study identifies 2 groups of ACPA fine specificities associated with different RA risk factors. One is predominantly linked to smoking and shared epitope, and the other links anti-cTNC5 and cCK13-1 to infection with the periodontal pathogen P intermedia. © 2017 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Optimizing the identification of citrullinated peptides by mass spectrometry

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    Bennike, Tue; Lauridsen, Kasper B.; Olesen, Michael Kruse

    2013-01-01

    Citrullinated proteins have been associated with several diseases and citrullination can most likely function as a target for novel diagnostic agents and unravel disease etiologies. The correct identification of citrullinated proteins is therefore of most importance. Mass spectrometry (MS) driven...... of trypsin, digestion was performed on synthetic peptide sets containing either arginine or citrulline. The peptide sequences originated from disease-associated in vivo citrullinated proteins; some reported as being C-terminal tryptic citrullinated peptides. Furthermore, the proteolytic activity was verified...

  19. Left ventricular function at two-year follow-up in treatment-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients is associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody status

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    Løgstrup, Brian B; Masic, D.; Laurbjerg, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the role of autoimmunity, especially anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) level, and the time-course of left ventricular (LV) function is unknown. The objective was to assess LV function and the amount of coronary calcium in relation...... assessed LV function by conventional echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography. We estimated the amount and progression of coronary calcium by coronary computed tomography. Patients were examined at the time of diagnosis and after 2 years. Results: Patients with elevated anti-CCP at baseline...

  20. Structure and pathogenicity of antibodies specific for citrullinated collagen type II in experimental arthritis

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    Uysal, Hüseyin; Bockermann, Robert; Nandakumar, Kutty S

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies to citrulline-modified proteins have a high diagnostic value in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their biological role in disease development is still unclear. To obtain insight into this question, a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies was generated against a major triple helical...... is indeed citrullinated in vivo. The structure determination of a Fab fragment of one of these antibodies in complex with a citrullinated peptide showed a surprising beta-turn conformation of the peptide and provided information on citrulline recognition. Based on these findings, we propose...

  1. Comparative study of the diagnostic and prognostic value of antibodies against chimeric citrullinated synthetic peptides and CCP3/CCP3.1 assays.

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    Gómara, María J; Rodríguez, Javier; Bleda, María J; Salvador, Juan P; Sanmartí, Raimon; Haro, Isabel

    2018-01-26

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic yield of home-made ELISA tests based on synthetic chimeric fibrin/filaggrin citrullinated peptides (CFFCPs) with CCP3 and CCP3.1 commercial tests to detect anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The prognostic value is also studied in a cohort of patients with early RA. Moreover, we transfer immunological assays from microtiter plates to microarray formats to allow the simultaneous analysis of several peptide sequences and reduce the volume of serum from patients. The diagnostic study includes: 100 RA patients who fulfilled the 1987 ACR criteria; 100 healthy blood donors; 35 patients with SLE according ACR criteria; 35 patients with PsA fulfilling the Wright and Moll criteria and 30 patients with HCV infection. The prognostic value study includes 50 patients with early RA with follow-up data available. All samples are from outpatients attending the Rheumatology Department of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Similar sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for the diagnosis of RA of CCFCPs compared to CCP3/CCP3.1 were obtained. Although a high concordance is observed between anti-CFFCPs and anti-CCP3/CCP3.1 in the early patients that rendered Larsen radiographic progression, CFFCPs could be a better marker of radiographic outcome. Strong correlations between the microarray and ELISA results were found for individual CFFCPs peptides. The development of multiplexing techniques combining a different spectrum of markers in a single analysis, including CFFCP peptides, could allow a more detailed analysis of the autoantibodies reactivity found in the sera of patients suffering of this heterogeneous disease.

  2. Association of levels of antibodies against citrullinated cyclic peptides and citrullinated α-enolase in chronic and aggressive periodontitis as a risk factor of Rheumatoid arthritis: a case control study.

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    Reichert, Stefan; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Dähnrich, Cornelia; Hornig, Nora; Altermann, Wolfgang; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Schulz, Susanne

    2015-08-29

    Periodontal disease could be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is assumed that the bacterial strain Porphyromonas gingivalis mediates citrullination of host peptides and thereby the generation of RA-associated autoantibodies in genetically predisposed individuals. For that reason non-RA individuals who suffered from generalized aggressive (GAgP, N = 51) and generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP, N = 50) were investigated regarding the occurrence of antibodies against citrullinated cyclic peptides (anti-CCP) and citrullinated α-enolase peptide-1 (anti-CEP-1) in comparison to non-RA non-periodontitis controls (N = 89). Furthermore, putative associations between infections with five periodontopathic bacteria or expression of certain human leucocyte antigens (HLA) to these autoantibodies were investigated. The presence of anti-CCP and anti-CEP-1 in plasma samples was conducted with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Subgingival plaque specimens were taken from the deepest pocket of each quadrant and pooled. For detection of DNA of five periodontopathic bacteria PCR with sequence specific oligonucleotides was carried out. Low resolution HLA typing was carried out with PCR with sequence specific primers. Differences between patients and controls were assessed using Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher`s exact test if the expected number n in one group was GChP and two controls (2.2%, pFisher = 0.662) were positive for anti-CEP-1 whereas no study participant was anti-CCP positive. Individuals with P. gingivalis were slightly more often anti-CEP-1 positive in comparison to individuals without P. gingivalis (3.2 vs. 1.1%, pFisher = 0.366). Carrier of HLA-DQB1*06 or the HLA combination DRB1*13; DRB3*; DQB1*06 were slightly more anti-CEP-1 positive (6.1 and 4.3%) than no carriers (0.7 and 0%, pFisher 0.053). GAgP and GChP and the presence of periodontopathic bacteria are not associated with an increased risk for occurrence of anti-CCP and anti

  3. High titer of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody is a risk factor for severe carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the TOMORROW study.

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    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Sugioka, Yuko; Sugioka, Kenichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Shinji; Tada, Masahiro; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We researched the morbidity and severity of existing carotid atherosclerosis plaque and associated risk factors in patients with RA. This study included 413 participants, including 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Carotid ultrasound, clinical data collection and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors were performed. Atherosclerotic plaque was defined as an intima-media thickness ≥ 1.1 mm. Severity of plaque was assessed by plaque score, defined as the sum of the maximal thickness of all plaques in bilateral carotid arteries. Data were analyzed from 200 patients with RA and 202 controls. Carotid plaque was observed more frequently in patients with RA than controls (47.0 vs. 36.1%, P = 0.027). Moreover, plaque score was significantly higher in RA patients (P = 0.032). In logistic regression analysis, RA represented an independent risk factor for the presence of plaque (adjusted odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.74). Comparing RA patients with and without plaque, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies titer was significantly higher in patients with plaque (315.8 ± 454.1 U/mL) than in patients without (165.7 ± 281.1 U/mL; P = 0.005). Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis clarified that anti-CCP antibody titer was associated with plaque score in patients with RA. High prevalence of any carotid plaques and severe carotid plaques were more frequent in patients with RA. High titer of anti-CCP antibodies represented a risk factor for severe carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Physical characteristics of a citrullinated pro-filaggrin epitope recognized by anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis sera

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    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Slot, Ole

    2016-01-01

    whether biotin labelling influence antibody recognition. The full-length cyclic pro-filaggrin peptide and a linear form with a N-terminal biotin, was recognized to the same level, whereas, a notable difference in ACPA reactivity to the linear peptides with a C-terminal biotin was found, probably due...... amino acid in position 4 C-terminal to citrulline. Collectively, peptide structure, length, the presence of charged amino acids and biotin labelling markedly influence antibody reactivity. In relation to the clinical diagnostics of ACPA, these findings may reflect the differences in diagnostic assays...

  5. Evaluation of rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in relation to rheumatological manifestations in patients with leprosy from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionello, Carla Fontoura; Rosa Utiyama, Shirley Ramos; Radominski, Sebastião Cézar; Stahlke, Ewalda; Stinghen, Servio Tulio; de Messias-Reason, Iara Jose

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy patients may present several osteoarticular complaints, which require further evaluation of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, an adequate clinical assessment in addition to testing for rheumatoid factors (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), can be useful in order to establish the correct diagnosis. In this study, the relation of RF and anti-CCP with rheumatological manifestations was evaluated in 97 leprosy patients from Southern Brazil. The results were compared to RA patients and healthy controls from the same geographical area and ethnic background. Neuropathy was observed in 71.1% and arthritis in 35.1% of the leprosy patients. A high frequency of RF positivity was observed among the leprosy patients (41.2%, 40/97), with RF immunoglobulin A (IgA) significantly associated with arthritis (OR = 7.9, 95% CI = 1.5-40.6 P = 0.008). Anti-CCP was observed in 9.3% (9/97) of the patients, with anti-CCP2 being the most frequent subtype. Only 4.1% (4/97) of the patients were RF and anti-CCP concomitantly positive. RF IgM showed a significant association with leprosy when compared to healthy controls (P leprosy in patients from the same geographical area and ethnic background (anti-CCP2 OR = 38.6; 95% CI = 16.49-90.26; P leprosy with other inflammatory diseases, such as RA, clinical and laboratorial evaluation of affected patients must be carefully assessed in order to achieve proper diagnosis and treatment. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Additional diagnostic and clinical value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies compared with rheumatoid factor isotypes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallbracht, Inka; Helmke, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    In the past decade significant advantages have been made in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and therapeutic strategies have changed a lot. These days, highly effective disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs enable intervention early in the disease process, in order to prevent major joint damage. For years, serological support in the diagnosis of RA has been limited to the presence of rheumatoid factors, although not very specific for RA. During the last years a variety of circulating non-RF antibodies have been discovered and reported to be of potential diagnostic value. CCP2 proved to be a very disease-specific and even sensitive marker for RA. In addition to the diagnostic properties, CCP showed to be a good prognostic marker, CCP helps to predict the erosive or nonerosive progression of the disease, and CCP is already present early in the disease. This diagnostic tool enables the clinician to choose the optimal therapeutic management for each single RA patient.

  7. The association of immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies with disease activity in seronegative rheumatoid arthritis patients

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    Mansoor Karimifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications, and early death. The present study was aimed to investigate the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgA isotypes and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody and to assess their association with disease severity based on disease activity score (DAS-28 in patients with IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF negative RA. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 62 RA patients with IgM-RF negative were assessed. Radiographs were obtained for all RA patients. The RF (IgG, and IgA and anti-CCP were measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Values of cut-off points over 15 UI/mL for IgA IgA-RF, 20 UI/mL for IgG-RF and over 20 units for anti-CCP were considered positive. DAS-28 score was compared in regard to the IgA-RF and IgG-RF and anti-CCP positivity using Mann-Whitney test. Results: DAS-28 score in IgA-RF positive was significantly higher than IgA-RF negative (mean score, 6.03 ± 0.33 vs. 5.44 ± 0.76 respectively, P = 0.035. In IgG-RF positive patients, DAS-28 score was similar to patients with IgG-RF negative (5.64 ± 0.59 vs. 5.46 ± 0.78 respectively, P = 0.396. Furthermore, in patients with anti-CCP positive DAS-28 score was significantly higher than patients with anti-CCP negative (5.72 ± 0.61 vs. 5.38 ± 0.79 respectively, P = 0.049. Conclusion: Findings indicated that there was a significant association between the amounts of IgA and anti-CCP with severity of disease in RF negative RA patients while there was no significant association between the amounts of IgG and severity of RA disease.

  8. Prevalência de anticorpos contra peptídeos cíclicos citrulinados na artrite idiopática juvenil The prevalence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    Sandra H. Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra peptídeos cíclicos citrulinados em uma coorte de pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil. MÉTODOS: A presença de anticorpos contra peptídeos cíclicos citrulinados foi avaliada por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA no soro de pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil com idade inferior a 18 anos, acompanhados no ambulatório de reumatologia pediátrica do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, com tempo de diagnóstico de doença de, no mínimo, 6 meses. Também foi estudada a presença do fator reumatóide IgM e do fator antinuclear em células Hep-2 RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas amostras séricas de 45 pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil. A presença de títulos elevados de anticorpos contra peptídeos cíclicos citrulinados foi encontrada somente no soro de uma criança (2%, a qual apresentava quadro de poliartrite com fator reumatóide reagente. CONCLUSÕES: O anticorpo contra peptídeos cíclicos citrulinados pode ser detectado em crianças com artrite idiopática juvenil, mas em freqüência muito inferior aos adultos com artrite reumatóide. Torna-se importante avaliar se anticorpos contra peptídeos cíclicos citrulinados podem identificar os pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil com potencial de evolução para artrite reumatóide do adulto.OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in a cohort of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. METHODS: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies was tested for with an enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA in serum samples of patients from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, all less than 18 years old and with previous diagnosis for at least 6 months. IgMRF (rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies in Hep-2 cells were also assayed. RESULTS: Serum samples were analyzed from 45 patients. The presence of high levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies was found

  9. Strong combined gene-environment effects in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Garred, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of shared epitope (SE) susceptibility genes, alone and in combination with tobacco smoking and other environmental risk factors, for risk of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) defined by the presence or absence of serum antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs)....

  10. Anti-carbamylated Protein Antibody Levels Correlate with Anti-Sa (Citrullinated Vimentin) Antibody Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Gregory J; Jones, Jonathan D; Pelzek, Adam J; Hamilton, B JoNell; Boire, Gilles; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur José; Masetto, Ariel; Carrier, Nathalie; Ménard, Henri A; Silverman, Gregg J; Rigby, William F C

    2016-02-01

    The presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) indicates a breach in immune tolerance. Recent studies indicate that this breach extends to homocitrullination of lysines with the formation of anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies. We analyzed the clinical and serologic relationships of anti-CarP in 2 RA cohorts. Circulating levels of immunoglobulin G anti-CarP antibodies were determined by ELISA in established (Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center) and early (Sherbrooke University Hospital Center) cohorts and evaluated for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), specific ACPA, and rheumatoid factor (RF) levels using the Student t test and correlation analysis. We identified elevated anti-CarP antibodies titers in 47.0% of seropositive patients (Dartmouth, n = 164), with relationships to anti-CCP (p < 0.0001) and IgM-RF (p = 0.001). Similarly, 38.2% of seropositive patients from the Sherbrooke cohort (n = 171) had elevated anti-CarP antibodies; titers correlated to anti-CCP (p = 0.01) but not IgM-RF (p = 0.09). A strong correlation with anti-Sa was observed: 47.9% anti-Sa+ patients were anti-CarP antibodies+ versus only 25.4% anti-Sa- in the Sherbrooke cohort (p = 0.0002), and 62.6% anti-Sa+ patients versus 26.9% anti-Sa- were anti-CarP antibodies+ in Dartmouth (p < 0.0001). We found a more variable response for reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen or to citrullinated peptides from fibrinogen and α enolase. In 2 North American RA cohorts, we observed a high prevalence of anti-CarP antibody positivity. We also describe a surprising and unexpected association of anti-CarP with anti-Sa antibodies that could not be explained by cross-reactivity. Further, considerable heterogeneity exists between anti-CarP reactivity and other citrullinated peptide reactivity, raising the question of how the pathogenesis of antibody responses for carbamylated proteins and citrullinated proteins may be linked in vivo.

  11. The status of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody are not associated with the effect of anti-TNFα agent treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.

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    Qianwen Lv

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether the status of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody are associated with the clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: A systemic literature review was performed using the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Clinical Trials Register databases, and Hayden's criteria of quality assessment for prognostic studies were used to evaluate all of the studies. The correlation between the RF and anti-CCP antibody status with the treatment effect of anti-TNFα agents was analyzed separately using the Mantel Haenszel method. A fixed-effects model was used when there was no significant heterogeneity; otherwise, a random-effects model was applied. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's linear regression and a funnel plot. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 5561 RA patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The overall analysis showed that the pooled relative risk for the predictive effects of the RF and anti-CCP antibody status on patient response to anti-TNFα agents was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.91-1.05, p=0.54 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.03, p=0.11, respectively, with I(2 values of 43% (p=0.05 and 67% (p<0.01, respectively. Subgroup analyses of different anti-TNFα treatments (infliximab vs. etanercept vs. adalimumab vs. golimumab, response criteria (DAS28 vs. ACR20 vs. EULAR response, follow-up period (≥ 6 vs. <6 months, and ethnic group did not reveal a significant association for the status of RF and anti-CCP. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the RF nor anti-CCP antibody status in RA patients is associated with a clinical response to anti-TNFα treatment.

  12. The use of chimeric vimentin citrullinated peptides for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Gómara, María J; Gómez-Puerta, José A; Sanmartí, Raimon; Haro, Isabel

    2011-11-10

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and, in many cases, destruction of the joints. To prevent progressive and irreversible structural damage, early diagnosis of RA is of paramount importance. The present study addresses the search of new RA citrullinated antigens that could supplement or complement diagnostic/prognostic existing tests. With this aim, the epitope anticitrullinated vimentin antibody response was mapped using synthetic peptides. To improve the sensitivity/specificity balance, a vimentin peptide that was selected, and its cyclic analogue, were combined with fibrin- and filaggrin-related peptides to render chimeric peptides. Our findings highlight the putative application of these chimeric peptides for the design of RA diagnosis systems and imply that more than one serological test is required to classify RA patients based on the presence or absence of ACPAs. Each of the target molecules reported here (fibrin, vimentin, filaggrin) has a specific utility in the identification of a particular subset of RA patients.

  13. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies promote apoptosis of mature human Saos-2 osteoblasts via cell-surface binding to citrullinated heat shock protein 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Yu, Chia-Li; Yu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) react with osteoblast surface citrullinated proteins and affect cell function, leading to joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). First, we purified ACPAs by cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-conjugated affinity column chromatography. The cognate antigens of ACPAs on Saos-2 cells, a sarcoma osteogenic cell line generated from human osteoblasts, were probed by ACPAs, and the reactive bands were analyzed using proteomic analyses. We found that ACPAs bind to Saos-2 cell membrane, and several protein candidates, including HSP60, were identified. We then cloned and purified recombinant heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and citrullinated HSP60 (citHSP60) and investigated the effect of ACPAs on Saos-2 cell. We confirmed that HSP60 obtained from Saos-2 cell membrane were citrullinated and reacted with ACPAs, which induces Saos-2 cells apoptosis via binding to surface-expressed citHSP60 through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. ACPAs promoted interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 expression in Saos-2 cells. Finally, sera from patients with RA and healthy controls were examined for their titers of anti-HSP60 and anti-citHSP60 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The radiographic change in patients with RA was evaluated using the Genant-modified Sharp scoring system. Patients with RA showed higher sera titers of anti-citHSP60, but not anti-HSP60, antibodies when compared with controls. In addition, the anti-citHSP60 level was positively associated with increased joint damage in patients with RA. In conclusion, Saos-2 cell apoptosis was mediated by ACPAs via binding to cell surface-expressed citHSP60 and the titer of anti-citHSP60 in patients with RA positively associated with joint damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies are the strongest predictor of clinically relevant radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients achieving remission or low disease activity: A post hoc analysis of a nationwide cohort in Japan.

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    Tomohiro Koga

    Full Text Available To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA achieving remission or low disease activity (LDA in clinical practice.Using data from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study in Japan, we evaluated 198 biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD-naïve RA patients who were in remission or had LDA at study entry after being treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs. CRRP was defined as the yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS >3.0 U. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis to explore the factors to predict CRRP at 1 year. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve to estimate the performance of relevant variables for predicting CRRP.The mean Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR was 2.32 ± 0.58 at study entry. During the 1-year observation, remission or LDA persisted in 72% of the patients. CRRP was observed in 7.6% of the patients. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA positivity at baseline (OR = 15.2, 95%CI 2.64-299, time-integrated DAS28-ESR during the 1 year post-baseline (7.85-unit increase, OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.03-3.45, and the mTSS at baseline (13-unit increase, OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.06-1.42.ACPA positivity was the strongest independent predictor of CRRP in patients with RA in remission or LDA. Physicians should recognize ACPA as a poor-prognosis factor regarding the radiographic outcome of RA, even among patients showing a clinically favorable response to DMARDs.

  15. Uncoupling of collagen II metabolism in newly diagnosed, untreated rheumatoid arthritis is linked to inflammation and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Christgau, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: One hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated RA entered the Cyclosporine, Methotrexate, Steroid in RA (CIMESTRA) trial. Disease activity and radiograph status were measured at baseline and 4 years. The N-terminal propeptide of collagen IIA (PIIANP) and the cross-linked C...... associations of collagen II anabolism (PIIANP) and collagen II degradation (CTX-II) with anti-CCP, synovitis, and radiographic progression indicate that at this early stage of RA, cartilage collagen degradation is mainly driven by synovitis, while anti-CCP antibodies may interfere with cartilage regeneration...

  16. HLA-DRB1 Analysis Identified a Genetically Unique Subset within Rheumatoid Arthritis and Distinct Genetic Background of Rheumatoid Factor Levels from Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwa, Ryosuke; Ikari, Katsunori; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Saji, Hiroh; Yurugi, Kimiko; Miura, Yasuo; Maekawa, Taira; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Terao, Chikashi

    2018-04-01

    HLA-DRB1 is the most important locus associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). However, fluctuations of rheumatoid factor (RF) over the disease course have made it difficult to define fine subgroups according to consistent RF positivity for the analyses of genetic background and the levels of RF. A total of 2873 patients with RA and 2008 healthy controls were recruited. We genotyped HLA-DRB1 alleles for the participants and collected consecutive data of RF in the case subjects. In addition to RF+ and RF- subsets, we classified the RF+ subjects into group 1 (constant RF+) and group 2 (seroconversion). We compared HLA-DRB1 alleles between the RA subsets and controls and performed linear regression analysis to identify HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with maximal RF levels. Omnibus tests were conducted to assess important amino acid positions. RF positivity was 88%, and 1372 and 970 RF+ subjects were classified into groups 1 and 2, respectively. RF+ and RF- showed similar genetic associations to ACPA+ and ACPA- RA, respectively. We found that shared epitope (SE) was more enriched in group 2 than 1, p = 2.0 × 10 -5 , and that amino acid position 11 showed a significant association between 1 and 2, p = 2.7 × 10 -5 . These associations were independent of ACPA positivity. SE showed a tendency to be negatively correlated with RF titer (p = 0.012). HLA-DRB1*09:01, which reduces ACPA titer, was not associated with RF levels (p = 0.70). The seroconversion group was shown to have distinct genetic characteristics. The genetic architecture of RF levels is different from that of ACPA.

  17. The prevalence of ANA antibodies, anticentromere antibodies, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome compared to patients with dryness symptoms without primary Sjögren’s syndrome confirmation

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    Maria Maślińska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Our study analyses the prevalence of ANA, anti-SS-A, anti-SS-B, and ACA and ACPA antibodies in patients with pSS and with dryness symptoms without pSS confirmation, and the association of ACPA and ACA antibodies with specific clinical symptoms. Materials and methods : 113 patients were divided into two groups: I – with diagnosed pSS (N = 75; and II – with dryness without pSS evidence (N = 38. Diagnostics: indirect immunofluorescence (IF; Hep-2 cell line of antinuclear antibodies (ANA, anti-SS-A anti-SS-B antibodies determined with semi-quantitative method, autoantibody profile (14 antigens, ANA Profil 3 EUROLINE; basic laboratory, ophthalmic examination tests, minor salivary gland biopsy with focus score (FS, joint and lung evaluation, and ESSDAI questionnaire (pSS activity. Results : 88% of group I had ANA antibodies (1 : 320 titre, 5.3% at 1 : 160. Anti-SS-A antibodies were present in 88% of group I, including all ANA 1 : 160. Anti-SS-A antibodies positively correlated with greater and moderate activity of ESSDAI 5 (p = 0.046 and FS. The presence of SS-B antibodies significantly affected disease activity. ACPA present: group I – 13% (associated with higher arthritis incidence; p = 0.003; group II – 8%. ACA antibodies present in 4% of group I, but not in group II. No ACA association with interstitial lung changes (small ACA + group excludes full conclusions. Conclusions : ANA antibodies should also be considered in a titre of less than 1 : 320, but the presence of anti-SS-A antibodies is still the most important immunological marker for pSS. Anti-SS-A antibodies correlate with higher disease activity (ESSDAI ≥ 5 and higher FS. The presence of the anti-SS-B antibody was significantly affected by higher activity of the disease. The incidence of arthritis was higher in patients with ACPA+ pSS compared to ACPA– (p = 0.003. There was no relationship between ACPA and arthritis in patients with dry-type syndrome without

  18. Periodontal treatment decreases levels of antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis and citrulline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Moe; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ito, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2013-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an etiologic agent of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase. The present study evaluates whether periodontal treatment may affect serum antibodies to P. gingivalis and citrulline levels in relation to disease activity of RA. Fifty-five patients with RA were randomly assigned to receive oral hygiene instruction and supragingival scaling (treatment group, n = 26) or no periodontal treatment (control group, n = 29). Periodontal and rheumatologic parameters and serum levels of cytokine and inflammatory markers citrulline and immunoglobulin (Ig)G to P. gingivalis were examined at baseline and 8 weeks later. Both groups did not differ statistically in any parameters except percentage of sites with probing depth and clinical attachment level ≥ 4 mm at baseline. The treatment group exhibited a significantly greater decrease in disease activity score including 28 joints using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) (P = 0.02), serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis hemin binding protein (HBP)35 (P = 0.04), and citrulline (P = 0.02) than the control group. Serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis HBP35 were significantly correlated positively with those of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (P = 0.0002). The same correlation was obtained between serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis-sonicated extracts and those of rheumatoid factor (P = 0.02). These results suggest that supragingival scaling decreases DAS28-CRP and serum levels of IgG to P. gingivalis HBP35 and citrulline in patients with RA. These observations may reflect a role of P. gingivalis in the protein citrullination, which is related to the pathogenesis of RA.

  19. Anti-citrullinated heat shock protein 90 antibodies identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are a marker of lung-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Lisa; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Rosas, Ivan O; Doyle, Tracy J; Osorio, Juan C; Travers, Timothy S; Camacho, Carlos C; Oddis, Chester V; Ascherman, Dana P

    2014-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a correlation between serum anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). To further investigate this potential pathogenic relationship, we used ELISA-based techniques to assess anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibody profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with different stages of RA-ILD. 9/21 RA-derived BALF specimens demonstrated IgG and/or IgA antibodies targeting citrullinated HSP90 proteins/peptides, highlighting disease specific responses (with a predilection for RA-ILD) that did not occur in IPF patients (0/5) or healthy control subjects (0/5). Comparison of antibody profiles between BALF and matching serum specimens revealed various recognition patterns favoring predominant production of anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies within the lung microenvironment-further supporting the connection between this antibody specificity and parenchymal lung disease. Equally important, qualitative as well as quantitative differences in anti-citrullinated HSP90 profiles between BALF and serum indicate that the lung plays a direct role in shaping the immune repertoire of RA/RA-ILD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (Anti-CCP and Anti-Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin (Anti-MCV Relation with Extra-Articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Laura Gonzalez-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the association between anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies (anti-MCV with the presence of extra-articular (ExRA manifestations in 225 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Ninety-five patients had ExRA and 130 had no ExRA. There was no association of anti-CCP and anti-MCV levels with the presence of ExRA as total group (P=0.40 and P=0.91, resp.. Making an analysis of individual manifestations, rheumatoid nodules were associated with positivity for rheumatoid factor (RF; (P=0.01, anti-CCP (P=0.048, and anti-MCV (P=0.02. Instead, RF, anti-CCP, or anti-MCV were not associated with SS, chronic anemia, or peripheral neuropathy. Levels of anti-CCP correlated with the score of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-Di (r=0.154, P=0.03, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; (r=0.155, P=0.03, and RF (P=0.254, P<0.001, whereas anti-MCV titres only correlated with RF (r=0.169, P=0.02. On adjusted analysis, ExRA was associated with longer age (P=0.015, longer disease duration (P=0.007, higher DAS-28 score (P=0.002, and higher HAQ-DI score (P=0.007, but serum levels of anti-CCP and anti-MCV were not associated. These findings show the need to strengthen the evaluation of the pathogenic mechanisms implied in each specific ExRA manifestation.

  1. Anti-citrullinated protein antibody and rheumatoid factor in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romic, Zeljko; Unic, Adriana; Derek, Lovorka; Zivkovic, Marcela; Marijancevic, Domagoj; Kes, Petar; Pehar, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and on hemodialysis (HD) are at increased risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as a result of defective immunity. Our aim was to examine if ESRD and the length of HD treatment impact the clinical utility of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) as diagnostic tools for RA. We included 94 subjects in our study: 37 healthy volunteers and 57 patients with ESRD who had been undergoing HD for 1-12 years, and without confirmed RA. In order to test our hypothesis, we measured and correlated anti-CCP and RF as laboratory markers of RA. Our study showed that there is no significant difference between values for anti-CCP (p=0.11) and RF (p=0.98) in control subjects as well as in patients undergoing HD, regardless of the length of time that patients had been undergoing HD treatment. Our study indicates that HD does not impair the specificity of anti-CCP and RF for RA in patients where the disease has not yet developed. Future prospective studies may show whether there is any use in determinating RF, and especially anti-CCP, as early predictors of RA in patients with ESRD who are at greater risk of developing this condition.

  2. Recombinant human monoclonal autoantibodies specific for citrulline-containing peptides from phage display libraries derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, J.M.H.; Wijnen, E.M.; Pruijn, G.J.M.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Venrooij, W.J.W. van

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To isolate and characterize monoclonal autoantibodies (Mab) directed to citrullinated antigens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Using lymphocytes from bone marrow or peripheral blood from RA patients, we constructed antibody fragment libraries representing the

  3. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  4. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  5. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are associated with neutrophil extracellular traps in the sputum in relatives of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Harrall, Kylie K.; Ho, Linh; Purmalek, Monica M.; Seto, Nickie L.; Rothfuss, Heather M.; Weisman, Michael H.; Solomon, Joshua J.; Fischer, Aryeh; Okamoto, Yuko; Kelmenson, Lindsay B.; Parish, Mark C.; Feser, Marie; Fleischer, Chelsie; Anderson, Courtney; Mahler, Michael; Norris, Jill M.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Cherrington, Brian D.; Holers, V. Michael; Deane, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Studies suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoimmunity is initiated at a mucosal site. However, the factors associated with the mucosal generation of this autoimmunity are unknown, especially in individuals who are at-risk for future RA. Therefore, we tested anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in the sputum of RA-free first-degree relatives (FDRs) of RA patients and patients with classifiable RA. Methods We evaluated induced sputum and serum from 67 FDRs and 20 RA subjects for anti-CCP-IgA and anti-CCP-IgG, with cut-off levels for positivity determined in a control population. Sputum was also evaluated for cell counts, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) using sandwich ELISAs for protein/nucleic acid complexes, and total citrulline. Results Sputum anti-CCP-IgA and/or anti-CCP-IgG was positive in 17/67 (25%) FDRs and 14/20 (70%) RA subjects, including a portion of FDRs who were serum anti-CCP negative. In FDRs, elevations of sputum anti-CCP-IgA and anti-CCP-IgG were associated with elevated sputum cell counts and levels of NET complexes. Anti-CCP-IgA was associated with ever-smoking and elevated sputum citrulline levels. Conclusions Anti-CCP is elevated in the sputum of FDRs, including seronegative FDRs, suggesting the lung may be one site of anti-CCP generation in this population. The association of anti-CCP with elevated cell counts and NET levels in FDRs supports a hypothesis that local airway inflammation and NET formation may drive anti-CCP production in the lung and may promote the early stages of RA development. Longitudinal studies are needed to follow the evolution of these processes relative to the development of systemic autoimmunity and articular RA. PMID:28182854

  6. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Macias-Reyes, Héctor; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Nuñez-Atahualpa, María Alejandra; Andrade-Garduño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC) were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P < 0.001). Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.01), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 0.02). The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r = 0.513, P = 0.001), CRP (r = 0.799, P < 0.001), TNFα (r = 0.642, P = 0.001), and IL-6 (r = 0.751, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P < 0.001) and anti-CCP levels (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:25821796

  7. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P<0.001. Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P<0.01, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (P=0.02. The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r=0.513, P=0.001, CRP (r=0.799, P<0.001, TNFα (r=0.642, P=0.001, and IL-6 (r=0.751, P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P<0.001 and anti-CCP levels (P=0.03. Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events.

  8. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery....... To better understand the underlying mechanisms of antibody-antigen interaction here we present a pipeline developed by us to structurally classify immunoglobulin antigen binding sites and to infer key sequence residues and other variables that have a prominent role in each structural class....

  9. Citrullination only infrequently impacts peptide binding to HLA class II MHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidney, John; Becart, Stephane; Zhou, Mimi

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that HLA class II alleles associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) preferentially present self-antigens altered by post-translational modification, such as citrullination. To understand the role of citrullination we tested four RA-associated citrullinated epitopes and th...

  10. Preferential decrease in IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibodies during treatment with tumour necrosis factor blocking agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. H.; Bartelds, G. M.; Vis, M.; van der Horst, A. R.; Wolbink, G. J.; van de Stadt, R. J.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Dijkmans, B. A. C.; Lems, W. F.; Nurmohamed, M. T.; Aarden, L.; Hamann, D.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of IgG1 and IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) subclasses during anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 ACPA levels were determined by ELISA on anti-citrullinated fibrinogen (ACF) and IgG1 :

  11. Preferential decrease in IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibodies during treatment with tumour necrosis factor blocking agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W.H.; Bartelds, G.M.; Vis, M.; van der Horst, A.R.; Wolbink, G.J.; van de Stadt, R.J.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Lems, W.F.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Aarden, L.; Hamann, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamics of IgG1 and IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibody ( ACPA) subclasses during anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA). Methods: IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 ACPA levels were determined by ELISA on anti-citrullinated

  12. Preferential decrease in IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibodies during treatment with tumour necrosis factor blocking agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W.H.; Bartelds, G.M.; Vis, M.; Horst, A.; Wolbink, G.; van de Stadt, R.J.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Lems, W.F.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Aarden, L.; Hamann, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamics of IgG1 and IgG4 anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) subclasses during anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 ACPA levels were determined by ELISA on anti-citrullinated

  13. Production and characterization of peptide antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Hansen, Paul Robert; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies...... are powerful tools in experimental biology and are easily produced to any peptide of choice. A widely used approach for production of peptide antibodies is to immunize animals with a synthetic peptide coupled to a carrier protein. Very important is the selection of the synthetic peptide, where factors......, including solid-phase peptide-carrier conjugation and peptide-carrier conjugation in solution. Upon immunization, adjuvants such as Al(OH)(3) are added together with the immunogenic peptide-carrier conjugate, which usually leads to high-titred antisera. Following immunization and peptide antibody...

  14. prevalence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... American College of Rheumatology criteria(ACR)is not suitable for early diagnosis as its ... level increases to 10 to 20% by age 65(13).The majority of these ... criteria was then applied to classify patients into RA and UA.

  15. Isotypes of Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Association with Rheumatoid Factors and Citrulline-Dependent Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wulff Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the humoral immune response against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to compare it with the two major autoantibody types in RA, plasma samples from 77 RA patients, 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and 28 healthy controls (HCs were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Increased percentages of positives and concentrations of IgG/IgA/IgM antibodies against the latent EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 were observed in RA patients compared to SLE patients and HCs. Increased concentrations and percentages of positives of IgG/IgA/IgM against the early lytic EBV antigen diffuse (EAD were also found in RA patients compared to HCs but were highest in SLE patients. Furthermore, associations between the elevated EBNA-1 IgA and EBNA-1 IgM levels and the presence of IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors (RFs and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs, IgG and between elevated IgA concentrations against EAD and the presence of RFs and ACPAs in RA patients were found. Thus, RA patients had elevated antibodies of all isotypes characteristic of latent EBV infection (whereas SLE patients had elevated antibodies characteristic of lytic EBV infection. Notably, for IgM and IgA (but not IgG, these were associated with the presence of characteristic RA autoantibodies.

  16. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms are associated with disease activity and physical disability in untreated, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans Ole

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between polymorphisms in the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) and disease activity, physical disability, and joint erosions in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with early RA (n=158) not previously treated with disease...... modifying antirheumatic drugs, participating in a treatment trial (CIMESTRA study) were examined at inclusion for MBL2 pooled structural genotypes (O/O, A/O, A/A), regulatory MBL2 promoter polymorphism in position -221 (XX, XY, YY), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 antibodies (anti-CCP2), disease...... activity by Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS28 score), physical disability by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score, and erosive changes in hands and feet (Sharp-van der Heijde score). RESULTS: Eight patients were homozygous MBL2 defective (O/O), 101 belonged to an intermediate group, and 49 were MBL2...

  17. Influence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide on disease activity, structural severity, and bone loss in Moroccan women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Ghozlani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP on disease activity, radiological severity, functional disability and bone loss in Moroccan women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Patients and methods: One hundred and thirty-six women with RA were recruited. Age, weight, height, disease duration and steroids cumulative dose were identified. Anti-CCP and Rheumatoid factor (RF were determined. Disease activity score (DAS28 was assessed and functional repercussion measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire-disability index (HAQ-DI. Radiological status was assessed by the Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH erosion and narrowing score. Bone mineral density was determined by a Lunar Prodigy Vision Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and vertebral fracture assessment was classified using a combination of Genant semi-quantitative approach and morphometry. Results: Patients mean age was 49.6 ± 7.4 years and disease duration 7.7 ± 5 years. 109 (80.1% patients were anti-CCP positive. There was no significant difference in DAS28 between patients with and without anti-CCP. Nevertheless, weight, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, rheumatoid factor titer and positivity, SvH narrowing and erosion score and osteoporosis were significantly higher in patients with positive anti-CCP. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the presence of anti-CCP was independently associated with osteoporosis and SvH erosion score. Conclusions: Anti-CCP antibodies are strongly predictive for the development of osteoporosis and erosions in Moroccan RA patients. They not only have a valuable role in the disease prognosis prediction but also may be a relevant determinant of bone loss in RA. The presence of these antibodies warrants special attention. Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, Disease activity, Joint damage, Bone loss

  18. Radiometallating antibodies and autoantigenic peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer-Smith, J.A.; Lewis, D.; Cole, D.A.; Newmyer, S.L.; Schulte, L.D.; Mixon, P.L.; Schreyer, S.A.; Burns, T.P.; Roberts, J.C.; Figard, S.D.; McCormick, D.J.; Lennon, V.A.; Hayashi, M.; Lavallee, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed methods to radiolabel large molecules, using porphyrins as bifunctional chelating agents for radiometals. The porphyrins are substituted with an N- benzyl group to activate them for radiometallation under mild reaction conditions. Porphyrins that have one functional group for covalent attachment to other molecules cannot cause crosslinking. We have examined the labeling chemistry for antibodies and have developed methods to label smaller biologically active molecules, such as autoantigenic peptides (fragments of the acetylcholine receptor), which are pertinent to myasthenia gravis research. The methods of covalent attachment of these bifunctional chelating agents to large molecules, the radiometallation chemistry, and biological characterization of the radiolabeled compounds will be discussed

  19. PTPN22 -1123G>C polymorphism and anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ramón; Hernández-Bello, Jorge; Ruiz-Noa, Yeniley; Valle, Yeminia; Palafox-Sánchez, Claudia Azucena; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Gutiérrez-Ureña, Sergio Ramón; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector

    2017-08-10

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes an important negative regulator of T-cell activation, lymphoid-specific phosphatase -Lyp- and has been associated with different autoimmune disorders. The PTPN22 -1123G>C polymorphism appears to affect the transcriptional control of this gene, but to date, the biological significance of this polymorphisms on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk remains unknown. We evaluate the association of PTPN22 -1123G>C polymorphism with anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP) and risk for RA in population from Western Mexico. A transversal analytic study, which enrolled 300 RA patients classified according to ACR-EULAR criteria and 300 control subjects (CS) was conducted. The -1123 G>C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The anti-CCP antibodies levels were quantified by ELISA kit. We found a higher prevalence of homozygous PTPN22 -1123CC genotype in CS than in RA patients (OR 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.71; P=.001), suggesting a potential protective effect against RA. Concerning anti-CCP levels, the CC genotype carriers showed the lowest median levels in RA (P<.05). The PTPN22 -1123CC genotype is a protector factor to RA in a Mexican-mestizo population and is associated with low anti-CCP antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear oncology with monoclonal antibodies and peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Imaging and therapy using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies have proved useful in many clinical studies. However, immunogenicity of mouse antibodies to human and insufficient tumor-to-normal tissue ratios remained to be solved. Chimerization and humanization by genetic engineering, and multistep targeting techniques have enabled lower immunogenicity and higher tumor-to-normal tissue contrast. Peptides like somatostatin-analogs have been reportedly useful in imaging tumors, which are either somatostatin receptor positive or negative. Elevated normal tissue accumulation of radiolabeled peptides is a drawback in aiming internal radiation therapy. (author). 51 refs

  1. Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 is required for tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced citrullination and arthritis, but not neutrophil extracellular trap formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bawadekar, Mandar; Shim, Daeun; Johnson, Chad J

    2017-01-01

    Citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginines to citrullines, may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis development given the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). However, it is not known which peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the citrullination see...

  2. Effect of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide on the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, H M; Mansour, H E; Rahman, S A; Mostafa, A A; Shamy, H A; Zarouk, W A

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the presence of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 locus is associated with production of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP Abs) and to what extent they are associated with increased susceptibility to and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Egyptian patients. Twenty-nine RA patients gave informed consent to participate in a case-control study that was approved by the Ain Shams University Medical Ethics Committee. RA disease activity and severity were determined using the simplified disease activity index and Larsen scores, respectively. We used a wide scale national study on the pattern of HLA typing in normal Egyptians as a control study. Anti-CCP Abs and HLA-DRB1 typing were determined for all subjects. The alleles most strongly associated with RA were HLA-DRB1 [*01 , *04 and *06] (41.4%). RA patients with serum anti-CCP Ab titers above 60 U/mL had a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 (58.3%) and HLA-DRB1*04 alleles (83.3%). Significant positive correlations were found between serum and synovial anti-CCP Ab titer, RA disease activity, and severity (r = 0.87, 0.66 and 0.63, respectively; P < 0.05). HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles [*01 and *04] were highly expressed among Egyptian RA patients. The presence of these alleles was associated with higher anti-CCP Ab titer, active and severe RA disease. Early determination of HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles and serum anti-CCP Ab could facilitate the prediction of the clinical course and prognosis of RA when first evaluated leading to better disease control.

  3. Effect of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide on the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Farouk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the presence of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 locus is associated with production of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP Abs and to what extent they are associated with increased susceptibility to and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Egyptian patients. Twenty-nine RA patients gave informed consent to participate in a case-control study that was approved by the Ain Shams University Medical Ethics Committee. RA disease activity and severity were determined using the simplified disease activity index and Larsen scores, respectively. We used a wide scale national study on the pattern of HLA typing in normal Egyptians as a control study. Anti-CCP Abs and HLA-DRB1 typing were determined for all subjects. The alleles most strongly associated with RA were HLA-DRB1 [*01 , *04 and *06] (41.4%. RA patients with serum anti-CCP Ab titers above 60 U/mL had a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 (58.3% and HLA-DRB1*04 alleles (83.3%. Significant positive correlations were found between serum and synovial anti-CCP Ab titer, RA disease activity, and severity (r = 0.87, 0.66 and 0.63, respectively; P < 0.05. HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles [*01 and *04] were highly expressed among Egyptian RA patients. The presence of these alleles was associated with higher anti-CCP Ab titer, active and severe RA disease. Early determination of HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles and serum anti-CCP Ab could facilitate the prediction of the clinical course and prognosis of RA when first evaluated leading to better disease control.

  4. Radiometallating antibodies and biologically active peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer-Smith, J.A.; Roberts, J.C.; Lewis, D.; Newmyer, S.L.; Schulte, L.D.; Burns, T.P.; Mixon, P.L.; Jeffery, A.L.; Schreyer, S.A.; Cole, D.A.; Figard, S.D.; Lennon, V.A.; Hayashi, M.; Lavallee, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed methods to radiolabel large molecules, using porphyrins as bifunctional chelating agents for radiometals. The porphyrins are substituted with an N-benzyl group to activate them for radiometallation under mild reaction conditions. Porphyrins that have on functional group for covalent attachment to other molecules cannot cause crosslinking. We have examined the labeling chemistry for antibodies, and we have also developed methods to label smaller biologically active molecules, such as autoantigenic peptides. The autoantigenic peptides, fragments of the acetylcholine receptor, are under investigation for myasthenia gravis research. The methods of covalent attachment of these bifunctional chelating agents to large molecules and the radiometallation chemistry will be discussed

  5. An efficient method for isolating antibody fragments against small peptides by antibody phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We generated monoclonal scFv (single chain variable fragment) antibodies from an antibody phage display library towards three small synthetic peptides derived from the sequence of s1-casein. Key difficulties for selection of scFv-phages against small peptides were addressed. Small peptides do....... The scFvs were sequenced and characterized, and specificity was characterized by ELISA. The methods developed in this study are universally applicable for antibody phage display to efficiently produce antibody fragments against small peptides....

  6. Phenylglyoxal-Based Visualization of Citrullinated Proteins on Western Blots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M. M. Hensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrullination is the conversion of peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline, which is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases. This conversion is involved in different physiological processes and is associated with several diseases, including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. A common method to detect citrullinated proteins relies on anti-modified citrulline antibodies directed to a specific chemical modification of the citrulline side chain. Here, we describe a versatile, antibody-independent method for the detection of citrullinated proteins on a membrane, based on the selective reaction of phenylglyoxal with the ureido group of citrulline under highly acidic conditions. The method makes use of 4-azidophenylglyoxal, which, after reaction with citrullinated proteins, can be visualized with alkyne-conjugated probes. The sensitivity of this procedure, using an alkyne-biotin probe, appeared to be comparable to the antibody-based detection method and independent of the sequence surrounding the citrulline.

  7. Antibodies to Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Diagnostic Value, Association with Radiological Damage and Axial Skeleton Affection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida E. Mansour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Early definitive diagnosis and effective treatment are mandatory in rheumatoid arthritis (RA as it can halt the disease progression and subsequent joints destruction. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV and its correlation with disease activity, peripheral and axial skeleton affection in RA patients. Patients and methods: A total of 123 patients with different rheumatic diseases were enrolled in a prospective-two year study at Ain Shams University hospital: 64 patients with RA and 59 patients with other rheumatic diseases as controls. RA patients were fulfilling the traditional and the new ACR/EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA. They have been followed up for two years. At baseline, all RA patients were subjected to: Clinical assessment of disease activity by taking full histories, general and local examination, measurement of 28 joint count of tender and swollen joints with calculation of disease activity score (DAS-28 for each patient. Complete blood count, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor titers were performed. Anti-MCV IgG immunoglobulins’ assay was performed at the study endpoint by ELISA. RA patients were then classified into; anti-MCV positive and anti-MCV negative groups for statistical comparison. Plain X-ray was performed on the peripheral joints and scored by the Simple Erosion Narrowing score (SEN-score. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans were carried out to 22 RA patients on cervical and lumbosacral regions. Results: Anti-MCV antibodies were found to be of high sensitivity (79.6% and specificity (96.6% in diagnosing RA. The area under the curve was 0.893 at 95% confidence interval (CI, confers an odds ratio of 23.5. Anti-MCV positive RA patients had significantly higher DAS-28 and SEN-scores than anti-MCV negative patients; who were found to have more benign disease with lower incidence of

  8. Antibodies against post-translationally modified vimentin peptides in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD associated with the production of broad-spectrum antibodies, the detection of which is of important diagnostic and prognostic values. The problems of RA diagnosis are associated with the limited sensitivity of currently used serological markers.Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic informative value of autoantibodies against different post-translationally modified (PTM vimentin peptides in patients with RA and other ARDs.Patients and methods. The frequency of autoantibodies against different isoforms of vimentin was estimated in 144 patients with RA, in 36 patients with other ARDs (ankylosing spondylitis and scleroderma systematica, and in 25 patients of a control group, who had no rheumatic diseases. Antibodies against different PTM vimentin peptides obtained using citrullination, carbamylation/homocitrullination, and acetylation were determined. Anti-citrullinated vimentin (anti-CitVim peptide, anti-carbamylated vimentin (anti-CarVim peptide, and anti-acetylated vimentin (anti-AcVim peptide autoantibodies of IgG and IgA classes were estimated in the serum by enzyme immunoassay.Results. The results of the study showed that IgG and IgA anti-CitVim had the maximum area under the ROC curve (AUC (0.859 and 0.855, respectively. A slightly smaller AUC was seen in IgG anti-CarVim (0.85, IgG anti-AcVim (0.784, and IgA anti-AcVim (0.651. The diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity were 66.2 and 96.77% for IgG anti-CitVim, 60.56 and 91.94% for IgA anti-CitVim, 91.55 and 53.23% for IgG anti-CarVim, 63.38 and 93.55% for IgG anti-AcVim, and 49.3 and 70.97%, IgA anti-AcVim, respectively. Positivity for IgG anti-CitVim, IgG anti-CarVim, and IgG anti-AcVim, and anti-IgA CitVim was significantly more frequently detected in patients with RA than in those with other ARDs and in the control group (p<0.05. Thus, the identified autoantibodies against modified

  9. Circulating immune complexes contain citrullinated fibrinogen in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Okeke, Nwora Lance; Sharpe, Orr; Batliwalla, Franak M; Lee, Annette T; Ho, Peggy P; Tomooka, Beren H; Gregersen, Peter K; Robinson, William H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that autoantibodies and immune complexes (ICs) contribute to synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), yet the autoantigens incorporated in ICs in RA remain incompletely characterised. Methods We used the C1q protein to capture ICs from plasma derived from human RA and control patients. Antibodies specific for immunoglobulin were used to detect ICs, and fibrinogen antibodies were used to detect fibrinogen-containing ICs. RA and control plasma were separated by liquid chromatography, and fractions then characterised by ELISA, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on rheumatoid synovial tissue. Results C1q-immunoassays demonstrated increased levels of IgG (p = 0.01) and IgM (p = 0.0002) ICs in plasma derived from RA patients possessing anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP+) autoantibodies as compared with healthy controls. About one-half of the anti-CCP+ RA possessed circulating ICs containing fibrinogen (p = 0.0004). Fractionation of whole RA plasma revealed citrullinated fibrinogen in the high molecular weight fractions that contained ICs. Positive correlations were observed between fibrinogen-containing ICs and anti-citrullinated fibrinogen autoantibodies, anti-CCP antibody, rheumatoid factor and certain clinical characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated co-localisation of fibrinogen, immunoglobulin and complement component C3 in RA pannus tissue. Mass spectrometry analysis of immune complexes immunoprecipitated from RA pannus tissue lysates demonstrated the presence of citrullinated fibrinogen. Conclusion Circulating ICs containing citrullinated fibrinogen are present in one-half of anti-CCP+ RA patients, and these ICs co-localise with C3 in the rheumatoid synovium suggesting that they contribute to synovitis in a subset of RA patients. PMID:18710572

  10. Economic Burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Italy: Possible Consequences on Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibody-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Marcellusi, Andrea; Gitto, Lara; Iannone, Florenzo

    2017-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with a substantial medical and economic burden. In Italy, it affects approximately 280,000 people, therefore representing the musculoskeletal disease with the highest economic impact in terms of costs for the National Health Service and the social security system. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual economic burden of RA in Italy and determine the potential cost reduction considering the most effective biologic treatment for early rapidly progressing RA (ERPRA) patients. The model developed considers both direct costs that are mainly due to the pharmacological treatments, and indirect costs, which also include the productivity lost because of the disease. A systematic literature review provided the epidemiological and economic data used to inform the model. A one-way probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on 5000 Monte Carlo simulations was performed. Furthermore, specific scenario analyses were developed for those patients presenting an ERPRA, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different biologic treatments for this subgroup of patients and estimating potential cost reduction. The total economic burden associated with RA was estimated to be €2.0 billion per year (95% confidence interval [CI] €1.8-2.3 billion). Forty-five percent of the expenditure was due to indirect costs (95% CI €0.8-1.0 billion); 45% depended on direct medical costs (95% CI €0.7-1.1 billion), and the residual 10% was determined by direct non-medical costs (95% CI €0.16-0.25 billion). In particular, the costs estimated for ERPRA patients totalled €76,171,181, of which approximately €18 million was associated with patients with a high level of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). The results of the analysis outline how it is possible to obtain a cost reduction for ERPRA patients of between €1 and €3 million by varying the number of patients with a high level of immunoglobulin

  11. THE CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF ANTI-CYCLIC CITRULLINATED PEPTIDE ANTIBODIES IN EARLY JUVENILEARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion. In patients with early JA, the detection rate of CCPA is significantly higher than that in healthy children and comparable with that of RF. CCPAs have a high specificity for the diagnosis of JRA (an independent nosological entity within JA are a risk factor of polyarthritis. The early detection of CCPA alone or in combination with RF in JA patients may serve the basis for the early use of active, frequently aggressive therapy.

  12. A novel affinity purification method to isolate peptide specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Alan E; Lernmark, A; Kofod, Hans

    1990-01-01

    Site-specific, high affinity polyclonal antisera are effectively and successfully produced by immunizing rabbits with synthetic peptides. The use of these antisera in subsequent immune analysis is often limited because of non-specific binding. We describe a new and simple method to effectively...... affinity-purify anti-peptide antibodies. To test our system, rabbits were immunized with model peptides representing sequences of the putative rabbit growth hormone receptor and several HLA-DQ beta-chain molecules. Polystyrene plastic beads were coated with peptides. Immune serum was incubated...... with the beads and after a wash step the bound antibodies were eluted in 1 M acetic acid. The eluted material was composed predominantly of intact immunoglobulin as evidenced by the presence of heavy and light chain bands in SDS-PAGE. The eluted antibodies were peptide specific in ELISA and bound only to intact...

  13. Chelating properties of tripeptide-9 citrulline

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Botello, A.; Viladot, J.; Abellà, J.; Colominas, S.; Delgado, R.

    2012-01-01

    Tripeptide-9 Citrulline (INCI name) is a peptide with skin care properties, used for cosmetic applications. In order to elucidate its mechanism of action in the chemical pathways that involve metal ions, its ability to complex such ions was investigated using spectrophotometrical, electrochemical and electrophoretical techniques. The obtained results using Cu(II) as metal ion were consistent with the formation of a complex between Tripeptide-9 Citrulline andCu(II). Cyclic voltammetry revealed...

  14. Shared epitope alleles remain a risk factor for anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA--positive rheumatoid arthritis in three Asian ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Chun-Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia.

  15. Cytosolic antibody delivery by lipid-sensitive endosomolytic peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishiba, Misao; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Kawaguchi, Yoshimasa; Sakamoto, Kentarou; Yu, Hao-Hsin; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Madani, Fatemeh; Gräslund, Astrid; Futaki, Shiroh

    2017-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in intracellular targeting using antibodies is their limited release from endosomes into the cytosol. Here we report an approach to deliver proteins, which include antibodies, into cells by using endosomolytic peptides derived from the cationic and membrane-lytic spider venom peptide M-lycotoxin. The delivery peptides were developed by introducing one or two glutamic acid residues into the hydrophobic face. One peptide with the substitution of leucine by glutamic acid (L17E) was shown to enable a marked cytosolic liberation of antibodies (immunoglobulins G (IgGs)) from endosomes. The predominant membrane-perturbation mechanism of this peptide is the preferential disruption of negatively charged membranes (endosomal membranes) over neutral membranes (plasma membranes), and the endosomolytic peptide promotes the uptake by inducing macropinocytosis. The fidelity of this approach was confirmed through the intracellular delivery of a ribosome-inactivation protein (saporin), Cre recombinase and IgG delivery, which resulted in a specific labelling of the cytosolic proteins and subsequent suppression of the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription. We also demonstrate the L17E-mediated cytosolic delivery of exosome-encapsulated proteins.

  16. Identification of a linear epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody directed to the heterogeneous nucleoriboprotein A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tronstrøm, Julie; Dragborg, Anette H.; Hansen, Paul Robert

    2014-01-01

    to as RA33. In the absence of citrulline antibodies, RA33 antibodies have been suggested to be associated with a milder disease course. In this study we screened the reactivity of a monoclonal antibody to RA33-derived peptides by modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Terminally truncated......Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder, characterized by progressive joint destruction and disability. Classical autoantibodies of RA are rheumatoid factors and citrulline antibodies. Patients positive for these autoantibodies are usually associated with a progressive disease...... course. A subgroup of RA patients does not express citrulline antibodies, instead are approximately 35% of these anti-citrulline-negative patients reported to express autoantibodies to the heterogeneous nucleoriboprotein A2, a ribonucleoprotein involved in RNA transport and processing also referred...

  17. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  18. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  19. Mining the human tissue proteome for protein citrullination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Yun; Wang, Dongxue; Wilhelm, Mathias; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Schmidt, Tobias; Schnatbaum, Karsten; Reimer, Ulf; Pontén, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-04-02

    Citrullination is a post-translational modification of arginine catalyzed by five peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) in humans. The loss of a positive charge may cause structural or functional alterations and while the modification has been linked to several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, its physiological or pathophysiological roles remain largely unclear. In part this is owing to limitations in available methodology able to robustly enrich, detect and localize the modification. As a result, only few citrullination sites have been identified on human proteins with high confidence. In this study, we mined data from mass spectrometry-based deep proteomic profiling of 30 human tissues to identify citrullination sites on endogenous proteins. Database searching of ~70 million tandem mass spectra yielded ~13,000 candidate spectra which were further triaged by spectrum quality metrics and the detection of the specific neutral loss of isocyanic acid from citrullinated peptides to reduce false positives. Because citrullination is easily confused with deamidation, we synthetized ~2,200 citrullinated and 1,300 deamidated peptides to build a library of reference spectra. This led to the validation of 375 citrullination sites on 209 human proteins. Further analysis showed that >80% of the identified modifications sites were new and for 56% of the proteins, citrullination was detected for the first time. Sequence motif analysis revealed a strong preference for Asp and Gly, residues around the citrullination site. Interestingly, while the modification was detected in 26 human tissues with the highest levels found in brain and lung, citrullination levels did not correlate well with protein expression of the PAD enzymes. Even though the current work represents the largest survey of protein citrullination to date, the modification was mostly detected on high abundant proteins arguing that the development of specific enrichment methods would be required in order

  20. Correlation between Anti cyclic-citrullinated-‎eptide and rheumatoid Factor Antibodies ‎‎“levels in” Patients with from Rheumatoid ‎Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hashim Abd-Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To  identify  diagnostic   utilities  of   Anti   citrullinated   protein   (ACCP   and Rheumatoid   factor  (RF   are  autoantibodies (Abs  directly  against an self-individual antigens,  Analytical  study.  The  questioner  reported  for  50  patients  with  RA were collected  from  Department  of  Rheumatology¸  AL˗Sader  Teaching  Hospital.  Serum levels  of  RF & (ACCP  Abs  were  determinated  by enzyme ˗ linked immunosorbent assay”, while  the  level  of  erythrocyte  sedimentation  rate  (ESR  was determined by westergreen  method.   Distribution  of  RA occur  in  females  more  than  males which  reached  (80%  &  (20%  respectively  according  to  the  patients group. The patients divided  according  to the  age  into  three  groups (50. The  percent for  these  groups  were  (16%¸ (52% & (32%. Among the 50 patients with RA¸ CCP and  ESR  49  patients  (98%  tested  positive  for  (ACCP  antibodies¸ and 22 patients (44%  tested  positive for RF. and 37  patients(74% tested increasing levels of ESR in RA  patients. The  mean  value of (ACCP & ESR shows highly significance  (P<0∙05, while the  RF serum  levels increase significantly. Demonstrate  the (ACCP antibodies assay is a useful test for diagnosing RA. However, the use of RF and (ACCPauto- antibodies  in  combination  further  elevated   the diagnostic  value  for  RA

  1. Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic Peptide Selection, Immobilization, and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Briones, Andrea; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of selection of antigenic peptides for the development of anti-peptide antibodies for use in microarray-based multiplex affinity assays and also with mass-spectrometry detection. The methods described here are mostly applicable to small to medium scale arrays. Although the same principles of peptide selection would be suitable for larger scale arrays (with 100+ features) the actual informatics software and printing methods may well be different. Because of the sheer number of proteins/peptides to be processed and analyzed dedicated software capable of processing all the proteins and an enterprise level array robotics may be necessary for larger scale efforts. This report aims to provide practical advice to those who develop or use arrays with up to ~100 different peptide or protein features.

  2. Solid-phase peptide quantitation assay using labeled monoclonal antibody and glutaraldehyde fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk, P.G.; Cuttitta, F.; Avis, I.; Nakanishi, Y.; Treston, A.; Wong, H.; Walsh, J.H.; Mulshine, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay utilizing iodinated peptide-specific monoclonal antibody as a detection system instead of labeled peptide has been developed. Regional specific monoclonal antibodies to either gastrin-releasing peptide or gastrin were used as models to validate the general application of our modified assay. Conditions for radioactive labeling of the monoclonal antibody were determined to minimize oxidant damage, which compromises the sensitivity of other reported peptide quantitation assays. Pretreatment of 96-well polyvinyl chloride test plates with a 5% glutaraldehyde solution resulted in consistent retention of sufficient target peptide on the solid-phase matrix to allow precise quantitation. This quantitative method is completed within 1 h of peptide solid phasing. Pretreatment of assay plates with glutaraldehyde increased binding of target peptide and maximized antibody binding by optimizing antigen presentation. The hypothesis that glutaraldehyde affects both peptide binding to the plate and orientation of the peptide was confirmed by analysis of several peptide analogs. These studies indicate that peptide binding was mediated through a free amino group leaving the carboxy-terminal portion of the target peptide accessible for antibody binding. It was observed that the length of the peptide also affects the amount of monoclonal antibody that will bind. Under the optimal conditions, results from quantitation of gastrin-releasing peptide in relevant samples agree well with those from previously reported techniques. Thus, we report here a modified microplate assay which may be generally applied for the rapid and sensitive quantitation of peptide hormones

  3. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against deamidated-gliadin-peptides outperform anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubarak, A.; Gmelig-Meyling, F. H. J.; Wolters, V. M.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Houwen, R. H. J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of deamidated-gliadin-peptides-antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease, serology was tested in 212 children suspected with celiac disease who had undergone a small-intestinal-biopsy. For deamidated-gliadin-peptides-antibodies, two kits were tested. Positive and

  4. Novel peptide ligand with high binding capacity for antibody purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, L. N.; Gustavsson, P. E.; Michael, R.

    2012-01-01

    Small synthetic ligands for protein purification have become increasingly interesting with the growing need for cheap chromatographic materials for protein purification and especially for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Today, Protein A-based chromatographic resins are the most...... commonly used capture step in mAb down stream processing; however, the use of Protein A chromatography is less attractive due to toxic ligand leakage as well as high cost. Whether used as an alternative to the Protein A chromatographic media or as a subsequent polishing step, small synthetic peptide...... ligands have an advantage over biological ligands; they are cheaper to produce, ligand leakage by enzymatic degradation is either eliminated or significantly reduced, and they can in general better withstand cleaning in place (CIP) conditions such as 0.1 M NaOH. Here, we present a novel synthetic peptide...

  5. Iodination of monoclonal antibodies, proteins and peptide using iodogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhanpo, Niu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). PUMC Hospital; and others

    1988-05-01

    The use of the iodinating reagent 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3{alpha}, 6{alpha}-diphenylglycholuril (Iodogen) to label monoclonal antibodies (McAbs). Proteins and peptides was invesrigated with McAbs identified as mouse IgG and IgM, arginine-vasopressin (AVP), glucagon (Glu), human insulin(hI) and albumin(Alb). The labeled products were purified by gel chromatography and their immunoreactivity were detected by RIA or IRMA> Comparison of the Iodogen method with the lactoperoxides and chloramine-T methods showed that the Iodogen method had a number of advantages: (1) technically simpler ; (2) a high labeling efficiency could be obtained; (3) the immunoreactivity of the products was minimally affected; (4) the products were stable for up to 4 months.

  6. High-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes using ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Rockberg, Johan; Forsström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies empower numerous important scientific, clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications. Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning...... against unwanted (e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. The latter are typically probed with peptides, but the cost of peptide screening programs tends to prohibit comprehensive specificity analysis. To perform high-throughput, high......-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against...

  7. Environmental risk factors differ between rheumatoid arthritis with and without auto-antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette

    2006-01-01

    of oral contraceptives (OR = 1.65; 1.06-2.57) and having a first-degree relative with schizophrenia (OR = 4.18; 1.54-11.3) appeared more strongly associated with risk of anti-CCP-positive RA. Obesity was selectively associated with risk of anti-CCP-negative RA, with obese individuals being at more than 3...

  8. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies against peptide in the context of MHCII using magnetic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Justin A; Frederick, Daniel R; Taylor, Justin J; Heffernan, James R; Kotov, Dmitri I; Martinov, Tijana; Osum, Kevin C; Ruggiero, Jenna L; Rust, Blake J; Landry, Samuel J; Jenkins, Marc K; McLachlan, James B; Fife, Brian T

    2016-06-13

    Monoclonal antibodies specific for foreign antigens, auto-antigens, allogeneic antigens and tumour neo-antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) are highly desirable as novel immunotherapeutics. However, there is no standard protocol for the efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies that recognize peptide in the context of MHCII, and only a limited number of such reagents exist. In this report, we describe an approach for the generation and screening of monoclonal antibodies specific for peptide bound to MHCII. This approach exploits the use of recombinant peptide:MHC monomers as immunogens, and subsequently relies on multimers to pre-screen and magnetically enrich the responding antigen-specific B cells before fusion and validation, thus saving significant time and reagents. Using this method, we have generated two antibodies enabling us to interrogate antigen presentation and T-cell activation. This methodology sets the standard to generate monoclonal antibodies against the peptide-MHCII complexes.

  9. Towards a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of pestivirus antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Fimme J; Jelsma, Tinka; Fijten, Helmi; Achterberg, René P; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and lethal disease in swine. Serological tests for the diagnosis of CSF need not only to detect antibodies against CSFV, but also need to differentiate these from antibodies against other pestiviruses. To investigate the possibilities of specific peptide-based serology, various synthetic peptides that represent a well-described linear epitope of the CSFV E2 protein (TAVSPTTLR) were used to test the viability of a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in swine. The results show that N-terminally biotinylated peptides can bind to avidin conjugated beads, and function in detection of the corresponding monoclonal antibody WH303. There are indications that the length of the spacer between epitope and biotin affect the efficiency of the peptide-antibody interaction. A protocol was established that enables probing for antibodies in porcine sera, where neutravidin-blocking of serum and the use of empty control beads for normalization was crucial. With a set of porcine sera with antibodies against various pestiviruses, the proof of concept of a peptide-based suspension array for specific detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in porcine sera was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Usefulness of antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides in celiac disease diagnosis and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Umberto; Granito, Alessandro; Fiorini, Erica; Parisi, Claudia; Piscaglia, Maria; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Paolo; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of the recently described deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies was compared with that of the routinely used antigliadin, antiendomysial, and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in the sera of 128 untreated celiac patients and 134 controls. Sensitivity and specificity for celiac disease were 83.6 and 90.3% for IgA and 84.4 and 98.5% for IgG antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides. The new test displayed higher diagnostic accuracy than antigliadin antibodies and, although less sensitive than antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies, showed significantly higher specificity than tissue transglutaminase antibodies (P < 0.001). Persistence of peptide antibodies after gluten withdrawal was an expression of low compliance with the diet and of the lack of improvement of the intestinal mucosa. The combined use of tissue transglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies seems to be a very useful tool for celiac disease diagnosis. Moreover, antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides can be helpful in disease follow-up.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinaa, L; Wulff, A M; Saermark, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide (aa 138-152) from HIV-1 Nef protein were produced and characterized. Three hybridoma lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the synthetic peptide were generated by fusion between P3-X63 Ag8.653 myeloma cells and BALB/c splenocytes from...... mice immunized with the synthetic peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The hybridomas were screened and selected by ELISA with the peptide coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilized to the polystyrene surface and specificity for the peptide was confirmed by competitive ELISA...... with the peptide free in solution. The reactions of the MAbs with a 5-aa motif (WCYKL) included in the sequence were examined with synthetic peptides and two of the MAbs reacted with the motif. The recognitions of recombinant full-length Nef protein were also tested. One MAb reacted with the protein in both ELISA...

  12. Biomimetic small peptide functionalized affinity monoliths for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Xia, Donghai; Han, Hai; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Wang, Qiqin; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2018-08-09

    The rapid development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has necessitated the advancement of mAbs purification technologies. In this study, a biomimetic small peptide ligand 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid-Arg-Arg-Gly (DAAG) functionalized monolith was fabricated through a metal ion chelation-based multi-step approach. The resulting monolith showed good chromatographic performance. Compared with the Ni 2+ based IMAC monolith, the DAAG functionalized monolith exhibited not only excellent specificity but also higher dynamic binding capacity (DBC). The 10% DBC and 50% DBC for hIgG reached as high values as 26.0 and 34.6 mg/mL, respectively, at a ligand density of 8.8 μmol/mL, due to the high porosity and accessibility of the monolithic matrix. Moreover, the stability of the DAAG functionalized monolith in successive breakthrough experiments indicates that it has a promising potential for long-term use in mAbs purification. Finally, the DAAG functionalized monolith was successfully applied to the purification of trastuzumab or human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and characterization of polyclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide from β-actin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Amini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Antibodies against actin, as one of the most widely studied structural and multifunctional housekeeping proteins in eukaryotic cells, are used as internal loading controls in western blot analyses. The aim of this study was to produce polyclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide derived from N-terminal region of β-actin protein to be used as a protein loading control in western blot and other assay systems. Materials and Methods: A synthetic peptide derived from β-actin protein was designed and conjugated to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH (and used to immunize a white New Zealand rabbit. The antibody was purified from serum by affinity chromatography column. The purity of the antibody was determined by SDS-PAGE and its ability to recognize the immunizing peptide was measured by ELISA. The reactivity of the antibody with β-actin protein in a panel of different cell lysates was then evaluated by western blot. In addition, the reactivity of the antibody with the corresponding protein was also evaluated by Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry in different samples. Results: The antibody could recognize the immunizing peptide in ELISA. It could also recognize            β-actin protein in western blot as well as in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Our data suggest that this antibody may be used as an internal control in western blot analyses as well as in other immunological applications such as ELISA,immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry.

  14. Epitope and functional specificity of monoclonal antibodies to mouse gamma interferon: the synthetic peptide approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.K.; Hayes, M.P.; Carter, J.M.; Torres, B.A.; Dunn, B.M.; Johnson, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four anti-recombinant mouse gamma interferon (α-IFNγ) monoclonal antibodies were generated using hamster spleen cells. Binding of 125 I-IFNγ by these protein A-bound antibodies was specifically blocked by cold IFNγ. Binding by three of these antibodies was also blocked by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal 1-39 amino acids of IFNγ, while a corresponding C-terminal (95-133) peptide had no effect on binding. One of the N-terminal specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited both the antiviral and macrophage priming (for tumor cell killing) activities of IFNγ, while the other two had no effect on either biological function. Blocking experiments with cold IFNγ and N-terminal peptide suggest that the epitope specificities of the monoclonal antibodies could be determined by the conformational or topographic structure of IFNγ. Polyclonal antibodies to either the N-terminal or C-terminal peptides also inhibited both the antiviral and macrophage priming activities of IFNγ. All of the antibodies that inhibited IFNγ function also blocked binding of IFNγ to membrane receptor on cells, while antibodies that did not inhibit function also did not block binding. The data suggest that both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of IFNγ play an important role in its antiviral and macrophage priming functions, possibly in a cooperative manner

  15. Radiolabeled antibodies and RGD-peptides for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, preclinical studies on new treatment modalities for ovarian cancer are descibed, applying radiolabeled antibodies and radiolabeled RGD-peptides. In chapter 2 a study is described comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody HMFG1 radiolabeled with several beta-emitting

  16. Inhibitory mechanism of peptides and antibodies targeting murine urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    drugs, a detailed mechanistic understanding must be obtained. One peptide and two antibodies were studied in this thesis. First, an engineered cyclic peptide, mupain-1-16 with an unnatural amino acid in the P1 position and the sequence CPAYS[L-3-(N-Amidino-4-piperidyl)alanine]YLDC was investigated...... different conformational and inhibitory mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. Their similar epitopes, but different functions revealed two different allosteric regulation mechanisms for antibodies binding to serine proteases. Both the peptidic inhibitors and the allosteric mechanisms of uPA are believed...

  17. Comparative analysis of novel autoantibody isotypes against citrullinated-inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 3 (ITIH3)(542-556) peptide in serum from Taiwanese females with rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome and secondary Sjögren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Chung; Chou, Pei-Lun; Cheng, Chao-Wen; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chi, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Kai-Leun; Chen, Wei-Jung; Kung, Ting-Shuan; Tai, Chih-Chun; Lee, Kuan-Wei; Chen, You-Chia; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover and validate inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 (ITIH3) as novel biomarkers, and evaluate autoantibody isotypes against an unmodified and citrullinated ITIH3(542-556) peptide among Taiwanese female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), secondary Sjögren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA-sSS), and healthy controls (HCs). We used concanavalin A (Con A) affinity chromatography, 1-D SDS-PAGE, and label-free nano-LC-MS/MS to screen biomarker candidates (serum-derived Con A-captured proteins) and then identify PTMs of validated biomarkers (serum proteins) using pooled serum from 7 RA-sSS female patients and 7 age-matched HCs (the discovery set). Furthermore, the protein level and autoantibody isotype analyses were further validated against individual serum from 18 HCs, 18 RA, 18 pSS, and 18 RA-sSS patients (the validation set). Con A-bound ITIH3 was identified and validated as the only differentially expressed protein, which was elevated. Additionally, 2 novel PTMs in ITIH3 were identified and included citrullination at arginine-(546) and arginine-(556), and hexosamine at tryptophan-(558). Further, concentrations of anti-citrullinatd-ITIH3(542-556) peptide autoantibodies significantly increased in patients with RA, pSS, and RA-sSS compared to HCs. Especially, autoantibody IgM against the citrullinated-ITIH3(542-556) peptide showed better diagnostic performance in discriminating both RA versus pSS and pSS versus RA-sSS. By using comparative proteomic analysis of serum samples, the current study discovered and validates differentially expressed Con A-bound ITIH3 as a potential biomarker for secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Besides, hexosamine and citrullination on ITIH3 were further identified. Through analyzing autoantibody isotypes against the citrullinated ITIH3 peptide, patients with RA, primary SS, and RA

  18. Monoclonal antibody proteomics: use of antibody mimotope displaying phages and the relevant synthetic peptides for mAb scouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Bognár, Melinda; Végh, Barbara M; Dobi, Krisztina; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Lázár, József; Cseh, Sándor; Takács, László; Kurucz, István

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibody proteomics uses nascent libraries or cloned (Plasmascan™, QuantiPlasma™) libraries of mAbs that react with individual epitopes of proteins in the human plasma. At the initial phase of library creation, cognate protein antigen and the epitope interacting with the antibodies are not known. Scouting for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the best binding characteristics is of high importance for mAb based biomarker assay development. However, in the absence of the identity of the cognate antigen the task represents a challenge. We combined phage display, and surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) experiments to test whether specific phages and the respective mimotope peptides obtained from large scale studies are applicable to determine key features of antibodies for scouting. We show here that mAb captured phage-mimotope heterogeneity that is the diversity of the selected peptide sequences, is inversely correlated with an important binding descriptor; the off-rate of the antibodies and that represents clues for driving the selection of useful mAbs for biomarker assay development. Carefully chosen synthetic mimotope peptides are suitable for specificity testing in competitive assays using the target proteome, in our case the human plasma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Fc-fusion proteins and peptides as successful alternatives to antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alain; Reichert, Janice M

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have captured substantial attention due to the relatively high rate at which these products reach marketing approval, and the subsequent commercial success they frequently achieve. In the 2000s, a total of 20 antibodies (18 full-length IgG and 2 Fab) were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or European Medicines Agency (EMA). In the 2010s to date, an additional 3 antibodies (denosumab, belimumab, ipilimumab) have been approved and one antibody-drug conjugate (brentuximab vedotin) is undergoing regulatory review and may be approved in the US by August 30, 2011. However, a less heralded group of antibody-based therapeutics comprising proteins or peptides fused with an Fc is following the success of classical antibodies.

  20. Antibody Derived Peptides for Detection of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mario Rodríguez-Martínez

    Full Text Available Current Ebola virus (EBOV detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragments, rather than full-length antibodies, might represent a cost-effective alternative for the development of diagnostic and possibly even therapeutic alternatives for EBOV.We report the design and expression of three recombinant anti-GP mAb fragments in Escherichia coli cultures. These fragments contained the heavy and light variable portions of the three well-studied anti-GP full-length mAbs 13C6, 13F6, and KZ52, and are consequently named scFv-13C6, scFv-13F6, and Fab-KZ52, respectively. All three fragments exhibited specific anti-GP binding activity in ELISA experiments comparable to that of full-length anti-GP antibodies (i.e., the same order of magnitude and they are easily and economically produced in bacterial cultures.Antibody fragments might represent a useful, effective, and low cost alternative to full-length antibodies in Ebola related capture and diagnostics applications.

  1. Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson D

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available David Hutchinson,1,2 Judith Müller,3 Joseph E McCarthy,4 Yurii K Gun’ko,4,5 Navin Kumar Verma,6 Xuezhi Bi,7 Luisana Di Cristo,8 Laura Kickham,8 Dania Movia,8 Adriele Prina-Mello,5,8 Yuri Volkov5,8,9 1Royal Cornwall Hospital NHS Trust, Treliske, 2University of Exeter Medical School Cornwall, UK; 3University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4School of Chemistry, 5Advanced Materials for BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 7Bioprocessing Technology Institute, A*STAR Graduate Academy, Singapore; 8Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 9International Laboratory of Magnetically Controlled Nanosystems for Theranostics of Oncological and Cardiovascular Diseases, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the cadmium-derived materials induce intracellular protein citrullination. Methods: Human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to cadmium in soluble and nanoparticulate forms represented by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 and cadmium oxide (CdO, respectively, and their combinations with ultrafine carbon black (ufCB produced by high temperature combustion, imitating cigarette burning. Protein citrullination in cell lysates was analyzed by Western immunoblotting and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Target citrullinated proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Results: CdO, ufCB and its combination with CdCl2 and CdO after high temperature combustion induced protein citrullination in cultured human lung epithelial cells, as detected by immunoblotting with anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Cytokeratins of type II (1, 2, 5, 6A, 6B and 77 and type I (9, 10 were identified as major intracellular citrullination targets. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the localization of citrullinated proteins both in the

  2. In silico design and performance of peptide microarrays for breast cancer tumour-auto-antibody testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Weinhäusel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The simplicity and potential of minimally invasive testing using sera from patients makes auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in cancer diagnostics. Protein microarrays have been used for the identification of such auto-antibody signatures. Because high throughput protein expression and purification is laborious, synthetic peptides might be a good alternative for microarray generation and multiplexed analyses. In this study, we designed 1185 antigenic peptides, deduced from proteins expressed by 642 cDNA expression clones found to be sero-reactive in both breast tumour patients and controls. The sero-reactive proteins and the corresponding peptides were used for the production of protein and peptide microarrays. Serum samples from females with benign and malignant breast tumours and healthy control sera (n=16 per group were then analysed. Correct classification of the serum samples on peptide microarrays were 78% for discrimination of ‘malignant versus healthy controls’, 72% for ‘benign versus malignant’ and 94% for ‘benign versus controls’. On protein arrays, correct classification for these contrasts was 69%, 59% and 59%, respectively. The over-representation analysis of the classifiers derived from class prediction showed enrichment of genes associated with ribosomes, spliceosomes, endocytosis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Sequence analyses of the peptides with the highest sero-reactivity demonstrated enrichment of the zinc-finger domain. Peptides’ sero-reactivities were found negatively correlated with hydrophobicity and positively correlated with positive charge, high inter-residue protein contact energies and a secondary structure propensity bias. This study hints at the possibility of using in silico designed antigenic peptide microarrays as an alternative to protein microarrays for the improvement of tumour auto-antibody based diagnostics.

  3. Antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides identify adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, C; Hagman, A; Ignatova, S; Ström, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was done to evaluate the diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides compared to traditional markers for coeliac disease. To evaluate diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP). Sera from 176 adults, referred for endoscopy without previous analysis of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) or endomysium (EmA), were retrospectively analysed by ELISAs detecting IgA/IgG antibodies against DGP or a mixture of DGP and tTG, and compared with IgA-tTG and EmA. Seventy-nine individuals were diagnosed with coeliac disease. Receiver operating characteristic analyses verified the manufacturers' cut-off limits except for IgA/IgG-DGP/tTG. In sera without IgA deficiency, the sensitivity was higher for IgA/IgG-DGP (0.85-0.87) compared with IgA-tTg (0.76) and EmA (0.61). All tests showed high specificity (0.95-1.00). Eighteen coeliac disease-sera were negative regarding IgA-tTG, nine of which were positive for IgA/IgG-DGP. Sera from coeliac disease-patients >70 years were more often negative for IgA-tTG (50%) and IgA/IgG-DGP (36%) than younger patients (15% and 8% respectively) (P adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase. Serology is often negative in elderly patients with coeliac disease; a small bowel biopsy should therefore be performed generously before coeliac disease is excluded.

  4. Synthetic peptides for efficient discrimination of anti-enterovirus antibodies at the serotype level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routsias, John G; Mavrouli, Maria D; Antonaki, Georgia; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2014-08-01

    Enteroviruses are important human pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases from minor common colds to fatal myocarditis. However, certain disease syndromes are caused by one or few serotypes. Serotype identification is difficult due to the laborious neutralization tests that lack of sensitivity, while in commercial ELISAs homotypic antibodies' activities are largely masked by the recognition of genera-specific epitopes by heterotypic antibodies. In the present study homotypic assays were developed with the ability to discriminate different enterovirus serotypes. Seventy-three children sera, positive for IgM antibodies against enterovirus genus and 49 healthy children were examined for the presence of antibodies against 14 synthetic peptides derived from a non-conserved region of the VP1 protein of coxsackieviruses B2, B3, B4, B5, A9, A16, A24, echoviruses 6, 7, 9, 11, 30, enterovirus 71 and parechovirus 1. 50% of the anti-enterovirus IgM positive sera (>150 BU) reacted with the peptides with the majority of them to preferentially recognize one of them, supporting the homotypic nature of our assay. Inhibition studies yielded homologous inhibition rates 67-95% suggesting that specific peptide recognition actually occurred. The diagnostic value of our assay was tested in blood samples drawn over a 1.5-year period from a 5-year old patient. The anti-enterovirus reactivity was clearly attributed to echovirus serotype 11. The IgM/IgG antibody ratio was reversed 4 months later and subsequently IgM antibodies dropped below the cutoff point. In this paper we demonstrate that our assay can be used to discriminate between antibodies targeting different enterovirus serotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of different hapten-carrier conjugation ratios and molecular orientations on antibody affinity against a peptide antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. K.; Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2006-01-01

    -based assay systems and in deciding whether a vaccine-induced antibody response will be protective. With ovalbumin as a carrier protein and a peptide (7.2NY) representing a 19 ammo acid sequence from the E. coli-derived Verotoxin 2e as a model hapten we investigated whether it was possible to influence...... ten dines at two-weeks intervals with low doses of the eight conjugates, Blood samples collected between each immunisation were analysed by ELISA for specific antibody titres and relative affinities. With both types of conjugations, the anti-peptide antibody titres increased in response to increasing...... for terminal conjugation. Thus, it appears that the molar ratio of a peptide and its carrier may affect the resulting antibody affinities, and that a conjugation ratio between a terminally Conjugated peptide and its carrier approaching one will result in relatively high antibody affinities. Furthermore...

  6. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Hviid, L

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA...... in individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Sudan, Indonesia and The Gambia to study antibody responses to these peptides in donors living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to the peptides increased with malaria endemicity, although there were no differences in reactivities...... tested were shortlived in most patients. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM reactivities but not IgG antibody reactivities against the ABRA peptide were higher in those with mild malaria than in those with severe malaria. The peptides may be useful in future epidemiological studies, especially...

  7. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Memczak

    Full Text Available Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  8. A novel monoclonal antibody to a defined peptide epitope in MUC16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Ricardo, Sara; Chen, Kowa

    2015-01-01

    with the tandem-repeat region, their epitopes appear to be conformational dependent and not definable by a short peptide. Aberrant glycoforms of MUC16 may constitute promising targets for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic intervention, and it is important to develop well-defined immunogens for induction of potent...... immunodominant linear peptide epitopes within the tandem repeat. We developed one monoclonal antibody, 5E11, reactive with a minimum epitope with the sequence FNTTER. This sequence contains potential N- and O-glycosylation sites and, interestingly, glycosylation blocked binding of 5E11. In immunochemistry...

  9. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-04

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Active Immunizations with Peptide-DC Vaccines and Passive Transfer with Antibodies Protect Neutropenic Mice against Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  11. Toward the assessment of food toxicity for celiac patients: characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a main immunogenic gluten peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Morón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to gluten prolamins from wheat, barley, rye and, in some patients, oats. Partially digested gluten peptides produced in the digestive tract cause inflammation of the small intestine. High throughput, immune-based assays using monoclonal antibodies specific for these immunotoxic peptides would facilitate their detection in food and enable monitoring of their enzymatic detoxification. Two monoclonal antibodies, G12 and A1, were developed against a highly immunotoxic 33-mer peptide. The potential of each antibody for quantifying food toxicity for celiac patients was studied. METHODS: Epitope preferences of G12 and A1 antibodies were determined by ELISA with gluten-derived peptide variants of recombinant, synthetic or enzymatic origin. RESULTS: The recognition sequences of G12 and A1 antibodies were hexameric and heptameric epitopes, respectively. Although G12 affinity for the 33-mer was superior to A1, the sensitivity for gluten detection was higher for A1. This observation correlated to the higher number of A1 epitopes found in prolamins than G12 epitopes. Activation of T cell from gluten digested by glutenases decreased equivalently to the detection of intact peptides by A1 antibody. Peptide recognition of A1 included gliadin peptides involved in the both the adaptive and innate immunological response in celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and epitope preferences of the A1 antibody resulted to be useful to detect gluten relevant peptides to infer the potential toxicity of food for celiac patients as well as to monitor peptide modifications by transglutaminase 2 or glutenases.

  12. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P.H.; Theander, T.G.; Hvid, L

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA...

  13. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  14. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. → Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. → The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. → The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  15. Heterologous coproduction of enterocin A and pediocin PA-1 by Lactococcus lactis : Detection by specific peptide-directed antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, JM; Kok, J; Sanders, JW; Hernandez, PE

    Antibodies against enterocin A were obtained by immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides PH4 and PH5 designed, respectively, on the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocin A and conjugated to the carrier protein KLH, Anti-PH4-KLH antibodies not only recognized enterocin A but also

  16. A mode of error: Immunoglobulin binding protein (a subset of anti-citrullinated proteins can cause false positive tuberculosis test results in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Greenwald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrullinated Immunoglobulin Binding Protein (BiP is a newly described autoimmune target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, one of many cyclic citrullinated peptides(CCP or ACPA. BiP is over-expressed in RA patients causing T cell expansion and increased interferon levels during incubation for the QuantiFERON-Gold tuberculosis test (QFT-G TB. The QFT-G TB has never been validated where interferon is increased by underlying disease, as for example RA.Of ACPA-positive RA patients (n = 126, we found a 13% false-positive TB test rate by QFT-G TB. Despite subsequent biologic therapy for 3 years of all 126 RA patients, none showed evidence of TB without INH. Most of the false-positive RA patients after treatment with biologic therapy reverted to a negative QFT-G test. False TB tests correlated with ACPA level (p < 0.02.Three healthy women without arthritis or TB exposure had negative QFT-G TB. In vitro, all three tested positive every time for TB correlating to the dose of BiP or anti-BiP added, at 2 ug/ml, 5 ug/ml, 10 ug/ml, and 20 ug/ml.BiP naturally found in the majority of ACPA-positive RA patients can result in a false positive QFT-G TB. Subsequent undertreatment of RA, if biologic therapy is withheld, and overtreatment of presumed latent TB may harm patients. Keywords: Tuberculosis, IGRA, Rheumatoid arthritis, Interferon, Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA, Immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP

  17. Shared fine specificity between T-cell receptors and an antibody recognizing a peptide/major histocompatibility class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stryhn, A; Andersen, P S; Pedersen, L O

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize mosaic structures consisting of target peptides embedded within self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This structure has been described in great detail for several peptide-MHC complexes. In contrast, how T-cell receptors recognize peptide...... each other showing that peptide residues 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were exposed on the MHC surface and recognized by the T cells. Thus, the majority, and perhaps all, of the side chains of the non-primary anchor residues may be available for T-cell recognition, and contribute to the stringent specificity of T...... cells. A striking similarity between the specificity of the T cells and that of the pSAN antibody was found and most of the peptide residues, which could be recognized by the T cells, could also be recognized by the antibody....

  18. Antibodies, synthetic peptides and related constructs for planetary health based on green chemistry in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Caoili, Salvador Eugenio

    2018-03-01

    The contemporary Anthropocene is characterized by rapidly evolving complex global challenges to planetary health vis-a-vis sustainable development, yet innovation is constrained under the prevailing precautionary regime that regulates technological change. Small-molecule xenobiotic drugs are amenable to efficient large-scale industrial synthesis; but their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, interactions and ultimate ecological impact are difficult to predict, raising concerns over initial testing and environmental contamination. Antibodies and similar agents can serve as antidotes and drug buffers or vehicles to address patient safety and decrease dosing requirements. More generally, peptidic agents including synthetic peptide-based constructs exemplified by vaccines can be used together with or instead of nonpeptidic xenobiotics, thus enabling advances in planetary health based on principles of green chemistry from manufacturing through final disposition.

  19. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies do not reflect self-reported disability and physical health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of less than 5 years of duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Chalotte Heinsvig; Jacobsen, Søren; Frisch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether the measures of self-reported health among patients with RA of 0.05). Both groups of RA patients reported significantly more physical disabilities in everyday life and significantly poorer physical health than the controls (both p...

  20. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging or combined ultrasonography and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody improve correct classification of individuals as established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens K; Lorenzen, Tove; Ejbjerg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    (RA). METHODS: In 53 individuals from a population-based, cross-sectional study, historic fulfilment of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria ("classification") or RA diagnosed by a rheumatologist ("diagnosis") were used as standard references. The sensitivity, specificity and Area....../specificity) was 78% (62%/94%) (classification) and 85% (69%/100%) (diagnosis), while for the total synovitis score of MCP joints plus wrist (cut-off ≥10) it was 78% (62%/94%) (both classification and diagnosis). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the ACR 1987 criteria, low-field MRI alone or adapted criteria incorporating...

  1. Serum antibodies against frameshift peptides in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer patients with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; Kloor, Matthias; Morak, Monika; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Germann, Anja; Garbe, Yvette; Tariverdian, Mirjam; Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael; Holinski-Feder, Elke; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    High level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) occurs in about 15% of colorectal cancer (CRCs), either as sporadic cancers or in the context of hereditary non-polyposis cancer or Lynch syndrome. In MSI-H CRC, mismatch repair deficiency leads to insertion/deletion mutations at coding microsatellites and thus to the translation of frameshift peptides (FSPs). FSPs are potent inductors of T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims at the identification of FSP-specific humoral immune responses in MSI-H CRC and Lynch syndrome. Sera from patients with history of MSI-H CRC (n = 69), healthy Lynch syndrome mutation carriers (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 52) were analyzed for antibodies against FSPs using peptide ELISA. Reactivities were measured against FSPs derived from genes frequently mutated in MSI-H CRCs, AIM2, TGFBR2, CASP5, TAF1B, ZNF294, and MARCKS. Antibody reactivity against FSPs was significantly higher in MSI-H CRC patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.036, Mann-Whitney) and highest in patients with shortest interval between tumor resection and serum sampling. Humoral immune responses in patients were most frequently directed against FSPs derived from mutated TAF1B (11.6%, 8/69) and TGFBR2 (10.1%, 7/69). Low level FSP-specific antibodies were also detected in healthy mutation carriers. Our results show that antibody responses against FSPs are detectable in MSI-H CRC patients and healthy Lynch syndrome mutation carriers. Based on the high number of defined FSP antigens, measuring FSP-specific humoral immune responses is a highly promising tool for future diagnostic application in MSI-H cancer patients.

  2. Serum antibodies against frameshift peptides in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer patients with Lynch syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; Kloor, Matthias; Morak, Monika; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Germann, Anja; Garbe, Yvette; Tariverdian, Mirjam; Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Doeberitz, Magnus von Knebel

    2014-01-01

    High level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) occurs in about 15% of colorectal cancer (CRCs), either as sporadic cancers or in the context of hereditary non-polyposis cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome. In MSI-H CRC, mismatch repair deficiency leads to insertion/deletion mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS) and thus to the translation of frameshift peptides (FSPs). FSPs are potent inductors of T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims at the identification of FSP-specific humoral immune responses in MSI-H CRC and Lynch syndrome. Sera from patients with history of MSI-H CRC (n=69), healthy Lynch syndrome mutation carriers (n=31) and healthy controls (n=52) were analyzed for antibodies against FSPs using peptide ELISA. Reactivities were measured against FSPs derived from genes frequently mutated in MSI-H CRCs, AIM2, TGFBR2, CASP5, TAF1B, ZNF294, and MARCKS. Antibody reactivity against FSPs was significantly higher in MSI-H CRC patients than in healthy controls (p=0.036, Mann-Whitney) and highest in patients with shortest interval between tumor resection and serum sampling. Humoral immune responses in patients were most frequently directed against FSPs derived from mutated TAF1B (11.6%, 8/69) and TGFBR2 (10.1%, 7/69). Low level FSP-specific antibodies were also detected in healthy mutation carriers. Our results show that antibody responses against FSPs are detectable in MSI-H CRC patients and healthy Lynch syndrome mutation carriers. Based on the high number of defined FSP antigens, measuring FSP-specific humoral immune responses is a highly promising tool for future diagnostic application in MSI-H cancer patients. PMID:19957108

  3. Identification and mapping of linear antibody epitopes in human serum albumin using high-density Peptide arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajla Bruntse Hansen

    Full Text Available We have recently developed a high-density photolithographic, peptide array technology with a theoretical upper limit of 2 million different peptides per array of 2 cm(2. Here, we have used this to perform complete and exhaustive analyses of linear B cell epitopes of a medium sized protein target using human serum albumin (HSA as an example. All possible overlapping 15-mers from HSA were synthesized and probed with a commercially available polyclonal rabbit anti-HSA antibody preparation. To allow for identification of even the weakest epitopes and at the same time perform a detailed characterization of key residues involved in antibody binding, the array also included complete single substitution scans (i.e. including each of the 20 common amino acids at each position of each 15-mer peptide. As specificity controls, all possible 15-mer peptides from bovine serum albumin (BSA and from rabbit serum albumin (RSA were included as well. The resulting layout contained more than 200.000 peptide fields and could be synthesized in a single array on a microscope slide. More than 20 linear epitope candidates were identified and characterized at high resolution i.e. identifying which amino acids in which positions were needed, or not needed, for antibody interaction. As expected, moderate cross-reaction with some peptides in BSA was identified whereas no cross-reaction was observed with peptides from RSA. We conclude that high-density peptide microarrays are a very powerful methodology to identify and characterize linear antibody epitopes, and should advance detailed description of individual specificities at the single antibody level as well as serologic analysis at the proteome-wide level.

  4. Identification and mapping of linear antibody epitopes in human serum albumin using high-density Peptide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lajla Bruntse; Buus, Soren; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We have recently developed a high-density photolithographic, peptide array technology with a theoretical upper limit of 2 million different peptides per array of 2 cm(2). Here, we have used this to perform complete and exhaustive analyses of linear B cell epitopes of a medium sized protein target using human serum albumin (HSA) as an example. All possible overlapping 15-mers from HSA were synthesized and probed with a commercially available polyclonal rabbit anti-HSA antibody preparation. To allow for identification of even the weakest epitopes and at the same time perform a detailed characterization of key residues involved in antibody binding, the array also included complete single substitution scans (i.e. including each of the 20 common amino acids) at each position of each 15-mer peptide. As specificity controls, all possible 15-mer peptides from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and from rabbit serum albumin (RSA) were included as well. The resulting layout contained more than 200.000 peptide fields and could be synthesized in a single array on a microscope slide. More than 20 linear epitope candidates were identified and characterized at high resolution i.e. identifying which amino acids in which positions were needed, or not needed, for antibody interaction. As expected, moderate cross-reaction with some peptides in BSA was identified whereas no cross-reaction was observed with peptides from RSA. We conclude that high-density peptide microarrays are a very powerful methodology to identify and characterize linear antibody epitopes, and should advance detailed description of individual specificities at the single antibody level as well as serologic analysis at the proteome-wide level.

  5. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  6. Antibody constant region peptides can display immunomodulatory activity through activation of the Dectin-1 signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabrielli

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc of human IgG(1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules.

  7. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Immunochemical characterization of rhesus proteins with antibodies raised against synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermand, P; Mouro, I; Huet, M; Bloy, C; Suyama, K; Goldstein, J; Cartron, J P; Bailly, P

    1993-07-15

    Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to hydrophilic regions of the human Rhesus (Rh) IX cDNA-encoded polypeptide predicted to be extracellularly or intracellularly exposed in the topologic model of the Rh blood group protein. Four antibodies encompassing residues 33-45 (MPC1), 224-233 (MPC4), 390-404 (MPC6), and 408-416 (MPC8) were characterized and compared with a polyclonal anti-Rh protein obtained by immunization with purified Rh proteins. All antibodies had specificity for authentic Rh polypeptides and reacted on Western blot with Rh proteins immunoprecipitated with human monoclonal anti-RhD, -c, and -E. MPC1, but not the other antibodies, agglutinated all human erythrocytes except Rhnull and Rhmod cells, which either lack totally or are severely deficient in Rh proteins, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis with membrane proteins from common and rare variants showed that MPC1 and MPC8 reacted in Western blot with 32-Kd Rh polypeptides from all common red blood cells except those from Rhnull and Rhmod, indicating that peptide regions 33-45 and 408-416 may be common to several if not all Rh proteins, whatever the Rh blood group specificity. MPC4 reacted only with membrane preparations from cells carrying the E antigen, whereas MPC6 recognized preferentially the Rh proteins from E and Ee preparations, suggesting that the protein encoded by the RhIXb cDNA carries the E and/or e antigen(s). Immunoadsorption experiments using inside-out or right-side-out sealed vesicules from DccEE red blood cells as competing antigen showed that the MPC6 and MPC8 antibodies bound only to the cytoplasmic side of the erythrocyte membrane, thus providing evidence for the intracellular orientation of the C-terminal 27 residues of the Rh polypeptides. Attempts to transiently or stably express the Rh polypeptides. Attempts to transiently or stably express the Rh cDNA in eukaryotic cells were largely unsuccessful, suggesting that Rh antigen

  9. Synthetic α subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) α subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 μg of peptide (T α 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR α subunit. Peptide H α 125-147 differs from T α 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound 125 I-labelled Hα 125-147 antibody bound Hα 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither Hα 125-147 nor T α 125-147. Rats immunized with H α 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR α subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man

  10. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  11. ArrayPitope: Automated Analysis of Amino Acid Substitutions for Peptide Microarray-Based Antibody Epitope Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skjødt; Østerbye, Thomas; Marcatili, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    and characterization of linear B cell epitopes. Using exhaustive amino acid substitution analysis of peptides originating from target antigens, these microarrays can be used to address the specificity of polyclonal antibodies raised against such antigens containing hundreds of epitopes. However, the interpretation....... The application takes as input quantitative peptide data of fully or partially substituted overlapping peptides from a given antigen sequence and identifies epitope residues (residues that are significantly affected by substitutions) and visualize the selectivity towards each residue by sequence logo plots...

  12. Insulin and C peptide response, and antibody levels in hepatitis C related chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Tariq, N.; Iqbal, M.; Shah, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (HC) have an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenic mechanism by which HC predisposes to DM is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin and C-peptide response to 75 gram oral glucose load and measure anti phospholipid antibody levels in patients with chronic liver disease due to HC. Design: a prospective study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at the department of medicine, Jinnah postgraduate medical centre over period of three months. Subjects and methods: An analytical case control study was carried out on 37 patients (m-18,f=19); none of these patients had received interferon. They were divided into four groups: (a) HC cirrhosis with DM (n=9 ), (b) HC cirrhosis without DM (n=11), (c) hepatitis B (HB) cirrhosis without DM (n=7), (d) chronic hepatitis C without DM (n=10). Group C and D were taken as controls. Fasting blood samples were taken and repeated after 2 hours of 75 gram oral glucose load (2 h PG). Result: mean ages of group A,B,C and D were (yr +- SD) 51.3 +- 7.6,48.9 +- 2.4, 33.7 +-10.8 and 31.7 +- 8.8 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the age, Pugh score and body mass index of HC cirrhotic patients with and without DM. Patients of group A had higher fasting and 2 h PG glucose levels (P=0.003 and 0.000) and higher fasting insulin level (p=0.045). However, increments in insulin and c peptide levels 2 h PG were much less (p=0.048 and 0.003). HB cirrhotics without diabetes (group C behaved just like HC cirrhotic without diabetes (group B). Patients of group D had normal glucose tolerance and insulin and C peptide levels. All four groups had normal anti phospholipid antibody levels. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis due to HC nd HB show evidence of glucose intolerance in spite of hyperinsulinaemia probably due to insulin resistance. HC cirrhotics with diabetes have fasting hyperglycemia in spite of

  13. The transferrin receptor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: Quantitation of expression and structural characterization using a peptide-specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Yang S.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bastholm, L.

    2001-01-01

    transferrin. This complex was studied using a monoclonal antibody (Mab 1.48) raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a hydrophilic domain of Tbp2 common to several A. pp serotypes. The antibody reacted specifically with a 60-70 kDa Tbp2-antigen found in all serotypes of A. pp obtained from iron...... expressing Tbp2 and in wild type A. pp grown under iron restricted conditions. The subcellular location of Tbp2 in A. pp was studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the Mab 1.48. Interestingly, all antibody binding was found inside the A. pp cells, while Tbp2 expressed in recombinant E. coli was found...

  14. A novel TNFα antagonizing peptide-Fc fusion protein designed based on CDRs of TNFα neutralizing monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Weisong; Feng Jiannan; Zhang Wei; Li Yan; Shen, Beifen

    2004-01-01

    The variable regions of antibody molecules bind antigens with high affinity and specificity. The binding sites are imparted largely to the hypervariable portions (i.e., CDRs) of the variable region. Peptides derived from CDRs can bind antigen with similar specificity acting as mimic of antibody and become drug-designing core, although with markedly lower affinity. In order to increase the affinity and bioactivity, in this study, a novel peptide (PT) designed on CDRs of a TNFα neutralizing monoclonal antibody Z12 was linked with Fc fragment of human IgG1. The interaction mode of PT-linker-Fc (PLF) with TNFα was analyzed with computer-guided molecular modeling method. After expression in Escherichia coli and purification, recombinant PT-linker-Fc could bind directly with the TNFα coated on the ELISA plates. Furthermore, PLF could competitively inhibit the binding of Z12 to TNFα and also inhibit the TNFα-induced cytotoxicity on L929 cells. The TNFα antagonizing activity of PLF was significantly higher than that of the free peptide. This study highlights the potential of human Fc to enhance the potency of peptides designed on the CDRs of antibodies and could be useful in developing new TNFα antagonists

  15. Prognostic significance of serum antibodies to human papillomavirus-16 E4 and E7 peptides in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaarenstroom, K. N.; Kenter, G. G.; Bonfrer, J. M.; Korse, C. M.; Gallee, M. P.; Hart, A. A.; Müller, M.; Trimbos, J. B.; Helmerhorst, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of serum antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 peptides in patients with squamous cell cervical cancer. METHODS: Pretreatment sera from 78 patients and 198 control women were tested by an enzyme-linked

  16. In silico peptide prediction for antibody generation to recognize 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Mariela M; Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Camperi, Silvia A; Leite, José Roberto de Souza Almeida

    2015-03-01

    For the prospective immunorecognition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) as a biomarker protein expressed by transgenic soybean, an extensive in silico evaluation of the referred protein was performed. The main objective of this study was the selection of a set of peptides that could function as potential immunogens for the production of novel antibodies against CP4-EPSPS protein. For this purpose, the protein was in silico cleaved with trypsin/chymotrypsin and the resultant peptides were extensively analyzed for further selection of the best candidates for antibody production. The analysis enabled the successful proposal of four peptides with potential immunogenicity for their future use as screening biomarkers of genetically modified organisms. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to select and define potential linear epitopes for the immunization of animals and, subsequently, to generate adequate antibodies for CP4-EPSPS recognition. The present work will be followed by the synthesis of the candidate peptides to be incubated in animals for antibody generation and potential applicability for the development of an immunosensor for CP4-EPSPS detection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use of peptide antibodies to probe for the mitoxantrone resistance-associated protein MXR/BCRP/ABCP/ABCG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Jensen, Ulla; Hansen, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have characterized the ABC half-transporter associated with mitoxantrone resistance in human cancer cell lines. Encoded by the ABCG2 gene, overexpression confers resistance to camptothecins, as well as to mitoxantrone. We developed four polyclonal antibodies against peptides corres...

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Novel ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against HTLV-I Using Chimeric Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghi, Parvin; Heydari-Zarnagh, Hafez

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to develope a peptide-based indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Two chimeric peptides (CP-1 and CP-2) were designed using linear immunodominant epitopes of gp-46-I, and gp21-I proteins, according to the sequence from Uniprot database. These peptides were studied initially in the ELISA using infected sera. The most promising peptideCP-1, was used to develop a peptide ELISA for detection of HTLV-I infected sera. The optimal conditions for CP-1ELISA were: the optimum coating buffer was 100mM NaHCO3, pH 9.6; coating peptide concentration was 10 µg/mL; the optimal blocking buffer was5% fetal bovine serum (FBS); the secondary antibody concentration was 1:2000; and serum dilution was 1:20. 20serum samples from HTLV-I infected patients were evaluated by ELISA developed. CP-1 showed high antigenicity while lacking any cross-reactivity with normal human sera. The results of evaluations indicated that in comparison with commercial ELISA, CP-1 ELISA showed good sensitivity and specificity. With further validation, CP-1as described in the present study could be introduced as novel reliable and cost-effective candidates for the high-specific screening of HTLV-I/-II infections in endemic regions.

  19. Alterations of HIV-1 envelope phenotype and antibody-mediated neutralization by signal peptide mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Upadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env mediates virus attachment and entry into the host cells. Like other membrane-bound and secreted proteins, HIV-1 Env contains at its N terminus a signal peptide (SP that directs the nascent Env to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER where Env synthesis and post-translational modifications take place. SP is cleaved during Env biosynthesis but potentially influences the phenotypic traits of the Env protein. The Env SP sequences of HIV-1 isolates display high sequence variability, and the significance of such variability is unclear. We postulate that changes in the Env SP influence Env transport through the ER-Golgi secretory pathway and Env folding and/or glycosylation that impact on Env incorporation into virions, receptor binding and antibody recognition. We first evaluated the consequences of mutating the charged residues in the Env SP in the context of infectious molecular clone HIV-1 REJO.c/2864. Results show that three different mutations affecting histidine at position 12 affected Env incorporation into virions that correlated with reduction of virus infectivity and DC-SIGN-mediated virus capture and transmission. Mutations at positions 8, 12, and 15 also rendered the virus more resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against the Env V1V2 region. These mutations affected the oligosaccharide composition of N-glycans as shown by changes in Env reactivity with specific lectins and by mass spectrometry. Increased neutralization resistance and N-glycan composition changes were also observed when analogous mutations were introduced to another HIV-1 strain, JRFL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that certain residues in the HIV-1 Env SP can affect virus neutralization sensitivity by modulating oligosaccharide moieties on the Env N-glycans. The HIV-1 Env SP sequences thus may be under selective pressure to balance virus infectiousness with virus resistance to the host antibody

  20. Anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) and anti-65 kDa heat shock protein (anti-hsp65): new biomarkers in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnár, Nóra; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Kemény-Beke, Adám; Némethné-Gyurcsik, Zsuzsanna; Gulyás, Katalin; Lakos, Gabriella; Sipka, Sándor; Szántó, Sándor

    2012-01-01

    Citrullination as well as anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While ACPAs are specific and sensitive markers for RA, there have been hardly any reports regarding ACPAs in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The possible role of antibodies to Mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) has not been characterized in AS. As new laboratory biomarkers of AS are needed, we investigated the prevalence of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) and anti-hsp65 antibodies in AS. Altogether 43 AS and 44 healthy controls were included in the study. Anti-MCV and anti-hsp65 were determined in sera by commercial and in-house ELISA, respectively. Serum autoantibody levels were correlated with ESR, CRP, HLA-B27 status, smoking habits, pain intensity, BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI indices. Patients with AS had significantly higher serum anti-MCV levels (17.3 U/mL, range: 8.3-31.5 U/mL) in comparison to healthy subjects (8.9 U/mL, range: 5.4-13.3 U/mL) (p20 U/mL). The mean anti-hsp65 concentration in AS sera was 124.8 AU/mL (range: 27.2-1000 AU/mL), while controls exerted significantly lower anti-hsp65 levels (mean: 51.8 AU/mL; range: 22.5-88.5 AU/mL) (p<0.001). Correlation analysis revealed that both anti-MCV positivity (r=0.613; p=0.012) and absolute serum anti-MCV levels (r=0.553; p=0.021) correlated with anti-hsp65 levels. Anti-MCV positivity also correlated with ESR (r=0.437; p=0.03). Anti-MCV and anti-hsp65 may be novel biomarkers in AS. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Heparin binding domain of antithrombin III: Characterization using a synthetic peptide directed polyclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Dey, B.; Knauer, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a plasma-borne serine protease inhibitor that apparently forms covalent complexes with thrombin. The interaction between ATIII and thrombin is enhanced several thousandfold by the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. The authors have previously proposed that the heparin binding site of ATIII residues within a region extending from amino acid residues 114-156. Computer-assisted analysis of this region revealed the presence of a 22 amino acid domain (residues 124-145), part of which shows a strong potential for the formation of an amphipathic helix: hydrophobic on one face and highly positively charged on the other. In the presence studies, polyclonal antisera were generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 124-145 in native human ATIII. Affinity-purified IgG from these antisera, as well as monovalent Fab's derived from them, specifically blocked the binding of heparin to ATIII. Additionally, occupancy of the heparin binding site by these same monovalent and bivalent IgG's at least partially substituted for heparin, accelerating linkage formation between ATIII and thrombin. These results provide the first immunological evidence that region 124-145 is directly involved in the binding of heparin to ATIII and that an antibody-induced conformational change within this region can mediate ATIII activation

  2. Baculovirus display of single chain antibody (scFv using a novel signal peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Gaëlle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells permissive to virus can become refractory to viral replication upon intracellular expression of single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies directed towards viral structural or regulatory proteins, or virus-coded enzymes. For example, an intrabody derived from MH-SVM33, a monoclonal antibody against a conserved C-terminal epitope of the HIV-1 matrix protein (MAp17, was found to exert an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Results Two versions of MH-SVM33-derived scFv were constructed in recombinant baculoviruses (BVs and expressed in BV-infected Sf9 cells, N-myristoylation-competent scFvG2/p17 and N-myristoylation-incompetent scFvE2/p17 protein, both carrying a C-terminal HA tag. ScFvG2/p17 expression resulted in an insoluble, membrane-associated protein, whereas scFvE2/p17 was recovered in both soluble and membrane-incorporated forms. When coexpressed with the HIV-1 Pr55Gag precursor, scFvG2/p17 and scFvE2/p17 did not show any detectable negative effect on virus-like particle (VLP assembly and egress, and both failed to be encapsidated in VLP. However, soluble scFvE2/p17 isolated from Sf9 cell lysates was capable of binding to its specific antigen, in the form of a synthetic p17 peptide or as Gag polyprotein-embedded epitope. Significant amounts of scFvE2/p17 were released in the extracellular medium of BV-infected cells in high-molecular weight, pelletable form. This particulate form corresponded to BV particles displaying scFvE2/p17 molecules, inserted into the BV envelope via the scFv N-terminal region. The BV-displayed scFvE2/p17 molecules were found to be immunologically functional, as they reacted with the C-terminal epitope of MAp17. Fusion of the N-terminal 18 amino acid residues from the scFvE2/p17 sequence (N18E2 to another scFv recognizing CD147 (scFv-M6-1B9 conferred the property of BV-display to the resulting chimeric scFv-N18E2/M6. Conclusion Expression of scFvE2/p17 in insect cells using a BV

  3. Leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with Borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Amber L; Moroff, Scott; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to determine if Leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with Borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (AccuPlex 4 BioCD; Antech). Staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a B. burgdorferi nonendemic area. The dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona, then booster vaccinated 3 wk later. Blood was collected on weeks 0, 3, 4, 8, and 12. After confirming that maximal Leptospira spp. titers occurred on week 4, aliquots of sera from week 4 were shipped frozen for analysis of B. burgdorferi antibodies against OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP with the AccuPlex system. Week 4 sera from all 31 dogs had a titer of 1:100 for at least 1 Leptospira spp. serovar. Titers of 1:800 or greater were detected against multiple serovars in 27 dogs. None of the samples contained antibodies against the B. burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP peptides used in the commercial assay. The B. burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex system do not recognize naturally occurring Leptospira spp. antibodies or those induced by the commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines administered in our study.

  4. Selective assay for CyPA and CyPB in human blood using highly specific anti-peptide antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, F; Boutillon, C; Mariller, C; Spik, G

    1995-01-13

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are known to be the main binding proteins for cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug. Due to the high homology between the two proteins, antibodies to CyPB were found to cross-react with CyPA. In order to avoid this phenomenon, we raised specific antibodies against peptides copying the most divergent parts of the two sequences. These antibodies allowed us to develop an ELISA capture assay selective for either isotype. Thus, we showed that leukocyte CyPB concentration was almost ten times lower than that of CyPA, and that in contrast to the results described in the literature, only CyPB was released in plasma. Moreover, CyPB levels in leukocytes and plasma were found to correlate for the same donor, but no relationship was found with CyPA level.

  5. Oral peptide specific egg antibody to intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter-2b is effective at altering phosphate transport in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Hellestad, Erica M; Sand, Jordan M; Piccione, Michelle L; Bishop, Jeff W; Helvig, Christian; Petkovich, Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Hyperimmunized hens are an effective means of generating large quantities of antigen specific egg antibodies that have use as oral supplements. In this study, we attempted to create a peptide specific antibody that produced outcomes similar to those of the human pharmaceutical, sevelamer HCl, used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (a sequela of chronic renal disease). Egg antibodies were generated against 8 different human intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b) peptides, and hNaPi2b peptide egg antibodies were screened for their ability to inhibit phosphate transport in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Antibody produced against human peptide sequence TSPSLCWT (anti-h16) was specific for its peptide sequence, and significantly reduced phosphate transport in human Caco-2 cells to 25.3±11.5% of control nonspecific antibody, when compared to nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of phosphate transport (P≤0.05). Antibody was then produced against the mouse-specific peptide h16 counterpart (mouse sequence TSPSYCWT, anti-m16) for further analysis in a murine model. When anti-m16 was fed to mice (1% of diet as dried egg yolk powder), egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was detected using immunohistochemical staining in mouse ileum, and egg anti-m16 IgY colocalized with a commercial goat anti-NaPi2b antibody. The effectiveness of anti-m16 egg antibody in reducing serum phosphate, when compared to sevelamer HCl, was determined in a mouse feeding study. Serum phosphate was reduced 18% (Pegg yolk powder) and 30% (Pegg immunoglobulin. The methods described and the findings reported show that oral egg antibodies are useful and easy to prepare reagents for the study and possible treatment of select diseases. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in healthy people fed a low-protein diet – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Marion; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Carter, Rickey E.; Schimke, Jill; Ford, G. Charles; Marc, Julie; Aussel, Christian; Cynober, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Amino acid (AA) availability is critical to maintain protein homeostasis and reduced protein intake causes a decline in protein synthesis. Citrulline, an amino acid metabolite, has been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in malnourished rats. Methods To determine whether citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults while on a low-protein diet, we studied 8 healthy participants twice in a cross-over study design. Following a 3-days of low-protein intake, either citrulline or a non-essential AA mixture (NEAA) was given orally as small boluses over the course of 8 hours. [ring-13C6] phenylalanine and [15N] tyrosine were administered as tracers to assess protein metabolism. Fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle proteins were measured using phenylalanine enrichment in muscle tissue fluid as the precursor pool. Results FSR of mixed muscle protein was higher during the administration of citrulline than during NEAA (NEAA: 0.049 ± 0.005; citrulline: 0.060 ± 0.006; p=0.03), while muscle mitochondrial protein FSR and whole-body protein turnover were not different between the studies. Citrulline administration increased arginine and ornithine plasma concentrations without any effect on glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and IGF-1 levels. Citrulline administration did not promote mitochondria protein synthesis, transcripts, or citrate synthesis. Conclusions Citrulline ingestion enhances mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy participants on 3-day low-protein intake. This anabolic action of citrulline appears to be independent of insulin action and may offer potential clinical application in conditions involving low amino acid intake. PMID:24972455

  7. Citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in healthy people fed a low-protein diet - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Marion; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Carter, Rickey E; Schimke, Jill; Ford, G Charles; Marc, Julie; Aussel, Christian; Cynober, Luc

    2015-06-01

    Amino acid (AA) availability is critical to maintain protein homeostasis and reduced protein intake causes a decline in protein synthesis. Citrulline, an amino acid metabolite, has been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in malnourished rats. To determine whether citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults while on a low-protein diet, we studied 8 healthy participants twice in a cross-over study design. Following a 3-days of low-protein intake, either citrulline or a non-essential AA mixture (NEAA) was given orally as small boluses over the course of 8 h. [ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(15)N] tyrosine were administered as tracers to assess protein metabolism. Fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle proteins were measured using phenylalanine enrichment in muscle tissue fluid as the precursor pool. FSR of mixed muscle protein was higher during the administration of citrulline than during NEAA (NEAA: 0.049 ± 0.005; citrulline: 0.060 ± 0.006; P = 0.03), while muscle mitochondrial protein FSR and whole-body protein turnover were not different between the studies. Citrulline administration increased arginine and ornithine plasma concentrations without any effect on glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and IGF-1 levels. Citrulline administration did not promote mitochondria protein synthesis, transcripts, or citrate synthesis. Citrulline ingestion enhances mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy participants on 3-day low-protein intake. This anabolic action of citrulline appears to be independent of insulin action and may offer potential clinical application in conditions involving low amino acid intake. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Secretory signal peptide modification for optimized antibody-fragment expression-secretion in Leishmania tarentolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatt Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretory signal peptides (SPs are well-known sequence motifs targeting proteins for translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. After passing through the secretory pathway, most proteins are secreted to the environment. Here, we describe the modification of an expression vector containing the SP from secreted acid phosphatase 1 (SAP1 of Leishmania mexicana for optimized protein expression-secretion in the eukaryotic parasite Leishmania tarentolae with regard to recombinant antibody fragments. For experimental design the online tool SignalP was used, which predicts the presence and location of SPs and their cleavage sites in polypeptides. To evaluate the signal peptide cleavage site as well as changes of expression, SPs were N-terminally linked to single-chain Fragment variables (scFv’s. The ability of L. tarentolae to express complex eukaryotic proteins with highly diverse post-translational modifications and its easy bacteria-like handling, makes the parasite a promising expression system for secretory proteins. Results We generated four vectors with different SP-sequence modifications based on in-silico analyses with SignalP in respect to cleavage probability and location, named pLTEX-2 to pLTEX-5. To evaluate their functionality, we cloned four individual scFv-fragments into the vectors and transfected all 16 constructs into L. tarentolae. Independently from the expressed scFv, pLTEX-5 derived constructs showed the highest expression rate, followed by pLTEX-4 and pLTEX-2, whereas only low amounts of protein could be obtained from pLTEX-3 clones, indicating dysfunction of the SP. Next, we analysed the SP cleavage sites by Edman degradation. For pLTEX-2, -4, and -5 derived scFv’s, the results corresponded to in-silico predictions, whereas pLTEX-3 derived scFv’s contained one additional amino-acid (AA. Conclusions The obtained results demonstrate the importance of SP-sequence optimization for efficient

  9. Heterologous Coproduction of Enterocin A and Pediocin PA-1 by Lactococcus lactis: Detection by Specific Peptide-Directed Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José M.; Kok, Jan; Sanders, Jan W.; Hernández, Pablo E.

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies against enterocin A were obtained by immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides PH4 and PH5 designed, respectively, on the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocin A and conjugated to the carrier protein KLH. Anti-PH4-KLH antibodies not only recognized enterocin A but also pediocin PA-1, enterocin P, and sakacin A, three bacteriocins which share the N-terminal class IIa consensus motif (YGNGVXC) that is contained in the sequence of the peptide PH4. In contrast, anti-PH5-KLH antibodies only reacted with enterocin A because the amino acid sequences of the C-terminal parts of class IIa bacteriocins are highly variable. Enterocin A and/or pediocin PA-1 structural and immunity genes were introduced in Lactococcus lactis IL1403 to achieve (co)production of the bacteriocins. The level of production of the two bacteriocins was significantly lower than that obtained by the wild-type producers, a fact that suggests a low efficiency of transport and/or maturation of these bacteriocins by the chromosomally encoded bacteriocin translocation machinery of IL1403. Despite the low production levels, both bacteriocins could be specifically detected and quantified with the anti-PH5-KLH (anti-enterocin A) antibodies isolated in this study and the anti-PH2-KLH (anti-pediocin PA-1) antibodies previously generated (J. M. Martínez, M. I. Martínez, A. M. Suárez, C. Herranz, P. Casaus, L. M. Cintas, J. M. Rodríguez, and P. E. Hernández, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:4536–4545, 1998). In this work, the availability of antibodies for the specific detection and quantification of enterocin A and pediocin PA-1 was crucial to demonstrate coproduction of both bacteriocins by L. lactis IL1403(pJM04), because indicator strains that are selectively inhibited by each bacteriocin are not available. PMID:10919819

  10. Deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies as a routine test for celiac disease: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Umberto; Granito, Alessandro; Parisi, Claudia; Fabbri, Angela; Fiorini, Erica; Piscaglia, Maria; Tovoli, Francesco; Grasso, Valentina; Muratori, Paolo; Pappas, Georgios; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to establish whether deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (DGP-AGA) could improve the serologic workup for celiac disease (CD). The best serologic approach for CD screening is currently based on the combined detection of tissue transglutaminase (tTGA), endomysial (EmA), and gliadin antibodies (AGA). One hundred forty-four consecutive patients with gastrointestinal and extraintestinal signs suggestive for CD were investigated using serologic tests, that is, IgG and IgA DGP-AGA, IgA tTGA, IgA EmA, and duodenal biopsy. Forty-eight out of 144 patients (33%) had CD with different severity of villous atrophy. IgA tTGA showed 93.7% sensitivity compared with 91.6% for IgA EmA, 84.3% for IgA DGP-AGA, and 82.3% for IgG DGP-AGA. Of the 3 cases negative for IgA tTGA, IgA EmA, and IgA DGP-AGA, 2 had total IgA deficiency, although both were positive for IgG DGP-AGA. IgG DGP-AGA showed a very high specificity for CD (98.9%), not only superior to IgA DGP-AGA (79.8%), but also to IgA tTGA (96.6%) and very close to IgA EmA (100%). Our prospective study shows that the combined search for IgA tTGA and IgG DGP-AGA provides the best diagnostic accuracy for CD, allowing the identification of all CD cases---except one---with a very high specificity. The serologic workup for CD screening could be significantly improved by the routine introduction of IgG DGP-AGA together with IgA tTGA, thus reducing the number of tests and with an obvious advantage in terms of cost-efficacy.

  11. Generation and Partial Characterization of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody to Amyloid-β Peptide 1-37 (Aβ37).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj D; Blain, Jean-Francois; Freeman, Emily A; Patrick, Bruce A; Barshatzky, Marc; Hrdlicka, Lori A; Mehta, Sangita P; Frackowiak, Janusz; Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Wegiel, Jerzy; Patzke, Holger; Miller, David L

    2017-01-01

    Secreted soluble amyloid-β 1-37 (Aβ37) peptide is one of the prominent Aβ forms next to Aβ40, and is found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood. Recent studies have shown the importance of quantitation of CSF Aβ37 levels in combination with Aβ38, Aβ40, and Aβ42 to support the diagnosis of patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the value of antibody to Aβ37 to facilitate drug discovery studies. However, the availability of reliable and specific monoclonal antibody to Aβ37 is very limited. Our aims were: 1) to generate and partially characterize rabbit monoclonal antibody (RabmAb) to Aβ37, and 2) to determine whether the antibody detects changes in Aβ37 levels produced by a γ-secretase modulator (GSM). Our generated RabmAb to Aβ37 was found to be specific to Aβ37, since it did not react with Aβ36, Aβ38, Aβ39, Aβ40, and Aβ42 in an ELISA or immunoblotting. The epitope of the antibody was contained in the seven C-terminal residues of Aβ37. The antibody was sensitive enough to measure CSF and plasma Aβ37 levels in ELISA. Immunohistological studies showed the presence of Aβ37-positive deposits in the brain of AD, and Down syndrome persons diagnosed with AD. Our studies also showed that the antibody detected Aβ37 increases in CSF and brains of rodents following treatment with a GSM. Thus, our antibody can be widely applied to AD research, and in a panel based approach it may have potential to support the diagnosis of probable AD, and in testing the effect of GSMs to target AD.

  12. A synthetic peptide derived from the animo acid sequence of canine parvovirus structural proteins which defines a B cell epitope and elicits antiviral antibody in BALB c mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. Carlson; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides, recombinant fusion proteins and mouse monoclonal antibodies were used to delineate a B cell epitope of the VP'2 structural protein of canine parvovirus (CPV). Although this epitope is not preferentially recognized in the normal antibody response to CPV, virus-specific

  13. The clinical significance of detecting serum glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD), C-peptide and insulin in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Tingliang; Zhang Jinchi; Yao Yingfei; Chen Linxing; Huang Hua

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of detecting serum glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody, C-peptide (CP) and insulin (INS) in the classification of diabetic patients. Methods: Serum GAD antibody, CP and INS concentration were determined with RIA in 27 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and 49 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Sugar-electrode-method was used to detect the concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in these patients. Results: The positive rate of GAD antibody in DM1 patients (66.7%) were significantly higher than that in DM2 group (8.2%) (P<0.01), The levels of CP and INS were lower in DM1 group than those in DM2 group as well (P<0.01). Conclusion: GAD antibody is a valuable marker to predict the impairment of β-cell GAD antibody levels, together with CP /FPG and INS/FPG ratios, might be useful in determining the type of DM and guiding the therapy. (authors)

  14. A novel synthetic peptide microarray assay detects Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Schnee, Christiane; Müller, Elke; Peisker, Madlen; Schumacher, Thomas; Schubert, Evelyn; Ruettger, Anke; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Ehricht, Ralf

    2018-03-16

    Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined. For instance, the specific humoral response of sheep to treatment with a C. abortus vaccine has been visualized against a background of C. pecorum carriership. In samples from humans, dual infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae could be demonstrated. The experiments revealed that the peptide microarray assay was capable of simultaneously identifying specific antibodies to each Chlamydia spp. The actual assay represents an open platform test that can be complemented through future advances in Chlamydia proteome research. The concept of the highly parallel multi-antigen microarray proven in this study has the potential to enhance our understanding of antibody responses by defining not only a single quantitative response, but also the pattern of this response. The added value of using peptide antigens will consist in unprecedented serodiagnostic specificity.

  15. Development of a Nucleoprotein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using a Synthetic Peptide Antigen for Detection of Avian Metapneumovirus Antibodies in Turkey Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rene; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Scott, Melissa; Seal, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory tract disease with low mortality but high morbidity, primarily in commercial turkeys, that can be exacerbated by secondary infections. There are three types of aMPV, of which type C is found only in the United States. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. On the basis of the predicted antigenicity of consensus sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of a peptide antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (aMPV N peptide-based ELISA) to detect aMPV-specific antibodies among turkeys. Sera from naturally and experimentally infected turkeys were used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies reactive to the chemically synthesized aMPV N peptides. Subsequently, aMPV N peptide 1, which had the sequence 10-DLSYKHAILKESQYTIKRDV-29, with variations at only three amino acids among aMPV serotypes, was evaluated as a universal aMPV ELISA antigen. Data obtained with the peptide-based ELISA correlated positively with total aMPV viral antigen-based ELISAs, and the peptide ELISA provided higher optical density readings. The results indicated that aMPV N peptide 1 can be used as a universal ELISA antigen to detect antibodies for all aMPV serotypes. PMID:15013970

  16. Production and evaluation of antibodies and phage display-derived peptide ligands for immunomagnetic separation of Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Linda D; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Thompson, Suzan; Kulakov, Leonid A; Grant, Irene R

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the development and optimization of an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method to isolate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissues. Gamma-irradiated whole M. bovis AF2122/97 cells and ethanol-extracted surface antigens of such cells were used to produce M. bovis-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in rabbits and mice. They were also used to generate M. bovis-specific peptide ligands by phage display biopanning. The various antibodies and peptide ligands obtained were used to coat MyOne tosyl-activated Dynabeads (Life Technologies), singly or in combination, and evaluated for IMS. Initially, M. bovis capture from Middlebrook 7H9 broth suspensions (concentration range, 10 to 10(5) CFU/ml) was evaluated by IMS combined with an M. bovis-specific touchdown PCR. IMS-PCR results and, subsequently, IMS-culture results indicated that the beads with greatest immunocapture capability for M. bovis in broth were those coated simultaneously with a monoclonal antibody and a biotinylated 12-mer peptide. These dually coated beads exhibited minimal capture (mean of 0.36% recovery) of 12 other Mycobacterium spp. occasionally encountered in veterinary tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic laboratories. When the optimized IMS method was applied to various M. bovis-spiked lymph node matrices, it demonstrated excellent detection sensitivities (50% limits of detection of 3.16 and 57.7 CFU/ml of lymph node tissue homogenate for IMS-PCR and IMS-culture, respectively). The optimized IMS method therefore has the potential to improve isolation of M. bovis from lymph nodes and hence the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

  17. Lower omega-3 fatty acids are associated with the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in a population at risk for future rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ryan W.; Young, Kendra A.; Zerbe, Gary O.; Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Weisman, Michael H.; Buckner, Jane H.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Mikuls, Ted R.; O’Dell, James R.; Keating, Richard M.; Clare-Salzler, Michael J.; Deane, Kevin D.; Holers, V. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplement use and omega-3 FAs in erythrocyte membranes [omega-3 FA % in erythrocyte membranes (RBC)] and their association with anti-CCP autoantibodies in a population without RA, but who are at genetic risk for RA. Methods. The multicentre Studies of the Etiology of RA (SERA) cohort includes RA-free subjects who are first-degree relatives of RA probands or are enriched with the HLA-DR4 allele. In a nested case-control study, 30 SERA cases were identified who were anti-CCP2 antibody positive. We further identified 47 autoantibody negative controls, frequency matched to cases on age at study visit, sex, race and study site. Anti-CCP2 status, self-reported omega-3 FA supplement use and omega-3 FA % in RBCs were obtained from a single visit. Results. Anti-CCP2 positive cases were less likely than controls to report omega-3 FA supplement use (odds ratio: 0.14; 95% CI 0.03, 0.68). In addition, the likelihood of anti-CCP2 positivity was inversely associated with total omega-3 FA % in RBCs (odds ratio: 0.47; 95% CI 0.24, 0.92, for a s.d. increase). Conclusion. The inverse association between anti-CCP2 positivity and self-reported omega-3 FA supplement use and omega-3 FA % in RBCs suggests that omega-3 FAs may protect against the development of RA-related autoimmunity in pre-clinical RA. PMID:26370400

  18. Generation and characterization of a human-mouse chimeric high-affinity antibody that detects the DYKDDDDK FLAG peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Koki; Koga, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Fumiyuki; Ueno, Ayumi; Saeki, Kazuko; Okuno, Toshiaki; Yokomizo, Takehiko

    2017-05-13

    DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) is a useful tool for investigating the function and localization of proteins whose antibodies (Abs) are not available. We recently established a high-affinity monoclonal antibody (mAb) for FLAG (clone 2H8). The 2H8 Ab is highly sensitive for detecting FLAG-tagged proteins by flowcytometry and immunoprecipitation, but it can yield nonspecific signals in immunohistochemistry of mouse tissues because it is of mouse origin. In this study, we reduced nonspecific signals by generating a chimeric 2H8 Ab with Fc fragments derived from human immunoglobulin. We fused a 5' terminal cDNA fragments for the Fab region of 2H8 mAb with 3' terminal cDNA fragments for Fc region of human IgG1. We transfected both chimeric plasmids and purified the resulting human-mouse chimeric 2H8. The chimeric 2H8 Ab successfully detected FLAG-tagged proteins in flowcytometry with anti-human IgG secondary Ab with comparable sensitivity to 2H8 mAb. Importantly, chimeric 2H8 detected specific FLAG peptide signals without nonspecific signals in immunohistochemical analysis with mouse tissues. This human-mouse chimeric high-affinity anti-FLAG Ab will prove useful for future immunohistochemical analysis of mouse tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of specific IgA antibodies against a novel deamidated 8-Mer gliadin peptide in blood plasma samples from celiac patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vallejo-Diez

    Full Text Available We studied whether celiac disease (CD patients produce antibodies against a novel gliadin peptide specifically generated in the duodenum of CD patients by a previously described pattern of CD-specific duodenal proteases. Fingerprinting and ion-trap mass spectrometry of CD-specific duodenal gliadin-degrading protease pattern revealed a new 8-mer gliadin-derived peptide. An ELISA against synthetic deamidated 8-mer peptides (DGP 8-mer was used to study the presence of IgA anti-DGP 8-mer antibodies in plasma samples from 81 children (31 active CD patients (aCD, 17 CD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD, 10 healthy controls (C and 23 patients with other gastrointestinal pathology (GP and 101 adults (16 aCD, 12 GFD, 27 C and 46 GP-patients. Deamidation of the 8-mer peptide significantly increased the reactivity of the IgA antibodies from CD patients against the peptide. Significant IgA anti-DGP 8-mer antibodies levels were detected in 93.5% of aCD-, 11.8% of GFD- and 4.3% of GP-patients in children. In adults, antibodies were detected in 81.3% of aCD-patients and 8.3% of GFD-patients while were absent in 100% of C- and GP-patients. Duodenal CD-specific gliadin degrading proteases release an 8-mer gliadin peptide that once deamidated is an antigen for specific IgA antibodies in CD patients which may provide a new accurate diagnostic tool in CD.

  20. Characterization of the fine specificity of peptide antibodies to HLA-DQ beta-chain molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Atar, D; Karlsen, Alan E

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to produce epitope specific antisera which could distinguish two closely associated HLA-DQ beta-chain alleles, we immunized 20 rabbits with synthetic peptides representing sequences from the first domain of the HLA-DQw8 and -DQw7 beta-chain molecules, differing only by one amino acid...... in position 57. Several of the antisera in immunoblotting specifically recognized either the HLA-DQw7 or the HLA-DQw8 beta-chain allele as previously reported. The fine specificity of the antisera was tested in ELISA using synthetic peptides of varying length as solid phase antigen. Two out of the 20 antisera...

  1. Lysosomally cleavable peptide-containing polymersomes modified with anti-EGFR antibody for systemic cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jung Seok; Groothuis, T.A.M.; Cusan, Claudia; Mink, Daniel; Feijen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Polymersomes (Ps) based on a biodegradable and biocompatible block copolymer of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) in which apeptide sequence, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly-Phe (GFLGF), was introduced in between the two blocks(mPEG-pep-PDLLA) were developed. The peptide linker is

  2. Selection of ligand peptides with the ability to detect antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peptides present in phages were selected using phage display technology and immunoassays to find out the antigenic mimetics of immunodominant epitopes of bovine leukosis virus (BLV). The use of antigenic mimetics may result in the enhancement of the sensitivity and specificity of the serologic diagnosis of enzootic ...

  3. The property distance index PD predicts peptides that cross-react with IgE antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Schein, Catherine H.; Xie, Liping; Hillman, Gilbert R.; Goldblum, Randall M.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Similarities in the sequence and structure of allergens can explain clinically observed cross-reactivities. Distinguishing sequences that bind IgE in patient sera can be used to identify potentially allergenic protein sequences and aid in the design of hypo-allergenic proteins. The property distance index PD, incorporated in our Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/), may identify potentially cross-reactive segments of proteins, based on their similarity to known IgE epitopes. We sought to obtain experimental validation of the PD index as a quantitative predictor of IgE cross-reactivity, by designing peptide variants with predetermined PD scores relative to three linear IgE epitopes of Jun a 1, the dominant allergen from mountain cedar pollen. For each of the three epitopes, 60 peptides were designed with increasing PD values (decreasing physicochemical similarity) to the starting sequence. The peptides synthesized on a derivatized cellulose membrane were probed with sera from patients who were allergic to Jun a 1, and the experimental data were interpreted with a PD classification method. Peptides with low PD values relative to a given epitope were more likely to bind IgE from the sera than were those with PD values larger than 6. Control sequences, with PD values between 18 and 20 to all the three epitopes, did not bind patient IgE, thus validating our procedure for identifying negative control peptides. The PD index is a statistically validated method to detect discrete regions of proteins that have a high probability of cross-reacting with IgE from allergic patients. PMID:18950868

  4. Alpha radioisotopes Ac-225 and Bi-213: a production and labelling of antibodies and peptides for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: In various preclinical and clinical works the potential of the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi as therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases was demonstrated. Both alpha emitters are available with high specific activity from established radionuclide generators. Their favorable chemical and physical properties have led to the conduction of a large number of preclinical studies and several clinical trials, demonstrating the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of targeted alpha therapy with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi. This presentation will give an overview about the methods for the production of {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi, the {sup 225}Ac/{sup 213}Bi radionuclide generator systems, labelling of peptides and antibodies with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi and relevant in vivo and in vitro works. (author)

  5. Safety and efficacy of ALD403, an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is crucial in the pathophysiology of migraine. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ALD403, a genetically engineered humanised anti-CGRP antibody, for migraine prevention. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-contro...

  6. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  7. Serum and urine analysis of the aminoterminal procollagen peptide type III by radioimmunoassay with antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, H; Langer, I; Krieg, T; Timpl, R

    1983-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay based on antibody Fab fragments was developed for the aminoterminal peptide Col 1-3 of bovine type III procollagen. This assay does not distinguish the intact aminopropeptide Col 1-3 from its globular fragment Col 1. Parallel inhibition profiles were observed with human serum and urine allowing the simultaneous quantitative determination of intact and fragmented antigens in these samples. Most of the material has a size similar to that of fragment Col 1 indicating that the aminopropeptide is degraded under physiologic conditions. The concentration of aminopeptide in normal sera was in the range 15-63 ng/ml. Daily excretion was found to be in the range 30-110 micrograms. More than 50% of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum levels of aminopropeptide by the Fab assay. Elevated concentrations were detected more frequently with an antibody radioimmunoassay which measures mainly the intact form of the aminopropeptide. It is suggested that analysis of patients material by both assays could improve their diagnostic application.

  8. Fusion Peptide Improves Stability and Bioactivity of Single Chain Antibody against Rabies Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Shi, Linqing; Zhang, Renxia; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-04-28

    The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application. Therefore, an acidic tail of synuclein (ATS) derived from the C-terminal acidic tail of human alpha-synuclein protein was fused to the C-terminus of scFv57R in order to help it resist adverse stress and improve the stability and halflife. The tail showed no apparent effect on the preparation procedure and affinity of the protein, nor did it change the neutralizing potency in vitro. In the ELISA test of molecular stability, the ATS fusion form of the protein, scFv57R-ATS, showed an increase in thermal stability and longer half-life in serum than scFv57R. The protection against fatal rabies virus challenge improved after fusing the tail to the scFv, which may be attributed to the improved stability. Thus, the ATS fusion approach presented here is easily implemented and can be used as a new strategy to improve the stability and half-life of engineered antibody proteins for practical applications.

  9. Generation of recombinant antibodies to rat GABAA receptor subunits by affinity selection on synthetic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha P Koduvayur

    Full Text Available The abundance and physiological importance of GABAA receptors in the central nervous system make this neurotransmitter receptor an attractive target for localizing diagnostic and therapeutic biomolecules. GABAA receptors are expressed within the retina and mediate synaptic signaling at multiple stages of the visual process. To generate monoclonal affinity reagents that can specifically recognize GABAA receptor subunits, we screened two bacteriophage M13 libraries, which displayed human scFvs, by affinity selection with synthetic peptides predicted to correspond to extracellular regions of the rat α1 and β2 GABAA subunits. We isolated three anti-β2 and one anti-α1 subunit specific scFvs. Fluorescence polarization measurements revealed all four scFvs to have low micromolar affinities with their cognate peptide targets. The scFvs were capable of detecting fully folded GABAA receptors heterologously expressed by Xenopus laevis oocytes, while preserving ligand-gated channel activity. Moreover, A10, the anti-α1 subunit-specific scFv, was capable of detecting native GABAA receptors in the mouse retina, as observed by immunofluorescence staining. In order to improve their apparent affinity via avidity, we dimerized the A10 scFv by fusing it to the Fc portion of the IgG. The resulting scFv-Fc construct had a Kd of ∼26 nM, which corresponds to an approximately 135-fold improvement in binding, and a lower detection limit in dot blots, compared to the monomeric scFv. These results strongly support the use of peptides as targets for generating affinity reagents to membrane proteins and encourage investigation of molecular conjugates that use scFvs as anchoring components to localize reagents of interest at GABAA receptors of retina and other neural tissues, for studies of receptor activation and subunit structure.

  10. Demonstration of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) activity in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a novel assay for citrullination of fibrinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Senolt, Ladislav; Nielsen, Michael Friberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) family catalyse the posttranslational conversion of peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline. Citrullination of proteins is well described in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and hypercitrullination of proteins may be related to inflammation...... in general. PAD activity has been demonstrated in various cell lysates, but so far not in synovial fluid. We aimed to develop an assay for detection of PAD activity, if any, in synovial fluid from RA patients. METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human fibrinogen as the immobilized substrate...... for citrullination and anti-citrullinated fibrinogen antibody as the detecting agent were used for measurement of PAD activity in synovial fluid samples from five RA patients. The concentrations of PAD2 and calcium were also determined. RESULTS: Approximately 150 times lower levels of recombinant human PAD2 (rhPAD2...

  11. Mitochondria: role of citrulline and arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and generate most of the cellular energy. Mitochondrial disorders result from dysfunctional mitochondria that are unable to generate sufficient ATP to meet the energy needs of various organs. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder. There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and results in impaired blood perfusion that contributes significantly to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. Both arginine and citrulline act as NO precursors and their administration results in increased NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. Citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than arginine, therefore, citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. Controlled studies assessing the effects of arginine or citrulline supplementation on different clinical aspects of MELAS syndrome are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of peptide microarrays for studying antibody-antigen binding using surface plasmon resonance imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Nogues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-specific binding to biosensor surfaces is a major obstacle to quantitative analysis of selective retention of analytes at immobilized target molecules. Although a range of chemical antifouling monolayers has been developed to address this problem, many macromolecular interactions still remain refractory to analysis due to the prevalent high degree of non-specific binding. We describe how we use the dynamic process of the formation of self assembling monolayers and optimise physical and chemical properties thus reducing considerably non-specific binding and allowing analysis of specific binding of analytes to immobilized target molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We illustrate this approach by the production of specific protein arrays for the analysis of interactions between the 65kDa isoform of human glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and a human monoclonal antibody. Our data illustrate that we have effectively eliminated non-specific interactions with the surface containing the immobilised GAD65 molecules. The findings have several implications. First, this approach obviates the dubious process of background subtraction and gives access to more accurate kinetic and equilibrium values that are no longer contaminated by multiphase non-specific binding. Second, an enhanced signal to noise ratio increases not only the sensitivity but also confidence in the use of SPR to generate kinetic constants that may then be inserted into van't Hoff type analyses to provide comparative DeltaG, DeltaS and DeltaH values, making this an efficient, rapid and competitive alternative to ITC measurements used in drug and macromolecular-interaction mechanistic studies. Third, the accuracy of the measurements allows the application of more intricate interaction models than simple Langmuir monophasic binding. CONCLUSIONS: The detection and measurement of antibody binding by the type 1 diabetes autoantigen GAD65 represents an example of an antibody

  13. Efficient production of a bioactive Bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2A self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. Bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. We here reported the first plant-derived Bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. Codon-optimized Bevacizumab light chain (BLC and heavy chain (BHC genes were designed, synthesized as a polyprotein with a 2A self-cleavage linker peptide from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, cloned into a plant binary vector under a constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, and transformed into rice nuclear genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot and western blot analyses confirmed the integration and expression of BLC and BHC genes in transgenic rice callus. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis indicated that the rice-derived Bevacizumab mAb was biologically active and the recombinant mAb was expressed at high levels (160.7-242.8 mg kg-1FW in transgenic rice callus. The mAb was purified by using protein A affinity chromatography and the purified antibody was tested for its binding affinity with its target hVEGF antigen by ELISA. Rice callus produced Bevacizumab and a commercial Bevacizumab (Avastin were shown to have similar binding affinity to hVEGF. These results indicated that rice callus produced Bevacizumab could have similar biological activity and might potentially be used as a cost-effective biosimilar molecule in future cancer treatment.

  14. Multivalent peptidic linker enables identification of preferred sites of conjugation for a potent thialanstatin antibody drug conjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiet Puthenveetil

    Full Text Available Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs are no longer an unknown entity in the field of cancer therapy with the success of marketed ADCs like ADCETRIS and KADCYLA and numerous others advancing through clinical trials. The pursuit of novel cytotoxic payloads beyond the mictotubule inhibitors and DNA damaging agents has led us to the recent discovery of an mRNA splicing inhibitor, thailanstatin, as a potent ADC payload. In our previous work, we observed that the potency of this payload was uniquely tied to the method of conjugation, with lysine conjugates showing much superior potency as compared to cysteine conjugates. However, the ADC field is rapidly shifting towards site-specific ADCs due to their advantages in manufacturability, characterization and safety. In this work we report the identification of a highly efficacious site-specific thailanstatin ADC. The site of conjugation played a critical role on both the in vitro and in vivo potency of these ADCs. During the course of this study, we developed a novel methodology of loading a single site with multiple payloads using an in situ generated multi-drug carrying peptidic linker that allowed us to rapidly screen for optimal conjugation sites. Using this methodology, we were able to identify a double-cysteine mutant ADC delivering four-loaded thailanstatin that was very efficacious in a gastric cancer xenograft model at 3mg/kg and was also shown to be efficacious against T-DM1 resistant and MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.

  15. Multivalent peptidic linker enables identification of preferred sites of conjugation for a potent thialanstatin antibody drug conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveetil, Sujiet; He, Haiyin; Loganzo, Frank; Musto, Sylvia; Teske, Jesse; Green, Michael; Tan, Xingzhi; Hosselet, Christine; Lucas, Judy; Tumey, L Nathan; Sapra, Puja; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Graziani, Edmund I

    2017-01-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are no longer an unknown entity in the field of cancer therapy with the success of marketed ADCs like ADCETRIS and KADCYLA and numerous others advancing through clinical trials. The pursuit of novel cytotoxic payloads beyond the mictotubule inhibitors and DNA damaging agents has led us to the recent discovery of an mRNA splicing inhibitor, thailanstatin, as a potent ADC payload. In our previous work, we observed that the potency of this payload was uniquely tied to the method of conjugation, with lysine conjugates showing much superior potency as compared to cysteine conjugates. However, the ADC field is rapidly shifting towards site-specific ADCs due to their advantages in manufacturability, characterization and safety. In this work we report the identification of a highly efficacious site-specific thailanstatin ADC. The site of conjugation played a critical role on both the in vitro and in vivo potency of these ADCs. During the course of this study, we developed a novel methodology of loading a single site with multiple payloads using an in situ generated multi-drug carrying peptidic linker that allowed us to rapidly screen for optimal conjugation sites. Using this methodology, we were able to identify a double-cysteine mutant ADC delivering four-loaded thailanstatin that was very efficacious in a gastric cancer xenograft model at 3mg/kg and was also shown to be efficacious against T-DM1 resistant and MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.

  16. Hypersensitive detection and quantitation of BoNT/A by IgY antibody against substrate linear-peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A, the most acutely poisonous substance to humans known, cleave its SNAP-25 substrate with high specificity. Based on the endopeptidase activity, different methods have been developed to detect BoNT/A, but most lack ideal reproducibility or sensitivity, or suffer from long-term or unwanted interferences. In this study, we developed a simple method to detect and quantitate trace amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A using the IgY antibody against a linear-peptide substrate. The effects of reaction buffer, time, and temperature were analyzed and optimized. When the optimized assay was used to detect BoNT/A, the limit of detection of the assay was 0.01 mouse LD50 (0.04 pg, and the limit of quantitation was 0.12 mouse LD50/ml (0.48 pg. The findings also showed favorable specificity of detecting BoNT/A. When used to detect BoNT/A in milk or human serum, the proposed assay exhibited good quantitative accuracy (88% < recovery < 111%; inter- and intra-assay CVs < 18%. This method of detection took less than 3 h to complete, indicating that it can be a valuable method of detecting BoNT/A in food or clinical diagnosis.

  17. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein associates differentially with erosions and synovitis and has a different temporal course in cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP)-positive versus anti-CCP-negative early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne F; Lindegaard, Hanne; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    -suppressive effect. We aimed to compare circulating cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a marker of cartilage turnover, in untreated anti-CCP-positive and anti-CCP-negative RA, and to study the temporal pattern of COMP through 4 years of treatment, including the relationship to imaging and clinical findings.......048). In anti-CCP-positive patients, COMP exhibited a parabolic course over 4 years, while COMP in anti-CCP-negative patients had an almost linear course. In anti-CCP-positive patients, COMP was associated with MRI edema and erosion score, while COMP was correlated with synovitis score in anti...

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Fab fragment of WO2, an antibody specific for the Aβ peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, Kwok S. [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory and Centre for Structural Neurobiology, St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Miles, Luke A. [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory and Centre for Structural Neurobiology, St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Crespi, Gabriela A. N. [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory and Centre for Structural Neurobiology, St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Wycherley, Kaye [WEHI Biotechnology Centre, La Trobe R& D Park, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Ascher, David B. [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory and Centre for Structural Neurobiology, St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Barnham, Kevin J.; Cappai, Roberto [Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Beyreuther, Konrad [ZMBH, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Masters, Colin L. [Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Parker, Michael W. [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory and Centre for Structural Neurobiology, St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); McKinstry, William J., E-mail: wjmckinstry@hotmail.com [Biota Structural Biology Laboratory and Centre for Structural Neurobiology, St Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine (St Vincent’s Hospital), The University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy 3065 (Australia)

    2008-05-01

    Crystallization and X-ray diffraction data collection of the Fab fragment of the monoclonal antibody WO2 in the absence or presence of amyloid β peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease are reported. The murine monoclonal antibody WO2 specifically binds the N-terminal region of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) associated with Alzheimer’s disease. This region of Aβ has been shown to be the immunodominant B-cell epitope of the peptide and hence is considered to be a basis for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies against this prevalent cause of dementia. Structural studies have been undertaken in order to characterize the molecular basis for antibody recognition of this important epitope. Here, details of the crystallization and X-ray analysis of the Fab fragment of the unliganded WO2 antibody in two crystal forms and of the complexes that it forms with the truncated Aβ peptides Aβ{sub 1–16} and Aβ{sub 1–28} are presented. These crystals were all obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. Crystals of WO2 Fab were grown in polyethylene glycol solutions containing ZnSO{sub 4}; they belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution. The complexes of WO2 Fab with either Aβ{sub 1–@}@{sub 16} or Aβ{sub 1–28} were cocrystallized from polyethylene glycol solutions. These two complex crystals grew in the same space group, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution. A second crystal form of WO2 Fab was grown in the presence of the sparingly soluble Aβ{sub 1–42} in PEG 550 MME. This second form belonged to space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution.

  19. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of citrullinated histone H3 as a marker for neutrophil extracellular traps in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thålin, Charlotte; Daleskog, Maud; Göransson, Sophie Paues; Schatzberg, Daphne; Lasselin, Julie; Laska, Ann-Charlotte; Kallner, Anders; Helleday, Thomas; Wallén, Håkan; Demers, Mélanie

    2017-06-01

    There is an emerging interest in the diverse functions of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a variety of disease settings. However, data on circulating NETs rely largely upon surrogate NET markers such as cell-free DNA, nucleosomes, and NET-associated enzymes. Citrullination of histone H3 by peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is central for NET formation, and citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit) is considered a NET-specific biomarker. We therefore aimed to optimize and validate a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the levels of H3Cit in human plasma. A standard curve made of in vitro PAD4-citrullinated histones H3 allows for the quantification of H3Cit in plasma using an anti-histone antibody as capture antibody and an anti-histone H3 citrulline antibody for detection. The assay was evaluated for linearity, stability, specificity, and precision on plasma samples obtained from a human model of inflammation before and after lipopolysaccharide injection. The results revealed linearity and high specificity demonstrated by the inability of detecting non-citrullinated histone H3. Coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-assay variability ranged from 2.1 to 5.1% and from 5.8 to 13.5%, respectively, allowing for a high precision. Furthermore, our results support an inflammatory induction of a systemic NET burden by showing, for the first time, clear intra-individual elevations of plasma H3Cit in a human model of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Taken together, our work demonstrates the development of a new method for the quantification of H3Cit by ELISA that can reliably be used for the detection of NETs in human plasma.

  20. Interactions between Human Antibodies and Synthetic Conformational Peptide Epitopes: Innovative Approach for Electrochemical Detection of Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis at Platinum Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellagha-Chenchah, W.; Sella, C.; Fernandez, F. Real; Peroni, E.; Lolli, F.; Amatore, C.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of human antibodies of Multiple Sclerosis patients was investigated based on the electrochemical oxidation of a synthetic antigenic probe, a glycopeptide Fc-CSF114(Glc) bearing a ferrocenyl moiety. Electrochemical measurements were carried out at platinum microband electrodes without any electrode surface modification. A microfluidic device was designed in order to both minimize peptide consumption and increase the number of experiments with low volumes of samples. The specific interactions between Fc-CSF114(Glc) and antibodies were evidenced through comparison with electrochemical responses obtained from the ferrocenyl unglycosylated peptide Fc-CSF114 used as negative control. The interactions between Fc-CSF114(Glc) and autoantibodies were characterized by a shift of the oxidation potential towards positive values. A mechanism for peptide oxidation was proposed based on a diffusion control of mass transport and the formation of adsorbed layers able to mediate electron transfer. Results showed efficient antigen-antibody recognition without any electrode grafting or further addition of labels in solution. Preliminary tests using human sera from Multiple Sclerosis patients and healthy donors validated this new approach aimed at developing innovative and fast diagnostic tools, based on electrochemical synthetic antigenic probes

  1. Developing the 186 Re radiolabelling procedures of peptides and monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, V.; Mihailescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Mono and poli-clonal antibodies are the most recent candidate molecules for the radiopharmaceutical preparation used in radioimmunotherapy and radiodiagnostic. Our study presents results in 186 Re direct labelling of HIgG (Human Immunoglobulin G) poli-clonal antibody. The steps in labelling process are: 1. pre-reduction -S-S- bridges of HIgG molecule with ascorbic acid in pH = 3.5 - 4.5; 2. preparation of the reducing system for 186 ReO 4 - in presence of Sn 2+ ions excess and 3. coupling 186 Re (red) to -SH groups of biomolecules. The specific reactions of each step above are controlled by: incubation time and temperature, pH, molar ratio 186 Re: HIgG. 186 Re-HIgG samples were purified by gel elution chromatography method and the quality control was performed by chromatography techniques. To labelled of HIgG we effected the pre-reduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecules to sulfhydryls using the following reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The pre-reduction reactions are controlled by mass ratios of reduction agent/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation. HIgG was the biomolecule used in the pre-reduction reactions. The specific parameters for each systems are presented. The stannous chloride was used as reducing agent in two systems, SnCl 2 : 0.05 N HCl and SnCl 2 : 20 mg/ml citric acid. The coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule has been controlled by time and incubation temperature and the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecule. 186 Re-HIgG was obtained by: i) incubation at the room temperature, 1 hour time of HIgG in thiol form and 186 Re in reducing form and ii) incubation of HIgG in thiol form, at 37 deg C and 22 hours time, with adding after pre-reduction of SnCl 2 and Na 186 ReO 4 . Quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and gel chromatography) on labelled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography

  2. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  3. Local oral immunization with synthetic peptides induces a dual mucosal IgG and salivary IgA antibody response and prevents colonization of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, T; Haron, J; Bergmeier, L A; Mehlert, A; Beard, R; Dodd, M; Mielnik, B; Moore, S

    1989-01-01

    A small cell surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans was partially sequenced and the amino terminal peptides of 11, 15 and 20 amino acid residues and a dimer of the 15 and 20 residues peptides were synthesized. The synthetic peptides (SP) were used in topical oral immunization of the gingivomucosal epithelium of macaque monkeys. Sequential examination for antibodies over a period of up to 30 weeks revealed that six applications of the linear or cyclized SP11 and a random SP11 induced negligible or very low antibody levels. In contrast, the SP17 (SP15 with added cysteine at each terminus), SP21 (SP20 with one cysteine) and the dimer (SP35) induced significant anti-SP as well as anti-native streptococcal antibodies in the gingival fluid and in saliva. The functional significance of this immune response was examined by studying its effect on oral colonization of S. mutans following feeding of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Whereas control animals, sham-immunized with a random SP of 11 residues, showed increased colonization of the teeth by S. mutans, there was no colonization or a significant reduction in colonization of animals immunized with the cyclized SP17, linear SP21 or dimerized SP35. These experiments suggest that local immunization with SP derived from the sequences of a streptococcal cell surface antigen induce a dual local immune response of gingival IgG and salivary IgA antibodies against the SP and native SA. These antibodies may be involved in preventing colonization of S. mutans, which is the principal agent in the development of dental caries. PMID:2759661

  4. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, EE137, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hung, Yao-Ching [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsu [Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guewha Steven, E-mail: gstevehuang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Republic of China (China)

    2010-05-14

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  5. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Wei-Hsu; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-05-01

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  6. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Wei-Hsu; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-01-01

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  7. Identification and Quantitation of Asparagine and Citrulline Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C.; Wood, Bruce W.

    2007-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used for identification of two problematic ureides, asparagine and citrulline. We report here a technique that takes advantage of the predictable delay in retention time of the co-asparagine/citrulline peak to enable both qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagine and citrulline using the Platinum EPS reverse-phase C18 column (Alltech Associates). Asparagine alone is eluted earlier than citrulline alone, but when both of them...

  8. A Conserved Epitope Mapped with a Monoclonal Antibody against the VP3 Protein of Goose Parvovirus by Using Peptide Screening and Phage Display Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Jinzhe; Liu, Dafei; Meng, Runze; Zhang, Qingshan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl parvovirus (WPV) infection causes high mortality and morbidity in both geese (Anser anser) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), resulting in significant losses to the waterfowl industries. The VP3 protein of WPV is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in the waterfowl. However, B-cell epitopes on the VP3 protein of WPV have not been characterized. To understand the antigenic determinants of the VP3 protein, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A6 to screen a set of eight partially expressed overlapping peptides spanning VP3. Using western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we localized the VP3 epitope between amino acids (aa) 57 and 112. To identify the essential epitope residues, a phage library displaying 12-mer random peptides was screened with mAb 4A6. Phage clone peptides displayed a consensus sequence of YxRFHxH that mimicked the sequence 82Y/FNRFHCH88, which corresponded to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of VP3 protein of WPVs. mAb 4A6 binding to biotinylated fragments corresponding to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of the VP3 protein verified that the 82FxRFHxH88 was the VP3 epitope and that amino acids 82F is necessary to retain maximal binding to mAb 4A6. Parvovirus-positive goose and duck sera reacted with the epitope peptide by dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of these amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding reactivity. We identified the motif FxRFHxH as a VP3-specific B-cell epitope that is recognized by the neutralizing mAb 4A6. This finding might be valuable in understanding of the antigenic topology of VP3 of WPV.

  9. Advanced multivariate data analysis to determine the root cause of trisulfide bond formation in a novel antibody-peptide fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Stephen; Holmes, William; Bond, Nicholas J; Lewis, Gareth; Kuiper, Marcel; Turner, Richard; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-10-01

    Product quality heterogeneities, such as a trisulfide bond (TSB) formation, can be influenced by multiple interacting process parameters. Identifying their root cause is a major challenge in biopharmaceutical production. To address this issue, this paper describes the novel application of advanced multivariate data analysis (MVDA) techniques to identify the process parameters influencing TSB formation in a novel recombinant antibody-peptide fusion expressed in mammalian cell culture. The screening dataset was generated with a high-throughput (HT) micro-bioreactor system (Ambr TM 15) using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. The complex dataset was firstly analyzed through the development of a multiple linear regression model focusing solely on the DoE inputs and identified the temperature, pH and initial nutrient feed day as important process parameters influencing this quality attribute. To further scrutinize the dataset, a partial least squares model was subsequently built incorporating both on-line and off-line process parameters and enabled accurate predictions of the TSB concentration at harvest. Process parameters identified by the models to promote and suppress TSB formation were implemented on five 7 L bioreactors and the resultant TSB concentrations were comparable to the model predictions. This study demonstrates the ability of MVDA to enable predictions of the key performance drivers influencing TSB formation that are valid also upon scale-up. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2222-2234. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophorou, Maria A; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune...... and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel...... PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic...

  11. Responses of wild watermelon to drought stress: accumulation of an ArgE homologue and citrulline in leaves during water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, S; Miyake, C; Kohchi, T; Fujii, S; Uchida, M; Yokota, A

    2000-07-01

    Wild watermelon from the Botswana desert had an ability to survive under severe drought conditions by maintaining its water status (water content and water potential). In the analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis of leaf proteins, seven spots were newly induced after watering stopped. One with the molecular mass of 40 kilodaltons of the spots was accumulated abundantly. The cDNA encoding for the protein was cloned based on its amino-terminal sequence and the amino acid sequence deduced from the determined nucleotide sequences of the cDNA exhibited homology to the enzymes belong to the ArgE/DapE/Acy1/Cpg2/YscS protein family (including acetylornithine deacetylase, carboxypeptidase and aminoacylase-1). This suggests that the protein is involved in the release of free amino acid by hydrolyzing a peptidic bond. As the drought stress progressed, citrulline became one of the major components in the total free amino acids. Eight days after withholding watering, although the lower leaves wilted significantly, the upper leaves still maintained their water status and the content of citrulline reached about 50% in the total free amino acids. The accumulation of citrulline during the drought stress in wild watermelon is an unique phenomenon in C3-plants. These results suggest that the drought tolerance of wild watermelon is related to (1) the maintenance of the water status and (2) a metabolic change to accumulate citrulline.

  12. Identification of an immunodominant epitope in glycoproteins B and G of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) using synthetic peptides as antigens in assay of antibodies to HSV in herpes simplex encephalitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, S S; Chandak, N H; Baheti, N N; Purohit, H J; Taori, G M; Daginawala, H F; Kashyap, R S

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Assay of antibody response is widely used in diagnostics of HSE. The aim of this study was to identify an immunodominant epitope determining the antibody response to herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HSE patients. The synthetic peptides that resembled type-common as well as type-specific domains of glycoproteins B (gB) and G (gG) of these viruses were evaluated for binding with IgM and IgG antibodies in CSF samples from HSE and non-HSE patients in ELISA. The QLHDLRF peptide, derived from gB of HSV was found to be an immunodominant epitope in the IgM and IgG antibody response. The patients with confirmed and suspected HSE showed in ELISA against this peptide 26% and 23% positivities for IgM, 43% and 37% positivities for IgG and 17% and 15% for both IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. The total positivities of 86% and 75% for both IgM and IgG antibodies were obtained in the patients with confirmed and suspected HSE, respectively. These results demonstrate that a synthetic peptide-based diagnostics of HSE can be an efficient and easily accessible alternative. This is the first report describing the use of synthetic peptides derived from HSVs in diagnostics of HSE using patientsʹ CSF samples.

  13. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  14. Accumulation of Citrulline by Microbial Arginine Metabolism during Alcoholic Fermentation of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Jiran; Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Zhaohui; Li, Tieqiao; Lu, Liling; Zeng, Weizhu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2018-03-07

    Citrulline, the major precursor of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, is an intermediate catabolite of arginine produced by bacteria present in soy sauce moromi mash. Pediococcus acidilactici is responsible for the formation of citrulline during the lactic acid fermentation process of soy sauce. However, citrulline accumulation during the alcoholic fermentation process and the corresponding bacteria involved have not been identified. Salt-tolerant, arginine-utilizing bacteria were isolated from moromi mash during the alcoholic fermentation process. Under normal cultivation conditions, arginine utilization by these strains did not contribute to citrulline accumulation. However, the conversion of arginine to citrulline by these bacteria increased when cultivated during the alcoholic fermentation process. Additionally, the ethanol-enhanced solubility of free fatty acids in moromi mash stimulated the accumulation of citrulline. Staphylococcus exhibited the highest capability in the conversion of arginine to citrulline.

  15. Characterization of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in male mouse brain using a novel antibody and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Pyke, Charles; Rasch, Morten Grønbech

    2017-01-01

    was abundantly expressed in numerous regions including the septal nucleus, the hypothalamus and the brain stem. GLP-1R protein expression was also observed on neuronal projections in brain regions devoid of any mRNA which has not been observed in earlier reports. Taken together, these findings provide new......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a physiological regulator of appetite and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) lower food intake and bodyweight in both human and animal studies. The effects are mediated through brain GLP-1Rs, and several brain nuclei expressing the GLP-1R may...... be involved. To date, mapping the complete location of GLP-1R protein in the brain has been challenged by lack of good antibodies and the discrepancy between mRNA and protein especially relevant in neuronal axonal processes. Here, we present a novel and specific monoclonal GLP-1R antibody...

  16. Characterization of novel peptide-specific antibodies against the translation elongation factor eEF1A2 and their application for cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalak V. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We intend to characterize the new peptide-specific antibodies against the isoform 2 of translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A2 and determine its presence in the postoperative samples of human breast, lung and stomach tumor tissues. Methods. The analysis of antibody specificity was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used for the determination of the eEF1A2 in the human tumor samples, as well as in the samples of normal tissues surrounding tumors. Results. The antibodies obtained against the eEF1A2 specifically recognized this protein in the cell extracts and histological sections and did not cross-react with the elongation factor 1A isoform 1. eEF1A2 was revealed in the postoperative samples of breast, lung and stomach tumors as well as in the putative normal tissues surrounding tumors. Conclusions. The antibodies obtained against eEF1A2 are highly specific for the antigen and can be used for the immunological studies of tumors.

  17. Serum reactome induced by Bordetella pertussis infection and Pertussis vaccines: qualitative differences in serum antibody recognition patterns revealed by peptide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Advani, Reza; Hallander, Hans O; Maeurer, Markus J

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pattern will help in guided vaccine design. We characterized the specific epitope antigen recognition profiles of serum antibodies ('the reactome') induced by whooping cough and B. pertussis (Bp) vaccines from a case-control study conducted in 1996 in infants enrolled in a Bp vaccine trial in Sweden (Gustafsson, NEJM, 1996, 334, 349-355). Sera from children with whooping cough, vaccinated with Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP) whole-cell (wc), acellular 5 (DPTa5), or with the 2 component (a2) vaccines and from infants receiving only DT (n=10 for each group) were tested with high-content peptide microarrays containing 17 Bp proteins displayed as linear (n=3175) peptide stretches. Slides were incubated with serum and peptide-IgG complexes detected with Cy5-labeled goat anti-human IgG and analyzed using a GenePix 4000B microarray scanner, followed by statistical analysis, using PAM (Prediction Analysis for Microarrays) and the identification of uniquely recognized peptide epitopes. 367/3,085 (11.9%) peptides were recognized in 10/10 sera from children with whooping cough, 239 (7.7%) in DTPwc, 259 (8.4%) in DTPa5, 105 (3.4%) DTPa2, 179 (5.8%) in the DT groups. Recognition of strongly recognized peptides was similar between whooping cough and DPTwc, but statistically different between whooping cough vs. DTPa5 (p<0.05), DTPa2 and DT (p<0.001 vs. both) vaccines. 6/3,085 and 2/3,085 peptides were exclusively recognized in (10/10) sera from children with whooping cough and DTPa2 vaccination, respectively. DTPwc resembles more closely the whooping cough reactome as compared to acellular vaccines. We could identify a unique recognition signature common for each vaccination group (10/10 children). Peptide microarray technology allows detection of subtle differences in

  18. Influence of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Wong, Alexei; Jaime, Salvador J; Gonzales, Joaquin U

    2017-01-01

    L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance. Recent studies have shown that chronic L-citrulline supplementation increases nitric oxide synthesis, decreases blood pressure, and may increase peripheral blood flow. These changes are paralleled by improvements in skeletal muscle oxygenation and performance during endurance exercise. The antihypertensive effect of L-citrulline/watermelon supplementation is evident in adults with prehypertension or hypertension, but not in normotensives. However, L-citrulline supplementation may attenuate the blood pressure response to exercise in normotensive men. The beneficial vascular effects of L-citrulline/watermelon supplementation may stem from improvements in the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. Reductions in resting blood pressure with L-citrulline/watermelon supplementation may have major implications for individuals with prehypertension and hypertension. L-Citrulline supplementation, but not acute ingestion, have shown to improve exercise performance in young healthy adults.

  19. Clinical diagnostic value of combined determination of serum RF, AKA and anti-CCP antibody levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongcan; Xiang Guoqian

    2005-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the clinical usefulness of combined determination of serum rheumatic factor (RF), anti-keratin antibody (AKA) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP antibody) levels for early diagnosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serum RF ( with rate-nephelometry), AKA (with indirect immuno-fluorescence) and anti-CCP antibody (with ELISA) levels were determined in 40 patients with RA, 30 patients with SLE and 30 controls. Results: For diagnosis of RA; the sensitivity and specificity of RF was 70.0% and 90.0% respectively, the sensitivity and specificity of AKA was 35.0% and 96.7%, the sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP-antibody was 85% and 93.3% respectively. With combined determination of RF, AKA and anti-CCP antibody, the sensitivity and specificity would be the highest, being 97.07 and 99.8% respectively. Conclusion: RF, AKA and anti-CCP antibody were useful diagnostic serum markers for rheumatoid arthritis and combined determination of these markers would be very useful for early diagnosis. (authors)

  20. Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Poinsignon, Anne; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2016-12-01

    Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Recent studies have reported that human antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-Aedes contact. The present study aims investigate whether such biomarker could be used for assessing the efficacy of vector control against Aedes. Specific human IgG response to the Nterm-34kDa peptide was assessed from 102 individuals living in urban area of Saint-Denis at La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, before and after the implementation of vector control against Aedes mosquitoes. IgG response decreased after 2 weeks (P Aedes mosquito density, as estimated by entomological parameters and closely correlated to vector control implementation and was not associated with the use of individual protection, daily commuting outside of the house, sex and age. Our findings indicate a probable short-term decrease of human exposure to Aedes bites just after vector control implementation. Results provided in the present study indicate that IgG Ab response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide could be a relevant short-time indicator for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions against Aedes species.

  1. [3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome

    2002-06-14

    Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

  2. Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging.

  3. Production and characterisation of a novel chicken IgY antibody raised against C-terminal peptide from human thymidine kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanjing; Yang, Rongjiang; Zhou, Ji; Bao, Shing; Zou, Li; Zhang, Pinggan; Mao, Yongrong; Wu, Jianping; He, Qimin

    2003-06-01

    Egg yolk is a good source of highly specific antibodies against mammalian antigens because of the phylogenetic distance between birds and mammals. Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) were generated to a synthetic 31-amino acid peptide from the C-terminal of human HeLa thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) enzyme. The anti-TK1 IgY antibody was purified using affinity chromatography against the 31-amino acid peptide. The purified antibody inhibited the catalytic activity of the TK1 enzyme in the CEM TK1(+) cells and recognized the 25-kDa subunit and tetrameric form of TK1, which has a pI value of 8.3. No immunoreaction was observed in CEM TK1(-) cells. Western blot of the serum TK1 (S-TK1) also showed that only a single band was found in the serum of patients with malignancies. No band was seen in healthy serum. Furthermore, dot blots and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) detection of S-TK1 performed on sera of preoperative patients with gastric cancer (GC) (n=31) and healthy controls (n=62) showed that the levels of S-TK1 in the sera of cancer patients were significantly different (Pstage cancer patients (four breast carcinomas, three hepatocarcinomas and four thyroid carcinomas) indicated that a strong staining of TK1 enzyme was found in the cytoplasm of malignant cells. No staining or weak staining was seen in normal tissues. We suggest that screening for TK1 using anti-TK1 IgY may be potentially useful for serological and immunohistochemical detection of TK1 as an early prognosis and for monitoring patients undergoing treatment.

  4. Detection of serum antibodies cross-reacting with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and beta-cell antigen zinc transporter 8 homologous peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Antonio; Masala, Speranza; Blasetti, Francesco; Maiore, Irene; Cossu, Davide; Paccagnini, Daniela; Mameli, Giuseppe; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2014-01-01

    MAP3865c, a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) cell membrane protein, has a relevant sequence homology with zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a beta-cell membrane protein involved in Zn++ transportation. Recently, antibodies recognizing MAP3865c epitopes have been shown to cross-react with ZnT8 in type 1 diabetes patients. The purpose of this study was to detect antibodies against MAP3865c peptides in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and speculate on whether they may somehow be involved in the pathogenesis of this severe retinal disorder. Blood samples were obtained from 62 type 1 and 80 type 2 diabetes patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 81 healthy controls. Antibodies against 6 highly immunogenic MAP3865c peptides were detected by indirect ELISA. Type 1 diabetes patients had significantly higher rates of positive antibodies than controls. Conversely, no statistically significant differences were found between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. After categorization of type 1 diabetes patients into two groups, one with positive, the other with negative antibodies, we found that they had similar mean visual acuity (∼ 0.6) and identical rates of vitreous hemorrhage (28.6%). Conversely, Hashimoto's thyroiditis prevalence was 4/13 (30.7%) in the positive antibody group and 1/49 (2%) in the negative antibody group, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.016). This study confirmed that type 1 diabetes patients have significantly higher rates of positive antibodies against MAP/ZnT8 peptides, but failed to find a correlation between the presence of these antibodies and the severity degree of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The significantly higher prevalence of Hashimoto's disease among type 1 diabetes patients with positive antibodies might suggest a possible common environmental trigger for these conditions.

  5. Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Hsu, Jean W; Emrick, Lisa T; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma citrulline levels predict intestinal toxicity in patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Kotek, Ayse; Arslan, Gungor; Topkan, Erkan (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)), E-mail: hcemonal@hotmail.com; Unal, Birsel (Dept. of Biochemistry, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Yavuz, Aydin; Yavuz, Melek (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Akdeniz Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Radiotherapy (RT) for abdominal and pelvic malignancies often causes severe small bowel toxicity. Citrulline concentrations are known to decrease with intestinal failure. We thus evaluated the feasibility of plasma citrulline levels in predicting radiation-induced intestinal toxicity. Material and methods. Fifty-three patients (36 prostate cancer, 17 endometrial cancer) who received 45 Gy pelvic RT using conventional fractionation were prospectively evaluated. Patients with prostate cancer received an additional 25-30.6 Gy conformal boost. Plasma citrulline levels were assessed on day 0, mid- (week 3) and post-RT (week 8), and four months post-RT. Dose-volume histogram, citrulline concentration changes, and weekly intestinal toxicity scores were analyzed. Results. Mean age was 63 years (range: 43-81 years) and mean baseline citrulline concentration was 38.0 +- 10.1 mumol/l. Citrulline concentrations were significantly reduced at week 3 (27.4 +- 5.9 mumol/l; p < 0.0001), treatment end (29.9 +- 8.8 mumol/l; p < 0.0001), and four months post-treatment (34.3 +- 12.1; p 0.01). The following factor pairs were significantly positively correlated: Citrulline concentration/mean bowel dose during, end of treatment, and four months post-RT; dose-volume parameters/citrulline change groups; cumulative mean radiation dose/intestinal toxicity at end and four months post-RT; citrulline changes/intestinal toxicity during and end of RT. Citrulline concentration changes significantly differed during treatment according to RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p < 0.0001). Although the citrulline changes differed significantly within RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p = 0.003), the difference between Grade 0 and Grade 1 did not differ significantly at the end of the treatment. At four months after RT, no significant differences were apparent. Conclusion. Citrulline-based assessment scores are objective and should be considered in measuring radiation-induced intestinal toxicity

  7. De novo design of peptide immunogens that mimic the coiled coil region of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 glycoprotein 21 transmembrane subunit for induction of native protein reactive neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Roshni; Lynch, Marcus P; Rawale, Sharad V; Sun, Yiping; Kazanji, Mirdad; Kaumaya, Pravin T P

    2004-06-04

    Peptide vaccines able to induce high affinity and protective neutralizing antibodies must rely in part on the design of antigenic epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of the corresponding region in the native protein. We describe the design, structural characterization, immunogenicity, and neutralizing potential of antibodies elicited by conformational peptides derived from the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gp21 envelope glycoprotein spanning residues 347-374. We used a novel template design and a unique synthetic approach to construct two peptides (WCCR2T and CCR2T) that would each assemble into a triple helical coiled coil conformation mimicking the gp21 crystal structure. The peptide B-cell epitopes were grafted onto the epsilon side chains of three lysyl residues on a template backbone construct consisting of the sequence acetyl-XGKGKGKGCONH2 (where X represents the tetanus toxoid promiscuous T cell epitope (TT) sequence 580-599). Leucine substitutions were introduced at the a and d positions of the CCR2T sequence to maximize helical character and stability as shown by circular dichroism and guanidinium hydrochloride studies. Serum from an HTLV-1-infected patient was able to recognize the selected epitopes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mice immunized with the wild-type sequence (WCCR2T) and the mutant sequence (CCR2T) elicited high antibody titers that were capable of recognizing the native protein as shown by flow cytometry and whole virus ELISA. Sera and purified antibodies from immunized mice were able to reduce the formation of syncytia induced by the envelope glycoprotein of HTLV-1, suggesting that antibodies directed against the coiled coil region of gp21 are capable of disrupting cell-cell fusion. Our results indicate that these peptides represent potential candidates for use in a peptide vaccine against HTLV-1.

  8. Structure-activity-based design of a synthetic malaria peptide eliciting sporozoite inhibitory antibodies in a virosomal formulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okitsu, S.L.; Kienzl, U.; Moehle, K.; Silvie, O.; Peduzzi, E.; Mueller, M.S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Matile, H.; Zurbriggen, R.; Mazier, D.; Robinson, J.A.; Pluschke, G.

    2007-01-01

    The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum is a leading candidate antigen for inclusion in a malaria subunit vaccine. We describe here the design of a conformationally constrained synthetic peptide, designated UK-39, which has structural and antigenic similarity to the NPNA-repeat

  9. ArrayPitope: Automated Analysis of Amino Acid Substitutions for Peptide Microarray-Based Antibody Epitope Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skjødt; Østerbye, Thomas; Marcatili, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    -reactivity. B cell epitopes are typically classified as either linear epitopes, i.e. short consecutive segments from the protein sequence or conformational epitopes adapted through native protein folding. Recent advances in high-density peptide microarrays enable high-throughput, high-resolution identification...

  10. Structural Analysis of Der p 1–Antibody Complexes and Comparison with Complexes of Proteins or Peptides with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinski, Tomasz; Pomés, Anna; Majorek, Karolina A.; Glesner, Jill; Offermann, Lesa R.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Chapman, Martin D.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian (INDOOR); (UV); (SC)

    2015-05-29

    Der p 1 is a major allergen from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, that belongs to the papain-like cysteine protease family. To investigate the antigenic determinants of Der p 1, we determined two crystal structures of Der p 1 in complex with the Fab fragments of mAbs 5H8 or 10B9. Epitopes for these two Der p 1–specific Abs are located in different, nonoverlapping parts of the Der p 1 molecule. Nevertheless, surface area and identity of the amino acid residues involved in hydrogen bonds between allergen and Ab are similar. The epitope for mAb 10B9 only showed a partial overlap with the previously reported epitope for mAb 4C1, a cross-reactive mAb that binds Der p 1 and its homolog Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides farinae. Upon binding to Der p 1, the Fab fragment of mAb 10B9 was found to form a very rare α helix in its third CDR of the H chain. To provide an overview of the surface properties of the interfaces formed by the complexes of Der p 1–10B9 and Der p 1–5H8, along with the complexes of 4C1 with Der p 1 and Der f 1, a broad analysis of the surfaces and hydrogen bonds of all complexes of Fab–protein or Fab–peptide was performed. This work provides detailed insight into the cross-reactive and specific allergen–Ab interactions in group 1 mite allergens. The surface data of Fab–protein and Fab–peptide interfaces can be used in the design of conformational epitopes with reduced Ab binding for immunotherapy.

  11. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  12. Sequential immunization with V3 peptides from primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 produces cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates with a matching narrow-neutralization sequence motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Mari; Murakami, Toshio; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Satoshi; Shiosaki, Kouichi; Higuchi, Hirofumi; Makizumi, Keiichi; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Tokiyoshi, Sachio; Matsushita, Shuzo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2006-06-01

    An antibody response capable of neutralizing not only homologous but also heterologous forms of the CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) MNp and CCR5-tropic primary isolate HIV-1 JR-CSF was achieved through sequential immunization with a combination of synthetic peptides representing HIV-1 Env V3 sequences from field and laboratory HIV-1 clade B isolates. In contrast, repeated immunization with a single V3 peptide generated antibodies that neutralized only type-specific laboratory-adapted homologous viruses. To determine whether the cross-neutralization response could be attributed to a cross-reactive antibody in the immunized animals, we isolated a monoclonal antibody, C25, which neutralized the heterologous primary viruses of HIV-1 clade B. Furthermore, we generated a humanized monoclonal antibody, KD-247, by transferring the genes of the complementary determining region of C25 into genes of the human V region of the antibody. KD-247 bound with high affinity to the "PGR" motif within the HIV-1 Env V3 tip region, and, among the established reference antibodies, it most effectively neutralized primary HIV-1 field isolates possessing the matching neutralization sequence motif, suggesting its promise for clinical applications involving passive immunizations. These results demonstrate that sequential immunization with B-cell epitope peptides may contribute to a humoral immune-based HIV vaccine strategy. Indeed, they help lay the groundwork for the development of HIV-1 vaccine strategies that use sequential immunization with biologically relevant peptides to overcome difficulties associated with otherwise poorly immunogenic epitopes.

  13. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  14. Construction of genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage for simultaneous phage display of gold binding peptide 1 and nuclear matrix protein 22 ScFv antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Farnaz; Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Mazlomi, Mohammad Ali; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-11-01

    The most common techniques of antibody phage display are based on the use of M13 filamentous bacteriophages. This study introduces a new genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage displaying multiple copies of a known gold binding peptide on p8 coat proteins. The recombinant helper phages were used to rescue a phagemid vector encoding the p3 coat protein fused to the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) ScFv antibody. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the expression of gold binding peptide 1 (GBP1) on major coat protein p8 significantly enhances the gold-binding affinity of M13 phages. The recombinant bacteriophages at concentrations above 5×10 4 pfu/ml red-shifted the UV-vis absorbance spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); however, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was not changed by the wild type bacteriophages at concentrations up to 10 12 pfu/ml. The phage ELISA assay demonstrated the high affinity binding of bifunctional bacteriophages to NMP22 antigen at concentrations of 10 5 and 10 6 pfu/ml. Thus, the p3 end of the bifunctional bacteriophages would be able to bind to specific target antigen, while the AuNPs were assembled along the coat of virus for signal generation. Our results indicated that the complex of antigen-bacteriophages lead to UV-vis spectral changes of AuNPs and NMP22 antigen in concentration range of 10-80μg/ml can be detected by bifunctional bacteriophages at concentration of 10 4 pfu/ml. The ability of bifunctional bacteriophages to bind to antigen and generate signal at the same time, makes this approach applicable for identifying different antigens in immunoassay techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of baseline rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated peptide antibody serotype on rituximab clinical response: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaacs, John D.; Cohen, Stanley B.; Emery, Paul; Tak, Paul P.; Wang, Jianmei; Lei, Guiyuan; Williams, Sarah; Lal, Preeti; Read, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between serological status (rheumatoid factor and/or anticitrullinated antibody) and rituximab treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been hampered by limited numbers of seronegative patients. To carry out a meta-analysis of trials from the rituximab

  16. Antibody response to a synthetic peptide covering a LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB neutralization epitope and disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, C. A.; de Wolf, F.; Houweling, J. T.; Bakker, M.; Dekker, J.; Roos, M. T.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Noordaa, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sequential sera of homosexual men participating in a prospective study on the incidence of HIV-1 infection and risk factors for AIDS were tested for the presence of antibodies to a synthetic 17-mer (Neu21; KSIRIQRGPGRAFVTIG) representing a neutralization epitope as present on the LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB

  17. High-density peptide microarray exploration of the antibody response in a rabbit immunized with a neurotoxic venom fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Polyvalent snakebite antivenoms derive their therapeutic success from the ability of their antibodies to neutralize venom toxins across multiple snake species. This ability results from a production process involving immunization of large mammals with a broad suite of toxins present in venoms...

  18. Establishment of the cross-clade antigen detection system for H5 subtype influenza viruses using peptide monoclonal antibodies specific for influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nagata, Shiho; Odagiri, Takato; Kageyama, Tsutomu

    2018-04-15

    The H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5 HPAI) viruses is a threat to both animal and human public health and has the potential to cause a serious future pandemic in humans. Thus, specific and rapid detection of H5 HPAI viruses is required for infection control in humans. To develop a simple and rapid diagnostic system to detect H5 HPAI viruses with high specificity and sensitivity, we attempted to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically recognize linear epitopes in hemagglutinin (HA) of H5 subtype viruses. Nine mAb clones were obtained from mice immunized with a synthetic partial peptide of H5 HA molecules conserved among various H5 HPAI viruses. The antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the most suitable combination of these mAbs, which bound specifically to lysed H5 HA under an optimized detergent condition, was specific for H5 viruses and could broadly detect H5 viruses in multiple different clades. Taken together, these peptide mAbs, which recognize linear epitopes in a highly conserved region of H5 HA, may be useful for specific and highly sensitive detection of H5 HPAI viruses and can help in the rapid diagnosis of human, avian, and animal H5 virus infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Immunosensor Based on Antibody Binding Fragments Attached to Gold Nanoparticles for the Detection of Peptides Derived from Avian Influenza Hemagglutinin H5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Jarocka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the development of an immunosensor for detection of peptides derived from avian influenza hemagglutinin H5. Its preparation consists of successive gold electrode modification steps: (i modification with 1,6-hexanedithiol and gold colloidal nanoparticles; (ii immobilization of antibody-binding fragments (Fab’ of anti-hemagglutinin H5 monoclonal antibodies Mab 6-9-1 via S-Au covalent bonds; and (iii covering the remaining free space on the electrode surfaces with bovine serum albumin. The interactions between Fab’ fragments and hemagglutinin (HA variants have been explored with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in the presence of [Fe(CN6]3−/4− as an electroactive marker. The immunosensor was able to recognize three different His-tagged variants of recombinant hemagglutinin from H5N1 viruses: H1 subunit (17–340 residues of A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006, the long HA (17–530 residues A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/12/2005 and H1 subunit (1–345 residues of A/Vietnam/1194/2004. The strongest response has been observed for the long variant with detection limit of 2.2 pg/mL and dynamic range from 4.0 to 20.0 pg/mL.

  20. Prevention of stress- or nitric oxide donor-induced medication overuse headache by a calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; Eyde, Nathan Mackenzie; Remeniuk, Bethany; Walter, Sarah; Stratton, Jennifer; Bigal, Marcelo; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias; Dodick, David; Porreca, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was the determination of the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the induction of medication overuse headache (MOH)-related migraine in an injury-free preclinical model. Methods Rats were primed by a 7-day period of exposure to acute migraine therapies including sumatriptan and morphine. After an additional 14-day drug-free period, rats were exposed to putative migraine triggers including bright light stress (BLS) or nitric oxide (NO) donor in the presence or absence of TEV48125, a fully humanized CGRP antibody. Cutaneous allodynia (CA) was used as an outcome measure and CGRP blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels were measured. Results BLS and NO donor challenge evoked delayed, long-lasting CA selectively in rats that were previously treated with sumatriptan or morphine. BLS produced a significant increase in CGRP in the plasma, but not CSF, in animals that were previously exposed to sumatriptan compared to saline controls. TEV48125 did not modify baseline tactile thresholds or produce behavioral side effects, but significantly inhibited both BLS- and NO donor-induced CA in animals that were previously primed with sumatriptan or morphine; an isotype control protein that does not bind CGRP had no effect. Interpretation These data suggest that acute migraine medications may promote MOH in susceptible individuals through CGRP-dependent mechanisms and that anti-CGRP antibodies may be a useful clinical strategy for the treatment of MOH.

  1. Plasma glutamine is a minor precursor for the synthesis of citrulline: A multispecies study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamine is considered the main precursor for citrulline synthesis in many species, including humans. The transfer of 15N from 2[15N]-glutamine to citrulline has been used as evidence for this precursor-product relationship. However, work in mice has shown that nitrogen and carbon tracers follow di...

  2. Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Mifune, Yuki; Morita, Kaori; Ishitsuka, Souichi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ishihara, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Williamson, Kaitlin C.; Craigen, William J.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:25411654

  4. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Williamson, Kaitlin C; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  5. Meta-analysis reveals an association of STAT4 polymorphisms with systemic autoimmune disorders and anti-dsDNA antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junfeng; Yin, Junping; Huang, Renliang; Petersen, Frank; Yu, Xinhua

    2013-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) has been recently identified as a susceptibility gene for multiple autoimmune diseases. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of the association between STAT4 and several different autoimmune disorders to identify potential common inflammatory principles behind this association. Our meta-analysis revealed that the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism is associated with four autoimmune diseases with systemic pathology, including systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.48 - 1.56, Prs7574865 polymorphism is associated with the presence of autoantibodies with systemic reactivity (anti-ds-DNA antibodies) in SLE patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.21 - 1.56, P = 1.12 × 10(-6)). However, no such specific association was seen in RA with regard to the presence of non-systemically reacting antibodies, including rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. Taken together, these results suggest that STAT4 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases which are characterized by a systemic pathology and anti-dsDNA antibody. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro neutralization of HCV by goat antibodies against peptides encompassing regions downstream of HVR-1 of E2 glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabll, Ashraf A; Atef, Khaled; Bader El Din, Noha G; El Abd, Yasmine S; Salem, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed A; Dawood, Reham M; Omran, Moataza H; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at testing several in vitro systems with various viral sources and cell lines for propagation of HCV to evaluate goat antibodies raised against three E2 epitopes in viral neutralization experiments. Four human cell lines (Huh-7, Huh-7.5, HepG2, and CaCo2) were tested using two different HCV viral sources; Genotype 4 infected sera and J6/JFH HCV cc particles. Neutralization capacity of goat Abs against conserved E2 epitopes; p412 (a.a 412-419), p517 (a.a 517-531), and p430 (a.a 430-447) were examined in the above mentioned in vitro systems. Although infection with patients' sera seems to mimic the in vitro situation, it has limited replication rates as compared with HCV cc particularly in Huh7.5 cells. Non-HCV adapted Huh-7 cells were also found susceptible for transfection with J6/JFH virus but at much slower kinetics. The results of the neutralization assay showed that anti p412 and anti p517 were highly neutralizing to HCVcc. Our data demonstrate that antibodies directed against the viral surface glycoprotein E2 reduced the infectivity of the J6/JFH virus and are promising agents for immunotherapy and HCV vaccine development.

  7. Effects of an Aβ-antibody fragment on Aβ aggregation and astrocytic uptake are modulated by apolipoprotein E and J mimetic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Montoliu-Gaya

    Full Text Available Aβ-Immunotherapy has long been studied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but not how other molecules involved in the disease can affect antibody performance. We previously designed an antibody fragment, scFv-h3D6, and showed that it precludes Aβ-induced cytotoxicity by withdrawing Aβ oligomers from the amyloid pathway towards a non-toxic, worm-like pathway. ScFv-h3D6 was effective at the behavioral, cellular, and molecular levels in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Because scFv-h3D6 treatment restored apolipoprotein E (apoE and J (apoJ concentrations to non-pathological values, and Aβ internalization by glial cells was found to be decreased in the presence of these apolipoproteins, we now aimed to test the influence of scFv-h3D6 on Aβ aggregation and cellular uptake by primary human astrocytes in the presence of therapeutic apoE and apoJ mimetic peptides (MPs. Firstly, we demonstrated by CD and FTIR that the molecules used in this work were well folded. Next, interactions between apoE or apoJ-MP, scFv-h3D6 and Aβ were studied by CD. The conformational change induced by the interaction of Aβ with apoE-MP was much bigger than the induced with apoJ-MP, in line with the observed formation of protective worm-like fibrils by the scFv-h3D6/Aβ complex in the presence of apoJ-MP, but not of apoE-MP. ScFv-h3D6, apoJ-MP, and apoE-MP to a different extent reduced Aβ uptake by astrocytes, and apoE-MP partially interfered with the dramatic reduction by scFv-h3D6 while apoJ-MP had no effect on scFv-h3D6 action. As sustained Aβ uptake by astrocytes may impair their normal functions, and ultimately neuronal viability, this work shows another beneficence of scFv-h3D6 treatment, which is not further improved by the use of apoE or apoJ mimetic peptides.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  9. NOG-hIL-4-Tg, a new humanized mouse model for producing tumor antigen-specific IgG antibody by peptide vaccination.

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    Yoshie Kametani

    Full Text Available Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs are promising tools to evaluate human immune responses to vaccines. However, these mice usually develop severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, which makes estimation of antigen-specific IgG production after antigen immunization difficult. To evaluate antigen-specific IgG responses in PBMC-transplanted immunodeficient mice, we developed a novel NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγnull (NOG mouse strain that systemically expresses the human IL-4 gene (NOG-hIL-4-Tg. After human PBMC transplantation, GVHD symptoms were significantly suppressed in NOG-hIL-4-Tg compared to conventional NOG mice. In kinetic analyses of human leukocytes, long-term engraftment of human T cells has been observed in peripheral blood of NOG-hIL-4-Tg, followed by dominant CD4+ T rather than CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, these CD4+ T cells shifted to type 2 helper (Th2 cells, resulting in long-term suppression of GVHD. Most of the human B cells detected in the transplanted mice had a plasmablast phenotype. Vaccination with HER2 multiple antigen peptide (CH401MAP or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH successfully induced antigen-specific IgG production in PBMC-transplanted NOG-hIL-4-Tg. The HLA haplotype of donor PBMCs might not be relevant to the antibody secretion ability after immunization. These results suggest that the human PBMC-transplanted NOG-hIL-4-Tg mouse is an effective tool to evaluate the production of antigen-specific IgG antibodies.

  10. Identification and quantitation of asparagine and citrulline using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2007-03-28

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used for identification of two problematic ureides, asparagine and citrulline. We report here a technique that takes advantage of the predictable delay in retention time of the co-asparagine/citrulline peak to enable both qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagine and citrulline using the Platinum EPS reverse-phase C18 column (Alltech Associates). Asparagine alone is eluted earlier than citrulline alone, but when both of them are present in biological samples they may co-elute. HPLC retention times for asparagine and citrulline were influenced by other ureides in the mixture. We found that at various asparagines and citrulline ratios [= 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3; corresponding to 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 (microMol ml(-1)/microMol ml(-1))], the resulting peak exhibited different retention times. Adjustment of ureide ratios as internal standards enables peak identification and quantification. Both chemicals were quantified in xylem sap samples of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees. Analysis revealed that tree nickel nutrition status affects relative concentrations of Urea Cycle intermediates, asparagine and citrulline, present in sap. Consequently, we concluded that the HPLC methods are presented to enable qualitative and quantitative analysis of these metabolically important ureides.

  11. Identification and Quantitation of Asparagine and Citrulline Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC

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    Cheng Bai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was used for identification of two problematic ureides, asparagine and citrulline. We report here a technique that takes advantage of the predictable delay in retention time of the co-asparagine/citrulline peak to enable both qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagine and citrulline using the Platinum EPS reverse-phase C18 column (Alltech Associates. Asparagine alone is eluted earlier than citrulline alone, but when both of them are present in biological samples they may co-elute. HPLC retention times for asparagine and citrulline were influenced by other ureides in the mixture. We found that at various asparagines and citrulline ratios [= 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3; corresponding to 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 (μMol ml–1/μMol ml–1], the resulting peak exhibited different retention times. Adjustment of ureide ratios as internal standards enables peak identification and quantification. Both chemicals were quantified in xylem sap samples of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch] trees. Analysis revealed that tree nickel nutrition status affects relative concentrations of Urea Cycle intermediates, asparagine and citrulline, present in sap. Consequently, we concluded that the HPLC methods are presented to enable qualitative and quantitative analysis of these metabolically important ureides.

  12. Peptide-Based Vaccinology: Experimental and Computational Approaches to Target Hypervariable Viruses through the Fine Characterization of Protective Epitopes Recognized by Monoclonal Antibodies and the Identification of T-Cell-Activating Peptides

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    Matteo Castelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining immunogenic domains of viral proteins capable of eliciting a protective immune response is crucial in the development of novel epitope-based prophylactic strategies. This is particularly important for the selective targeting of conserved regions shared among hypervariable viruses. Studying postinfection and postimmunization sera, as well as cloning and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, still represents the best approach to identify protective epitopes. In particular, a protective mAb directed against conserved regions can play a key role in immunogen design and in human therapy as well. Experimental approaches aiming to characterize protective mAb epitopes or to identify T-cell-activating peptides are often burdened by technical limitations and can require long time to be correctly addressed. Thus, in the last decade many epitope predictive algorithms have been developed. These algorithms are continually evolving, and their use to address the empirical research is widely increasing. Here, we review several strategies based on experimental techniques alone or addressed by in silico analysis that are frequently used to predict immunogens to be included in novel epitope-based vaccine approaches. We will list the main strategies aiming to design a new vaccine preparation conferring the protection of a neutralizing mAb combined with an effective cell-mediated response.

  13. [Preparation of citrulline microspheres by spray drying technique for colonic targeting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, S; Zerrouk, N; Lassoued, M-A; Tsapis, N; Chaumeil, J-C; Sfar, S

    2014-03-01

    Citrulline is an amino acid that becomes essential in situations of intestinal insufficiency such as short bowel syndrome. It is therefore interesting to provide the patients with dosage forms for routing citrulline to the colon. The aim of this work is to formulate microspheres of citrulline for colonic targeting by the technique of spray drying. Eudragit(®) FS 30D was selected as polymer to encapsulate citrulline using the spray drying technique. Citrulline and Eudragit(®) FS 30D were dissolved in water and ethanol, respectively. The aqueous and the ethanolic solutions were then mixed in 1:2 (v/v) ratio. Microspheres were obtained by nebulizing the citrulline-Eudragit(®) FS 30D solution using a Mini spray dryer equipped with a 0.7mm nozzle. The microspheres have been formulated using citrulline and Eudragit(®) FS 30D. The size distribution of microspheres was determined by light diffraction. The morphology of the microspheres was studied by electron microscopy. Manufacturing yields, encapsulation rate and dissolution profiles were also studied. The microspheres obtained had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and a homogeneous size except for the microspheres containing the highest concentration of polymer (90 %). The formulation showed that the size and morphology of the microspheres are influenced by the polymer concentration. Manufacturing yields were about 51 % but encapsulation rate were always very high (above 90 %). The in vitro dissolution study showed that the use of the Eudragit(®) FS 30D under these conditions is not appropriate to change the dissolution profile of the citrulline. This technique has led to the formulation of microspheres with good physical properties in terms of morphology and size. The compression of the microspheres should help to control citrulline release for colonic targeting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. L-citrulline provides a novel strategy for treating chronic pulmonary hypertension in newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Candice D.; Summar, Marshall; Aschner, Judy L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapies are urgently needed for infants with forms of pulmonary hypertension that develop or persist beyond the first week of life. The L-arginine nitric oxide (NO) precursor, L-citrulline, improves NO signalling and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in newborn animal models. In vitro studies demonstrate that manipulating L-citrulline transport alters NO production. Conclusion Strategies that increase the supply and transport of L-citrulline merit pursuit as novel approaches to managing infants with chronic, progressive pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24862864

  15. Plasma citrulline levels predict intestinal toxicity in patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Cem; Kotek, Ayse; Arslan, Gungor; Topkan, Erkan; Unal, Birsel; Yavuz, Aydin; Yavuz, Melek

    2011-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy (RT) for abdominal and pelvic malignancies often causes severe small bowel toxicity. Citrulline concentrations are known to decrease with intestinal failure. We thus evaluated the feasibility of plasma citrulline levels in predicting radiation-induced intestinal toxicity. Material and methods. Fifty-three patients (36 prostate cancer, 17 endometrial cancer) who received 45 Gy pelvic RT using conventional fractionation were prospectively evaluated. Patients with prostate cancer received an additional 25-30.6 Gy conformal boost. Plasma citrulline levels were assessed on day 0, mid- (week 3) and post-RT (week 8), and four months post-RT. Dose-volume histogram, citrulline concentration changes, and weekly intestinal toxicity scores were analyzed. Results. Mean age was 63 years (range: 43-81 years) and mean baseline citrulline concentration was 38.0 ± 10.1 μmol/l. Citrulline concentrations were significantly reduced at week 3 (27.4 ± 5.9 μmol/l; p < 0.0001), treatment end (29.9 ± 8.8 μmol/l; p < 0.0001), and four months post-treatment (34.3 ± 12.1; p 0.01). The following factor pairs were significantly positively correlated: Citrulline concentration/mean bowel dose during, end of treatment, and four months post-RT; dose-volume parameters/citrulline change groups; cumulative mean radiation dose/intestinal toxicity at end and four months post-RT; citrulline changes/intestinal toxicity during and end of RT. Citrulline concentration changes significantly differed during treatment according to RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p < 0.0001). Although the citrulline changes differed significantly within RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p = 0.003), the difference between Grade 0 and Grade 1 did not differ significantly at the end of the treatment. At four months after RT, no significant differences were apparent. Conclusion. Citrulline-based assessment scores are objective and should be considered in measuring radiation-induced intestinal toxicity

  16. Anti-human α-synuclein N-terminal peptide antibody protects against dopaminergic cell death and ameliorates behavioral deficits in an AAV-α-synuclein rat model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Md Shahaduzzaman

    Full Text Available The protein α-synuclein (α-Syn has a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD and immunotherapeutic approaches targeting this molecule have shown promising results. In this study, novel antibodies were generated against specific peptides from full length human α-Syn and evaluated for effectiveness in ameliorating α-Syn-induced cell death and behavioral deficits in an AAV-α-Syn expressing rat model of PD. Fisher 344 rats were injected with rAAV vector into the right substantia nigra (SN, while control rats received an AAV vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. Beginning one week after injection of the AAV-α-Syn vectors, rats were treated intraperitoneally with either control IgG or antibodies against the N-terminal (AB1, or central region (AB2 of α-Syn. An unbiased stereological estimation of TH+, NeuN+, and OX6 (MHC-II immunostaining revealed that the α-Syn peptide antibodies (AB1 and AB2 significantly inhibited α-Syn-induced dopaminergic cell (DA and NeuN+ cell loss (one-way ANOVA (F (3, 30 = 5.8, p = 0.002 and (F (3, 29 = 7.92, p = 0.002 respectively, as well as decreasing the number of activated microglia in the ipsilateral SN (one-way ANOVA F = 14.09; p = 0.0003. Antibody treated animals also had lower levels of α-Syn in the ipsilateral SN (one-way ANOVA F (7, 37 = 9.786; p = 0.0001 and demonstrated a partial intermediate improvement of the behavioral deficits. Our data suggest that, in particular, an α-Syn peptide antibody against the N-terminal region of the protein can protect against DA neuron loss and, to some extent behavioral deficits. As such, these results may be a potential therapeutic strategy for halting the progression of PD.

  17. Antibody Characterization Process | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the NCI's Antibody Characterization Program (ACP) is to have three monoclonal antibodies produced for each successfully expressed/purified recombinant antigen and one antibody per peptide (1 to 3 peptides per protein). To date, over 4000 clones have been screened before selecting the current 393 antibodies. They are winnowed down based on the projected end use of the antibody.

  18. The effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extracts and L-citrulline on rat uterine contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munglue, Phukphon; Eumkep, Graingsak; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2013-04-01

    In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of watermelon and its citrulline content are unknown. The aims of this study were therefore, to determine the effects of watermelon extract and citrulline on the myometrium and to investigate their mechanisms of action. The effects of extracts of watermelon flesh and rind and L-citrulline (64 μmol/L) were evaluated on 3 types of contractile activity; spontaneous, those elicited by potassium chloride (KCl) depolarization, or oxytocin (10 nmol/L) application in isolated rat uterus. Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and its mechanisms of action, N ω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L), LY83583 (1 μmol/L), and tetraethylamonium chloride (5 mmol/L), as well as Ca signaling pathways, were determined. Both flesh and rind extracts significantly decreased the force produced by all 3 mechanisms, in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts could also significantly decrease the force under conditions of sustained high Ca levels (depolarization and agonist) and when the force was produced only by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release. L-citrulline produced the same effects on force as watermelon extracts. With submaximal doses of extract, the additive effects of L-citrulline were found. The inhibitory effects of extracts and L-citrulline were reversed upon the addition of NO inhibitors, and pretreatment of tissues with these inhibitors prevented the actions of both extracts and L-citrulline. Thus, these data show that watermelon and citrulline are potent tocolytics, decreasing the force produced by calcium entry and SR release and arising by different pathways, including oxytocin stimulation. Their major mechanism is to stimulate the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) relaxant pathway.

  19. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery.

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    Gabriele Gadermaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery (Apium graveolens represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. METHODOLOGY: 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP and nPru p 3 (peach LTP using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected patients with reactivity to LTP under investigation were evaluated. Specific IgE titers and cross-inhibitions were performed in ELISA and allergen microarray. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified LTPs; IgG titers were determined in ELISA and mediator release was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. Simulated endolysosomal digestion was performed using microsomes obtained from human DCs. RESULTS: IgE testing showed a sensitization prevalence of 25.6% to Api g 2, 18.6% to Art v 3, and 28.6% to Pru p 3 and frequent co-sensitization and correlating IgE-reactivity was observed. 10/32 patients suffering from LTP-related allergy reported symptoms upon consumption of celery stalks which mainly presented as OAS. Considerable IgE cross-reactivity was observed between Api g 2, Art v 3, and Pru p 3 with varying inhibition degrees of individual patients' sera. Simulating LTP mono-sensitization in a mouse model showed development of more congruent antibody specificities between Api g 2 and Art v 3. Notably, biologically relevant murine IgE cross-reactivity was restricted to the latter and diverse from Pru p 3 epitopes. Endolysosomal processing of LTP showed generation of similar clusters, which presumably represent T-cell peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Api g 2 represents a relevant celery stalk allergen in the LTP-sensitized population. The molecule displays common B cell epitopes and endolysosomal peptides that encompass T cell epitopes with pollen and plant-food derived LTP.

  20. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Egger, Matthias; Ferrara, Rosetta; Briza, Peter; Santos, Keity Souza; Zennaro, Danila; Girbl, Tamara; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP) and nPru p 3 (peach LTP) using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected patients with reactivity to LTP under investigation were evaluated. Specific IgE titers and cross-inhibitions were performed in ELISA and allergen microarray. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified LTPs; IgG titers were determined in ELISA and mediator release was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. Simulated endolysosomal digestion was performed using microsomes obtained from human DCs. IgE testing showed a sensitization prevalence of 25.6% to Api g 2, 18.6% to Art v 3, and 28.6% to Pru p 3 and frequent co-sensitization and correlating IgE-reactivity was observed. 10/32 patients suffering from LTP-related allergy reported symptoms upon consumption of celery stalks which mainly presented as OAS. Considerable IgE cross-reactivity was observed between Api g 2, Art v 3, and Pru p 3 with varying inhibition degrees of individual patients' sera. Simulating LTP mono-sensitization in a mouse model showed development of more congruent antibody specificities between Api g 2 and Art v 3. Notably, biologically relevant murine IgE cross-reactivity was restricted to the latter and diverse from Pru p 3 epitopes. Endolysosomal processing of LTP showed generation of similar clusters, which presumably represent T-cell peptides. Api g 2 represents a relevant celery stalk allergen in the LTP-sensitized population. The molecule displays common B cell epitopes and endolysosomal peptides that encompass T cell epitopes with pollen and plant-food derived LTP.

  1. Identification of a second T-cell antigen receptor in human and mouse by an anti-peptide γ-chain-specific monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, C.G.; Itoh, K.; Fox, F.E.; Pahwa, R.; Good, R.A.; Platsoucas, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (9D7) against a synthetic peptide (P13K) selected from the deduced amino acid sequence of the constant region of the λ chain of the murine T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) (amino acids 118-130). Using this mAb, they identified a putative second TCR expressed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that were propagated in culture with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and Con A. This mAb immunoprecipitated two polypeptide chains of 40 and 58 kDa under nonreducing conditions and of 40 and 56 kDa under reducing conditions from 125 I-labeled denatured lysates of T3 + WT31 - lymphocytes expanded in culture from a SCID patient. Chemical crosslinking of 125 I-labeled cells followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-Leu-4 mAb under nonreducing or reducing conditions revealed that the 40- and 56-kDa polypeptide chains were associated with the T3 differentiation antigen. These experiments were done with polyclonal cell populations. Cloned T3 + WT31 - cell populations are required to determine whether the TCR contains two λ polypeptide chains. Using the same 9D7 anti-P18K mAb and immunoblotting analysis, they identified a 35 kDa γ-chain polypeptide under reducing conditions expressed on purified L3T4 - Lyt2 - BALB/c mouse thymocytes. This γ-chain TCR is disulfide linked and has a molecular mass of 80 kDa under nonreducing conditions

  2. Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Julia; Lugonja, Božo; Jimmy Ytterberg, A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Creese, Andrew J.; Pearson, Mark J.; Grant, Melissa M.; Milward, Michael; Lundberg, Karin; Buckley, Christopher D.; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Paul R.; Chapple, Iain L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antibodies specifically recognize citrullinated autoantigens that are generated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Neutrophils express high levels of PAD and accumulate in the synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients during disease flares. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that neutrophil cell death, induced by either NETosis (extrusion of genomic DNA–protein complexes known as neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) or necrosis, can contribute to production of autoantigens in the inflamed joint. Methods Extracellular DNA was quantified in the SF of patients with RA, patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Release of PAD from neutrophils was investigated by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence staining, and PAD activity assays. PAD2 and PAD4 protein expression, as well as PAD enzymatic activity, were assessed in the SF of patients with RA and those with OA. Results Extracellular DNA was detected at significantly higher levels in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.001) or PsA SF (P < 0.05), and its expression levels correlated with neutrophil concentrations and PAD activity in RA SF. Necrotic neutrophils released less soluble extracellular DNA compared to NETotic cells in vitro (P < 0.05). Higher PAD activity was detected in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.05). The citrullinated proteins PAD2 and PAD4 were found attached to NETs and also freely diffused in the supernatant. PAD enzymatic activity was detected in supernatants of neutrophils undergoing either NETosis or necrosis. Conclusion Release of active PAD isoforms into the SF by neutrophil cell death is a plausible explanation for the generation of extracellular autoantigens in RA. PMID:26245941

  3. Periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats.

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    Mônica G Corrêa

    Full Text Available This study investigated some immunological features by experimental periodontitis (EP and rheumatoid arthritis (RA disease interact in destructive processes in arthritic rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: EP +RA; RA; EP; and Negative Control. RA was induced by immunizations with type-II collagen and a local immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant in the paw. Periodontitis was induced by ligating the right first molars. The serum level of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACCPA were measured before the induction of EP (T1 and at 28 days after (T2 by ELISA assay. ACCPA levels were also measured in the gingival tissue at T2. The specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss, and the gingival tissue surrounding the first molar was collected for the quantification of interleukin IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α using a Luminex/MAGpix assay. Paw edema was analyzed using a plethysmometer. Periodontitis increased the RF and ACCPA levels in the serum and in the gingival tissue, respectively. Besides, the level of paw swelling was increased by EP and remained in progress until the end of the experiment, when EP was associated with RA. Greater values of IL-17 were observed only when RA was present, in spite of PE. It can be concluded that periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins level in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats; at the same time, arthritis increases periodontal destruction, confirming the bidirectional interaction between diseases.

  4. Overlapping but distinct specificities of anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis type II and hepatitis C revealed by recombinant native CYP2D6 and novel peptide epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Zanger, U M; Berg, T; Hopf, U; Berg, P A

    1999-01-01

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies (anti-LKM) occur in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type II and in a subset of patients with hepatitis C. Anti-LKM1 in AIH are directed against cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), but conflicting data exist concerning the specificity of anti-LKM in hepatitis C. The aim of this study was to evaluate binding specificities of anti-LKM antibodies in both diseases using novel test antigens as well as their inhibitory capacity on CYP2D6 enzyme activity. Sera from 22 patients with AIH type II and 17 patients with hepatitis C being anti-LKM-positive in the immunofluorescence test were investigated for binding to native recombinant CYP2D6 and liver microsomes by ELISA and immunoblotting, and to synthetic peptides covering the region 254–339 (254–273, 257–269, 270–294, 291–310, 307–324, 321–339, 373–389) as well as the novel peptide 196–218 by ELISA. Furthermore, all sera were tested for inhibition of CYP2D6-dependent bufuralol 1′-hydroxylase activity. Twenty of the 22 AIH type II sera (91%) and nine of the 17 hepatitis C sera (53%) were positive for CYP2D6 by ELISA and/or immunoblotting. The previously described major peptide epitope comprising CYP2D6 amino acids 257–269 was recognized by 16 of the 22 AIH sera but by only one hepatitis C serum. A further epitope, 196–218, could be defined for the first time as another immunodominant epitope for AIH because it was recognized by 15 of the 22 AIH (68%) but only three of the 17 hepatitis C sera (18%). With the exception of the peptide 254–273, the other peptides showed no significant reactivity. Analysing the inhibitory properties of anti-LKM antibodies it emerged that 95% of AIH sera and 88% of hepatitis C sera inhibited enzyme function. These data indicate that anti-LKM antibodies in AIH and hepatitis C react with CYP2D6, as shown by their inhibitory activity, and that besides the known epitope 257–269 a further immunodominant epitope exists on CYP2D6 which is recognized

  5. Active immunization with the peptide epitope vaccine Aβ3-10-KLH induces a Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and decreases amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Meng, Yuan; Zhang, Hui-Yi; Yin, Wen-Chao; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2016-11-10

    Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is effective in preventing Aβ deposition, facilitating plaque clearance, and improving cognitive functions in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Developing a safe and effective AD vaccine requires a delicate balance between inducing adequate humoral immune responses and avoiding T cell-mediated autoimmune responses. In this study, we designed 2 peptide epitope vaccines, Aβ3-10-KLH and 5Aβ3-10, prepared respectively by coupling Aβ3-10 to the immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or by joining 5 Aβ3-10 epitopes linearly in tandem. Young APP/PS1 mice were immunized subcutaneously with Aβ3-10-KLH or 5Aβ3-10 mixed with Freund's adjuvant, and the immunopotencies of these Aβ3-10 peptide vaccines were tested. Aβ3-10-KLH elicited a robust Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and inhibited Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice. However, 5Aβ3-10 did not induce an effective humoral immune response. These results indicated that Aβ3-10-KLH may be a safe and efficient vaccine for AD and that conjugating the antigen to a carrier protein may be more effective than linking multiple peptide antigens in tandem in applications for antibody production and vaccine preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heritability and genetic variance for citrulline, arginine and lycopene content in a diverse set of watermelon cultigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrulline, arginine, and lycopene are naturally occurring compounds found in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum & Nakai, with beneficial effects on plant growth and human health. This study evaluated seven commercial cultivars and one breeding line for citrulline, arginine, and lycopene c...

  7. Characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for reduction of citrulline accumulation during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the amount of citrulline produced by arginine-consuming bacteria in the moromi mash during soy sauce production. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JY06, a salt-tolerant strain with high arginine consumption ability and low citrulline accumulation capacity, was isolated from moromi mash. The concentration of citrulline was decreased from 26.8 to 5.1 mM and ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, after sterilization, decreased from 97 to 17 μg kg(-1) when B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 was added during fermentation. The aroma of the sauce was improved by increasing the ester content. B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 is a beneficial bacterium that can be used in soy sauce fermentation to eliminate ethyl carbonate and enhance the flavor of the sauce.

  8. L-citrulline supplementation reverses the impaired airway relaxation in neonatal rats exposed to hyperoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopi Ramadan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperoxia is shown to impair airway relaxation via limiting L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxide synthase (NOS and reducing NO production as a consequence. L-arginine can also be synthesized by L-citrulline recycling. The role of L-citrulline supplementation was investigated in the reversing of hyperoxia-induced impaired relaxation of rat tracheal smooth muscle (TSM. Methods Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 2–20 V-induced relaxation was measured under in vitro conditions in preconstricted tracheal preparations obtained from 12 day old rat pups exposed to room air or hyperoxia (>95% oxygen for 7 days supplemented with L-citrulline or saline (in vitro or in vivo. The role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle under basal conditions was studied by incubation of preparations in the presence of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS inhibitor [α-methyl-D, L-aspartate, 1 mM] or argininosuccinate lyase inhibitor (ASL succinate (1 mM and/or NOS inhibitor [Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 100 μM] with respect to the presence or absence of L-citrulline (2 mM. Results Hyperoxia impaired the EFS-induced relaxation of TSM as compared to room air control (p ; 0.5 ± 0.1% at 2 V to 50.6 ± 5.7% at 20 V in hyperoxic group: 0.7 ± 0.2 at 2 V to 80.0 ± 5.6% at 20 V in room air group. Inhibition of ASS or ASL, and L-citrulline supplementation did not affect relaxation responses under basal conditions. However, inhibition of NOS significantly reduced relaxation responses (p in vivo and in vitro also reversed the hyperoxia-impaired relaxation. The differences were significant (p ; 0.8 ± 0.3% at 2 V to 47.1 ± 4.1% at 20 V without L-citrulline; 0.9 ± 0.3% at 2 V to 68.2 ± 4.8% at 20 V with L-citrulline. Inhibition of ASS or ASL prevented this effect of L-citrulline. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of an L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in the airways of rat pups

  9. Plasma l-citrulline concentrations in l-arginine-supplemented healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K M; Kellihan, H B; Trepanier, L A

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether oral l-arginine increases plasma [l-citrulline] in dogs. Eleven healthy staff-owned dogs were used in this study. Dogs (n = 3) were given l-arginine (50mg/kg PO q8h) for 7 days, and plasma [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography at baseline (BL), steady state trough, and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after final dosing on day 7. Eleven dogs were then treated with 100mg/kg l-arginine PO q8h for 7 days, and [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] were measured at BL, steady state trough, and at peak 4 hrs after dosing (T4 hrs). - Plasma [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] peaked at T4 hrs on the 50mg/kg dosage. Target outcome, modeled after human study results, of a doubling of [l-arginine] and a 25-30% increase in [l-citrulline] from BL were not reached. After the 100mg/kg dosage, plasma [l-arginine] increased from a BL median of 160.1 μM (range, 100.2-231.4 μM) to a peak of 417.4 μM (206.5-807.3 μM) at T4 hrs, and plasma [l-citrulline] increased from a BL median of 87.8 μM (59.1-117.1 μM) to peak of 102.2 μM (47.4-192.6 μM) at T4 hrs. Ten of eleven dogs showed a doubling of plasma [l-arginine] and 4/11 dogs achieved 25-30% or greater increases in plasma [l-citrulline]. No adverse effects on heart rate or blood pressure were noted. - Oral l-arginine dosage of 100mg/kg q8h doubles plasma [l-arginine] in healthy dogs, but conversion to l-citrulline is quite variable. Further evaluation of this dosage regimen in dogs with pulmonary hypertension is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Citrullination: the loss of tolerance and development of autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferraccioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and pannus formation, which can lead to severe destruction of cartilage and bone. Several self proteins have been suggested to be disease-driving autoantigens. Moreover the presence of autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins in sera of patients with RA enhances the strength of this hypothesis. Proteins are encoded by a limited number of genes in our genome. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation and citrullination can increase the morphological and the functional diversity of the proteome.

  11. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T - Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  12. Modeling the interactions of a peptide-major histocompatibility class I ligand with its receptors. II. Cross-reaction between a monoclonal antibody and two alpha beta T cell receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognan, D; Engberg, J; Stryhn, A

    2000-01-01

    -peptide pair into the Fab combining site. Interestingly, the most energetically favored binding mode shows numerous analogies to the recently determined recognition of class I MHC-peptide complexes by alpha beta T cell receptors (TCRs). The pSAN13.4.1 also binds diagonally across the MHC binding groove......The recombinant antibody, pSAN13.4.1, has a unique T cell like specificity; it binds an Influenza Hemagglutinin octapeptide (Ha255-262) in an MHC (H-2Kk)-restricted manner, and a detailed comparison of the fine specificity of pSAN13.4.1 with the fine specificity of two Ha255-262-specific, H-2Kk......-restricted T cell hybridomas has supported this contention. A three-dimensional model of pSAN13.4.1 has been derived by homology modeling techniques. Subsequently, the structure of the pSAN13.4.1 antibody in complex with the antigenic Ha-Kk ligand was derived after a flexible and automated docking of the MHC...

  13. Glycans Flanking the Hypervariable Connecting Peptide between the A and B Strands of the V1/V2 Domain of HIV-1 gp120 Confer Resistance to Antibodies That Neutralize CRF01_AE Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Rourke, Sara M.; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Phung, Pham; Mesa, Kathryn A.; Frigon, Normand L.; To, Briana; Horthongkham, Navin; Limoli, Kay; Wrin, Terri; Berman, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance to neutralizing antibodies is critical for the development of vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection. In this study, we used a genetic approach to characterize naturally occurring polymorphisms in the HIV envelope protein that conferred neutralization sensitivity or resistance. Libraries of closely related envelope genes, derived from virus quasi-species, were constructed from individuals infected with CRF01_AE viruses. The libraries were screened with plasma containing broadly neutralizing antibodies, and neutralization sensitive and resistant variants were selected for sequence analysis. In vitro mutagenesis allowed us to identify single amino acid changes in three individuals that conferred resistance to neutralization by these antibodies. All three mutations created N-linked glycosylation sites (two at N136 and one at N149) proximal to the hypervariable connecting peptide between the C-terminus of the A strand and the N-terminus of the B strand in the four-stranded V1/V2 domain β-sheet structure. Although N136 has previously been implicated in the binding of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, this glycosylation site appears to inhibit the binding of neutralizing antibodies in plasma from HIV-1 infected subjects. Previous studies have reported that the length of the V1/V2 domain in transmitted founder viruses is shorter and possesses fewer glycosylation sites compared to viruses isolated from chronic infections. Our results suggest that vaccine immunogens based on recombinant envelope proteins from clade CRF01_AE viruses might be improved by inclusion of envelope proteins that lack these glycosylation sites. This strategy might improve the efficacy of the vaccines used in the partially successful RV144 HIV vaccine trial, where the two CRF01_AE immunogens (derived from the A244 and TH023 isolates) both possessed glycosylation sites at N136 and N149. PMID:25793890

  14. The effect and safety of monoclonal antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor on migraine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Cai, Yongqing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Pan; Hu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianhong

    2017-12-01

    Migraine has been recognized as one of the leading causes of disability in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study and seriously affects the quality of patients' life, current treatment options are not ideal. Monoclonal antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor (CGRP-mAbs) appear more promising for migraine because of considerably better effect and safety profiles. The objective of this study is to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and safety of CGRP-mAbs for migraine therapy. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Baidu Scholar was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the effect and safety of CGRP-mAbs with placebo on migraine. Regarding the efficacy, the reduction of monthly migraine days from baseline to weeks 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12; responder rates were extracted as the outcome measures of the effects of CGRP-mAbs. Regarding the safety, total adverse events, the main adverse events, and other adverse events were evaluated. We found significant reduction of monthly migraine days in CGRP-mAbs vs. placebo (weeks 1-4: SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.36; weeks 5-8: SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.30; weeks 9-12: SMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.24). 50% and 75% responder rates (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.37; and OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.06 to 4.10) were significantly increased compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in total adverse events (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.51), and the main adverse events including upper respiratory tract infection (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.55), nasopharyngitis (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.16), nausea (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.32), injection-site pain (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.16) and back pain (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.90) were not obviously changed compared with placebo control, but the results showed significant increase of dizziness in CGRP-mAbs vs. placebo (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 9.45). This meta-analysis suggests that CGRP-mAbs are

  15. CROSS-REACTIVITY OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST PEPTIDE 277-294 OF RAINBOW TROUT CYP1A1 WITH HEPATIC CYP1A AMONG FISH. (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractExposure to a variety of xenobiotics, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), results in the induction of CYP1A and related biological activity. Historically, antibodies against purified CYP1A have been raised...

  16. Prediction of citrullination sites by incorporating k-spaced amino acid pairs into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhe; Wang, Shi-Yun

    2018-04-22

    As one of the most important and common protein post-translational modifications, citrullination plays a key role in regulating various biological processes and is associated with several human diseases. The accurate identification of citrullination sites is crucial for elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of citrullination and designing drugs for related human diseases. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named CKSAAP_CitrSite is developed for the prediction of citrullination sites. With the assistance of support vector machine algorithm, the highlight of CKSAAP_CitrSite is to adopt the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs surrounding a query site as input. As illustrated by 10-fold cross-validation, CKSAAP_CitrSite achieves a satisfactory performance with a Sensitivity of 77.59%, a Specificity of 95.26%, an Accuracy of 89.37% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.7566, which is much better than those of the existing prediction method. Feature analysis shows that the N-terminal space containing pairs may play an important role in the prediction of citrullination sites, and the arginines close to N-terminus tend to be citrullinated. The conclusions derived from this study could offer useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of citrullination and related experimental validations. A user-friendly web-server for CKSAAP_CitrSite is available at 123.206.31.171/CKSAAP_CitrSite/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  18. L-Citrulline Protects Skeletal Muscle Cells from Cachectic Stimuli through an iNOS-Dependent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ham

    Full Text Available Dietary L-citrulline is thought to modulate muscle protein turnover by increasing L-arginine availability. To date, the direct effects of increased L-citrulline concentrations in muscle have been completely neglected. Therefore, we determined the role of L-citrulline in regulating cell size during catabolic conditions by depriving mature C2C12 myotubes of growth factors (serum free; SF or growth factors and nutrients (HEPES buffered saline; HBS. Cells were treated with L-citrulline or equimolar concentrations of L-arginine (positive control or L-alanine (negative control and changes in cell size and protein turnover were assessed. In myotubes incubated in HBS or SF media, L-citrulline improved rates of protein synthesis (HBS: +63%, SF: +37% and myotube diameter (HBS: +18%, SF: +29%. L-citrulline treatment substantially increased iNOS mRNA expression (SF: 350%, HBS: 750%. The general NOS inhibitor L-NAME and the iNOS specific inhibitor aminoguanidine prevented these effects in both models. Depriving myotubes in SF media of L-arginine or L-leucine, exacerbated wasting which was not attenuated by L-citrulline. The increased iNOS mRNA expression was temporally associated with increases in mRNA of the endogenous antioxidants SOD1, SOD3 and catalase. Furthermore, L-citrulline prevented inflammation (LPS and oxidative stress (H2O2 induced muscle cell wasting. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel direct protective effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle cell size independent of L-arginine that is mediated through induction of the inducible NOS (iNOS isoform. This discovery of a nutritional modulator of iNOS mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells could have substantial implications for the treatment of muscle wasting conditions.

  19. Impaired nitric oxide production in children with MELAS syndrome and the effect of arginine and citrulline supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Hsu, Jean W; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Almannai, Mohammed; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is not fully understood and believed to result from several interacting mechanisms including impaired mitochondrial energy production, microvasculature angiopathy, and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. NO deficiency in MELAS syndrome is likely to be multifactorial in origin with the decreased availability of the NO precursors, arginine and citrulline, playing a major role. In this study we used stable isotope infusion techniques to assess NO production in children with MELAS syndrome and healthy pediatric controls. We also assessed the effect of oral arginine and citrulline supplementations on NO production in children with MELAS syndrome. When compared to control subjects, children with MELAS syndrome were found to have lower NO production, arginine flux, plasma arginine, and citrulline flux. In children with MELAS syndrome, arginine supplementation resulted in increased NO production, arginine flux, and arginine concentration. Citrulline supplementation resulted in a greater increase of these parameters. Additionally, citrulline supplementation was associated with a robust increase in citrulline concentration and flux and de novo arginine synthesis rate. The greater effect of citrulline in increasing NO production is due to its greater ability to increase arginine availability particularly in the intracellular compartment in which NO synthesis takes place. This study, which is the first one to assess NO metabolism in children with mitochondrial diseases, adds more evidence to the notion that NO deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome, suggests a better effect for citrulline because of its greater role as NO precursor, and indicates that impaired NO production occurs in children as well as adults with MELAS syndrome. Thus, the initiation of treatment with NO precursors may be

  20. Crystal structure of an Anti-meningococcal subtype P1.4 PorA antibody provides basis for peptide-vaccine design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Clasien J.; Hoogerhout, Peter; Kuipers, Betsy; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Alphen, Loek; Gros, Piet

    2005-01-01

    In various western countries, subtype P1.4 of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B causes the greatest incidence of meningococcal disease. To investigate the molecular recognition of this subtype, we crystallised a peptide (P1HVVVNNKVATH(P11)), corresponding to the subtype P1.4 epitope sequence of

  1. Selecting highly structure-specific antibodies using structured synthetic mimics of the cystine knot protein sclerostin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, J.W.; Frisch, C.; Van Pee, K.; Boschert, V.; van Vught, R.; Puijk, W.; Mueller, T. D.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies directed against specific regions of a protein have traditionally been raised against full proteins, protein domains or simple unstructured peptides, containing contiguous stretches of primary sequence. We have used a new approach of selecting antibodies against restrained peptides

  2. Quantitative analysis of 15N-labeled positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of their dansyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Juan C

    2011-05-15

    The enteral metabolisms of glutamine and citrulline are intertwined because, while glutamine is one of the main fuel sources for the enterocyte, citrulline is one of its products. It has been shown that the administration of (15)N-labeled glutamine results in the incorporation of the (15)N label into citrulline, but it is not clear which of the three nitrogen groups of citrulline is actually labeled. To determine the (15)N-enrichment of the positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline, a rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed. The amino acids were analyzed as their dansyl derivatives. The product ion resulting from the loss of NH(3) from the omega carbon allows for the determination of the enrichment of the ureido (citrulline) or amido groups (glutamine). The protonated pyrrolidine (citrulline) or 5-oxopyrrolidine (glutamine) product ion contains the 2-N (amino group) and is used to determine its enrichment. The method described showed no ion suppression and a wide dynamic range ranging from 1.3 picomoles to 2 nanomoles for citrulline. Background samples and standards resulted in enrichments not different from those theoretically expected. The enrichment curves for the different glutamine and citrulline isotopomers were linear (R(2)  > 0.998) over the range of enrichments studied. The method developed provides an additional insight into the metabolism of glutamine and citrulline tracing the precursor-product relationship between these two amino acids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis from ammonia and glutamine in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbuli, Zaiba Y; Biswas, Kuheli; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2007-12-01

    The possible synthesis of citrulline, a rate limiting step for urea synthesis via the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in teleosts was tested both in the presence of ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen-donating substrates by the isolated liver mitochondria of ureogenic air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus. Both ammonia and glutamine could be used as nitrogen-donating substrates for the synthesis of citrulline by the isolated liver mitochondria, since the rate of citrulline synthesis was almost equal in presence of both the substrates. The citrulline synthesis by the isolated liver mitochondria requires succinate at a concentration of 0.1 mM as an energy source, and also requires the involvement of intramitochondrial carbonic anhydrase activity for supplying HCO3 as another substrate for citrulline synthesis. The rate of citrulline synthesis was further stimulated significantly by the isolated liver mitochondria of the fish after pre-exposure to 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Due to possessing this biochemical adaptational strategy leading to the amelioration of ammonia toxicity mainly by channeling ammonia directly and/or via the formation of glutamine to the OUC, this air-breathing catfish could succeed in surviving in high external ammonia, which it faces in its natural habitat in certain seasons of the year.

  4. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphism is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and disease activity, but not with anti-CCP antibody levels in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Avelar, Ma de Jesús; Vibanco-Pérez, Norberto; Hernández-Pacheco, Raquel Rocío; Castro-Zambrano, América Del Carmen; Ortiz-Martínez, Liliana; Zambrano-Zaragoza, José Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease in whose etiology genetic factors are known to play an important role. Among the genes associated with RA, STAT4 could be an important factor in conducting helper T cells toward the pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 lineages. The aim of this study is to determine the association of the STAT4 polymorphism rs7574865 with RA, disease activity, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody levels in a Mexican population. Genotyping was carried out using the Taqman® system from Applied Biosystems in 140 patients with RA and 150 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by a rheumatologist using the DAS28 and Spanish-HAQ-DI instruments. Anti-CCP levels were determined by ELISA. Associations of the genotypes of rs7574865 with DAS28, HAQ, and anti-CCP antibody levels with RA were determined. Findings showed that the GT and TT genotypes and the T allele from rs7574865 were all associated as risk factors for RA, independently of their anti-CCP status. An association with moderate-to-high disease activity (DAS28 ≥ 3.2) was also found. Additionally, patients with the GT or TT genotypes showed lower HAQ values than those who carried the GG genotype. No differences in anti-CCP antibody levels or DAS28 and genotypes were found. This work supports the association of the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism with RA and disease activity, but not with anti-CCP antibody levels in a Mexican population.

  5. L-Citrulline Supplementation Enhances Fetal Growth and Protein Synthesis in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Aurélie; Parnet, Patricia; Nowak, Christel; Tran, Nhat-Thang; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from either maternal undernutrition or impaired placental blood flow, exposing offspring to increased perinatal mortality and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. l-Citrulline is a precursor of l-arginine and nitric oxide (NO), which regulates placental blood flow. Moreover, l-citrulline stimulates protein synthesis in other models of undernutrition. The aim of the study was to determine whether l-citrulline supplementation would enhance fetal growth in a model of IUGR induced by maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet. LP dams were randomly allocated to drink tap water either as such or supplemented with l-citrulline (2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), an isonitrogenous amount of l-arginine, or nonessential l-amino acids (NEAAs). On day 21 of gestation, dams received a 2-h infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-valine until fetuses were extracted by cesarean delivery. Isotope enrichments were measured in free amino acids and fetal muscle, liver, and placenta protein by GC-mass spectrometry. Fetal weight was ∼29% lower in the LP group (3.82 ± 0.06 g) than in the control group (5.41 ± 0.10 g) (P growth in a model of IUGR, and the effect may be mediated by enhanced fetal muscle protein synthesis and/or increased NO production. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    be used to identify and characterize CD4+T cells specific for influenza A, West Nile, Yellow fever , Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. The...four difference species of Flavivirus using the TGEM approach. These will include: Yellow Fever Virus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  7. Does Citrulline Have Protective Effects on Liver Injury in Septic Rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrulline (Cit supplementation was proposed to serve as a therapeutic intervention to restore arginine (Arg concentrations and improve related functions in sepsis. This study explored whether citrulline had positive effects on liver injury and cytokine release in the early stages of sepsis. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP model was utilized in our study. Rats were divided into four groups: normal, Cit, CLP, and CLP+Cit. The CLP group and CLP+Cit group were separated into 6-, 12-, and 24-hour groups, according to the time points of sacrifice after surgery. Intragastric administration of L-citrulline was applied to rats in Cit and CLP+Cit groups before surgery. Serum AST and ALT levels and levels of MDA, SOD, NO, and iNOS in the liver tissues were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of Cit and Arg were assessed using HPLC-MS/MS. Serum concentrations of cytokines and chemokines were calculated by Luminex. Results showed SOD activities of CLP+Cit groups were significantly higher than that of CLP groups, contrasting with the MDA and NO levels which were significantly lower in CLP+Cit groups than in CLP groups. In addition, plasma concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were significantly lower in the CLP+Cit 6-hour group than in the CLP 6-hour group.

  8. Mapping of epitopes for autoantibodies to the Type 1 diabetes autoantigen IA-2 by peptide phage display and molecular modelling: Overlap of antibody and T-cell determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Dromey, James; Weenink, Sarah M.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    IA-2 is a major target of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. IA-2 responsive T cells recognize determinants within regions represented by amino acids 787–817 and 841–869 of the molecule. Epitopes for IA-2 autoantibodies are largely conformational and not well defined. In this study, we used peptide......, and aromatic residues and amino acids contributing to the epitope investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of each of amino acids Asn858, Glu836, and Trp799 reduced 96/3 Ab binding by >45%. Mutations of these residues also inhibited binding of serum autoantibodies from IA-2 Ab-positive type 1...... phage display and homology modeling to characterize the epitope of a monoclonal IA-2 Ab (96/3) from a human type 1 diabetic patient. This Ab competes for IA-2 binding with Abs from the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes and therefore binds a region close to common autoantibody epitopes. Alignment...

  9. Preservation of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Parameters of Watermelon Juice Enriched with L-Citrulline through Short Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha P. Tarazona-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available L-citrulline is a nonessential amino acid with demonstrated health benefits for humans, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. The juice industry is developing functional beverages through the enrichment with external bioactive compounds; this kind of industry uses conventional pasteurization because of its efficiency and simplicity. In this experiment, the effects of pasteurization (80°C for 40 s or 90 s and storage (4°C for 30 days on different parameters were evaluated in a watermelon juice (3.68 g kg−1 of natural L-citrulline enriched with external L-citrulline (12 g kg−1. Enzymatic activity (peroxidase, pectin methyl esterase, and polygalacturonase was inactivated (74 to 89%, 89 to 90%, and 11 to 15%, resp. with the pasteurization treatment, obtaining the highest degradation with the longest heating time. According to the rheology study, the juice’s elasticity was mainly affected by type of heat treatment while its viscosity was more stable and affected by storage time. A reduction in bioactive compounds content, around 10–16% for lycopene and 19–20% for L-citrulline, was observed after the pasteurization treatments, with a higher decrease with increased treatment time. Storage time also induced a reduction in lycopene and L-citrulline. The shelf life was limited by sensorial parameters.

  10. Prion-Specific Antibodies Produced in Wild-Type Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Andersen, Heidi Gertz

    2015-01-01

    Peptide-specific antibodies produced against synthetic peptides are of high value in probing protein structure and function, especially when working with challenging proteins, including not readily available, non-immunogenic, toxic, and/or pathogenic proteins. Here, we present a straightforward...... method for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against peptides representing two sites of interest in the bovine prion protein (boPrP), the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD) in humans, as well......-peptide antibodies, even against peptides very homologous to murine protein sequences. In general, using the strategies described here for selecting, synthesizing, and conjugating peptides and immunizing 4-5 mice with 2-3 different peptides, high-titered antibodies reacting with the target protein are routinely...

  11. Antimitochondrial antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  12. Quantitative analysis of 15N labeled positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of their dansyl derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enteral metabolism of glutamine and citrulline are intertwined because, while glutamine is one of the main fuel sources for the enterocyte, citrulline is one of its products. It has been shown that the administration of 15N labeled glutamine results in the incorporation of the 15N label into cit...

  13. Role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in iNANC nerve-mediated nitric oxide production and airway smooth muscle relaxation in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, Ham; Leusink, John; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) converts L-arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and L-Citrulline. In NO-producing cells, L-citrulline can be recycled to L-arginine in a two-step reaction involving argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and -lyase (ASL). In guinea pig trachea, L-arginine is a limiting factor in

  14. Identification of citrullination sites specific for peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) and PAD4 in fibrinogen from synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Mandvi; Damgaard, Dan; Senolt, L.

    2017-01-01

    /4 and citrullination sites were identified by LC-MS/MS on a Q-exactive orbitrap following proteolytic digestion with Lys-C. These in vitro citrullination profiles were compared to those observed in SF fibrinogen of four RA patients with varying DAS28 scores, CRP levels and leukocyte counts. DAS28 scores >5.1 and ≤2...

  15. Synthetic peptide vaccines: palmitoylation of peptide antigens by a thioester bond increases immunogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, N.J.C.M.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Tesser, G.I.

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic peptides have frequently been used to immunize animals. However, peptides less than about 20 to 30 amino acids long are poor immunogens. In general, to increase its immunogenicity, the presentation of the peptide should be improved, and molecular weight needs to be increased. Many...... or an amide bond. It was found that these S-palmitoylated peptides were much more immunogenic than N-palmitoylated peptides and at least similar to KLH-conjugated peptides with respect to appearance and magnitude of induced antibodies (canine parvovirus) or immunocastration effect (gonadotropin...

  16. Chimeric opioid peptides: tools for identifying opioid receptor types.

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, G X; Miyajima, A; Yokota, T; Arai, K; Goldstein, A

    1990-01-01

    We synthesized several chimeric peptides in which the N-terminal nine residues of dynorphin-32, a peptide selective for the kappa opioid receptor, were replaced by opioid peptides selective for other opioid receptor types. Each chimeric peptide retained the high affinity and type selectivity characteristic of its N-terminal sequence. The common C-terminal two-thirds of the chimeric peptides served as an epitope recognized by the same monoclonal antibody. When bound to receptors on a cell surf...

  17. Association of STAT4 rs7574865 and PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis and non-systemically reacting antibodies in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Lebedy, Dalia; Raslan, Hala; Ibrahim, Alshaymaa; Ashmawy, Ingy; El-Aziz, Shereen Abd; Mohammed, Asmaa M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate association of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) rs2476601 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) rs7574865 polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility and to assess potential association with the status of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, serum neopterin, and disease activity. RF, anti-CCP antibodies, and neopterin were assayed in serum of 100 unrelated RA patients and 114 controls. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2476601 C/T polymorphisms were genotyped by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. The frequency of STAT4 variant allele was significantly higher in RA patients than in controls (p = 0.01), while the variant allele of PTPN22 was identified in only two RA patients, in a heterozygous form and in none of control subjects. The frequency of STAT4 variant allele carrier genotypes (GT+TT) was significantly higher among RA patients than in controls (43.7 vs. 10.5%, p = 0.02) and associated with RA under additive and dominant models. The frequency of RF and anti-CCP positivity was significantly higher among RA patients carrying T allele genotypes compared to patients carrying wild genotype (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). No significant associations between STAT4 variant and serum neopterin or disease activity parameters were identified. Our study confirmed the association of STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism with RA and was the first to indicate an association with RF and anti-CCP antibodies positivity. We also found PTPN22 rs2476601 has no role in susceptibility to RA in Egyptian patients.

  18. A novel polyclonal antibody against human cytomegalovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... The identification of the synthetic peptide antibody was confirmed by ... cell virus transmission and fusion of infected cells, as well ..... Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-. Barr virus subtypes-The search for clinical significance.

  19. Citrullination of NF-κB p65 promotes its nuclear localization and TLR-induced expression of IL-1β and TNFα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Dwivedi, Nishant; Bechtel, Tyler J; Paulsen, Janet L; Muth, Aaron; Bawadekar, Mandar; Li, Gang; Thompson, Paul R; Shelef, Miriam A; Schiffer, Celia A; Weerapana, Eranthie; Ho, I-Cheng

    2017-06-09

    Many citrullinated proteins are known autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis, a disease mediated by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Citrullinated proteins are generated by converting peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline, a process catalyzed by the peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), including PAD1 to PAD4 and PAD6. Several major risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis are associated with heightened citrullination. However, the physiological role of citrullination in immune cells is poorly understood. We report that suppression of PAD activity attenuates Toll-like receptor-induced expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNFα by neutrophils in vivo and in vitro but not their global transcription activity. Mechanistically, PAD4 directly citrullinates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and enhances the interaction of p65 with importin α3, which brings p65 into the nucleus. The citrullination-enhanced interaction of p65 with importin α3 and its nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity can be attributed to citrullination of four arginine residues located in the Rel homology domain of p65. Furthermore, a rheumatoid arthritis-prone variant of PAD4, carrying three missense mutations, is more efficient in interacting with p65 and enhancing NF-κB activity. Together, these data not only demonstrate a critical role of citrullination in an NF-κB-dependent expression of IL-1β and TNFα but also provide a molecular mechanism by which heightened citrullination propagates inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Accordingly, attenuating p65-mediated production of IL-1β and TNFα by blocking the citrullination of p65 has great therapeutic potential in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Type-specific antibody for hepatitis C virus detected by use of NS-4 peptide and hepatitis C virus genome in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Han-Chul; Yoon, Man-Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, You-Sun

    2002-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus, often possessing mutant genes, have the features that allow them to avoid host's immunologic response and further cause chronic progressive infections. Therefore, it is essential for those patients infected of HCV to receive improved diagnostic procedures. And it is equally important to investigate the course of disease progression and the response to treatment. The goal of this study is to review the efficacy of the third generation immunoblot assay and standardized RT-PCR-Hybridization assay, and in contrast with genotype identification(genotyping), the followings were briefly evaluated for the efficacy of serotype identification(serotyping) by using NS-4 peptide in the observation of the course and in the treatment of patients with HCV hepatitis. 1. The true positive rate in 132 cases showing repeated positives with 3rd generation anti-HCV EIA are 81.8% by immunoblot assay and 75.8% by RT-PCR-Hybridization assay. 2. The 79.5% concordance of immunoblot and RT-PCR-Hybridization assay is shown. The negative results from immunoblot assay are also negative in RT-PCR-Hybridization assay. 3. Among 95 patients with HCV hepatitis patients in 95 cases, the serotype 1, 2 and 4 were 53.2%, 45.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. In 29 cases, the genotypes of patients with HCV showed 1b in 15 cases, 2a/2c in 8 cases, 2b in 2 cases and mixed type in 4 cases. 4. In comparison between serotype and genotype, they showed 75.9% concordance. But serotyping showed higher efficacy in experimental procedures and sampling conditions, with more convenience. Based on above evaluation and reference review, it is reasonable to check with 3rd generation immunoblot assay the samples producing repeated positive results from anti-HCV EIA. For more definitive diagnosis of HCV infection, it is appropriate to confirm and double-check with standardized RT-PCR-Hybridization assay. Lastly, it is strongly suggested that for observation of progression and for choice of interferon treatment

  1. Peptide dendrimers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), 757-788 ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiple antigen peptides * peptide dendrimers * synthetic vaccine * multipleantigenic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  2. Detection of PMTV Using Polyclonal Antibodies Raised Against a Capsid-Specific Peptide Antigen / Detección de PMTV Utilizando Anticuerpos Policlonales Contra un Péptido Antigénico Derivado de la Cápside Viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Gallo García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato mop-top virus (PMTV; genus Pomovirus;family Virgaviridae is the causing agent of the spraing disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum. PMTV is transmitted by Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss. This disease has a widespread distribution in potato growing regions around the world. The possibility of obtaining strain specific antibodies at low cost can greatly increase the sensitivity and use of serological tests in seed certification programs, plant breeding and quarantine regulations to avoid dissemination of this injurious virus. This work presents an alternative procedure for the production of PMTV specific antibodies useful in serological test such as ELISAand lateral flow. In contrast to standard methods requiring theisolation of viral particles or expression of recombinant capsid, this method uses peptides mimicking the N-terminal region of PMTV capsid protein as antigen for the production of specific polyclonal antibodies. The antibodies were tested against bait plants grown in soil infested with viruliferous Sss, as well as potato plants obtained from naturally Sss infested fields in Colombia. PMTV was detected in 9/14 and 24/28 foliage samples of N. benthamiana and S. phureja, respectively. In the case of field plants, the virus wasdetected in eight out of 12 root tissues evaluated. The minimumpeptide concentration detected by ELISA was of the order of 0.1 nM. / Potato mop-top virus (PMTV; género Pomovirus; familia Virgaviridae es transmitido por Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea (Sss, agente causal de la sarna polvosa de la papa. Esta enfermedad tiene una amplia distribución en las regiones cultivadoras de papa alrededor del mundo. La posibilidad de obtener anticuerpos específicos contra cepas de este virus, puede incrementar la sensibilidad y la utilización de pruebas serológicas en programas de certificación de semilla, mejoramiento genético y regulaciones cuarentenarias que eviten su diseminaci

  3. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  4. Chimeric opioid peptides: Tools for identifying opioid receptor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, G.; Miyajima, A.; Yokota, T.; Arai, K.; Goldstein, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors synthesized several chimeric [125J-labelled] peptides in which the N-terminal nine residues of dynorphin-32, a peptide selective for the κ opioid receptor, were replaced by opioid peptides selective for other opioid receptor types. Each chimeric peptide retained the high affinity and type selectivity characteristic of its N-terminal sequence. The common C-terminal two-thirds of the chimeric peptides served as an epitope recognized by the same monoclonal antibody. When bound to receptors on a cell surface or membrane preparation, these peptides could still bind specifically to the monoclonal antibody. These chimeric peptides should be useful for isolating μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors and for identifying opioid receptors on transfected cells in expression cloning procedures. The general approach using chimeric peptides should be applicable to other peptide receptors

  5. Glutamate receptor antibodies directed against AMPA receptors subunit 3 peptide B (GluR3B) can be produced in DBA/2J mice, lower seizure threshold and induce abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor, Yonatan; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Cohen, Ran; Teichberg, Vivian; Levite, Mia

    2014-04-01

    Anti-GluR3B antibodies (GluR3B Ab's), directed against peptide B/aa372-395 of GluR3 subunit of glutamate/AMPA receptors, are found in ∼35% of epilepsy patients, activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, evoke ion currents, kill neurons and damage the brain. We recently found that GluR3B Ab's also associate with neurological/psychiatric/behavioral abnormalities in epilepsy patients. Here we asked if GluR3B Ab's could be produced in DBA/2J mice, and also modulate seizure threshold and/or cause behavioral/motor impairments in these mice. DBA/2J mice were immunized with the GluR3B peptide in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), or with controls: ovalbumin (OVA), CFA, or phosphate-buffer saline (PBS). GluR3B Ab's and OVA Ab's were tested. Seizures were induced in all mice by the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at three time points, each time with less PTZ to avoid non-specific death. Behavior was examined in Open-Field, RotaRod and Grip tests. GluR3B Ab's were produced only in GluR3B-immunized mice, while OVA Ab's were produced only in OVA-immunized mice, showing high Ab's specificity. In GluR3B Ab's negative mice, seizure severity scores and percentages of animals developing generalized seizures declined in response to decreasing PTZ doses. In contrast, both parameters remained unchanged/high in the GluR3B Ab's positive mice, showing that these mice were more susceptible to seizures. The seizure scores associated significantly with the GluR3B Ab's levels. GluR3B Ab's positive mice were also more anxious in Open-Field test, fell faster in RotaRod test, and fell more in Grip test, compared to all the control mice. GluR3B Ab's are produced in DBA/2J mice, facilitate seizures and induce behavioral/motor impairments. This animal model can therefore serve for studying autoimmune epilepsy and abnormal behavior mediated by pathogenic anti-GluR3B Ab's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Newborn screening for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: Citrulline as a useful analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Quinonez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD type III, is caused by the deficiency of the E3 subunit of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH. DLD deficiency variably presents with either a severe neonatal encephalopathic phenotype or a primarily hepatic phenotype. As a variant form of MSUD, it is considered a core condition recommended for newborn screening. The detection of variant MSUD forms has proven difficult in the past with no asymptomatic DLD deficiency patients identified by current newborn screening strategies. Citrulline has recently been identified as an elevated dried blood spot (DBS metabolite in symptomatic patients affected with DLD deficiency. Here we report the retrospective DBS analysis and second-tier allo-isoleucine testing of 2 DLD deficiency patients. We show that an elevated citrulline and an elevated allo-isoleucine on second-tier testing can be used to successfully detect DLD deficiency. We additionally recommend that DLD deficiency be included in the “citrullinemia/elevated citrulline” ACMG Act Sheet and Algorithm.

  7. Facilitating protein solubility by use of peptide extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Paul I; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Howitt, Jason

    2013-09-17

    Expression vectors for expression of a protein or polypeptide of interest as a fusion product composed of the protein or polypeptide of interest fused at one terminus to a solubility enhancing peptide extension are provided. Sequences encoding the peptide extensions are provided. The invention further comprises antibodies which bind specifically to one or more of the solubility enhancing peptide extensions.

  8. l-Citrulline ameliorates cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rats: Involvement of nitric oxide- and prostanoids-mediated pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kurauchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available l-Citrulline is a potent precursor of l-arginine, and exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system via nitric oxide (NO production. Migraine is one of the most popular neurovascular disorder, and imbalance of cerebral blood flow (CBF observed in cortical spreading depression (CSD contributes to the mechanism of migraine aura. Here, we investigated the effect of l-citrulline on cardiovascular changes to KCl-induced CSD. in rats. Intravenous injection of l-citrulline prevented the decrease in CBF, monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry, without affecting mean arterial pressure and heart rate during CSD. Moreover, l-citrulline attenuated propagation velocity of CSD induced by KCl. The effect of l-citrulline on CBF change was prevented by l-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase, but not by indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, attenuation effect of l-citrulline on CSD propagation velocity was prevented not only by l-NAME but also by indomethacin. In addition, propagation velocity of CSD was attenuated by intravenous injection of NOR3, a NO donor, which was diminished by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase. These results suggest that NO/cyclic GMP- and prostanoids-mediated pathway differently contribute to the effect of l-citrulline on the maintenance of CBF.

  9. Development of a paper-based vertical flow SERS assay for citrulline detection using aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Andrea; Deutz, Nicolaas; Coté, Gerard

    2018-02-01

    Research toward development of point-of-care (POC) technologies is emerging as a means for diagnosis and monitoring of patients outside the hospital. These POC devices typically utilize assays capable of detecting low level biomarkers indicative of specific diseases. L-citrulline, an α-amino acid produced in the intestinal mucosa cells, is one such biomarker typically found circulating within the plasma at physiological concentrations of 40 μM. Researchers have found that intestinal enterocyte malfunction causes its level to be significantly lowered, establishing it as a potential diagnostic biomarker for gut function. Our research group has proposed the development of a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based assay, using vertical flow paper fluidics, for citrulline detection. The assay consists of a fluorescently active, Raman reporter labeled aptamer conjugated on gold nanoparticles. The aptamer changes its confirmation on binding to its target, which in turn changes the distance between the Raman active molecule and the nanoparticle surface. These particles were embedded within a portable chip consisting of cellulose-based paper. After the chips were loaded with different concentrations of free L-citrulline in phosphate buffer, time was given for the assay to interact with the sample. A handheld Raman spectrometer (638 nm; Ocean Optics) was used to measure the SERS intensity. Results showed decrease in intensity with increasing concentration of L-citrulline (0-50μM).

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy competitive binding biosensor development utilizing surface modification of silver nanocubes and a citrulline aptamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Brian M.; Jackson, George W.; Deutz, Nicolaas; Cote, Gerard

    2017-07-01

    A point-of-care (PoC) device with the ability to detect biomarkers at low concentrations in bodily fluids would have an enormous potential for medical diagnostics outside the central laboratory. One method to monitor analytes at low concentrations is by using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this preliminary study toward using SERS for PoC biosensing, the surface of colloidal silver (Ag) nanocubes has been modified to test the feasibility of a competitive binding SERS assay utilizing aptamers against citrulline. Specifically, Ag nanocubes were functionalized with mercaptobenzoic acid, as well as a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol linker that forms an amide bond with the amino acid citrulline. After the functionalization, the nanocubes were characterized by zeta-potential, transmission electron microscopy images, ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, and by SERS. The citrulline aptamers were developed and tested using backscattering interferometry. The data show that our surface modification method does work and that the functionalized nanoparticles can be detected using SERS down to a 24.5 picomolar level. Last, we used microscale thermophoresis to show that the aptamers bind to citrulline with at least a 50 times stronger affinity than other amino acids.

  11. A novel polyclonal antibody against human cytomegalovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Future research should be directed to epitope screening of synthetic HMCV peptides, which could help to understand HCMV infection and virus-neutralising antibodies more fully and to prepare HCMV vaccines and antiviral drugs. Key words: Human cytomegalovirus, AD169 strain, Towne strains, polyclonal antibody.

  12. Apo AIV and Citrulline Plasma Concentrations in Short Bowel Syndrome Patients: The Influence of Short Bowel Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targarona, Jordi; Ruiz, Jorge; García, Natalia; Oró, Denise; García-Villoria, Judit; Creus, Gloria; Pita, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients is linked to the functionality of the remnant small bowel (RSB). Patients may wean off PN following a period of intestinal adaptation that restores this functionality. Currently, plasma citrulline is the standard biomarker for monitoring intestinal functionality and adaptation. However, available studies reveal that the relationship the biomarker with the length and function of the RSB is arguable. Thus, having additional biomarkers would improve pointing out PN weaning. Aim By measuring concomitant changes in citrulline and the novel biomarker apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV), as well as taking into account the anatomy of the RSB, this exploratory study aims to a better understanding of the intestinal adaptation process and characterization of the SBS patients under PN. Methods Thirty four adult SBS patients were selected and assigned to adapted (aSBS) and non-adapted (nSBS) groups after reconstructive surgeries. Remaining jejunum and ileum lengths were recorded. The aSBS patients were either on an oral diet (ORAL group), those with intestinal insufficiency, or on oral and home parenteral nutrition (HPN group), those with chronic intestinal failure. Apo AIV and citrulline were analyzed in plasma samples after overnight fasting. An exploratory ROC analysis using citrulline as gold standard was performed. Results Biomarkers, Apo AIV and citrulline showed a significant correlation with RSBL in aSBS patients. In jejuno-ileocolic patients, only Apo AIV correlated with RSBL (rb = 0.54) and with ileum length (rb = 0.84). In patients without ileum neither biomarker showed any correlation with RSBL. ROC analysis indicated the Apo AIV cut-off value to be 4.6 mg /100 mL for differentiating between the aSBS HPN and ORAL groups. Conclusions Therefore, in addition to citrulline, Apo AIV can be set as a biomarker to monitor intestinal adaptation in SBS patients. As short bowel anatomy is shown

  13. Dopamine D1 receptor-dependent regulation of extracellular citrulline level in the rat nucleus accumbens during conditioned fear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulskaya, Natalia B; Fofonova, Nellia V; Sudorghina, Polina V; Saveliev, Sergey A

    2008-08-01

    Nucleus accumbens (N.Acc) contains a subclass of nitric oxide (NO)-generating interneurons that are presumably regulated by the dopamine input. Receptor mechanisms underlying dopamine-NO interaction in the N.Acc are poorly understood. In the current study, we used in vivo microdialysis combined with high-performance liquid chromatography to examine participation of dopamine D1 receptors in regulation of extracellular levels of citrulline (an NO co-product) in the medial N.Acc of Sprague-Dawley rats during both pharmacological challenge and a conditioned fear response. The intraaccumbal infusion of the D1 receptor agonist SKF-38393 (100-500 microM) increased dose-dependently the local dialysate citrulline levels. The SKF-38393-induced increase in extracellular citrulline was prevented by intraaccumbal infusions of 500 microM 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NO synthase inhibitor. In behavioral microdialysis experiment, the accumbal levels of extracellular citrulline markedly increased in rats given a mild footshock paired with tone. The presentation of the tone previously paired with footshock (the conditioned fear response) produced a "conditioned" rise of extracellular citrulline levels in the N.Acc which was attenuated by intraaccumbal infusion of 100 microM SCH-23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, and prevented by intraaccumbal infusion of 500 microM 7-nitroindazole. The results suggest that in the N.Acc, the dopamine D1 receptors might regulate the neuronal NO synthase activity; this dopamine-dependent mechanism seems to participate in activation of the neuronal NO synthase and probably NO formation in this brain area during the conditioned fear response.

  14. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  15. Antibody biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Another milestone in the history of antibodies was the work of Porter and Edelman ... transgenic animals (Lonberg et al., 1994; Green et al.,. 1994) or .... create and to screen human recombinant antibodies libraries, that is ...

  16. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked with an increased risk ...

  17. Production of peptide antisera specific for mouse and rat proinsulin C-peptide 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, N; Madsen, O D; Kofod, Hans

    1990-01-01

    for antibody binding to the immunizing antigen. Antisera to C-peptide 2, stained islet beta-cells on mouse and rat, but not monkey pancreas sections in immunocytochemical analysis. Preabsorption to the synthetic C-peptide 2, but not the synthetic mouse and rat C-peptide 1 abolished staining. In conclusion we......Mice and rats have two functional non-allelic insulin genes. By using a synthetic peptide representing a common sequence in mouse and rat C-peptide 2 as antigen, we have produced rabbit antisera specific for an epitope which is not present in mouse or rat C-peptide 1. Long-term immunization did...... not seem to increase the end point titre as tested in direct ELISA. The specificity of the antiserum was determined by competitive ELISA and histochemistry on pancreas sections. Only the synthetic C-peptide 2, but not the homologous synthetic C-peptide 1 from mouse and rat competed efficiently in ELISA...

  18. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  19. Circulating elastin peptides, role in vascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, L; Labat-Robert, J

    2014-12-01

    The atherosclerotic process starts with the degradation of elastic fibers. Their presence was demonstrated in the circulation as well as several of their biological properties elucidated. We described years ago a procedure to obtain large elastin peptides by organo-alkaline hydrolysis, κ-elastin. This method enabled also the preparation of specific antibodies used to determine elastin peptides, as well as anti-elastin antibodies in body fluids and tissue extracts. Elastin peptides were determined in a large number of human blood samples. Studies were carried out to explore their pharmacological properties. Similar recent studies by other laboratories confirmed our findings and arose new interest in circulating elastin peptides for their biological activities. This recent trend justified the publication of a review of the biological and pathological activities of elastin peptides demonstrated during our previous studies, subject of this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. THE USE OF DEDICATED PEPTIDE LIBRARIES PERMITS THE DISCOVERY OF HIGH-AFFINITY BINDING PEPTIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKOSTER, HS; AMONS, R; BENCKHUIJSEN, WE; FEIJLBRIEF, M; SCHELLEKENS, GA; DRIJFHOUT, JW

    1995-01-01

    The motif for peptide binding to monoclonal antibody mAb A16, which is known to be directed against glycoprotein D of Herpes simplex virus type 1, was determined using two dedicated peptide libraries. As a starting point for this study we used an A-16 binding lead sequence, which had previously been

  1. DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.; Van Baalen, C.; Tabita, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-[ 14 C]glutamate from 2-keto-[1- 14 C]glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with [ 14 C]bicarbonate and L-[1- 14 C]ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution

  2. Radioimmunoassay with heterologous antibody (hetero-antibody RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Atsushi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Itoh, Zen; Wakabayashi, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    To develop a homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for a hormone of a small or rare animal often meets difficulty in collecting a large amount of purified antigen required for antibody production. On the other hand, to employ a heterologous RIA to estimate the hormone often gives poor sensitivity. To overcome this difficulty, a 'hetero-antibody' RIA was studied. In a hetero-antibody RIA system, a purified preparation of a hormone is used for radioiodination and standardization and a heterologous antibody to the hormone is used for the first antibody. Canine motilin and rat LH were selected as examples, and anti-porcine motilin and anti-hCG, anti-hCGβ or anti-ovine LHβ was used as the heterologous antibody. The sensitivities of the hetero-antibody RIAs were much higher than those of heterologous RIAs in any case, showing that these hetero-antibody RIA systems were suitable for practical use. To clarify the principle of hetero-antibody RIA, antiserum to porcine motilin was fractionated on an affinity column where canine motilin was immobilized. The fraction bound had greater constants of affinity with both porcine and canine motilins than the rest of the antibody fractions. This fraction also reacted with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to porcine and canine motilins in a competitive binding test with labeled canine motilin. These results suggest that an antibody population having high affinity and cross-reactivity is present in polyclonal antiserum and indicate that the population can be used in hetero-antibody RIA at an appropriate concentration. (author)

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF THE CORE RESIDUES OF THE EPITOPE OF A MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY RAISED AGAINST GLYCOPROTEIN-D OF HERPES-SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE-1 BY SCREENING OF A RANDOM PEPTIDE LIBRARY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLEKENS, GA; LASONDER, E; FEIJLBRIEF, M; KOEDIJK, DGAM; DRIJFHOUT, JW; SCHEFFER, AJ; WELLINGWESTER, S; WELLING, GW

    1994-01-01

    Random peptide libraries (RPL) displayed on the surface of a filamentous bacteriophage can be used to identify peptide ligands that interact with target molecules. We have used a 15-amino acid residue RPL displayed on bacteriophage M13 to identify the core residues within the epitope of a monoclonal

  4. Consumption of Watermelon Juice Enriched in l-Citrulline and Pomegranate Ellagitannins Enhanced Metabolism during Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Alacid, Fernando; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Fernández-Lobato, Bárbara; Ramos-Campo, Domingo J; Aguayo, Encarna

    2017-06-07

    l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19). Enrichment juices maintained basal levels of blood markers of muscle damage, such as lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin, and showed a significant maintenance of force during the exercise and a significant decrease in the rating of perceived exertion and muscle soreness after exercise. A positive effect was observed between l-citrulline and ellagitannins, improving the ergogenic effect of watermelon juice.

  5. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries; Buyck, Christophe; Schepens, Wim B. G.; Kesteleyn, Bart; Stoops, Bart; Vreeken, Rob J.; Vermond, Jan; Goutier, Wouter; Tang, Chan; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H. E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; van Dongen, Maria J. P.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2017-09-28

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.

  6. Short peptides allowing preferential detection of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hani E J; Pölderl, Antonia; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    Whereas the detection of pathogens via recognition of surface structures by specific antibodies and various types of antibody mimics is frequently described, the applicability of short linear peptides as sensor molecules or diagnostic tools is less well-known. We selected peptides which were previously reported to bind to recombinant S. cerevisiae cells, expressing members of the C. albicans Agglutinin-Like-Sequence (ALS) cell wall protein family. We slightly modified amino acid sequences to evaluate peptide sequence properties influencing binding to C. albicans cells. Among the selected peptides, decamer peptides with an "AP"-N-terminus were superior to shorter peptides. The new decamer peptide FBP4 stained viable C. albicans cells more efficiently in their mature hyphal form than in their yeast form. Moreover, it allowed distinction of C. albicans from other related Candida spp. and could thus be the basis for the development of a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  7. The Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline Improves Endurance Exercise Performance in Two Consecutive Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Shiung Cheng, Yi-Wen Wang, I-Fan Chen, Gi-Sheng Hsu, Chun-Fang Hsueh, Chen-Kang Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system plays a crucial role in fatigue during endurance exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA could reduce cerebral serotonin synthesis by competing with its precursor tryptophan for crossing the blood brain barrier. Arginine and citrulline could prevent excess hyperammonemia accompanied by BCAA supplementation. This study investigated the combination of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on endurance performance in two consecutive days. Seven male and three female endurance runners ingested 0.17 g·kg-1 BCAA, 0.05 g·kg-1 arginine and 0.05 g·kg-1 citrulline (AA trial or placebo (PL trial in a randomized cross-over design. Each trial contained a 5000 m time trial on the first day, and a 10000 m time trial on the second day. The AA trial had significantly better performance in 5000 m (AA: 1065.7 ± 33.9 s; PL: 1100.5 ± 40.4 s and 10000 m (AA: 2292.0 ± 211.3 s; PL: 2375.6 ± 244.2 s. The two trials reported similar ratings of perceived exertion. After exercise, the AA trial had significantly lower tryptophan/BCAA ratio, similar NH3, and significantly higher urea concentrations. In conclusion, the supplementation could enhance time-trial performance in two consecutive days in endurance runners, possibly through the inhibition of cerebral serotonin synthesis by BCAA and the prevention of excess hyperammonemia by increased urea genesis.

  8. Antiprothrombin Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the presence of a group of pathogenic autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies causes thrombosis and pregnancy complications. The most frequent antigenic target of antiphospholipid antibodies are phospholipid bound β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI and prothrombin. The international classification criteria for APS connect the occurrence of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications together with the persistence of lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL and antibodies against β2GPI (anti-β2GPI into APS. Current trends for the diagnostic evaluation of APS patients propose determination of multiple antiphospholipid antibodies, among them also anti-prothrombin antibodies, to gain a common score which estimates the risk for thrombosis in APS patients. Antiprothrombin antibodies are common in APS patients and are sometimes the only antiphospholipid antibodies being elevated. Methods for their determination differ and have not yet been standardized. Many novel studies confirmed method using phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT ELISA as an antigen on solid phase encompass higher diagnostic accuracy compared to method using prothrombin alone (aPT ELISA. Our research group developed an in-house aPS/PT ELISA with increased analytical sensitivity which enables the determination of all clinically relevant antiprothrombin antibodies. aPS/PT exhibited the highest percentage of lupus anticoagulant activity compared to aCL and anti-β2GPI. aPS/PT antibodies measured with the in-house method associated with venous thrombosis and presented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications among all tested antiphospholipid antibodies

  9. Development of Isocratic RP-HPLC Method for Separation and Quantification of L-Citrulline and L-Arginine in Watermelons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasdin Ridwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelons (Citrullus lanatus are known to have sufficient amino acid content. In this study, watermelons grown and consumed in Malaysia were investigated for their amino acid content, L-citrulline and L-arginine, by the isocratic RP-HPLC method. Flesh and rind watermelons were juiced, and freeze-dried samples were used for separation and quantification of L-citrulline and L-arginine. Three different mobile phases, 0.7% H3P04, 0.1% H3P04, and 0.7% H3P04 : ACN (90 : 10, were tested on two different columns using Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 and Gemini C18 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and a detection wavelength at 195 nm. Efficient separation with reproducible resolution of L-citrulline and L-arginine was achieved using 0.1% H3P04 on the Gemini C18 column. The method was validated and good linearity of L-citrulline and L-arginine was obtained with R2 = 0.9956, y=0.1664x+2.4142 and R2=0.9912, y=0.4100x+3.4850, respectively. L-citrulline content showed the highest concentration in red watermelon of flesh and rind juice extract (43.81 mg/g and 45.02 mg/g, whereas L-arginine concentration was lower than L-citrulline, ranging from 3.39 to 11.14 mg/g. The isocratic RP-HPLC method with 0.1% H3P04 on the Gemini C18 column proved to be efficient for separation and quantification of L-citrulline and L-arginine in watermelons.

  10. L-Citrulline Supplementation-Increased Skeletal Muscle PGC-1α Expression is Associated With Exercise Performance and Increased Skeletal Muscle Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Matsukawa, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroko

    2018-05-24

    L-citrulline has recently been reported as a more effective supplement for promoting intracellular NO production compared to L-arginine. Here, the effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle and its influence on exercise performance were investigated. The underlying mechanism of its effect, specifically on the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), was also elucidated. Six-week-old ICR mice were orally supplemented with L-citrulline (250 mg kg -1 ) daily, and their performance in weight-loaded swimming exercise every other day for 15 days, was evaluated. In addition, mice muscles were weighed and evaluated for the expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1α-regulated genes. Mice orally supplemented with L-citrulline had significantly higher gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscle mass. Although not statistically significant, L-citrulline prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion. PGC-1α upregulation was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGFα) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) upregulation. VEGFα and IGF1 are important for angiogenesis and muscle growth, respectively, and are regulated by PGC-1α. Treatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, suppressed the L-citrulline-induced PGC-1α upregulation in-vitro. Supplementation with L-citrulline upregulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α levels resulting to higher skeletal muscle weight that improves time to exhaustion during exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal variations in antibody response to a Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing a recombinant peptide capture antigen (R32tet32) was used to detect antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in 169 ...

  12. Radio peptide imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, Jonh

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The concept of the magic bullet retains its attraction to us. If only we could take a drug or radioisotope and inject this intravenously and then will attach to the target cancer. This may allow imaging if labelled with a radio pharmaceutical or possibly even effective therapy. Initially work was started using antibodies of mouse origin. These have shown some utility in targeting tumors but there are problems in that these are essentially non-human proteins, often derived from mice. This leads to the formation of antibodies against that antibody so that repeat administrations lead to reduced efficacy and possibly may carry a risk anaphylaxis for the patient. Two different methods have evolved to deal with this situation. Either make antibodies more human or use smaller fragments, so that they are less likely to cause allergic reactions. The second method is to try and use a synthetic peptide. This will contain a series of amino acids which recognize a certain cell receptor. For example the somatostatin analogue Octreotide is an 8 amino acid peptide which has the same biological actions as natural somatostatin but an increased plasma half life. To this is added a linker a good example being DTPA and then radioisotope for example In-111. There we can have the complex In-111-DTPA-Octreotide which can be used to image somatostatin receptors in vivo. The main advantage over antibodies is that the cost production is less and many different variation of peptides for a particular receptor can be manufactured and assessed to find which is the optimal agent tumour imaging at a fraction of the cost of antibody production. There are two main approaches. Firstly to take a natural peptide hormone such as insulin or VIP and label by a simple method such as iodination with I-123. A group in Vienna have done it and shown good uptake of I-123 Insulin in primary hepatomas and of I-123 VIP in pancreatic cancers. Many natural peptide hormones however have a short plasma half

  13. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide,...

  14. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

  15. Monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of monoclonal antibodies are described, centering on studies made by the author and those presented at the Second International Conference on Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugates for Cancer held in March this year (1987). The history of immuno-nuclear medicine and procedures for producing monoclonal antibodies are briefly outlined. Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins. Here, the structure of IgG, which is used most frequently, is described. An IgG is composed of two antigen binding fragments (Fab) and one crystallizable fragment (Fc). The end portion of a Fab reacts with an antigen. One of the major applications of immuno-nuclear medicine is the diagnosis of cancer. As label nucleides, 131 I and 111 I were selected in most cases in the past while 123 I and 99m Tc are currently used more often. Advantages and disadvantages of this diagnosis method is discussed citing studies presented at the First (1986) and Second (1987) International Conference on Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugates for Cancer. The present status of the application of monoclonal antibodies to treatment of cancer is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Antibody repertoire profiling with mimotope arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Pashova, Shina; Schneider, Christoph; von Gunten, Stephan; Pashov, Anastas

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale profiling and monitoring of antibody repertoires is possible through next generation sequencing (NGS), phage display libraries and microarrays. These methods can be combined in a pipeline, which ultimately maps the antibody reactivities onto defined arrays of structures - peptides or carbohydrates. The arrays can help analyze the individual specificities or can be used as complex patterns. In any case, the targets recognized should formally be considered mimotopes unless they are ...

  17. Screening And Optimizing Antimicrobial Peptides By Using SPOT-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Paula M.; Grimsey, Elizabeth; Bourne, Luc; Mikut, Ralf; Hilpert, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Peptide arrays on cellulose are a powerful tool to investigate peptide interactions with a number of different molecules, for examples antibodies, receptors or enzymes. Such peptide arrays can also be used to study interactions with whole cells. In this review, we focus on the interaction of small antimicrobial peptides with bacteria. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can kill multidrug-resistant (MDR) human pathogenic bacteria and therefore could be next generation antibiotics targeting MDR bacteria. We describe the screen and the result of different optimization strategies of peptides cleaved from the membrane. In addition, screening of antibacterial activity of peptides that are tethered to the surface is discussed. Surface-active peptides can be used to protect surfaces from bacterial infections, for example implants.

  18. Effect of Anticitrullinated Protein Antibody Status on Response to Abatacept or Antitumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A US National Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Leslie R; Litman, Heather J; Connolly, Sean E; Kelly, Sheila; Hua, Winnie; Alemao, Evo; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Rebello, Sabrina; Kremer, Joel M

    2018-01-01

    Assess whether baseline anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) status is associated with treatment response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating abatacept (ABA) or a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi). Using the Corrona RA registry, patients were identified who initiated ABA or a TNFi (June 2004-January 2015), had a followup visit 6 months (± 3 mos) after initiation, and anti-CCP measured at or prior to initiation. Primary outcome was mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) from initiation to 6 months. Treatment response was evaluated based on a typical patient profile (female, aged 57 yrs, body mass index of 30 kg/m 2 , baseline CDAI of 20, 1 prior biologic, and no comorbidities other than RA). Secondary outcomes included remission and low disease activity. There were 566 ABA initiators [anti-CCP+ (≥ 20 units/ml): n = 362; anti-CCP- (< 20 units/ml): n = 204] and 1715 TNFi initiators (anti-CCP+: n = 1113; anti-CCP-: n = 602). Differences between treatment groups included baseline disease duration, CDAI, and prior biologic use. At 6 months, anti-CCP+ ABA initiators were associated with significantly greater CDAI response versus anti-CCP- ABA initiators; no significant difference was observed for TNFi initiators. When considering a typical RA patient profile, CDAI response was greater in anti-CCP+ versus anti-CCP- ABA initiators; anti-CCP+ versus anti-CCP- TNFi initiators were similar. Secondary outcome responses were also greater in anti-CCP+ versus anti-CCP- ABA initiators; TNFi initiators did not differ by anti-CCP status. In a US-based clinical practice setting, anti-CCP status was associated with a differential treatment response to ABA, but not TNFi.

  19. 24-Hour protein, arginine and citrulline metabolism in fed critically ill children – a stable isotope tracer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.I.; Garcia Casal, Xiomara C.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Joosten, Koen F.M.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4–8h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-hour. However, 24-hour measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-hour appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children. Methods In eight critically ill children, admitted to the pediatric (n=4) or cardiovascular (n=4) intensive care unit, aged 0–10 years, receiving continuous (par)enteral nutrition with protein intake 1.0–3.7 g/kg/day, a 24-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was carried out. L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, L-[3,3-2H2]-tyrosine, L-[5,5,5-2H3]-leucine, L-[guanido-15N2]-arginine and L-[5-13C-3,3,4,4-2H4]-citrulline were infused intravenously and L-[15N]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine enterally. Arterial blood was sampled every hour. Results Coefficients of variation, representing intra-individual variability, of the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline were high, on average 14–19% for intravenous tracers and 23–26% for enteral tracers. No evident circadian rhythm was present. The pattern and overall 24-hour level of whole body protein balance differed per individual. Conclusions In continuously fed stable critically ill children, the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline show high variability. This should be kept in mind when performing stable isotope studies in this population. There was no apparent circadian rhythm. PMID:28089618

  20. Rationale for the use of radiolabelled peptides in diagnosis and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, K.P. [Martini Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, A.W.J.M. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Nuclear medicine techniques are becoming more important in imaging oncological and infectious diseases. For metabolic imaging of these diseases, antibody and peptide imaging are currently used. In recent years peptide imaging has become important, therefore the rationale for the use of peptide imaging is described in this article. Criteria for a successful peptide tracer are a high target specificity, a high binding affinity, a long metabolic stability and a high target-to-background ratio. Tracer internalization is also beneficial. For oncological imaging, many tracers are available, most originating from regulatory peptides, but penetrating peptides are also being developed. Peptides for imaging inflammatory and infectious diseases include regulatory peptides, antimicrobial peptides and others. In conclusion, for the imaging of oncological, inflammatory and infectious diseases, many promising peptides are being developed. The ideal peptide probe is characterized by rapid and specific target localization and binding with a high tumour-to-background ratio. (orig.)

  1. COMPOSITE PEPTIDE COMPOUNDS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED BY PRION PROTEINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to diseases caused by prion proteins, Novel composite peptide compounds are disclosed which comprise two or more peptides or peptide fragments optionally linked to a backbone and the peptides or peptide fragments are spatially positioned relative to each other so tha....... Other uses of the composite peptide compounds are also disclosed, such as use in diagnostic assays, production of antibodies and uses as vaccine immunogens for the prophylactic protection and therapeutic treatment of subjects against transmissible prion disease.......The present invention relates to diseases caused by prion proteins, Novel composite peptide compounds are disclosed which comprise two or more peptides or peptide fragments optionally linked to a backbone and the peptides or peptide fragments are spatially positioned relative to each other so...

  2. Highly immunogenic and fully synthetic peptide-carrier constructs targetting GnRH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, N.J.C.M.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Turkstra, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    To use peptides as synthetic vaccines, they have to be coupled to a carrier protein to make them more immunogenic. Coupling efficiency between a carrier protein and a peptide, however, is difficult to control with respect to loading density of the peptide, This makes these carrier proteins poorly...... for the induction of antibodies against GnRH and immunocastration of pigs....

  3. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  4. Peptide chemistry toolbox - Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erak, Miloš; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2018-06-01

    The development of solid phase peptide synthesis has released tremendous opportunities for using synthetic peptides in medicinal applications. In the last decades, peptide therapeutics became an emerging market in pharmaceutical industry. The need for synthetic strategies in order to improve peptidic properties, such as longer half-life, higher bioavailability, increased potency and efficiency is accordingly rising. In this mini-review, we present a toolbox of modifications in peptide chemistry for overcoming the main drawbacks during the transition from natural peptides to peptide therapeutics. Modifications at the level of the peptide backbone, amino acid side chains and higher orders of structures are described. Furthermore, we are discussing the future of peptide therapeutics development and their impact on the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and clinical significance of nonorgan specific antibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as predictor markers for rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Basant M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Shaker, Raneyah H M; Soliman, Amal F; Hasan, Waleed A; Alghamdi, Hamed A; Algethami, Mohammed M; Jajah, Mohamed Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune diseases are considered the 3rd leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are associated with high prevalence of nonorgan-specific autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antidouble-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA), antiextractable-nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticyclic-citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) whose clinical significance is unknown.We aimed to assess the prevalence of various nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in patients with ATD, and to investigate the possible association between these autoantibodies and occurrence of rheumatic diseases and, if these autoantibodies could be considered as predictor markers for autoimmune rheumatic diseases in the future.This study had 2 phases: phase 1; in which 61 ATD patients free from rheumatic manifestations were assessed for the presence of these nonorgan-specific autoantibodies against healthy 61 control group, followed by 2nd phase longitudinal clinical follow-up in which cases are monitored systematically to establish occurrence and progression of any rheumatic disease in association to these autoantibodies with its influences and prognosis.Regarding ATD patients, ANA, anti-dsDNA, Anti-ENA, and RF were present in a percentage of (50.8%), (18%), (21.3%), and (34.4%), respectively, with statistically significance difference (P rheumatic diseases, over 2 years follow-up. It was obvious that those with positive anti-dsDNA had higher risk (2.45 times) to develop rheumatic diseases than those without. There was a statistically significant positive linear relationship between occurrence of disease in months and (age, anti-dsDNA, anti-CCP, RF, and duration of thyroiditis). Anti-dsDNA and RF are the most significant predictors (P rheumatic diseases than previously thought. Anti-dsDNA, RF, and anti-CCP antibodies may be used as predictive screening markers of systemic lupus erythematosus

  6. Two-site sandwich radioimmunoassay of human gamma interferon with monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, E; Imai, M; Usuda, S; Tachibana, K; Okamoto, H; Ohike, Y; Nakamura, T; Miyakawa, Y; Mayumi, M [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1985-03-18

    Two monoclonal antibodies were raised against human gamma interferon (IFN-..gamma..) derived from E. coli harboring the recombinant cDNA for IFN-..gamma.., and one against a synthetic peptide representing its C-terminus amino acid sequence of 20 residues. The monoclonal antibody against the synthetic peptide reacted either with IFN-..gamma.. or the synthetic peptide. One monoclonal anti-IFN-..gamma.. did not react with the synthetic peptide, while the other showed a weak binding with the peptide. A 2-site '1-step' radioimmunoassay was developed. The assay was rapid with a sensitivity capable of detecting a few ng/ml of IFN-..gamma...

  7. Identification of anti-CD98 antibody mimotopes for inducing antibodies with antitumor activity by mimotope immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Misa; Kondo, Masahiro; Ohshima, Motohiro; Deguchi, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Tsuji, Daiki; Masuko, Takashi; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2014-04-01

    A mimotope is an antibody-epitope-mimicking peptide retrieved from a phage display random peptide library. Immunization with antitumor antibody-derived mimotopes is promising for inducing antitumor immunity in hosts. In this study, we isolated linear and constrained mimotopes from HBJ127, a tumor-suppressing anti-CD98 heavy chain mAb, and determined their abilities for induction of antitumor activity equal to that of the parent antibody. We detected elevated levels of antipeptide responses, but failed to detect reactivity against native CD98-expressing HeLa cells in sera of immunized mice. Phage display panning and selection of mimotope-immunized mouse spleen-derived antibody Fab library showed that HeLa cell-reactive Fabs were successfully retrieved from the library. This finding indicates that native antigen-reactive Fab clones represented an undetectable minor population in mimotope-induced antibody repertoire. Functional and structural analysis of retrieved Fab clones revealed that they were almost identical to the parent antibody. From these results, we confirmed that mimotope immunization was promising for retrieving antitumor antibodies equivalent to the parent antibody, although the co-administration of adjuvant compounds such as T-cell epitope peptides and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist peptides is likely to be necessary for inducing stronger antitumor immunity than mimotope injection alone. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biological processes and is intended to catalyze a reaction for which no real enzyme is ... the reaction. In order to enhance the rates of chemical reactions, enzymes, ..... of such antibodies has already been exploited in the production of a biosensor. ..... tant to the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries for the synthesis ...

  9. Human C-peptide. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beischer, W.; Keller, L.; Maas, M.; Schiefer, E.; Pfeiffer, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Synthetic human C-peptide bearing a tyrosine group at its amino end is labelled with 125 iodine using chloramin T or hydrogen peroxide and lactoperoxidase. The results of the two methods are compared. Antiserum to synthetic human C-peptide (without tyrosine), which was partially coupled to rabbit albumin, is raised in guinea pigs and goats. Goats show to be superior to guinea pips concerning antibody production. The so-called 'hook effect' phenomenon is observed when setting up the standard curves for the radioimmunoassay. Monotonically decreasing standard curves are obtained on dilution of antiserum with a high antibody titer which was produced by repeated immunization in goats. Free C-peptide and C-peptide bound to antiserum are separated using the anion exchange resin amberlite. Using this separation technique we excluded unspecific binding of labelled C-peptide to protein fractions in serum of diabetics. The sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay is approx. 0.3 ng C-peptide/ml serum. Intra- and interassay variability are below 10%. Human proinsulin is the only substance found to crossreact with the antiserum. (orig.) [de

  10. Human C-peptide. Pt. 1. Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beischer, W; Keller, L; Maas, M; Schiefer, E; Pfeiffer, E F [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Innere Medizin, Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel

    1976-08-01

    Synthetic human C-peptide bearing a tyrosine group at its amino end is labelled with /sup 125/iodine using chloramin T or hydrogen peroxide and lactoperoxidase. The results of the two methods are compared. Antiserum to synthetic human C-peptide (without tyrosine), which was partially coupled to rabbit albumin, is raised in guinea pigs and goats. Goats show to be superior to guinea pips concerning antibody production. The so-called 'hook effect' phenomenon is observed when setting up the standard curves for the radioimmunoassay. Monotonically decreasing standard curves are obtained on dilution of antiserum with a high antibody titer which was produced by repeated immunization in goats. Free C-peptide and C-peptide bound to antiserum are separated using the anion exchange resin amberlite. Using this separation technique we excluded unspecific binding of labelled C-peptide to protein fractions in serum of diabetics. The sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay is approx. 0.3 ng C-peptide/ml serum. Intra- and interassay variability are below 10%. Human proinsulin is the only substance found to crossreact with the antiserum.

  11. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  12. Citrulline and Nonessential Amino Acids Prevent Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Nubret, Esther; Sarfati, Gilles; Bergheim, Ina; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Fructose induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Citrulline (Cit) may exert a beneficial effect on steatosis. We compared the effects of Cit and an isonitrogenous mixture of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) on fructose-induced NAFLD. Twenty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 4-6) to receive for 8 wk a 60% fructose diet, either alone or supplemented with Cit (1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), or an isonitrogenous amount of NEAAs, or the same NEAA-supplemented diet with starch and maltodextrin instead of fructose (controls). Nutritional and metabolic status, liver function, and expression of genes of hepatic lipid metabolism were determined. Compared with controls, fructose led to NAFLD with significantly higher visceral fat mass (128%), lower lean body mass (-7%), insulin resistance (135%), increased plasma triglycerides (TGs; 67%), and altered plasma amino acid concentrations with decreased Arg bioavailability (-27%). This was corrected by both NEAA and Cit supplementation. Fructose caused a 2-fold increase in the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and 70% and 90% decreases in that of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1a and microsomal TG transfer protein via a nearly 10-fold higher gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (Chrebp), and a 90% lower gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara). NEAA or Cit supplementation led to a Ppara gene expression similar to controls and decreased those of Srebp1c and Chrebp in the liver by 50-60%. Only Cit led to Fas gene expression and Arg bioavailability similar to controls. In our rat model, Cit and NEAAs effectively prevented fructose-induced NAFLD. On the basis of literature data and our findings, we propose that NEAAs may exert their effects specifically on the liver, whereas Cit presumably acts at both the hepatic and whole-body level, in part via improved

  13. L-citrulline protects from kidney damage in type 1 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza J Romero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, associated with endothelial dysfunction. Chronic supplementation of L-arginine (L-arg, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, failed to improve vascular function. L-citrulline (L-cit supplementation not only increases L-arg synthesis, but also inhibits cytosolic arginase I (Arg I, a competitor of eNOS for the use of L-arg, in the vasculature. Aims. To investigate whether L-cit treatment reduces diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetes in mice and rats and to study its effects on arginase II (ArgII function, the main renal isoform. Methods. STZ-C57BL6 mice received L-cit or vehicle supplemented in the drinking water. For comparative analysis, diabetic ArgII knock out mice and L-cit-treated STZ-rats were evaluated. Results. L-cit exerted protective effects in kidneys of STZ-rats, and markedly reduced urinary albumin excretion, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and kidney hypertrophy, observed in untreated diabetic mice. Intriguingly, L-cit treatment was accompanied by a sustained elevation of tubular ArgII at 16 wks and significantly enhanced plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Diabetic ArgII knock out mice showed greater BUN levels, hypertrophy, and dilated tubules than diabetic wild type mice. Despite a marked reduction in collagen deposition in ArgII knock out mice, their albuminuria was not significantly different from diabetic wild type animals. L-cit also restored NO/ROS balance and barrier function in high glucose-treated monolayers of human glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, L-cit also has the ability to establish an anti-inflammatory profile, characterized by increased IL-10 and reduced IL-1beta and IL-12(p70 generation in the human proximal tubular cells. Conclusions. L-cit supplementation established an anti-inflammatory profile and significantly preserved the nephron function during type 1

  14. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  15. Reagent Target Request for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Antibody Characterization Program provides reagents and other critical resources to support protein/peptide measurements and analysis. In an effort to produce and distribute well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, the program is seeking cancer related protein targets for antibody production and characterization for distribution to the research community. Submission Period: May 20, 2011 - July 1, 2011.

  16. Potential for novel MUC1 glycopeptide-specific antibody in passive cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Wandall, Hans H; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2013-01-01

    MUC1 is an important target for antibodies in passive cancer immunotherapy. Antibodies against mucin glycans or mucin peptide backbone alone may give rise to cross reactivity with normal tissues. Therefore, attempts to identify antibodies against cancer-specific MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes havebeen...

  17. Recent progress in fluorine-18 labelled peptide radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okarvi, S.M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-07-01

    The application of biologically active peptides labelled with positron-emitting nuclides has emerged as a useful and interesting field in nuclear medicine. Small synthetic receptor-binding peptides are currently the preferred agents over proteins and antibodies for diagnostic imaging of various tumours. Due to the smaller size of peptides, both higher target-to-background ratios and rapid blood clearance can often be achieved with radiolabelled peptides. Hence, short-lived positron emission tomography (PET) isotopes are potential candidates for labelling peptides. Among a number of positron-emitting nuclides, fluorine-18 appears to be the best candidate for labelling bioactive peptides by virtue of its favourable physical and nuclear characteristics. The major disadvantage of labelling peptides with {sup 18}F is the laborious and time-consuming preparation of the {sup 18}F labelling agents. In recent years, various techniques have been developed which allow efficient labelling of peptides with {sup 18}F without affecting their receptor-binding properties. Moreover, the development of a variety of prosthetic groups has facilitated the efficient and site-specific labelling of peptides with {sup 18}F. The {sup 18}F-labelled peptides hold enormous clinical potential owing to their ability to quantitatively detect and characterise a wide variety of human diseases when using PET. Recently, a number of {sup 18}F-labelled bioactive peptides have shown great promise as diagnostic imaging agents. This review presents the recent developments in {sup 18}F-labelled biologically active peptides used in PET. (orig.)

  18. Recent progress in fluorine-18 labelled peptide radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okarvi, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of biologically active peptides labelled with positron-emitting nuclides has emerged as a useful and interesting field in nuclear medicine. Small synthetic receptor-binding peptides are currently the preferred agents over proteins and antibodies for diagnostic imaging of various tumours. Due to the smaller size of peptides, both higher target-to-background ratios and rapid blood clearance can often be achieved with radiolabelled peptides. Hence, short-lived positron emission tomography (PET) isotopes are potential candidates for labelling peptides. Among a number of positron-emitting nuclides, fluorine-18 appears to be the best candidate for labelling bioactive peptides by virtue of its favourable physical and nuclear characteristics. The major disadvantage of labelling peptides with 18 F is the laborious and time-consuming preparation of the 18 F labelling agents. In recent years, various techniques have been developed which allow efficient labelling of peptides with 18 F without affecting their receptor-binding properties. Moreover, the development of a variety of prosthetic groups has facilitated the efficient and site-specific labelling of peptides with 18 F. The 18 F-labelled peptides hold enormous clinical potential owing to their ability to quantitatively detect and characterise a wide variety of human diseases when using PET. Recently, a number of 18 F-labelled bioactive peptides have shown great promise as diagnostic imaging agents. This review presents the recent developments in 18 F-labelled biologically active peptides used in PET. (orig.)

  19. The reliability of DIVA test based on M2e peptide exceed those based on HA2 or NS1 peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important disadvantage of vaccination against avian influenza is that it cannot protect vaccinated birds against infection. When vaccinated poultry are heavily exposed to the virus, prolonged, unrecognised, subclinical infection may persist on the farm. The condition can only be serologically monitored by a DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals test, whereas conventional diagnostic tests cannot be used. The DIVA tests based on an antibody response following virus replication is the most appropriate approach. For H5N1 influenza such antibodies includes those to the M2e and NS1 proteins and an epitope on the HA2 subunit (HA_488-516. The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of the antibody response in chickens vaccinated and infected with an H5N1 virus strain. For that purpose, sera collected from naïve, vaccinated and infected birds, at 1, 2-3, ≥4 weeks post challenge were used. Antibodies were measured by ELISA using biotinylated synthetic peptides as coating antigens. The peptides used include four NS1 peptides corresponding to different regions of the NS1 protein and HA_488-516and M2e peptides. Peptides were coated onto microtitre plates either directly or via a streptavidin bridge. The results showed that vaccination did not cause antibody conversion to any of the peptides, where as challenged birds developed a high antibody response to M2e but, low response to the NS1 and HA2 peptides. Antibodies to the later peptides were detected only by the streptavidin-peptide ELISA. The ELISA based on NS1 or HA_488-516 peptides, therefore, are not reliable for use as DIVA test in H5N1 avian influenza virus infection

  20. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a {beta}-turn and an {alpha}-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the {alpha}-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences.

  1. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a β-turn and an α-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the α-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences

  2. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  3. Use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J S

    1985-01-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate /sup 14/C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate /sup 14/C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions.

  4. The use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions

  5. Epitopes of MUC1 Tandem Repeats in Cancer as Revealed by Antibody Crystallography: Toward Glycopeptide Signature-Guided Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally O-glycosylated MUC1 tandem repeat glycopeptide epitopes expressed by multiple types of cancer have long been attractive targets for therapy in the race against genetic mutations of tumor cells. Glycopeptide signature-guided therapy might be a more promising avenue than mutation signature-guided therapy. Three O-glycosylated peptide motifs, PDTR, GSTA, and GVTS, exist in a tandem repeat HGVTSAPDTRPAPGSTAPPA, containing five O-glycosylation sites. The exact peptide and sugar residues involved in antibody binding are poorly defined. Co-crystal structures of glycopeptides and respective monoclonal antibodies are very few. Here we review 3 groups of monoclonal antibodies: antibodies which only bind to peptide portion, antibodies which only bind to sugar portion, and antibodies which bind to both peptide and sugar portions. The antigenicity of peptide and sugar portions of glyco-MUC1 tandem repeat were analyzed according to available biochemical and structural data, especially the GSTA and GVTS motifs independent from the most studied PDTR. Tn is focused as a peptide-modifying residue in vaccine design, to induce glycopeptide-binding antibodies with cross reactivity to Tn-related tumor glycans, but not glycans of healthy cells. The unique requirement for the designs of antibody in antibody-drug conjugate, bi-specific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptors are also discussed.

  6. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  7. Dissecting the Structure-Function Relationship of a Fungicidal Peptide Derived from the Constant Region of Human Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Ciociola, Tecla; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Magliani, Walter; Ferrari, Elena; Gatti, Rita; D'Adda, Tiziana; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activities in vitro and/or in vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activities in vitro. The bioac...

  8. Specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response during natural HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2006-01-01

    The specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response in natural HIV-1 infection were studied. First, to investigate the overall antibody response, overlapping linear peptides were used to screen sera taken from HIV-1-infected individuals. The polyclonal antibody response was relatively stable during long-term infection, compared with acute infection, and mostly directed against immunodominant regions. Low level, transient antibody responses were detected against membrane proximal exter...

  9. Generation of HER2 monoclonal antibodies using epitopes of a rabbit polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Francis Jingxin; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2014-01-25

    One of the issues in using polyclonal antibodies is the limited amount of reagent available from an immunisation, leading to batch-to-batch variation and difficulties in obtaining the same antibody performance when the same antigen is re-immunised into several separate animals. This led to the development of hybridoma technology allowing, at least theoretically, for an unlimited production of a specific binder. Nevertheless, polyclonal antibodies are widely used in research and diagnostics and there exists a need for robust methods to convert a polyclonal antibody with good binding performance into a renewable monoclonal with identical or similar binding specificity. Here we have used precise information regarding the functional recognition sequence (epitope) of a rabbit polyclonal antibody with attractive binding characteristics as the basis for generation of a renewable mouse monoclonal antibody. First, the original protein fragment antigen was used for immunisation and generation of mouse hybridoma, without obtaining binders to the same epitope region. Instead a peptide designed using the functional epitope and structural information was synthesised and used for hybridoma production. Several of the monoclonal antibodies generated were found to have similar binding characteristics to those of the original polyclonal antibody. These monoclonal antibodies detected native HER2 on cell lines and were also able to stain HER2 in immunohistochemistry using xenografted mice, as well as human normal and cancer tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fc-Binding Ligands of Immunoglobulin G: An Overview of High Affinity Proteins and Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weonu Choe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing application of antibodies has inspired the development of several novel methods to isolate and target antibodies using smart biomaterials that mimic the binding of Fc-receptors to antibodies. The Fc-binding domain of antibodies is the primary binding site for e.g., effector proteins and secondary antibodies, whereas antigens bind to the Fab region. Protein A, G, and L, surface proteins expressed by pathogenic bacteria, are well known to bind immunoglobulin and have been widely exploited in antibody purification strategies. Several difficulties are encountered when bacterial proteins are used in antibody research and application. One of the major obstacles hampering the use of bacterial proteins is sample contamination with trace amounts of these proteins, which can invoke an immune response in the host. Many research groups actively develop synthetic ligands that are able to selectively and strongly bind to antibodies. Among the reported ligands, peptides that bind to the Fc-domain of antibodies are attractive tools in antibody research. Besides their use as high affinity ligands in antibody purification chromatography, Fc-binding peptides are applied e.g., to localize antibodies on nanomaterials and to increase the half-life of proteins in serum. In this review, recent developments of Fc-binding peptides are presented and their binding characteristics and diverse applications are discussed.

  11. ANTI-HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN B1 (ANTI-RA33 ANTIBODIES IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP autoantibodies (AAbs are encountered in many autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs. The potential diagnostic value of the RA33 AAb complex consisting of RNP A2 and alternative domains of the splicing proteins RNP B1 and RNP B2 is now of interest to rheumatologists. Subjects and methods. The authors studied the frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in 300 patients with systemic ARDs, including those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, and Sjö gren's syndrome (SS and in 53 people without ARDs, who constituted a control group. Serum anti-RNP B1 AAbs were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Results and discussion. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs in patients with ARDs was much higher than that in the control group: 170/300 (56.6% and 8/53 (13% patients, respectively. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs were detected in 78.5% (113/144 of the patients with RA; 40.3% (23/57 of those with AS, in 67.5% (27/40 of those with SSc, in 36.4% (16/44 of those with SLE, and in 13.3% (2/15 of those with SS. The diagnostic sensitivity of the marker for RA was 78.5%, its diagnostic specificity was 84.9%; the likelihood ratio of positive and negative results was 5.24 and 0.24, respectively. In the patients with RA, the level of anti-RNP B1 AAbs significantly correlated with that of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while in those with SSc the detection of anti-RNP B1 AAbs was related to the rigidity of the vascular wall and the presence of hypertension. The frequency of anti-RNP B1 AAbs among the RA patients seronegative for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies was 15.4%. Conclusion. Anti-RNP B1 AAs are a useful laboratory marker (with the upper limit of the normal range being 3.3 U/ml, but are of limited value in the diagnosis of RA. Anti-RNP B1 AAbs may be regarded as an additional diagnostic marker for RA.

  12. Antibodies to a recombinant glutamate-rich Plasmodium falciparum protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Petersen, E; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1992-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum antigen gene coding for a 220-kD glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) has been cloned, and the 783 C-terminal amino acids of this protein (GLURP489-1271) have been expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The encoded 783 amino acid residues contain two...... areas of repeated amino acid sequences. Antibodies against recombinant GLURP489-1271, as well as against a synthetic peptide corresponding to GLURP899-916, and against a synthetic peptide representing the major glutamate rich repeat sequence from the P. falciparum ring erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155...... between the anti-GLURP489-1271 and anti-(EENV)6 antibody responses. The data provide indirect evidence for a protective role of antibodies reacting with recombinant GLURP489-1271 as well as with the synthetic peptide (EENV)6 from the Pf155/RESA....

  13. Antibody proteases: induction of catalytic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabibov, A G; Friboulet, A; Thomas, D; Demin, A V; Ponomarenko, N A; Vorobiev, I I; Pillet, D; Paon, M; Alexandrova, E S; Telegin, G B; Reshetnyak, A V; Grigorieva, O V; Gnuchev, N V; Malishkin, K A; Genkin, D D

    2002-10-01

    Most of the data accumulated throughout the years on investigation of catalytic antibodies indicate that their production increases on the background of autoimmune abnormalities. The different approaches to induction of catalytic response toward recombinant gp120 HIV-1 surface protein in mice with various autoimmune pathologies are described. The peptidylphosphonate conjugate containing structural part of gp120 molecule is used for reactive immunization of NZB/NZW F1, MRL, and SJL mice. The specific modification of heavy and light chains of mouse autoantibodies with Val-Ala-Glu-Glu-Glu-Val-PO(OPh)2 reactive peptide was demonstrated. Increased proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies in SJL mice encouraged us to investigate the production of antigen-specific catalytic antibodies on the background of induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The immunization of autoimmune-prone mice with the engineered fusions containing the fragments of gp120 and encephalitogenic epitope of myelin basic protein (MBP(89-104)) was made. The proteolytic activity of polyclonal antibodies isolated from the sera of autoimmune mice immunized by the described antigen was shown. Specific immune response of SJL mice to these antigens was characterized. Polyclonal antibodies purified from sera of the immunized animals revealed proteolytic activity. The antiidiotypic approach to raise the specific proteolytic antibody as an "internal image" of protease is described. The "second order" monoclonal antibodies toward subtilisin Carlsberg revealed pronounced proteolytic activity.

  14. Soluble elastin peptides in cardiovascular homeostasis: Foe or ally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Elastin peptides, also known as elastin-derived peptides or elastokines, are soluble polypeptides in blood and tissue. The blood levels of elastin peptides are usually low but can increase during cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm and diabetes with vascular complications. Generally, elastin peptides are derived from the degradation of insoluble elastic polymers. The biological activities of elastin peptides are bidirectional, e.g., a pro-inflammatory effect on monocyte migration induction vs. a protective effect on vasodilation promotion. However, recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that elastin peptides promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in hypercholesterolemic mice and induce hyperglycemia and elevations in plasma lipid levels in fasted mice. More important, the detrimental effects induced by elastin peptides can be largely inhibited by genetic or pharmacological blockade of the elastin receptor complex or by neutralization of an antibody against elastin peptides. These studies indicate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by targeting elastin peptide metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to summarize current knowledge about elastin peptides relevant to cardiovascular pathologies to further delineate their potential application in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungicidal activity of peptides encoded by immunoglobulin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Sperind?, Martina; Giovati, Laura; D?Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from previous works disclosed the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumour and/or immunomodulatory activity exerted, through different mechanisms of action, by peptides expressed in the complementarity-determining regions or even in the constant region of antibodies, independently from their specificity and isotype. Presently, we report the selection, from available databases, of peptide sequences encoded by immunoglobulin genes for the evaluation of their potential biological activitie...

  16. Production and characterization of recombinantly derived peptides and antibodies for accurate determinations of somatolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis, S Vega-Rubín; Gómez-Requeni, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J

    2004-12-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) growth hormone (GH) was developed and validated. For this purpose, a stable source of GH was produced by means of recombinant DNA technology in a bacteria system. The identity of the purified protein (ion exchange chromatography) was demonstrated by Western blot and a specific GH antiserum was raised in rabbit. In Western blot and RIA system, this antiserum recognized specifically native and recombinant GH, and it did not cross-react with fish prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL). In a similar way, a specific polyclonal antiserum against the now available recombinant European sea bass SL was raised and used in the RIA system to a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/ml (90% of binding of tracer). Further, European sea bass insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was cloned and sequenced, and its high degree of identity with IGF-I peptides of barramundi, tuna, and sparid fish allowed the use of a commercial IGF-I RIA based on barramundi IGF-I antiserum. These assay tools assisted for the first time accurate determinations of SL and GH-IGF-I axis activity in a fish species of the Moronidae family. Data values were compared to those found with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), which is currently used as a Mediterranean fish model for growth endocrinology studies. As a characteristic feature, the average concentration year round of circulating GH in growing mature males of European sea bass was higher than in gilthead sea bream. By contrast, the average concentration of circulating SL was lower. Concerning to circulating concentration of IGF-I, the measured plasma values for a given growth rate were also lower in European sea bass. These findings are discussed on the basis of a different energy status that might allowed a reduced but more continuous growth in European sea bass.

  17. Analysis of L-citrulline and L-arginine in Ficus deltoidea leaf extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Aisha, Abdalrahim F. A.; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids. Objective: The aim was to develop a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection that involves precolumn derivatisation with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of two amino acids L-citrulline and L-arginine in FD leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: An isocratic elution program consisting of methanol: acetonitrile: Water at 45:45:10 v/v (solvent A) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (solvent B) at A: B v/v ratio of 80:20 on Zorbax Eclipse C18 SB-Aq column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) were used. The flow rate was set at 1 ml/min and detection was carried out at 338 nm with 30 min separation time. Results: Good linearity for L-citrulline and L-arginine was obtained in the range 0.1-1000 μg/ml at R2 ≥ 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for both L-citrulline and L-arginine were 1 and 5 μg/ml, respectively. The average of recoveries was in the range 94.94-101.95%, with relative standard deviation (%RSD) less than 3%. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range 96.36-102.43% with RSD less than 2%. Conclusion: All validation parameters of the developed method indicate the method is reliable and efficient for simultaneous determination of L-citrulline and L-arginine for routine analysis of FD. PMID:25598632

  18. Mycobacteria attenuate nociceptive responses by formyl peptide receptor triggered opioid peptide release from neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Rittner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In inflammation, pain is regulated by a balance of pro- and analgesic mediators. Analgesic mediators include opioid peptides which are secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, leading to activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In humans, local opioids and opioid peptides significantly downregulate postoperative as well as arthritic pain. In rats, inflammatory pain is induced by intraplantar injection of heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum, a component of complete Freund's adjuvant. We hypothesized that mycobacterially derived formyl peptide receptor (FPR and/or toll like receptor (TLR agonists could activate neutrophils, leading to opioid peptide release and inhibition of inflammatory pain. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the paw were quantified (Hargreaves and Randall-Selitto methods, respectively. Withdrawal time to heat was decreased following systemic neutrophil depletion as well as local injection of opioid receptor antagonists or anti-opioid peptide (i.e. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin antibodies indicating an increase in pain. In vitro, opioid peptide release from human and rat neutrophils was measured by radioimmunoassay. Met-enkephalin release was triggered by Mycobacterium butyricum and formyl peptides but not by TLR-2 or TLR-4 agonists. Mycobacterium butyricum induced a rise in intracellular calcium as determined by FURA loading and calcium imaging. Opioid peptide release was blocked by intracellular calcium chelation as well as phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition. The FPR antagonists Boc-FLFLF and cyclosporine H reduced opioid peptide release in vitro and increased inflammatory pain in vivo while TLR 2/4 did not appear to be involved. In summary, mycobacteria activate FPR on neutrophils, resulting in tonic secretion of opioid peptides from neutrophils and in a decrease in inflammatory pain. Future therapeutic strategies may aim

  19. 77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... pharmaceutical carrier for each vaccine, methods of using the peptides and antibodies, and diagnostic kits..., 2012. Tanja Popovic, Deputy Associate Director for Science, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  20. Effect of ethanol and low pH on citrulline and ornithine excretion and arc gene expression by strains of Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araque, Isabel; Bordons, Albert; Reguant, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of citrulline and ornithine in wine or beer as a result of the arginine catabolism of some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species increases the risk of ethyl carbamate and putrescine formation, respectively. Several LAB species, which are found as spoilage bacteria in alcoholic beverages, have been reported to be arginine degrading. This study evaluates the effect of ethanol content and low pH on the excretion of citrulline and ornithine by two strains belonging to the potential contaminant species Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus pentosaceus. In the conditions that most affected cell viability, arginine consumption per cell increased noticeably, indicating that arginine utilization may be a stress responsive mechanism. L. brevis showed a higher accumulation of ornithine in the media than P. pentosaceus. In the presence of ethanol, a higher expression of the arcC gene was found in P. pentosaceus, which resulted in a lower excretion of citrulline and ornithine than in L. brevis. This suggests that L. brevis is more likely to produce these amino acids, which are precursors of ethyl carbamate and putrescine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bispecific Antibody Pretargeting for Improving Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Robert M.

    2005-02-04

    The main objective of this project was to evaluate pretargeting systems that use a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) to improve the detection and treatment of cancer. A bsMAb has specificity to a tumor antigen, which is used to bind the tumor, while the other specificity is to a peptide that can be radiolabeled. Pretargeting is the process by which the unlabeled bsMAb is given first, and after a sufficient time (1-2 days) is given for it to localize in the tumor and clear from the blood, a small molecular weight radiolabeled peptide is given. According to a dynamic imaging study using a 99mTc-labeled peptide, the radiolabeled peptide localizes in the tumor in less than 1 hour, with > 80% of it clearing from the blood and body within this same time. Tumor/nontumor targeting ratios that are nearly 50 times better than that with a directly radiolabeled Fab fragment have been observed (Sharkey et al., ''Signal amplification in molecular imaging by a multivalent bispecific nanobody'' submitted). The bsMAbs used in this project have been composed of 3 antibodies that will target antigens found in colorectal and pancreatic cancers (CEA, CSAp, and MUC1). For the ''peptide binding moiety'' of the bsMAb, we initially examined an antibody directed to DOTA, but subsequently focused on another antibody directed against a novel compound, HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine).

  2. Mapping of linear antibody epitopes of the glycoprotein of VHSV, a salmonid rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alonso, M.; Lorenzo, G.; Perez, L.

    1998-01-01

    antibodies (MAbs), only 2 non-neutralizing MAbs, I10 (aa 139-153) and IP1H3 (aa 399-413), could be mapped to specific peptides in the pepscan of the gpG. Mapping of these MAbs was confirmed by immunoblotting with recombinant proteins and/or other synthetic peptides covering those sequences. None......Antibody Linear epitopes of the glycoprotein G (gpG) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus of salmonids, were mapped by pepscan using overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the entire gpG sequence and ELISA with polyclonal and monoclonal murine and polyclonal trout...... antibodies. Among the regions recognized in the pepscan by the polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) were the previously identified phosphatidylserine binding heptad-repeats (Estepa & Coll 1996; Virology 216:60-70) and leucocyte stimulating peptides (Lorenzo et al. 1995; Virology 212:348-355). Among 17 monoclonal...

  3. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  4. Functional characterization of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity protein loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica G Cole

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a gonorrhea vaccine is challenged by the lack of correlates of protection. The antigenically variable neisserial opacity (Opa proteins are expressed during infection and have a semivariable (SV and highly conserved (4L loop that could be targeted in a vaccine. Here we compared antibodies to linear (Ab(linear and cyclic (Ab(cyclic peptides that correspond to the SV and 4L loops and selected hypervariable (HV(2 loops for surface-binding and protective activity in vitro and in vivo.Ab(SV cyclic bound a greater number of different Opa variants than Ab(SV linear, including variants that differed by seven amino acids. Antibodies to the 4L peptide did not bind Opa-expressing bacteria. Ab(SV (cyclic and Ab(HV2 (cyclic, but not Ab(SV (linear or Ab(HV2 linear agglutinated homologous Opa variants, and Ab(HV2BD (cyclic but not Ab(HV2BD (linear blocked the association of OpaB variants with human endocervical cells. Only Ab(HV2BD (linear were bactericidal against the serum resistant parent strain. Consistent with host restrictions in the complement cascade, the bactericidal activity of Ab(HV2BD (linear was increased 8-fold when rabbit complement was used. None of the antibodies was protective when administered vaginally to mice. Antibody duration in the vagina was short-lived, however, with <50% of the antibodies recovered 3 hrs post-administration.We conclude that an SV loop-specific cyclic peptide can be used to induce antibodies that recognize a broad spectrum of antigenically distinct Opa variants and have agglutination abilities. HV(2 loop-specific cyclic peptides elicited antibodies with agglutination and adherence blocking abilities. The use of human complement when testing the bactericidal activity of vaccine-induced antibodies against serum resistant gonococci is also important.

  5. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  6. Discovery and characterization of antibody variants using mass spectrometry-based comparative analysis for biosimilar candidates of monoclonal antibody drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhua; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Dongmei; Xu, Jun; Ke, Zhi; Suen, Wen-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the most commonly used technique for the characterization of antibody variants. MAb-X and mAb-Y are two approved IgG1 subtype monoclonal antibody drugs recombinantly produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We report here that two unexpected and rare antibody variants have been discovered during cell culture process development of biosimilars for these two approved drugs through intact mass analysis. We then used comprehensive mass spectrometry-based comparative analysis including reduced light, heavy chains, and domain-specific mass as well as peptide mapping analysis to fully characterize the observed antibody variants. The "middle-up" mass comparative analysis demonstrated that the antibody variant from mAb-X biosimilar candidate was caused by mass variation of antibody crystalline fragment (Fc), whereas a different variant with mass variation in antibody antigen-binding fragment (Fab) from mAb-Y biosimilar candidate was identified. Endoproteinase Lys-C digested peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry analysis further revealed that a leucine to glutamine change in N-terminal 402 site of heavy chain was responsible for the generation of mAb-X antibody variant. Lys-C and trypsin coupled non-reduced and reduced peptide mapping comparative analysis showed that the formation of the light-heavy interchain trisulfide bond resulted in the mAb-Y antibody variant. These two cases confirmed that mass spectrometry-based comparative analysis plays a critical role for the characterization of monoclonal antibody variants, and biosimilar developers should start with a comprehensive structural assessment and comparative analysis to decrease the risk of the process development for biosimilars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibody phage display applications for nuclear medicine imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winthrop, M.D.; Denardo, G.L.; Denardo, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antibody-based constructs genetically engineered from genes of diverse origin provide a remarkable opportunity to develop functional molecular imaging techniques and specific molecular targeted radionuclide therapies. Phage display libraries of antibody fragment genes can be used to select antibody-based constructs that bind any chosen epitope. A large naive human antibody-based library was used to illustrate binding of antibody constructs to a variety of common and unique antigens. Antibody-based libraries from hybridoma cells, lymphocytes from immunized humans or from mice and human antibody repertoires produced in transgenic mice have also been described. Several orders of magnitude of affinity enhancement can be achieved by random or site specific mutations of the selected binding peptide domains of the scFv. Affinities (K d ) as high as 10 - 11 M (10 pM) for affinity-matured scFv have been documented. Such gene libraries thus offer an almost limitless variety of antibody-based molecular binding peptide modules that can be used in creative ways for the construction of new targeting agents for functional or molecular imaging and therapy

  8. Development of diagnostic RI test method for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) antibody, an autoantibody of nerve intractable diseases and I-type diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saita, Takahiko

    1999-01-01

    Characterization of brain GAD derived from various animals was made using anti-GAD65 peptide and anti-GAD67 peptide antibodies, and the effects of the peptide antibodies on GAD activities were investigated. Enzyme fractions of GAD were prepared from the brains of mouse, rat, bovine and humans to perform Western blot analysis and GAD enzyme assay. When the brain homogenate was applied to Western blotting analysis, anti-GAD65 N-peptide antibody and anti-GAD67 N-peptide one specifically reacted with 67 kDa and 65 kDa isoform, respectively, whereas their C-peptide antibodies were reactive to both respective isoforms. There was no difference in each isoform molecular weight among the species. The immuno-specificity of these antipeptide antibodies was confirmed by immune absorbance assay in the presence of each peptide. Then, effects of the anti-peptide antibody on GAD activity were investigated. The activity of GAD immobilized on the column was dose-dependently increased by adding the anti-serum containing GAD65 or GAD67 N-peptide antibody, but the GAD activity was fully inactivated in the presence of GAD67 C-peptide antibody as well as in the normal serum. These results showed that GAD65 and GAD67 could be isolated by selective use of the respective N-peptide antibodies. However, the yield of isolation by antibody affinity column chromatography was considerably low (only several %) and the enzyme activity obtained was almost inactivated. Therefore, further improvement of the isolation method was thought necessary to use for convenient screening. (M.N.)

  9. Development of diagnostic RI test method for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) antibody, an autoantibody of nerve intractable diseases and I-type diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saita, Takahiko [Utano National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of brain GAD derived from various animals was made using anti-GAD65 peptide and anti-GAD67 peptide antibodies, and the effects of the peptide antibodies on GAD activities were investigated. Enzyme fractions of GAD were prepared from the brains of mouse, rat, bovine and humans to perform Western blot analysis and GAD enzyme assay. When the brain homogenate was applied to Western blotting analysis, anti-GAD65 N-peptide antibody and anti-GAD67 N-peptide one specifically reacted with 67 kDa and 65 kDa isoform, respectively, whereas their C-peptide antibodies were reactive to both respective isoforms. There was no difference in each isoform molecular weight among the species. The immuno-specificity of these antipeptide antibodies was confirmed by immune absorbance assay in the presence of each peptide. Then, effects of the anti-peptide antibody on GAD activity were investigated. The activity of GAD immobilized on the column was dose-dependently increased by adding the anti-serum containing GAD65 or GAD67 N-peptide antibody, but the GAD activity was fully inactivated in the presence of GAD67 C-peptide antibody as well as in the normal serum. These results showed that GAD65 and GAD67 could be isolated by selective use of the respective N-peptide antibodies. However, the yield of isolation by antibody affinity column chromatography was considerably low (only several %) and the enzyme activity obtained was almost inactivated. Therefore, further improvement of the isolation method was thought necessary to use for convenient screening. (M.N.)

  10. Urodilatin. A renal natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for endogenous URO in urine and synthetic URO in plasma is described. The first obstacle to overcome was to produce an antibody specific for URO. A polyclonal URO antibody with a cross-reactivity with the structural highly homologous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was developed by immunization of rabbits with the whole URO(95-126). Purification of the polyclonal URO antiserum with CNBr-activated Sepharose affinity chromatography was a simple way of producing a URO-specific antibody without cross-reactivity with ANP analogues. A reliable 125 I-labelled URO tracer was made with the Iodo-Gen method. Prior to the assay, the urine samples were prepared by ethanol with a recovery of unlabelled URO between 80 - 100% and the plasma samples were Sep-Pak C 18 extracted with a recovery of about 50%. The radioimmunoassay is performed in 3 days, using polyethylene glycol for separation. The sensitivity of the assay was improved by sample preparation and concentration, reducing the amount of tracer and late addition, reducing the amount of antibody and increasing the incubation time and lowering the temperature of incubation. The infusion rate of 20 ng URO kg -1 min -1 was most potential and well tolerated in healthy subjects. The short-term natriuretic and diuretic effects were closely associated with a significant diminished sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. Further studies are needed to exploit the therapeutical potential of URO, for example in patients with sodium-water retaining disorders. The therapeutical dose range will probably be narrow due to the blood pressure lowering effect of URO with infusion rates higher than 20-30 ng kg -1 min -1 . (EHS)

  11. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  17. Natural and cross-inducible anti-SIV antibodies in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhao Li

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus macaques are an increasingly important nonhuman primate model for HIV vaccine research. SIV-free animals without pre-existing anti-SIV immune responses are generally needed to evaluate the effect of vaccine-induced immune responses against the vaccine epitopes. Here, in order to select such animals for vaccine studies, we screened 108 naïve female Mauritian cynomolgus macaques for natural (baseline antibodies to SIV antigens using a Bio-Plex multiplex system. The antigens included twelve 20mer peptides overlapping the twelve SIV protease cleavage sites (-10/+10, respectively (PCS peptides, and three non-PCS Gag or Env peptides. Natural antibodies to SIV antigens were detected in subsets of monkeys. The antibody reactivity to SIV was further confirmed by Western blot using purified recombinant SIV Gag and Env proteins. As expected, the immunization of monkeys with PCS antigens elicited anti-PCS antibodies. However, unexpectedly, antibodies to non-PCS peptides were also induced, as shown by both Bio-Plex and Western blot analyses, while the non-PCS peptides do not share sequence homology with PCS peptides. The presence of natural and vaccine cross-inducible SIV antibodies in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques should be considered in animal selection, experimental design and result interpretation, for their best use in HIV vaccine research.

  18. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III 8-11 ) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III 8-11 scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin β1 but not with αvβ3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials

  19. HIV-1 binding and neutralizing antibodies of injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Ouverney

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a stronger seroreactivity against some synthetic peptides responsible for inducing neutralizing antibodies in injecting drug users (IDU compared to that of individuals sexually infected with HIV-1 (S, but the effectiveness in terms of the neutralizing ability of these antibodies has not been evaluated. Our objective was to study the humoral immune response of IDU by determining the specificity of their antibodies and the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The neutralization capacity against the HIV-1 isolate MN (genotype B, the primary HIV-1 isolate 95BRRJ021 (genotype F, and the seroreactivity with peptides known to induce neutralizing antibodies, from the V2 and V3 loops of different HIV-1 subtypes, were analyzed. Seroreactivity indicates that IDU plasma are more likely to recognize a broader range of peptides than S plasma, with significantly higher titers, especially of V3 peptides. Similar neutralization frequencies of the MN isolate were observed in plasma of the IDU (16/47 and S (20/60 groups in the 1:10 dilution. The neutralization of the 95BRRJ021 isolate was more frequently observed for plasma from the S group (15/23 than from the IDU group (15/47, P = 0.0108. No correlation between neutralization and seroreactivity with the peptides tested was observed. These results suggest that an important factor responsible for the extensive and broad humoral immune response observed in IDU is their infection route. There was very little difference in neutralizing antibody response between the IDU and S groups despite their differences in seroreactivity and health status.

  20. Multiple epitopes in a dodecapeptide of myelin basic protein determined bymonoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.O.; Whitaker, J.N.; Vasu, R.I.; Metzger, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Three custom synthesized myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides, bovine peptide 79-88, human peptide 80-89, and human peptide 82-91, were used to produce four murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that were selected on the basis of reaction in a solid phase radioimmunoassay (SRIA) with human MBP. The MAb were compared with respect to antigen specificity against intact MBP and 10 overlapping MBP peptides. One MAb recognized an epitope near the amino-terminus of bovine MBP peptide 79-88. A second MAb was directed towards an epitope that is more reactive in human MBP peptide 45-89 than in intact MBP, but is not recognized in any of the small MBP peptides examined. The third MAb detected an epitope near the middle of human MBP peptide 80-89, whereas the fourth MAb reacted with the carboxyl-terminal portion of human MBP peptide 82-91. Epitopes recognized in SRIA were sometimes not detected by the same MAb in a fluid phase double antibody radioimmunoassay. These results demonstrate the multiplicity of potential epitopes in a dodecapeptide of MBP and do not support the concept of a single, dominant epitope in the region of MBP peptide 80-89

  1. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology.

  2. A Recombinant Antibody with the Antigen-Specific, Major Histocompatibility Complex-Restricted Specificity of T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter S.; Stryhn, Anette; Hansen, Bjarke E.; Fugger, Lars; Engberg, Jan; Buus, Soren

    1996-03-01

    Specific recognition of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complexes by the T-cell receptor is a key reaction in the specific immune response. Antibodies against peptide/MHC complexes would therefore be valuable tools in studying MHC function and T-cell recognition and might lead to novel approaches in immunotherapy. However, it has proven difficult to generate antibodies with the specificity of T cells by conventional hybridoma techniques. Here we report that the phage display technology is a feasible alternative to generate antibodies recognizing specific, predetermined peptide/MHC complexes.

  3. A novel anti-GPC3 monoclonal antibody (YP7) | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an emerging therapeutic target in hepatoma. A novel anti-GPC3 monoclonal antibody (YP7) has been generated through a combination of peptide immunization and high-throughput flow cytometry screening. YP7 binds cell-surface-associated GPC3 with high affinity and exhibits significant hepatoma xenograft growth inhibition in nude mice. The new antibody may have

  4. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Re-engineering therapeutic antibodies for Alzheimer's disease as blood-brain barrier penetrating bi-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, drug development of therapeutic antibodies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires that these molecules be re-engineered to enable BBB delivery. This is possible by joining the therapeutic antibody with a transporter antibody, resulting in the engineering of a BBB-penetrating bispecific antibody (BSA). Areas covered: The manuscript covers transporter antibodies that cross the BBB via receptor-mediated transport systems on the BBB, such as the insulin receptor or transferrin receptor. Furthermore, it highlights therapeutic antibodies for AD that target the Abeta amyloid peptide, beta secretase-1, or the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1. BSAs are comprised of both the transporter antibody and the therapeutic antibody, as well as IgG constant region, which can induce immune tolerance or trigger transport via Fc receptors. Expert opinion: Multiple types of BSA molecular designs have been used to engineer BBB-penetrating BSAs, which differ in valency and spatial orientation of the transporter and therapeutic domains of the BSA. The plasma pharmacokinetics and dosing regimens of BSAs differ from that of conventional therapeutic antibodies. BBB-penetrating BSAs may be engineered in the future as new treatments of AD, as well as other neural disorders.

  6. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  7. Efficient one-step direct labelling of recombinant antibodies with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberatore, M.; Neri, D.; Neri, G.; Pini, A.; Lurilli, A.P.; Ponzo, F.; Spampinato, G.; Padula, F.; Pala, A.; Colella, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    High-affinity bacterially expressed antibody fragments can nowadays be cloned from established hybridomas or, more conveniently, isolated directly from antibody libraries displayed on filamentous phage. Such antibodies can be tagged with C-terminal peptide tags containing one cysteine residue, which represents a convenient functionalisation site for a number of applications, including technetium-99m labelling. Here we describe a simple one-step method for 99m Tc labelling of cysteine-tagged recombinant antibodies with more than 50% radionuclide incorporation. The labelled antibodies displayed full retention of immuoreactivity and good stability. (orig.)

  8. Efficient one-step direct labelling of recombinant antibodies with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, M. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Neri, D. [Cambridge Centre for Protein Engineering - MRC Centre (United Kingdom); Neri, G. [Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena (Italy); Pini, A. [Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena (Italy); Lurilli, A.P. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Ponzo, F. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Spampinato, G. [Laboratorio di Biochimica degli Ormoni Sessuali, Il Instituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Padula, F. [Laboratorio di Biochimica degli Ormoni Sessuali, Il Instituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Pala, A. [Laboratorio di Biochimica degli Ormoni Sessuali, Il Instituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy); Colella, A.C. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Umberto I, Universita di Roma `La Sapienza` (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    High-affinity bacterially expressed antibody fragments can nowadays be cloned from established hybridomas or, more conveniently, isolated directly from antibody libraries displayed on filamentous phage. Such antibodies can be tagged with C-terminal peptide tags containing one cysteine residue, which represents a convenient functionalisation site for a number of applications, including technetium-99m labelling. Here we describe a simple one-step method for {sup 99m}Tc labelling of cysteine-tagged recombinant antibodies with more than 50% radionuclide incorporation. The labelled antibodies displayed full retention of immuoreactivity and good stability. (orig.)

  9. Antibodies against linear epitopes on Goodpasture autoantigen in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Jun-Tao; Hu, Shui-Yi; Li, Jian-Nan; Wang, Miao; Wang, Chen; Chen, Min; Cui, Zhao; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-09-01

    In a substantial number of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis, both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are detected simultaneously. ANCA is presumed to be the initial event but the mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the antibodies against linear epitopes on Goodpasture autoantigen in sera from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, aiming to reveal the mechanisms of the coexistence of the two kinds of autoantibodies. Thirty-one patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis were enrolled in this study. Twenty-four overlapping linear peptides were synthesized across the whole sequence of Goodpasture autoantigen. Serum antibodies against linear peptides were detected by ELISA and their associations with clinical features were further analyzed. Twenty-five out of the thirty-one (80.6%) sera from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis possessed antibodies against linear peptides on Goodpasture autoantigen. These antibodies could be detected in 50% of patients with normal renal function (Scr ≤ 133 μmol/L), 70% of patients with moderate renal dysfunction (133 μmol/L  600 μmol/L) (P = 0.032). The highest recognition frequencies were found for peptides P4 (51.6%), P14 (54.8%), and P24 (54.8%), which contained the sequences that constitute the conformational epitopes of E A (P4) and E B (P14) recognized by anti-GBM antibodies. The level of anti-P4 antibodies was positively correlated with the percentage of crescents in glomeruli (r = 0.764, P = 0.027). Patients with anti-P24 antibodies had a significantly higher prevalence of renal dysfunction on diagnosis (88.2 vs. 42.9%, P = 0.018). Antibodies against linear epitopes on Goodpasture autoantigen could be detected in sera of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, which might mediate the production of antibodies towards the conformational epitopes on Goodpasture autoantigen, namely, the anti-GBM antibodies.

  10. Oligopeptide-based enzyme immunoassay for ovine lentivirus antibody detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang, J; Torres, J V

    1994-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus which causes a progressive disease in sheep. Immunodominant epitopes have been identified in the envelope gp40 glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides representing these regions are able to detect the presence of OPPV antibodies in 96% of infected sheep.

  11. Automatic computation of radioimmunoassay data. Insulin and C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, T; Kudo, M; Abe, K [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Kawamata, F; Uehata, S

    1975-09-01

    Radioimmunoassay provided dose response curves which showed linearity by the use of logistic transformation (Rodbard). This transformation which was applicable to radioimmunoassay should be useful for the computer processing of insulin and C-peptide assay. In the present studies, standard curves were analysed by testing the fit of analytic functions to radioimmunoassay of insulin and C-peptides. A program for use in combination with the double antibody technique was made by Dr. Kawamata. This approach was evidenced to be useful in order to allow automatic computation of data derived from the double antibody assays of insulin and C-peptides. Automatic corrected calculations of radioimmunoassay data of insulin was found to be satisfactory.

  12. Radioimmunoassay for detection of VP1 specific neutralizing antibodies of foot and mouse disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, E.J.; Jackson, M.L.; Moore, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the detection of antibodies against a specific region of the VP1 protein of the A24 and O1 serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus. The antibody titers from the radioimmunoassay showed a positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titers determined by a mouse protection assay. The specificity of the assay resides in the peptide used as antigen. The assay is rapid, reproducible and does not require the use of whole virions. (orig.)

  13. Oligo-branched peptides for tumor targeting: from magic bullets to magic forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciani, Chiara; Pini, Alessandro; Bracci, Luisa

    2009-02-01

    Selective targeting of tumor cells is the final goal of research and drug discovery for cancer diagnosis, imaging and therapy. After the invention of hybridoma technology, the concept of magic bullet was introduced into the field of oncology, referring to selective killing of tumor cells, by specific antibodies. More recently, small molecules and peptides have also been proposed as selective targeting agents. We analyze the state of the art of tumor-selective agents that are presently available and tested in clinical settings. A novel approach based on 'armed' oligo-branched peptides as tumor targeting agents, is discussed and compared with existing tumor-selective therapies mediated by antibodies, small molecules or monomeric peptides. Oligo-branched peptides could be novel drugs that combine the advantages of antibodies and small molecules.

  14. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  15. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  16. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of ...

  17. Nuclear medicine: Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Torizuka, K.; Yokoyama, A.

    1986-01-01

    Antitumor monoclonal antibody was successfully labeled with Tc-99m by using dithiosemicarbazone (DTS) as a bifunctional chelating agent. In the first step, DTS was coupled to antibody without loss of immunoreactivity; the compound then efficiently formed a neutral 1:1 chelate with pentavalent or tetravalent Tc-99m. Imaging with Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody to human osteosarcoma (OST-7) clearly displayed a small tumor in nude mice at 6 and 24 hours after intravenous administration. The tumor-to-blood ratio of the Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody was higher than that of a radioiodinated antibody and similar to that of an In-111-labeled antibody. Thus, conjugation of DTS to monoclonal antibody followed by radiometalation is a simple and efficient method of preparing Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody

  18. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  19. Quantitative Metabolomic Analysis of Urinary Citrulline and Calcitroic Acid in Mice after Exposure to Various Types of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Goudarzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; X-ray irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR of 3.0 mGy/min and a high dose rate (HDR of 1.1 Gy/min, and internal exposure to Cesium-137 (137Cs and Strontium-90 (90Sr. The multiple reaction monitoring analysis showed that, while exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr induced a statistically significant and persistent decrease, similar doses of X-ray beam at the HDR had the opposite effect, and the LDR had no effect on the urinary levels of these two metabolites. This suggests that the source of exposure and the dose rate strongly modulate the in vivo metabolomic injury responses, which may have utility in clinical biodosimetry assays for the assessment of exposure in an affected population. This study complements our previous investigations into the metabolomic profile of urine from mice internally exposed to 90Sr and 137Cs and to X-ray beam radiation.

  20. Quantitative Metabolomic Analysis of Urinary Citrulline and Calcitroic Acid in Mice after Exposure to Various Types of Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Chauthe, Siddheshwar; Strawn, Steven J; Weber, Waylon M; Brenner, David J; Fornace, Albert J

    2016-05-20

    With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; external γ irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR) of 3.0 mGy/min and a high dose rate (HDR) of 1.1 Gy/min, and internal exposure to Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and Strontium-90 ((90)Sr). The multiple reaction monitoring analysis showed that, while exposure to (137)Cs and (90)Sr induced a statistically significant and persistent decrease, similar doses of external γ beam at the HDR had the opposite effect, and the LDR had no effect on the urinary levels of these two metabolites. This suggests that the source of exposure and the dose rate strongly modulate the in vivo metabolomic injury responses, which may have utility in clinical biodosimetry assays for the assessment of exposure in an affected population. This study complements our previous investigations into the metabolomic profile of urine from mice internally exposed to (90)Sr and (137)Cs and to external γ beam radiation.

  1. A rapid approach for characterization of thiol-conjugated antibody-drug conjugates and calculation of drug-antibody ratio by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, David; Bell, Leonard; Squires, Martin; Estdale, Sian; McKee, Colin

    2015-09-15

    We present the demonstration of a rapid "middle-up" liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based workflow for use in the characterization of thiol-conjugated maleimidocaproyl-monomethyl auristatin F (mcMMAF) and valine-citrulline-monomethyl auristatin E (vcMMAE) antibody-drug conjugates. Deconvoluted spectra were generated following a combination of deglycosylation, IdeS (immunoglobulin-degrading enzyme from Streptococcus pyogenes) digestion, and reduction steps that provide a visual representation of the product for rapid lot-to-lot comparison-a means to quickly assess the integrity of the antibody structure and the applied conjugation chemistry by mass. The relative abundance of the detected ions also offer information regarding differences in drug conjugation levels between samples, and the average drug-antibody ratio can be calculated. The approach requires little material (<100 μg) and, thus, is amenable to small-scale process development testing or as an early component of a complete characterization project facilitating informed decision making regarding which aspects of a molecule might need to be examined in more detail by orthogonal methodologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. GABARAPL1 antibodies: target one protein, get one free!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, Jaclyn Nicole; Chakrama, Fatima Zahra; Seguin-Py, Stéphanie; Fraichard, Annick; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; Jouvenot, Michèle; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël

    2011-11-01

    Atg8 is a yeast protein involved in the autophagic process and in particular in the elongation of autophagosomes. In mammals, several orthologs have been identified and are classed into two subfamilies: the LC3 subfamily and the GABARAP subfamily, referred to simply as the LC3 or GABARAP families. GABARAPL1 (GABARAP-like protein 1), one of the proteins belonging to the GABARAP (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein) family, is highly expressed in the central nervous system and implicated in processes such as receptor and vesicle transport as well as autophagy. The proteins that make up the GABARAP family demonstrate conservation of their amino acid sequences and protein structures. In humans, GABARAPL1 shares 86% identity with GABARAP and 61% with GABARAPL2 (GATE-16). The identification of the individual proteins is thus very limited when working in vivo due to a lack of unique peptide sequences from which specific antibodies can be developed. Actually, and to our knowledge, there are no available antibodies on the market that are entirely specific to GABARAPL1 and the same may be true of the anti-GABARAP antibodies. In this study, we sought to examine the specificity of three antibodies targeted against different peptide sequences within GABARAPL1: CHEM-CENT (an antibody raised against a short peptide sequence within the center of the protein), PTG-NTER (an antibody raised against the N-terminus of the protein) and PTG-FL (an antibody raised against the full-length protein). The results described in this article demonstrate the importance of testing antibody specificity under the conditions for which it will be used experimentally, a caution that should be taken when studying the expression of the GABARAP family proteins.

  3. Rapid purification of radioiodinated peptides with Sep-Pak reversed phase cartridges and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.J.; Schultz, G.S.; Levy, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, rapid method is described for the purification of radioiodinated peptides for use in radioimmuno- and in radioreceptor assays. Iodinated reaction mixtures are applied directly onto Sep-Pak disposable, reversed phase cartridges equilibrated with phosphate buffer. Unreacted 125-iodide and other non-peptide reaction components are eluted with buffer. The peptide fraction is then eluted with 70% buffer:30% acetonitrile. The peptide fraction is further purified by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography to separate the native peptide and the mono- and diiodo-derivatives. In this study the method is used to prepare 125-iodide-labeled monoiodo-leucine enkephalin and monoiodo-angiotensin II, which are free of the parent peptides and diiodo-derivatives and are of maximum obtainable specific radioactivity. The usefulness of these labeled peptides in radioimmuno- and radioreceptor assays is demonstrated by their binding to specific antibodies and receptors, respectively. (author)

  4. Chimeric vaccine composed of viral peptide and mammalian heat-shock protein 60 peptide protects against West Nile virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Landes, Shimon; Kleiman-Shoval, Smadar; Ben-Nathan, David; Kam, Michal; Lachmi, Bat-El; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Samina, Itzhak; Eitan, Anat; Cohen, Irun R; Rager-Zisman, Bracha; Porgador, Angel

    2010-08-01

    The protective efficacy and immunogenicity of a chimeric peptide against West Nile virus (WNV) was evaluated. This virus is the aetiological agent of West Nile fever, which has recently emerged in the western hemisphere. The rapid spread of WNV throughout North America, as well as the constantly changing epidemiology and transmission of the virus by blood transfusion and transplantation, have raised major public-health concerns. Currently, there are no effective treatments for WNV or vaccine for human use. We previously identified a novel, continuous B-cell epitope from domain III of the WNV envelope protein, termed Ep15. To test whether this epitope can protect against WNV infection, we synthesized a linear chimeric peptide composed of Ep15 and the heat-shock protein 60 peptide, p458. The p458 peptide is an effective carrier peptide for subunit vaccines against other infectious agents. We now report that mice immunized with the chimeric peptide, p458-Ep15, were resistant to lethal challenges with three different WNV strains. Moreover, their brains were free of viral genome and infectious virus. Mice immunized with Ep15 alone or with p431-Ep15, a control conjugate, were not protected. The chimeric p458-Ep15 peptide induced WNV-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies that neutralized the virus and induced the secretion of interferon-gammain vitro. Challenge of chimeric peptide-immunized mice considerably enhanced WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies. We conclude that this chimeric peptide can be used for formulation of a human vaccine against WNV.

  5. Treatment with L-citrulline and metformin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: study protocol for a single-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Patricia; Bonati, Ulrike; Rubino, Daniela; Gocheva, Vanya; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Gueven, Nuri; Fischer, Dirk

    2016-08-03

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease that affects 1 in 3500-6000 male births. Despite broad research aiming to improve muscle function as well as heart and brain function, sufficient therapeutic efficacy has not yet been achieved and current therapeutic management is still supportive. In a recent pilot trial, oral treatment with L-arginine and metformin showed consistent changes of muscular metabolism both in vitro and in vivo by raising NO levels and expression of mitochondrial proteins in the skeletal muscle tissue of patients with DMD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aims to demonstrate the superiority of L-citrulline and metformin therapy over placebo in DMD patients with regard to the Motor Function Measure (MFM) D1 subscore (primary endpoint) as well as additional clinical and subclinical tests. A total of 40-50 ambulant patients with DMD will be recruited at the outpatient department of the University of Basel Children's Hospital (Switzerland), as well as from the DMD patient registries of Switzerland, Germany and Austria. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the two arms of the study and will receive either a combination of L-citrulline and metformin or placebo for 26 weeks. Co-medication with glucocorticoids is allowed. The primary endpoint is the change of the MFM D1 subscore from baseline to week 26 under L-citrulline and metformin therapy. Secondary endpoints will include the motor function measure (MFM) and its items and subscores, the 6-minute walking test, timed function tests and quantitative muscle testing. Furthermore, quantitative muscle MRI assessment to evaluate the muscle fat fraction as well as safety and biomarker laboratory analyses from blood will be included. For comparison, muscle metabolism and mitochondrial function will be analysed in 10-20 healthy age-matched male children. The aim of this study is to test if a 6-month treatment of a combination of L-citrulline and

  6. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  7. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  8. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Razpotnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A “Trojan horse” method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT. Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts, are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell

  9. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  11. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  12. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111 In, 67 Ga and 131 I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  13. Vaccine and Monoclonal Antibody That Enhance Mouse Resistance to Candidiasis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong; Cutler, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    Previously we showed that antibodies specific for the glycan β-1,2-mannotriose [β-(Man)3] on the cell surface of Candida albicans protect mice against disseminated candidiasis (H. Xin, S. Dziadek, D. R. Bundle, and J. E. Cutler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105:13526–13531, 2008). Furthermore, six 14-mer peptides that are within the N-terminal portion of C. albicans wall proteins were conjugated to the glycan in an attempt to create immunogenic glycopeptide conjugates. By a dendritic cell (DC)-based immunization approach, all were immunogenic and three of the six conjugates induced a high degree of protection in mice. Interestingly, whereas all six peptides induced antibody responses when used alone to pulse DCs for subsequent immunizations, three peptides induced protection, and one in particular, peptide Fba (derived from fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), induced robust protective responses and is the focus of the current work. Fba peptide is not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), as it induced anti-Fba antibodies in mice of different H-2 haplotypes and in rabbits. Furthermore, the peptide induced protection against disease caused by different C. albicans strains. Partial protection was achieved when alum was used in place of DCs for Fba immunizations. The passive transfer of immune sera from Fba-vaccinated mice, but not immune serum preabsorbed with fungal cells, conferred protection in naïve mice. This result, along with our finding that a monoclonal antibody specific for the peptide, E2-9 (IgM), protected mice against candidiasis, provide strong evidence that antibodies contribute to protection. Our work demonstrates the utility of cell wall peptides alone or as glycopeptides in vaccines designed for the induction of immunity against candidiasis and monoclonal antibodies as a rapid immunoprotective approach against the disease. PMID:21832099

  14. An enzymatic deconjugation method for the analysis of small molecule active drugs on antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Gu, Christine; Gruenhagen, Jason; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nik P; Medley, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex therapeutic agents that use the specific targeting properties of antibodies and the highly potent cytotoxicity of small molecule drugs to selectively eliminate tumor cells while limiting the toxicity to normal healthy tissues. Two critical quality attributes of ADCs are the purity and stability of the active small molecule drug linked to the ADC, but these are difficult to assess once the drug is conjugated to the antibody. In this study, we report a enzyme deconjugation approach to cleave small molecule drugs from ADCs, which allows the drugs to be subsequently characterized by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The model ADC we used in this study utilizes a valine-citrulline linker that is designed to be sensitive to endoproteases after internalization by tumor cells. We screened several proteases to determine the most effective enzyme. Among the 3 cysteine proteases evaluated, papain had the best efficiency in cleaving the small molecule drug from the model ADC. The deconjugation conditions were further optimized to achieve complete cleavage of the small molecule drug. This papain deconjugation approach demonstrated excellent specificity and precision. The purity and stability of the active drug on an ADC drug product was evaluated and the major degradation products of the active drug were identified. The papain deconjugation method was also applied to several other ADCs, with the results suggesting it could be applied generally to ADCs containing a valine-citrulline linker. Our results indicate that the papain deconjugation method is a powerful tool for characterizing the active small molecule drug conjugated to an ADC, and may be useful in ensuring the product quality, efficacy and the safety of ADCs.

  15. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  16. Radiolabeled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies, in particular monoclonal antibodies, offer the potential for the specific nuclear imaging of malignant and benign diseases in man. If this imaging potential is realized, they may also have a large role in cancer treatment. This paper reviews: (1) what monoclonal antibodies are and how they differ from polyclonal antibodies, (2) how they are produced and radiolabeled, (3) the results of preclinical and clinical trials in cancer imaging, including the utility of SPECT and antibody fragments, (4) the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of benign diseases, (5) alternate routes of antibody delivery, (6) the role of these agents in therapy, and (7) whether this technology ''revolutionizes'' the practice of nuclear radiology, or has a more limited complementary role in the imaging department

  17. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  18. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory C. F. De Brito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  19. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP OF FoxP3+ T REGULATORY CELLS TO DISEASE ACTIVITY AND ANTIBODY LEVELS IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the relationship of the count of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs to the clinical and laboratory parameters of disease activity and the levels of antibodies in a group of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 45 patients with early RA (2010 ACR/EULAR criteria who had not previously received treatment with methotrexate, including 39 women; median age was 52.0 [32.5; 57.5] years; disease duration, 5 [4; 6] months, DAS28 5.01 [4.18; 5.8]; 71.1% of the patients were rheumatoid factor (RF positive and 88.9% were anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positive. The relative and absolute counts of Treg (FoxP3+CD25+; CD152+surface; CD152+intracellular; FoxP3+CD127-; CD25+CD127-; FoxP3+ICOS+; FoxP3+CD154+; FoxP3+CD274+ were measured by immunofluorescence staining and multicolor flow cytometry. A control group consisted of 20 healthy donors who were matched for sex and age with the examined patients.Results and discussion. DАS28 was high, moderate, and low in 22 (48.9%, 20 (44.4%, and 3 (6.7% patients, respectively. As compared with the healthy donors, the patients with early RA were observed to have lower values in the percentage of FoxP3+CD25+ cells, in the percentage and absolute count of FoxP3+ICOS+ cells, in the percentage and absolute count of FoxP3+CD154+ and FoxP3+ CD274+ T cells; p<0.05 in all cases. Negative correlation was recorded between the percentage of FoxP3+CD25+ and C-reactive protein (CRP (r=-0.4; that of CD152+intracellular and DAS28 (r=-0.35, ESR (r=-0.46, CRP (r=-0.54; that of FoxP3+CD127 and CRP (r=-0.42; that of CD25+CD127 and DAS28 (r=-0.38, SDAI (r=-0.41, CDAI (r=-0.36, ESR (r=-0.39, CRP (r=-0.47; p<0.05 in all cases.The patients who were seronegative for RF were found to have higher values in the percentage of CD25+CD127, in the percentage and absolute count of Foxp3+CD154+ and Foxp3+CD274+ T lymphocytes.Conclusion. The given data may indicate that the

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES SIMILAR TO ACTUAL HIV ANTIGEN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korobova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of HIV vaccine remains an important goal in prophylaxis and therapy of HIV/ AIDS epidemics. There are various approaches for development of а candidate vaccine based on induction of neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. Synthetic peptides are considered promising vaccine antigens since they are capable of activating both humoral and cellular immune response. HIV-1 envelope gp120 is the target for neutralizing antiviral antibodies. The V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 is highly immunogenic and important for the virus-coreceptor interaction. In a RV144 vaccine trial, the levels of vaccine-induced IgG antibodies recognizing V1V2 regions from multiple HIV-1 subtypes show inverse correlations with a risk for HIV-1 infection. Meanwhile, HIV is characterized by high diversity. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, which are computationally designed to elicit immune responses with improved cross-reactive broadness. We have been studied immunogenic properties of synthetic peptides derived from V1, V2, V3 loop regions of the consensus M HIV1 (CON-S sequence group of the gp 120 envelope protein and V3 loop derived from a Russian RUA022a2 isolate. These peptides specifically reacted to HIV-positive sera in ELISA, thus indicating their similarity to appropriate HIV proteins. The peptides proved to be weakly immunogenic. Therefore, Freund complete adjuvant was used to enhance peptide immunogenicity. To assess the immunogenicity, the mice were immunized with a peptide mixture. Antibodies have been developed to every peptide from the mixture, being, predominantly, of IgG isotype. The antibody titers depended on the length of peptide sequences. However, the sera from immunized mice did not have a HIV neutralizing activity. The serum neutralization was assessed by pseudovirus-based assay, using a molecular clone of virus isolates CAP 45.2.00.G3 and QH.209.14.M.EnvA2. The virus neutralization is a

  3. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  4. Carbamylated albumin is one of the target antigens of anti-carbamylated protein antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabo, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Motomu; Ito, Shinji; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Imura, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Ran; Murakami, Kosaku; Kuramoto, Nobuo; Tanaka, Masao; Satoh, Junko; Ishigami, Akihito; Morita, Satoshi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Ohmura, Koichiro

    2017-07-01

    Anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies are detected in RA patients. Fetal calf serum is used as an antigen source in anti-CarP ELISA, and the precise target antigens have not been found. We aimed to identify the target antigens of anti-CarP antibodies. Western blotting of anti-CarP antibodies was conducted. Anti-carbamylated human albumin (CarALB) antibody was detected by in-house ELISA for 493 RA patients and 144 healthy controls (HCs). An inhibition ELISA of anti-CarP antibodies by CarALB and citrullinated albumin (citALB) was performed using eight RA patients' sera. Serum CarALB was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS), and the serum MPO concentration was measured by ELISA. We focused on carbamylated albumin because it corresponded to the size of the thickest band detected by western blotting of anti-CarP antibodies. Anti-CarALB antibody was detected in 31.4% of RA patients, and the correlation of the titres between anti-CarALB and anti-CarP was much closer than that between anti-citALB and anti-CCP antibodies (ρ = 0.59 and ρ = 0.16, respectively). The inhibition ELISA showed that anti-CarP antibodies were inhibited by CarALB, but not by citALB. CarALB was detected in sera from RA patients by LC/MS/MS. The serum MPO concentration was correlated with disease activity and was higher in RA patients with anti-CarALB antibody than in those without. We found that carbamylated albumin is a novel target antigen of anti-CarP antibodies, and it is the first reported target antigen that has not been reported as the target of ACPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Expression of a male accessory gland peptide of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Schooneveld, H.; Deserno, M.L.L.G.; Put, B.; Vlak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The male accessory glands (MAGs) of Leptinotarsa decemlineata produce an 8kDa peptide, designated Led-MAGP, that is recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC-18. The site of synthesis, amino acid sequence and the gene encoding this peptide have been documented (). The primary structure is homologous to

  6. A recombinant antibody with the antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex-restricted specificity of T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Stryhn, A; Hansen, B E

    1996-01-01

    Specific recognition of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complexes by the T-cell receptor is a key reaction in the specific immune response. Antibodies against peptide/MHC complexes would therefore be valuable tools in studying MHC function and T-cell recognition and might ...

  7. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  8. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using a Virus Type-Specific Peptide Based on a Subdomain of Envelope Protein Erns for Serologic Diagnosis of Pestivirus Infections in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langedijk, J. P. M.; Middel, W. G. J.; Meloen, R. H.; Kramps, J. A.; de Smit, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Peptides deduced from the C-terminal end (residues 191 to 227) of pestivirus envelope protein Erns were used to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure specifically antibodies against different types of pestiviruses. The choice of the peptide was based on the modular structure of the Erns protein, and the peptide was selected for its probable independent folding and good exposure, which would make it a good candidate for an antigenic peptide to be used in a diagnostic test. A solid-phase peptide ELISA which was cross-reactive for several types of pestivirus antibodies and which can be used for the general detection of pestivirus antibodies was developed. To identify type-specific pestivirus antibodies, a liquid-phase peptide ELISA, with a labeled, specific classical swine fever virus (CSFV) peptide and an unlabeled bovine viral diarrhea virus peptide to block cross-reactivity, was developed. Specificity and sensitivity of the liquid-phase peptide ELISA for CSFV were 98 and 100%, respectively. Because the peptide is a fragment of the Erns protein, it can be used to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals when a vaccine based on the E2 protein, which is another pestivirus envelope protein, is used. PMID:11230402

  9. A sequence in subdomain 2 of DBL1α of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 induces strain transcending antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomqvist

    Full Text Available Immunity to severe malaria is the first level of immunity acquired to Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies to the variant antigen PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 present at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC confer protection by blocking microvascular sequestration. Here we have generated antibodies to peptide sequences of subdomain 2 of PfEMP1-DBL1α previously identified to be associated with severe or mild malaria. A set of sera generated to the amino acid sequence KLQTLTLHQVREYWWALNRKEVWKA, containing the motif ALNRKE, stained the live pRBC. 50% of parasites tested (7/14 were positive both in flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays with live pRBCs including both laboratory strains and in vitro adapted clinical isolates. Antibodies that reacted selectively with the sequence REYWWALNRKEVWKA in a 15-mer peptide array of DBL1α-domains were also found to react with the pRBC surface. By utilizing a peptide array to map the binding properties of the elicited anti-DBL1α antibodies, the amino acids WxxNRx were found essential for antibody binding. Complementary experiments using 135 degenerate RDSM peptide sequences obtained from 93 Ugandan patient-isolates showed that antibody binding occurred when the amino acids WxLNRKE/D were present in the peptide. The data suggests that the ALNRKE sequence motif, associated with severe malaria, induces strain-transcending antibodies that react with the pRBC surface.

  10. Immunosignature: Serum Antibody Profiling for Cancer Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapoval, Andrei I; Legutki, J Bart; Stafford, Philip; Trebukhov, Andrey V; Johnston, Stephen A; Shoikhet, Yakov N; Lazarev, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer are valuable tools for detection of malignant tumors at early stages in groups at risk and screening healthy people, as well as monitoring disease recurrence after treatment of cancer. However the complexity of the body's response to the pathological processes makes it virtually impossible to evaluate this response to the development of the disease using a single biomarker that is present in the serum at low concentrations. An alternative approach to standard biomarker analysis is called immunosignature. Instead of going after biomarkers themselves this approach rely on the analysis of the humoral immune response to molecular changes associated with the development of pathological processes. It is known that antibodies are produced in response to proteins expressed during cancer development. Accordingly, the changes in antibody repertoire associated with tumor growth can serve as biomarkers of cancer. Immunosignature is a highly sensitive method for antibody repertoire analysis utilizing high density peptide microarrays. In the present review we discuss modern methods for antibody detection, as well as describe the principles and applications of immunosignature in research and clinical practice.

  11. [Antibodies and physiopathogeny of autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Leiva, Jorge; Ríos-Vaca, Aurelio; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by periportal hepatitis, increased serum globulins and the presence of certain antibodies. The disorder can be classified in three types. Type 1 AIH is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle autoantibodies (SMA) in up to 70-80% of patients. ANA and SMA can be the only antibodies present in 13 and 33% of cases respectively. Type 2 AIH is defined by the presence of liver and kidney antimicrosomal antibodies (LKM1). Type 2 AIH is the only form of the disease in which the autoantigen has been identified: cytochrome mono-oxygenase (P-450 IID6) CYP2D6. In type 3 AIH the presence of anti-SLA/LP (soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas) targets a cytosolic protein involved in the incorporation of selenocysteine into peptidic chains. The pathophysiology of AIH is complex and involves genetic predisposition, previous exposure to antigens (autoantigens), presence of triggering factors and defects in immunoregulation. In spite of the advances in the understanding of AIH, the role of autoantibodies in the pathophysiology of this disease has not been fully established and their presence does not clearly distinguish any prognostic groups. Further investigations will help in the diagnosis of this disorder, the comprehension of its origins and the establishment of new forms of treatment.

  12. A novel method for in Situ detection of hydrolyzable casein fragments in a cheese matrix by antibody phage display technique and CLSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    three small synthetic peptides of the alpha(s1)-casein sequence. These peptides traverse enzymatic cleavage sites of casein during cheese ripening. The specificity of the generated anti-peptide antibodies was determined by ELISA and Western blot. Finally, an immunofluorescent labeling protocol......A novel method to monitor in situ hydrolyzable casein fragments during cheese ripening by using immunofluorescent labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was developed. Monoclonal single chain variable fragments of antibody (scFvs) were generated by antibody phage display toward...

  13. Diversity-oriented peptide stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thu Phuong; Larsen, Christian Ørnbøl; Røndbjerg, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    as a powerful method for peptide stapling. However, to date CuAAC stapling has not provided a simple method for obtaining peptides that are easily diversified further. In the present study, we report a new diversity-oriented peptide stapling (DOPS) methodology based on CuAAC chemistry. Stapling of peptides...

  14. Clinical relevance of anti-exenatide antibodies: safety, efficacy and cross-reactivity with long-term treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fineman, M.S.; Mace, K.F.; Diamant, M.; Darsow, T.; Cirincione, B.B.; Porter, T.K.B.; Kinninger, L.A.; Trautmann, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Antibody formation to therapeutic peptides is common. This analysis characterizes the time-course and cross-reactivity of anti-exenatide antibodies and potential effects on efficacy and safety. Methods: Data from intent-to-treat patients in 12 controlled (n = 2225,12-52weeks) and 5

  15. Functional and Structural Characterization of a Novel HLA-DRB1*04:01-Restricted α-Enolase T Cell Epitope in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gerstner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to citrullinated proteins, common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, are strongly associated to a specific set of HLA-DR alleles including HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:04, and *01:01. Here, we first demonstrate that autoantibody levels toward the dominant citrullinated B cell epitope from α-enolase are significantly elevated in HLA-DRB1*04:01-positive RA patients. Furthermore, we identified α-enolase-derived T cell epitopes and demonstrated that native and citrullinated versions of several peptides bind with different affinities to HLA-DRB1*04:01, *04:04, and *01:01. The citrulline residues in the eight identified peptides are distributed throughout the entire length of the presented epitopes and more specifically, localized at peptide positions p-2, p2, p4, p6, p7, p10, and p11. Importantly, in contrast to its native version peptide 26 (TSKGLFRAAVPSGAS, the HLA-DRB1*04:01-restricted citrullinated peptide Cit26 (TSKGLFCitAAVPSGAS elicited significant functional T cell responses in primary cells from RA patients. Comparative analysis of the crystal structures of HLA-DRB1*04:01 in complex with peptide 26 or Cit26 demonstrated that the posttranslational modification did not alter the conformation of the peptide. And since citrullination is the only structural difference between the two complexes, this indicates that the neo-antigen Cit26 is recognized by T cells with high specificity to the citrulline residue.

  16. PNA Peptide chimerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Næsby, M.; Wittung, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of PNA has been performed try linking a peptide segment to the PNA which is substrate for protein kinase A. The enzymatic phosphorylation proceeds in almost quantitative yields....

  17. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  18. Expression of recombinant Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eFrenzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with human-like post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  19. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of bacterial peptide deformylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D J; Gordon Green, B; O'Connell, J F; Grant, S K

    1999-07-15

    Bacterial peptide deformylases (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-formyl groups from N-blocked methionine polypeptides. Peptide aldehydes containing a methional or norleucinal inhibited recombinant peptide deformylase from gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor was calpeptin, N-CBZ-Leu-norleucinal, which was a competitive inhibitor of the zinc-containing metalloenzymes, E. coli and B. subtilis PDF with Ki values of 26.0 and 55.6 microM, respectively. Cobalt-substituted E. coli and B. subtilis deformylases were also inhibited by these aldehydes with Ki values for calpeptin of 9.5 and 12.4 microM, respectively. Distinct spectral changes were observed upon binding of calpeptin to the Co(II)-deformylases, consistent with the noncovalent binding of the inhibitor rather than the formation of a covalent complex. In contrast, the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline caused the time-dependent inhibition of B. subtilis Co(II)-PDF activity with the loss of the active site metal. The fact that calpeptin was nearly equipotent against deformylases from both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial sources lends further support to the idea that a single deformylase inhibitor might have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. Injection of an antibody against a p21 c-Ha-ras protein inhibits cleavage in axolotl eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltus, E; Hanocq-Quertier, J; Hanocq, F; Brachet, J

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a ras protein was demonstrated in cleaving axolotl eggs by selective immunoprecipitation with a polyclonal antibody against a peptide encoded by the c-Ha-ras oncogene, cellular homolog of the v-Ha-ras oncogene of Harvey rat sarcoma virus. Injection of this antibody into axolotl oocytes subjected to progesterone treatment does not prevent meiotic maturation. Injection of the same antibody into a blastomere of axolotl eggs at the 2- or 4-cell stage causes cleavage arrest in the ...

  1. Wildtype p53-specific Antibody and T-Cell Responses in Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune

    2011-01-01

    patients. Detection of antibodies against wt p53 protein has been used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker and discovery of new T-cell epitopes has enabled design of cancer vaccination protocols with promising results. Here, we identified wt p53-specific antibodies in various cancer patients......(264-272) in breast cancer patients and against HLA-A*01:01 binding peptide wt p53(226-234) and HLA-B*07:02 binding peptide wt p53(74-82) in renal cell cancer and breast cancer patients, respectively. Finally, we analyzed antibody and T-cell responses against wt p53 15-mer peptides in patients with metastatic renal...

  2. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  3. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Also known as What Is Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders ...

  4. The Malaria Vaccine Candidate GMZ2 Elicits Functional Antibodies in Individuals From Malaria Endemic and Non-Endemic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Micha Phill Grønholm; Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K

    2013-01-01

    against Plasmodium falciparum. Results. We showed that the maximum level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies obtained by GMZ2 vaccination is independent of ethnicity, time under malaria-exposure, and vaccine dose and that GMZ2 elicits high levels of functionally active IgG antibodies. Both, malaria......-naive adults and malaria-exposed preschool children elicit vaccine-specific antibodies with broad inhibitory activity against geographically diverse P. falciparum isolates. Peptide-mapping studies of IgG subclass responses identified IgG3 against a peptide derived from MSP3 as the strongest predictor...

  5. EPR investigation of gamma-irradiated L-citrulline, α-methyl-DL-serine, 3-fluoro-DL-valine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoğlu, Y. Emre; Sütçü, Kerem; Başkan, M. Halim

    2017-02-01

    The spectroscopic parameters of the paramagnetic species produced in gamma-irradiated L-citrulline, α-methyl-DL-serine, 3-fluoro-DL-valine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine were investigated at room temperature at a dose of 20 kGy by using EPR technique. The paramagnetic species were attributed to NH2CONH(CH2)3ĊNH2COOH, HOCH2ĊCH3COOH and HOĊHCCH3NH2COOH, CH3CH3ĊCHNH2COOH and SHCH2ĊNHCOCH3COOH radicals, respectively. EPR data of the unpaired electron with the environmental protons and 14N nucleus were used to characterize the contributing radicals produced in gamma irradiated compounds. In this paper, the stability of these compounds at room temperature after irradiation was also studied.

  6. Structural Principles in the Development of Cyclic Peptidic Enzyme Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Andreasen, Peter A.; Huang, Mingdong

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes our studies in the development of small cyclic peptides for specifically modulating enzyme activity. Serine proteases share highly similar active sites but perform diverse physiological and pathological functions. From a phage-display peptide library, we isolated two mono-cyclic peptides, upain-1 (CSWRGLENHRMC) and mupain-1 (CPAYSRYLDC), which inhibit the activity of human and murine urokinase-type plasminogen activators (huPA and muPA) with Ki values in the micromolar or sub-micromolar range, respectively. The following affinity maturations significantly enhanced the potencies of the two peptides, 10-fold and >250-fold for upain-1 and mupain-1, respectively. The most potent muPA inhibitor has a potency (Ki = 2 nM) and specificity comparable to mono-clonal antibodies. Furthermore, we also found an unusual feature of mupain-1 that its inhibitory potency can be enhanced by increasing the flexibility, which challenges the traditional viewpoint that higher rigidity leading to higher affinity. Moreover, by changing a few key residues, we converted mupain-1 from a uPA inhibitor to inhibitors of other serine proteases, including plasma kallikrein (PK) and coagulation factor XIa (fXIa). PK and fXIa inhibitors showed Ki values in the low nanomolar range and high specificity. Our studies demonstrate the versatility of small cyclic peptides to engineer inhibitory potency against serine proteases and to provide a new strategy for generating peptide inhibitors of serine proteases. PMID:29104489

  7. A high-throughput mass spectrometry assay to simultaneously measure intact insulin and C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven W; Clarke, Nigel J; Chen, Zhaohui; McPhaul, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of fasting levels of insulin and C-peptide are useful in documenting insulin resistance and may help predict development of diabetes mellitus. However, the specific insulin and C-peptide levels associated with specific degrees of insulin resistance have not been defined, owing to marked variability among immunoassays and lack of standardization. Herein, we describe a multiplexed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for intact insulin and C-peptide. Insulin and C-peptide were enriched from patient sera using monoclonal antibodies immobilized on magnetic beads and processed on a robotic liquid handler. Eluted peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Bovine insulin and a stable isotopically-labeled (13C/15N) C-peptide were utilized as internal standards. The assay had an analytical measurement range of 3 to 320 μIU/ml (18 to 1920 pmol/l) for insulin and 0.11 to 27.2 ng/ml (36 to 9006 pmol/l) for C-peptide. Intra- and inter-day assay variation was less than 11% for both peptides. Of the 5 insulin analogs commonly prescribed to treat diabetes, only the recombinant drug insulin lispro caused significant interference for the determination of endogenous insulin. There were no observed interferences for C-peptide. We developed and validated a high-throughput, quantitative, multiplexed LC-MS/MS assay for intact insulin and C-peptide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brief Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottenberg, J E; Courvoisier, D S; Hernandez, M V

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) status and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) status as predictors of abatacept (ABA) effectiveness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of data from 9 observational RA registries i...

  9. Jaccoud's arthropathy and pulmonary fibrosis in CREST syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinel B, Nestor; Montenegro, Pablo; Rondon Federico; Restrepo, Jose F; Iglesias G, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 48 years old patient with diagnosis of incomplete CREST syndrome (variant limited systemic sclerosis) in who we documented the presence of Jaccoud's arthropathy of the hands and pulmonary involvement by pulmonary fibrosis type usual interstitial pneumonia, with positivity for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody.

  10. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  12. Radiolabelled antibodies in imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent technological advances make it possible to produce pure (monoclonal) antibodies in unlimited quantities without the need for continuous immunization of animals and to label these antibodies with a variety of radionuclides which can be traced by single-photon computed tomography. An outline review of the state of the art is presented, with particular reference to the imaging of myocardial infarcts and to tumour imaging studies using labelled monoclonal antibodies (sup(99m)Tc and 125 I). Lengthy bibliography. (U.K.)

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonism and cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Newman, Lawrence; Ashina, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key signaling molecule involved in migraine pathophysiology. Efficacy of CGRP monoclonal antibodies and antagonists in migraine treatment has fueled an increasing interest in the prospect of treating cluster headache (CH) with CGRP antagonism. The exact...... role of CGRP and its mechanism of action in CH have not been fully clarified. A search for original studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English was performed in PubMed and in ClinicalTrials.gov . The search term used was "cluster headache and calcitonin gene related peptide......" and "primary headaches and calcitonin gene related peptide." Reference lists of identified articles were also searched for additional relevant papers. Human experimental studies have reported elevated plasma CGRP levels during both spontaneous and glyceryl trinitrate-induced cluster attacks. CGRP may play...

  14. A Tat-grafted anti-nucleic acid antibody acquires nuclear-localization property and a preference for TAR RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong-Geun; Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sung; Kwon, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We generate ' H3 Tat-3D8' by grafting Tat 48-60 peptide to VH CDR of 3D8 scFv antibody. → H3 Tat-3D8 antibody retains nucleic acid binding and hydrolyzing activities. → H3 Tat-3D8 acquires a preference for TAR RNA structure. → Properties of Tat 48-60 is transferred to an antibody via Tat-grafting into a CDR. -- Abstract: The 3D8 single chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) is an anti-nucleic acid antibody that can hydrolyze nucleic acids and enter the cytosol of cells without reaching the nucleus. The Tat peptide, derived from the basic region of the HIV-1 Tat protein, translocates to cell nuclei and has TAR RNA binding activity. In this study, we generated a Tat-grafted antibody ( H3 Tat-3D8) by replacing complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) within the VH domain of the 3D8 scFv with a Tat 48-60 peptide (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ). H3 Tat-3D8 retained the DNA-binding and DNA-hydrolyzing activity of the scFv, and translocated to the nuclei of HeLa cells and preferentially recognized TAR RNA. Thus, the properties associated with the Tat peptide were transferred to the antibody via Tat-grafting without loss of the intrinsic DNA-binding and hydrolyzing activities of the 3D8 scFv antibody.

  15. The HIV-1 V3 domain on field isolates: participation in generation of escape virus in vivo and accessibility to neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Akerblom, L; Heegaard, P M

    1995-01-01

    The V3 domain is highly variable and induces HIV neutralizing antibodies (NA). Here we addressed the issues of 1) the participation of mutations in V3 in generation of neutralization resistant escape virus in vivo and 2) the applicability of synthetic V3 peptides corresponding to field isolates...... to induce neutralizing immune sera. Seven peptides corresponding to the V3 region of primary and escape virus from 3 HIV-1 infected patients were synthesized and used for antibody (Abs) studies and immunizations. The anti-V3 Abs titre in patient serum was generally low against peptides corresponding...... to autologous virus isolated later than the serum sample in contrast to the titre against peptides corresponding to virus isolated earlier than the serum sample. Furthermore, neutralizing anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against V3 peptides from laboratory strains of HIV-1 showed distinct binding...

  16. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. GuiTope: an application for mapping random-sequence peptides to protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Rebecca F; Stafford, Phillip; Emery, Jack S; Navalkar, Krupa Arun; Johnston, Stephen Albert

    2012-01-03

    Random-sequence peptide libraries are a commonly used tool to identify novel ligands for binding antibodies, other proteins, and small molecules. It is often of interest to compare the selected peptide sequences to the natural protein binding partners to infer the exact binding site or the importance of particular residues. The ability to search a set of sequences for similarity to a set of peptides may sometimes enable the prediction of an antibody epitope or a novel binding partner. We have developed a software application designed specifically for this task. GuiTope provides a graphical user interface for aligning peptide sequences to protein sequences. All alignment parameters are accessible to the user including the ability to specify the amino acid frequency in the peptide library; these frequencies often differ significantly from those assumed by popular alignment programs. It also includes a novel feature to align di-peptide inversions, which we have found improves the accuracy of antibody epitope prediction from peptide microarray data and shows utility in analyzing phage display datasets. Finally, GuiTope can randomly select peptides from a given library to estimate a null distribution of scores and calculate statistical significance. GuiTope provides a convenient method for comparing selected peptide sequences to protein sequences, including flexible alignment parameters, novel alignment features, ability to search a database, and statistical significance of results. The software is available as an executable (for PC) at http://www.immunosignature.com/software and ongoing updates and source code will be available at sourceforge.net.

  18. GuiTope: an application for mapping random-sequence peptides to protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halperin Rebecca F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random-sequence peptide libraries are a commonly used tool to identify novel ligands for binding antibodies, other proteins, and small molecules. It is often of interest to compare the selected peptide sequences to the natural protein binding partners to infer the exact binding site or the importance of particular residues. The ability to search a set of sequences for similarity to a set of peptides may sometimes enable the prediction of an antibody epitope or a novel binding partner. We have developed a software application designed specifically for this task. Results GuiTope provides a graphical user interface for aligning peptide sequences to protein sequences. All alignment parameters are accessible to the user including the ability to specify the amino acid frequency in the peptide library; these frequencies often differ significantly from those assumed by popular alignment programs. It also includes a novel feature to align di-peptide inversions, which we have found improves the accuracy of antibody epitope prediction from peptide microarray data and shows utility in analyzing phage display datasets. Finally, GuiTope can randomly select peptides from a given library to estimate a null distribution of scores and calculate statistical significance. Conclusions GuiTope provides a convenient method for comparing selected peptide sequences to protein sequences, including flexible alignment parameters, novel alignment features, ability to search a database, and statistical significance of results. The software is available as an executable (for PC at http://www.immunosignature.com/software and ongoing updates and source code will be available at sourceforge.net.

  19. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    ) , which promotes intestinal growth and is used to treat bowel disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases and short bowel syndrome, and the 32 amino acid salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium and is employed in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. The two...... peptides are similar in size and structure, but oppositely charged at physiological pH. Both peptides were acylated with linear acyl chains of systematically increasing length, where sCT was furthermore acylated at two different positions on the peptide backbone. For GLP-2, we found that increasing acyl...... remained optimal overall. The results indicate that rational acylation of GLP-2 can increase its in vitro intestinal absorption, alone or in combination with permeation enhancers, and are consistent with the initial project hypothesis. For sCT, an unpredicted effect of acylation largely superseded...

  20. Cathepsin B Cleavage of vcMMAE-Based Antibody-Drug Conjugate Is Not Drug Location or Monoclonal Antibody Carrier Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikanga, Benson; Adeniji, Nia S; Patapoff, Thomas W; Chih, Hung-Wei; Yi, Li

    2016-04-20

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) require thorough characterization and understanding of product quality attributes. The framework of many ADCs comprises one molecule of antibody that is usually conjugated with multiple drug molecules at various locations. It is unknown whether the drug release rate from the ADC is dependent on drug location, and/or local environment, dictated by the sequence and structure of the antibody carrier. This study addresses these issues with valine-citrulline-monomethylauristatin E (vc-MMAE)-based ADC molecules conjugated at reduced disulfide bonds, by evaluating the cathepsin B catalyzed drug release rate of ADC molecules with different drug distributions or antibody carriers. MMAE drug release rates at different locations on ADC I were compared to evaluate the impact of drug location. No difference in rates was observed for drug released from the V(H), V(L), or C(H)2 domains of ADC I. Furthermore, four vc-MMAE ADC molecules were chosen as substrates for cathepsin B for evaluation of Michaelis-Menten parameters. There was no significant difference in K(M) or k(cat) values, suggesting that different sequences of the antibody carrier do not result in different drug release rates. Comparison between ADCs and small molecules containing vc-MMAE moieties as substrates for cathepsin B suggests that the presence of IgG1 antibody carrier, regardless of its bulkiness, does not impact drug release rate. Finally, a molecular dynamics simulation on ADC II revealed that the val-cit moiety at each of the eight possible conjugation sites was, on average, solvent accessible over 50% of its maximum solvent accessible surface area (SASA) during a 500 ns trajectory. Combined, these results suggest that the cathepsin cleavage sites for conjugated drugs are exposed enough for the enzyme to access and that the drug release rate is rather independent of drug location or monoclonal antibody carrier. Therefore, the distribution of drug conjugation at different

  1. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in spike 1 domain and membrane protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Kohji; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV) causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. The development of an FIP-preventive vaccine requires an antigen that does not induce antibody-dependent enhancement, and T helper (Th)1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection. In the present study, we identified synthetic peptides including Th1 and a linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope in the S1 domain and M protein of FIPV. We also identified peptides that strongly induce Th1 activity from those derived from the structural proteins (S, M, and N proteins) of FIPV based on this and previous studies (Satoh et al. [19]). No Th1 epitope-containing peptide was identified in the peptides derived from the S1 domain of type I FIPV. In contrast, 7 Th1 epitope-containing peptides were identified in the S1 domain of type II FIPV, and no linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope was contained in any of these peptides. Eleven Th1 epitope-containing peptides common to each serotype were identified in the M protein-derived peptides, and 2 peptides (M-11 and M-12) contained the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope. Of the peptides derived from the S, M, and N proteins of FIPV, those that induced significantly stronger Th1 activity than that of the FIPV antigen were rescreened, and 4 peptides were identified. When 3 of these peptides (M-9, I-S2-15, and II-S1-24) were selected and administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, M-9 and II-S1-24 induced Th1 activity. Our results may provide important information for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against FIPV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.Y.T.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) can be used to differentiate between normal and neoplastic cells and thus exploited for diagnostic and, ultimately, therapeutic gain. The evidence for the existence of human tumour antigens is reviewed. Several areas of diagnosis are already benefiting from the application of the monoclonal technology. Immunohistology can help the pathologist with difficult diagnostic problems. New classifications of lymphoma and leukaemia can be based on specific surface molecules. Similarly, the detection of shed tumour antigens is already established as part of the routine assessment of many patients with common solid tumours. Isotopically labeled monoclonal antibodies have been used to localise primary and metastatic tumours. The use of antibodies in this way is not only a promising diagnostic tool but also the first step in studying the possibility of arming antibodies to provide therapeutic agents. Such trials are currently in progress. (Auth.)

  4. Future of antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  5. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ... person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  6. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  7. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    of these are currently being used in quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) studies for AMP optimization. Additionally, some key commercial computational tools are discussed, and both successful and less successful studies are referenced, illustrating some of the challenges facing AMP scientists. Through...... examples of different peptide QSAR studies, this review highlights some of the missing links and illuminates some of the questions that would be interesting to challenge in a more systematic fashion. Expert opinion: Computer-aided peptide QSAR using molecular descriptors may provide the necessary edge...

  8. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  9. Locus-specific detection of HLA-DQ and -DR antigens by antibodies against synthetic N-terminal octapeptides of the beta chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deufel, T; Grove, A; Kofod, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Antibodies against synthetic peptides representing the class-II antigen HLA-DR and -DQ beta chain N-terminal sequences were prepared in rabbits. The two octapeptides only share two amino acids and enzyme-linked immuno-assays showed the antisera only to bind to its own antigen. Both peptide antisera...... chains of HLA-DR and -DQ have been prepared by the preparation by the production of antibodies against the N-terminal sequences of each polypeptide....

  10. A collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment targeting tumors with a collagen-rich extracellular matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liang; Xiaoran Li; Bin Wang; Bing Chen; Yannan Zhao; Jie Sun; Yan Zhuang; Jiajia Shi; He Shen; Zhijun Zhang; Jianwu Dai

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors over-express collagen, which constitutes the physical scaffold of tumor microenvironment. Collagen has been considered to be a target for cancer therapy. The collagen-binding domain (CBD) is a short peptide, which could bind to collagen and achieve the sustained release of CBD-fused proteins in collagen scaffold. Here, a collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment was designed and expressed for targeting the collagen-rich extracellular matrix in tumors. The antibody fragment (Fab) of ...

  11. Identification of novel peptides for horse meat speciation in highly processed foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Amy J; Grundy, Helen H; Charlton, Adrian J; Romero, M Rosario

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for robust analytical methods to support enforcement of food labelling legislation. Proteomics is emerging as a complementary methodology to existing tools such as DNA and antibody-based techniques. Here we describe the development of a proteomics strategy for the determination of meat species in highly processed foods. A database of specific peptides for nine relevant animal species was used to enable semi-targeted species determination. This principle was tested for horse meat speciation, and a range of horse-specific peptides were identified as heat stable marker peptides for the detection of low levels of horse meat in mixtures with other species.

  12. Making Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody And Radiolabelling For Medical Purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Duong Van Dong; Vo Thi Cam Hoa; Bui Van Cuong; Chu Van Khoa; Vu Bich Huong; Le Quang Huan

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant monoclonal antibody labeling with 131 I specific to tumor cell has been studied and prepared for treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. In this study, a recombinant monoclonal antibody with two specific properties is a hybrid molecule created by coupling an antibody variable fragments with peptide melittin. The gene coding the antibody fragment has been obtained from human synthetic Fv libraries using for panning and screening on populations of lymphocytes fragmented from human blood cells with Hodgkin diseases. The gene encoding peptit melittin has been cloned from honeybee Apis cerana DNA. The gene coding recombinant monoclonal antibody has been expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) at 37 o C and was induced with 0.6 mM IPTG. The recombinant compound has been purified by affinity chromatography with HiTrap affinity column. The obtained recombinant monoclonal antibody has showed cytolytic activities when added to cell culture medium for LU cancer cell line with the amount of 100 - 200 mg/ml. This monoclonal antibody is labeled with 131 I using chloramine T procedure. ChT mass for the oxidation of 50 μg monoclonal antibody in 76 MBq was 10 μg. Sodium metabisulfite was used as a reducing agent. Reaction time was above 3 mins. The radiochemical purity was determined using electrophoresis and TLC methods. Radiochemical yield was > 97%. Radiochemical purity after purification was > 99%. Nuclear purity was > 99%. Stability of the label antibody was 12 days. This is the product promise potential used in the diagnostic and therapeutic of Hodgkin lymphoma. (author)

  13. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  14. Design and expression of a short peptide as an HIV detection probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Jamie A.; Yu, Zhiqiang; Dedkova, Larisa M.; Chen, Shengxi, E-mail: shengxi.chen.1@asu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We designed a short fusion peptide (FP-50) for in vivo expression. •This peptide is a very promising component for detection of gp120 protein. •The detectable level is about 20–200 times lower than previously published methods. •It is a novel probe to detect HIV-1 gp120 during early stages of HIV infection. -- Abstract: To explore a low-cost novel probe for HIV detection, we designed and prepared a 50-amino acid-length short fusion peptide (FP-50) via Escherichia coli in vivo expression. It was employed as a novel probe to detect HIV-1 gp120 protein. The detectable level of gp120 protein using the FP-50 peptide was approximately 20–200 times lower than previously published methods that used a pair of monoclonal antibodies. Thus, this short peptide is a very promising component for detection of gp120 protein during early stages of HIV infection.

  15. Cell targeting peptides as smart ligands for targeting of therapeutic or diagnostic agents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavizadeh, Ali; Jabbari, Ali; Akrami, Mohammad; Bardania, Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Cell targeting peptides (CTP) are small peptides which have high affinity and specificity to a cell or tissue targets. They are typically identified by using phage display and chemical synthetic peptide library methods. CTPs have attracted considerable attention as a new class of ligands to delivery specifically therapeutic and diagnostic agents, because of the fact they have several advantages including easy synthesis, smaller physical sizes, lower immunogenicity and cytotoxicity and their simple and better conjugation to nano-carriers and therapeutic or diagnostic agents compared to conventional antibodies. In this systematic review, we will focus on the basic concepts concerning the use of cell-targeting peptides (CTPs), following the approaches of selecting them from peptide libraries. We discuss several developed strategies for cell-specific delivery of different cargos by CTPs, which are designed for drug delivery and diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Binding and orientation of fibronectin on polystyrene surfaces using immobilized bacterial adhesin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, U; Bryers, J D; Kreutzer, D L

    2003-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to bind to bacteria via high affinity receptors on bacterial surfaces known as adhesins. The binding of bacteria to FN is thought to have a key role in foreign device associated infections. For example, previous studies have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus adhesins bind to the 29 kDa NH(3) terminus end of FN, and thereby promote bacteria adherence to surfaces. Recently, the peptide sequences within the S. aureus adhesin molecule that are responsible for FN binding have been identified. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that functional FN can be bound and specifically oriented on polystyrene surfaces using bacterial adhesin-related (BRP-A) peptide. We further hypothesize that monoclonal antibodies that react with specific epitopes on the FN can be used to quantify both FN binding and orientation on these surfaces. Based on this hypothesis, we initiated a systematic investigation of the binding and orientation of FN on polystyrene surfaces using BRP-A peptide. To test this hypothesis, the binding and orientation of the FN to immobilized BRP-A was quantified using (125)I-FN, and monoclonal antibodies. (125)I-FN was used to quantitate FN binding to peptide-coated polystyrene surfaces. The orientation of bound FN was demonstrated by the use of monoclonal antibodies, which are reactive with the amine (N) or carboxyl (C) termini of the FN. The results of our studies demonstrated that when the BRP-A peptide was used to bind FN to surfaces that: 1. functional FN was bound to the peptide; 2. anti-C terminus antibodies bound to the peptide FN; and 3. only limited binding of anti-N terminus antibodies to peptide-bound FN occurred. We believe that the data that indicate an enhanced binding of anti-C antibodies reactive to anti-N antibodies are a result of the FN binding in an oriented manner with the N termini of FN bound tightly to the BRP-A on the polystyrene surface. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 36

  17. Antagonistic effect of disulfide-rich peptide aptamers selected by cDNA display on interleukin-6-dependent cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Naoto; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ueno, Shingo; Machida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibits IL-6-dependent cell proliferation. ► Disulfide bond of peptide aptamer is essential for its affinity to IL-6R. ► Inhibitory effect of peptide depends on number and pattern of its disulfide bonds. -- Abstract: Several engineered protein scaffolds have been developed recently to circumvent particular disadvantages of antibodies such as their large size and complex composition, low stability, and high production costs. We previously identified peptide aptamers containing one or two disulfide-bonds as an alternative ligand to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Peptide aptamers (32 amino acids in length) were screened from a random peptide library by in vitro peptide selection using the evolutionary molecular engineering method “cDNA display”. In this report, the antagonistic activity of the peptide aptamers were examined by an in vitro competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an IL-6-dependent cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that a disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibited IL-6-dependent cell proliferation with similar efficacy to an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody.

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Mansour, Sarah C; Hancock, Robert E W

    2017-01-01

    The "golden era" of antibiotic discovery has long passed, but the need for new antibiotics has never been greater due to the emerging threat of antibiotic resistance. This urgency to develop new antibiotics has motivated researchers to find new methods to combat pathogenic microorganisms resulting in a surge of research focused around antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; also termed host defense peptides) and their potential as therapeutics. During the past few decades, more than 2000 AMPs have been identified from a diverse range of organisms (animals, fungi, plants, and bacteria). While these AMPs share a number of common features and a limited number of structural motifs; their sequences, activities, and targets differ considerably. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs can also exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-biofilm, and anticancer activities. These diverse functions have spurred tremendous interest in research aimed at understanding the activity of AMPs, and various protocols have been described to assess different aspects of AMP function including screening and evaluating the activities of natural and synthetic AMPs, measuring interactions with membranes, optimizing peptide function, and scaling up peptide production. Here, we provide a general overview of AMPs and introduce some of the methodologies that have been used to advance AMP research.

  19. Monoclonal Antibodies Radiolabeling with Rhenium-188 for Radioimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol

    2017-01-01

    Rhenium-188, obtained from an alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, is actually considered a useful candidate for labeling biomolecules such as antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and DNAs for radiotherapy. There is a widespread interest in the availability of labeling procedures that allow obtaining 188Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for various therapeutic applications, in particular for the rhenium attachment to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mo)Abs for immunotherapy. Different approaches have been developed in order to obtain 188Re-radioimmunoconjugates in high radiochemical purity starting from the generator eluted [188Re]ReO4−. The aim of this paper is to provide a short overview on 188Re-labeled (Mo)Abs, focusing in particular on the radiolabeling methods, quality control of radioimmunoconjugates, and their in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), with particular reference to the most important contributions published in literature in this topic. PMID:28951872

  20. Effect of monoclonal antibodies on limited proteolysis of native glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Pereira, L.; Hampar, B.; Zweig, M.; Cohen, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the properties of 17 monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) (gD-1) and HSV-2 (gD-2). The antibodies recognized eight separate determinants of gD, based on differences in radioimmuno-precipitation and neutralization assays. The determinants were distributed as follows: three were gD-1 specific, one was gD-2 specific, and four were type common. Several type-specific and type-common determinants appeared to be involved in neutralization. We developed a procedure for examining the effect that binding of monoclonal antibody has on proteolysis of native gD-1 by Staphylococcus aureus protease V8. We showed that several different patterns of protease V8 cleavage were obtained, depending on the monoclonal antibody used. The proteolysis patterns were generally consistent with the immunological groupings. With four groups of antibodies, we found that fragments of gD-1 remained bound to antibody after V8 treatment. A 38,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies in three different groups of monoclonal antibodies. This fragment appeared to contain one type-common and two type-specific determinants. A 12,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies belonging to one type-common group of monoclonal antibodies. Tryptic peptide analysis revealed that the 12,000-dalton fragment represented a portion of the 38,000-dalton fragment and was enriched in a type-common arginine tryptic peptide

  1. Identification of an antigenic domain on Mycobacterium leprae protein antigen 85B, which is specifically recognized by antibodies from patients with leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filley, E.; Thole, J. E.; Rook, G. A.; Nagai, S.; Waters, M.; Drijfhout, J. W.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; de Vries, R. R.; Abou-Zeid, C.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three overlapping 15-oligomer peptides covering the 30-kDa protein antigen 85B of Mycobacterium leprae were tested by ELISA to identify epitopes recognized by human antibodies. Serum samples from patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) reacted mainly with peptides comprising amino acid regions

  2. Conserved peptides within the E2 region of Hepatitis C virus induce humoral and cellular responses in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shenawy Reem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reason(s why human antibodies raised against hepatitis C virus (HCV E2 epitopes do not offer protection against multiple viral infections may be related to either genetic variations among viral strains particularly within the hypervariable region-1 (HVR-1, low titers of anti E2 antibodies or interference of non neutralizing antibodies with the function of neutralizing antibodies. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 as potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccines against HCV infection. Goats immunized with E2-conserved synthetic peptides termed p36 (a.a 430–446, p37(a.a 517–531 and p38 (a.a 412–419 generated high titers of anti-p36, anti-p37 and anti-P38 antibody responses of which only anti- p37 and anti- p38 were neutralizing to HCV particles in sera from patients infected predominantly with genotype 4a. On the other hand anti-p36 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples. Animals super-immunized with single epitopes generated 2 to 4.5 fold higher titers than similar antibodies produced in chronic HCV patients. Also the studied peptides elicited approximately 3 fold increase in cell proliferation of specific antibody-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from immunized goats. These results indicate that, besides E1 derived peptide p35 (a.a 315–323 described previously by this laboratory, E2 conserved peptides p37 and p38 represent essential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection.

  3. A novel merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (MSP-3 identified by cellular-antibody cooperative mechanism antigenicity and biological activity of antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Oeuvray

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the identification of a 48kDa antigen targeted by antibodies which inhibit Plasmodium falciparum in vitro growth by cooperation with blood monocytes in an ADCI assay correlated to the naturally acquired protection. This protein is located on the surface of the merozoite stage of P. falciparum, and is detectable in all isolates tested. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of MSP-3 contain potent B and T-cell epitopes recognized by a majority of individuals living in endemic areas. Moreover human antibodies either purified on the recombinant protein, or on the synthetic peptide MSP-3b, as well as antibodies raised in mice, were all found to promote parasite killing mediated by monocytes.

  4. Identification and analysis of cytochrome P450IID6 antigenic sites recognized by anti-liver-kidney microsome type-1 antibodies (LKM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A M; Cresteil, D; Boniface, O; Clerc, F F; Alvarez, F

    1993-05-01

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome type-1 antibodies (LKM1), present in sera from a group of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, are directed against P450IID6. Previous work, using cDNA constructions spanning most of the P450IID6 protein defined the main immunogenic site between the amino acids (aa), 254-271 and predicted the presence of other putative immunogenic sites in the molecule. Fusion proteins from new cDNA constructions, spanning so-far-untested regions between aa 1-125 and 431-522, were not recognized by LKM1-positive sera. Synthetic peptides, representing sequences from putative immunogenic regions or previously untested regions, allowed a precise definition of four antigenic sites located between peptides 257-269, 321-351, 373-389 and 410-429, which were recognized, respectively, by 14, 8, 1 and 2 out of 15 LKM1-positive sera tested. The minimal sequence of the main antigenic site (peptide 257-269) recognized by the autoantibody was established to be WDPAQPPRD (peptide 262-270). In addition, deletion and replacement experiments showed that aa 263 (Asp) was essential for the binding of the autoantibody to peptide 262-270. Analysis of the second most frequently recognized peptide between aa 321-351, was performed using peptides 321-339 and 340-351 in competitive inhibition studies. Complete elimination of antibody binding to peptide 321-351 obtained by absorption of both shorter peptides indicated that peptide 321-351 is a discontinuous antigenic site. LKM1-positive sera reacting against peptide 321-351 recognized either both the shorter peptides or just one of them preferentially. Results of the present study suggest that the production of LKM1 antibodies is an antigen-driven, poly- or oligoclonal B cell response. The identification of antigenic sites will allow: (i) the development of specific diagnostic tests and (ii) further studies on the pathogenic value of LKM1 antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

  5. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and