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Sample records for citrifolia root extract

  1. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni fruit, leaves and root extracts

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    Mandukhail Saf-ur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F, leaves (Mc.Cr.L and roots (Mc.Cr.R. Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.

  2. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

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    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  3. Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic effect of plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Morinda citrifolia root extract.

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    Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kanchana, A; Elizabeth, S Beena

    2013-06-01

    Silver has been used since time to control bodily infection, prevent food spoilage and heal wounds by preventing infection. The present study aims at an environmental friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from the root of Morinda citrifolia; without involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanopartilces were capped with plant compounds. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the spherical nature of the silver nanoparticles with a size of 30-55 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum XRD pattern clearly indicates that the silver nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell.

  4. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni extracts against Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    K Barani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in anti-fungal testing. Anti-fungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by agar culture and applied broth dilution test. Results: M. citrifolia extract at 1000 μg/ml concentration effectively inhibited the growth of C. albicans (16.6 ± 0.3 compared with the positive control - amphotericin B (20.6 ± 0.6. It was found to be a dose-dependent reaction. Conclusion: M. citrifolia fruit extract had an anti-fungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration.

  5. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) Seed Extract

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    West, Brett J.; C. Jarakae Jensen; Afa K Palu; Shixin Deng

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni) seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC50 > 1 mg/mL) in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day) oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not ...

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

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    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  7. Chemical components of the roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and their cytotoxic effects.

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    Lv, Lishuang; Chen, Huadong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin

    2011-06-01

    Roots of Morinda citrifolia (Noni or Yor in Thai) have been used traditionally for thousands of years to treat chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. In this study, three new anthraquinones together with 15 known compounds were isolated from the roots of M. citrifolia (Rubiaceae). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Six known compounds, together with two new compounds (2 and 3) showed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human lung and colon cancer cells.

  8. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni Seed Extract

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    Brett J. West

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC50 > 1 mg/mL in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not display any genotoxic potential in a primary DNA damage test in E. coli PQ37. The extract did exhibit significant antioxidant activity in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP tests.

  9. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

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    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper p...

  10. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

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    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  11. Recovery of Phytochemical Components from Various Parts of Morinda citrifolia Extracts by Using Membrane Separator

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    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Sarbatly, Rosalam; Nah, Ng Lee

    In this study, extracts from various Morinda Citrifolia parts (leaf, fruit and root) by methanol was separated into permeate and retentate fractions using a membrane system equipped with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. NF was carried on a ceramic membrane with MWCO of 5 kD. Effect of NF transmembrane pressure at 0.1, 0.12 and 0.17 bar was examined at constant temperature 45EC with constant flow rate. The influence of transmembrane pressure on the efficiency of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of permeate retentate concentration was examined. The antioxidant activities of crude mengkudu extracts, NF permeate and retentate were evaluated by using the DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  12. Flow injection spectrophotometry using natural reagent from Morinda citrifolia root for determination of aluminium in tea.

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    Tontrong, Sopa; Khonyoung, Supada; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method with using natural reagent extracted from Morinda citrifolia root has been developed for determination of aluminium. The extract contained anthraquinone compounds which could react with Al(3+) to form reddish complexes which had maximum absorption wavelength at 499.0nm. The extract could be used as a reagent in FI system without further purification to obtain pure compound. A sensitive method for determination of aluminium in concentration range of 0.1-1.0mgL(-1), with detection limit of 0.05mgL(-1) was achieved. Relative standard deviations of 1.2% and 1.7% were obtained for the determination of 0.1 and 0.6mgL(-1) Al(3+) (n=11). Sample throughput of 35h(-1) was achieved with the consumption of 3mL each of carrier and reagent solutions per injection. The developed method was successfully applied to tea samples, validated by the FAAS standard method. The method is simple, fast, economical and could be classified as a greener analytical method.

  13. Anti-angiogenic activity of Morinda citrifolia extracts and its chemical constituents.

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    Beh, Hooi-Kheng; Seow, Lay-Jing; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Ismail, Norhayati; Ismail, Zhari

    2012-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. has been used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves. Anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation were performed to identify the active constituent, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was then used to quantify the amount of this active constituent in the active extracts and fraction. The methanol extracts of fruits and leaves of M. citrifolia and the subsequent chloroform fraction of the fruit methanolic extract were found to have potential anti-angiogenic activity and were more potent compared to suramin. Scopoletin was identified as one of the chemical constituents that may be partly responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity of M. citrifolia fruits. The present findings further support the use of M. citrifolia in cancer or other pathological conditions related to angiogenesis.

  14. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability.

  15. Effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its iridoid glycosides on blood fluidity.

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    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Deng, Shixin; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit on blood fluidity. M. citrifolia fruit extract (MCF-ext) was investigated for its influence on blood aggregation and fibrinolysis. MCF-ext inhibited polybrene-induced erythrocyte aggregation and thrombin activity. The fibrinolytic activity of MCF-ext, in the euglobulin lysis time test and fibrin plate assay, is reported here for the first time. One of the active compounds was an iridoid glycoside, asperulosidic acid. The results indicated that MCF-ext is a potentially useful health food which is capable of improving blood flow and preventing lifestyle-related diseases.

  16. In vitro erythrocyte oxidative damage of Morinda citrifolia L (noni leaves extract

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    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Slight decrease of hemoglobin and erythrocyte count was observed previously after subchronic oral dosing of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract in rats. Induction of erythrocyte membrane damage could be the cause for these effects. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves extract and fractions on rat erythrocytes. Methods: Hemolytic damage was assayed in rat erythrocytes. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring methemoglobin formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and enzyme antioxidant activities, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Results: Morinda citrifolia L extract caused no hemolysis and induced oxidative damage to red cells in vitro. Methemoglobin increase was observed at concentration between 2 and 8 mg/ml of the extract. Lipid peroxidation was increased and CAT and SOD activities were depleted indicating a possible increase of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals in erythrocytes. Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol fraction did not cause methemoglobin formation while water fraction increased methemoglobin level at doses up to 6 mg/ml. Conclusions: We concluded that high doses of Morinda citrifolia L extract promote erythrocyte oxidative damage due to metabolites present in water fraction. These could be the cause of decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels observed. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 135-140

  17. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT – PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION

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    PRAVEEN KUMAR; CHRIS CHU; DUDUKU KRISHNAIAH; AWANG BONO

    2006-01-01

    A modified version of high hydrostatic pressure extraction has been performed for extraction of antioxidants from M. citrifolia fruit at 5, 15, 25 bar and temperature 30° to 70°C for time duration 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by di-phenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The process parameters were optimized for antioxidant activity by central composite design method of response surface methodology using the statistical package, design e...

  18. Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents.

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    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masudaa, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a traditional natural medicine in French Polynesia and Hawaii. Functional foods derived from M. citrifolia fruit have been marketed to help prevent diseases and promote good health. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of M. citrifolia fruit on cell-mediated immunity. In the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis test, M. citrifolia fruit extract (Noni-ext) inhibited the suppression of cell-mediated immunity by immunosuppressive substances isolated from freeze-dried ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice (EC-sup). In addition, Noni-ext inhibited reduction of IL-2 production in EC-sup-treated mice and activated natural killer cells in normal mice. These results suggest that Noni-ext has multiple effects on the recovery of cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, we investigated the active principles of Noni-ext and identified an iridoid glycoside, deacetylasperulosidic acid. Oral administration of deacetylasperulosidic acid inhibited the reduction of ear swelling, and also cancelled the suppression of IL-2 production along with the activation of natural killer cells in the same manner as that of Noni-ext.

  19. Optimal Binary Solvent Extraction System for Phenolic Antioxidants from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Fruit

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    Chin Ping Tan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

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    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-14

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  1. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract.

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    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage.

  2. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

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    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states.

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Antioxidant Compositions From Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia(Noni)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-hong; XUE Ya-rong; YE Yong-hang; YUAN Feng-feng; LIU Jun-yan; SHUANG Jing-lei

    2007-01-01

    Extraction and characterization of antioxidative compositions from the extracts of fermented Xisha Noni(Morinda citrifolia L.)juice were studied.The antioxidative constituents of 184.6g freeze-dried extracts of naturally fermented Xisha Noni juice were isolated successfully by petroleum ether,EtOAc and n-BuOH solvents,and the antioxidative effects were measured according to scavenging activity against hydroxyl generated in Fenton reaction system and superoxide anion radicals in pyrogallol autoxidation system.The EtOAc extract exhibited most significantly higher(P<0.01)antioxidative activity than mannitol or vitamin C,while the petroleum ether and n-BuOH extracts showed lower activities compared to were isolated from the EtOAc extract by several chromatography techniques for the first time.The results suggest that several compounds,in particular,the phenolic compounds,contribute separately or synergistically to the antioxidative activity of fermented Noni fruit juice.

  4. Safety evaluation of Morinda citrifolia (noni leaves extract: assessment of genotoxicity, oral short term and subchronic toxicity

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    Alicia Lagarto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L (noni is an evergreen or small tree that grows in many tropical regions of the world. The use of the noni leaves has not been so studied however; there are reports of its pharmacological benefits. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to assess the genotoxicity, short-term, and subchronic oral toxicity of Morinda citrifolia L leaves aqueous extract. Methods: The genotoxicity of the M. citrifolia extract was investigated by measuring the frequency of micronuclei in mice bone marrow cells. The animals were treated with three doses of the extract (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. For short-term toxicity, both sexes Wistar rats received 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed for hematological and biochemical evaluation. For the subchronic study, Wistar rats were administered with three doses of M. citrifolia extract (100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg by oral route for 90 days. Mortalities, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological examination were monitored during the study period. Results: Genotoxicity and short-term toxicity test resulted in absence of toxicity at doses between 500 and 2000 mg/kg. Significant differences were observed in hemoglobin, and differential leukocyte count after subchronic dosing of the extract. Histology evaluation did not reveal treatment-related abnormalities. Variations observed were within to normal range and reversible. Conclusions: In summary, 1000 mg/kg orally was the NOAEL for M. citrifolia extract for effects other than transient variations in some hematological parameters within normal range. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 15-22

  5. Optimisation of spray drying operating conditions of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extract using response surface methodology

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    Duduku Krishnaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conventional solvent extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit was spray dried using adjuvant maltodextrin (5 wt.%. Spray drying was carried out according to the D-optimal design, and the independent variables selected were temperature and Mcore/Mwall. The spray drying process was optimised by using response surface methodology (RSM for four different responses: moisture content (MC, DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC, and total flavonoid (TF. The effects of temperature and of the core to wall material ratio were found to be significant for all responses. The optimal spray drying condition for maltodextrin as binding material was found to be 1:1.5 (Mcore/Mwall, volume ratio of M. citrifolia L. extract to additive solution at 95 °C. The experimental values of the response variables correspond well to the predicted values. The microparticles obtained in this study represent an interesting food additive for incorporation into functional foods due to the presence of antioxidants.

  6. Morinda citrifolia edible leaf extract enhanced immune response against lung cancer.

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    Lim, Swee-Ling; Goh, Yong-Meng; Noordin, M Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu S; Othman, Hemn H; Abu Bakar, Nurul Ain; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer causes 1.4 million deaths annually. In the search for functional foods as complementary therapies against lung cancer, the immuno-stimulatory properties of the vegetable Morinda citrifolia leaves were investigated and compared with the anti-cancer drug erlotinib. Lung tumour-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 mg kg(-1) or 300 mg kg(-1) body weight of the leaf extract, or erlotinib (50 mg kg(-1) body-weight) for 21 days. The 300 mg kg(-1) body weight extract significantly (and dose-dependently) suppressed lung tumour growth; the extract worked more effectively than the 50 mg kg(-1) body weight erlotinib treatment. The extract significantly increased blood lymphocyte counts, and spleen tissue B cells, T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which is a lung adenocarcinoma biomarker. The extract also suppressed the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inflammatory markers, and enhanced the tumour suppressor gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog, PTEN). It inhibited tumour growth cellular gene (transformed mouse 3T3 cell double minute 2 (MDM2), V-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1 (RAF1), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR)) mRNA expression in the tumours. The extract is rich in scopoletin and epicatechin, which are the main phenolic compounds. The 300 mg kg(-1)Morinda citrifolia leaf 50% ethanolic extract showed promising potential as a complementary therapeutic dietary supplement which was more effective than the 50 mg kg(-1) erlotinib in suppressing lung adenocarcinoma. Part of the mechanisms involved enhancing immune responses, suppressing proliferation and interfering with various tumour growth signalling pathways.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of an Iridoid Rich Extract from Morinda citrifolia Fruit

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    Brett J. West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of iridoids in Morinda citrifolia (noni fruits. An iridoid rich extract from noni fruits was prepared and incubated with aliquots of twenty-four hour cultures of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at total iridoid concentrations of 0.096, 0.19, 0.45, 0.82 and 1.41 mg/mL. was monitored by Optical Density (OD at 600 nm. Iridoid concentration dependent decreases in cell growth were observed in all organisms. The results suggest that deacetylasperulosidic acid and asperulosidic acid, the major phytochemical constituents of noni fruit, possess antibacterial activity.

  8. EFFECT OF NONI (Morinda citrifolia EXTRACT ON TREATMENT OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL AND AMMONIUM CHLORIDE INDUCED KIDNEY DISEASE

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    R Bhavani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia is one of the important medicinal plants having a lot of phytochemicals, which plays very important role in medicines. In this present investigation, the animals are induced to kidney stone by giving ethylene glycol mixed with water and given orally, and 0.5 % ammonium chloride are mixed with water and given orally for 28 days. The induced rats are treated with Noni (1 in 10 ml mixed with H2O and given to the rats for 28 days, and induced to kidney stone + ammonium chloride is treated with Noni extract mixed with water and given to the rats for 28 days. After the treatment the urinary parameters like creatinine, protein, calcium, oxalate, phosphate are decreased except magnesium, its level is increased and serum creatinine level is decreased. The results are shows the good medicinal properties of noni extract of Morinda citrifolia.

  9. Anti-allergic activity of the Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents

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    Kazuya Murata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae, commonly known as noni is distributed throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Anti-allergic effects of noni have not been reported despite the clinical usage as an anti-allergic agent. Materials and Methods: To investigate the anti-allergic effects of the 50% ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves (MCF-ext and MCL-ext, dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction and picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD tests were performed. Results: In DNFB-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction, oral administration of MCF-ext and MCL-ext exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous reaction at 1 h (immediate phase response after the DNFB challenge. MCF-ext also inhibited ear swelling at 24 h (late phase response and 8 days (very late phase response after the DNFB challenge. The effect of MCL-ext on the immediate phase response was attributed to the anti-degranulation from RBL-2H3 cells, while MCF-ext had no significant effect on degranulation. The active components of anti-degranulation activity in MCL-ext were determined to be ursolic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside. In the PC-CD test, both MCF-ext and MCL-ext showed an anti-swelling effect but the potency of MCF-ext was stronger than MCL-ext. Conclusion: These data suggest that noni fruits and leaves can be a daily consumable material for the prevention of allergic symptoms.

  10. Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel affect on post-extraction fibroblast acceleration

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    Christian Khoswanto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is one of treatment frequently done by dentists in clinics, hospital, and even private practices. One thing that is needed to be observed after the treatment is the speed of wound recovery process. Mengkudu is commonly used as medicinal treatments, some of them to heal wounds, but there had never been research of the use of mengkudu fruit on wound recovery after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mengkudu gel in accelerating the escalation of fibroblast post tooth extraction on Dawley rats. Method: This study was used post test only control group design. Thirty male Dawley rats weigh between 250-300 grams, 3 months of age are being used. Tooth extraction is being done on lower left incisor. The 30 rats are divided into three groups, there are mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel, poviclone iodine, and control group. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD. Result: The result of every tested group with Kolmogorof-Smirnov test showed p > 0.05. Examination showed there was significant difference in fibroblast amount between the group with mengkudu gel and two other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The application of mengkudu gel can accelerate the escalation of fibroblast after the tooth extraction on Dawley rats.Latar Belakang: Ekstraksi gigi merupakan perawatan yang sering dilakukan oleh dokter gigi baik di klinik, rumah sakit, dan praktekpribadi. Satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan setelahpencabutan gigi adalah kecepatanpenyembuhan luka bekas cabut. Mengkudu merupakan bahan yang sering digunakan untukpengobatan, salah satu diantaranya adalah untukpenyembuhan luka, namunpenelitian untuk kesembuhan luka pasca cabut gigi yang menggunakan mengkudu belum pernah dilakukan sebelumnya. Tujuan: Tujuanpenelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek gel mengkudu dalam mempercepat peningkatan jumlah fibroblas setelah pencabutan gigi tikus Dawley. Metode: Penelitian ini

  11. Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf

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    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia L. (noni is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg−1 day−1 was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002. Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing.

  12. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT – PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION

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    PRAVEEN KUMAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A modified version of high hydrostatic pressure extraction has been performed for extraction of antioxidants from M. citrifolia fruit at 5, 15, 25 bar and temperature 30° to 70°C for time duration 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by di-phenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The process parameters were optimized for antioxidant activity by central composite design method of response surface methodology using the statistical package, design expert. The results are expressed as 3D surface graphs. The optimum antioxidant activity was achieved at 58°C and 5 hours for 25bar. The optimal result achieved was within the region of response surface methodology. The statistical results were compared with the experimental result at 25bar, 2hour and 30° to 70°C and were found to be in proximate. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were found to increase with increase in pressure. It was also found that the response surface methodology works effectively for shorter range of parameters considered.

  13. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit

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    Sridharan Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by ′Isolation-induced aggression′ model, sedation by ′Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer′ and hypnotic activity by ′Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time′. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007. Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 + 10.74, 123.16 + 8.33, and 196.67 + 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 + 12.98, 49 + 5.78, and 92 + 2.5 (mean + SD for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001. Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 + 0.22, 1.23 + 0.05, and 2.23 + 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 + 0.59, 56.03 + 1.34, and 50.57 + 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001. However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  14. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit.

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    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by 'Isolation-induced aggression' model, sedation by 'Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer' and hypnotic activity by 'Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time'. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  15. Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

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    Sharma, K; Pachauri, S D; Khandelwal, K; Ahmad, H; Arya, A; Biala, P; Agrawal, S; Pandey, R R; Srivastava, A; Srivastav, A; Saxena, J K; Dwivedi, A K

    2016-03-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential.

  16. A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial on the antileishmanial activity of a Morinda citrifolia (Noni) stem extract and its major constituents.

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    Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmed, Fayaz; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sattar, Samina A; Malghani, Muhammad A K; Choudhary, Muhammad I

    2012-02-01

    A controlled study was conducted to determine the efficiency of a topical ointment prepared from the stem extract of Morinda citrifolia against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Similarly, the in vitro antileishmanial activity of morindicone and morinthone isolated from the extract were investigated against Leishmania major. These compounds displayed good activity. Out of 40 patients, 50% showed an excellent response and 30% exhibited good improvement.

  17. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells.

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    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard. PMID:27137679

  18. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells.

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    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard.

  19. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

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    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  20. Larvicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

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    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Shanthakumar, Shanmugam Perumal; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was tested for larvicidal activity against three medically important mosquito vectors such as malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From the leaf, 1-kg powder was macerated with 3.0 L of hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of extracts was hexane (13.56 g), chloroform (15.21 g), acetone (12.85 g), methanol (14.76 g), and water (12.92 g), respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The M. citrifolia leaf extract at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm caused a significant mortality of three mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, and water caused moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract, observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The third larvae of Anopheles stephensi had values of LC(50) = 345.10, 324.26, 299.97, 261.96, and 284.59 ppm and LC(90) = 653.00, 626.58, 571.89, 505.06, and 549.51 ppm, respectively. The Aedes aegypti had values of LC(50) = 361.75, 343.22, 315.40, 277.92, and 306.98 ppm and LC(90) = 687.39, 659.02, 611.35, 568.18, and 613.25 ppm, respectively. The Culex quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 382.96, 369.85, 344.34, 330.42, and 324.64 ppm and LC(90) = 726.18, 706.57, 669.28, 619.63, and 644.47 ppm, respectively. The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal activity against the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of vector control programs. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activities against three

  1. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells.

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    Ruhomally, Z; Somanah, J; Bahorun, T; Neergheen-Bhujun, V S

    2016-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni is used by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of pharmacological activities of its metabolites. In Mauritius, the fruits of M. citrifolia are used in folk medicine against a number of indications. The present study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe noni fruit at both biochemical and cellular levels. Using an array of established assay systems, the fruit antioxidant propensity was assessed in terms of its radical scavenging, iron reducing and metal chelating potentials. Ascorbic acid, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the fruits were also determined. The ascorbic acid content of ripe noni was 76.24 ± 1.13 mg/100 g while total phenolics of ripe and unripe fruit extracts were 748.40 ± 8.85 μg and 770.34 ± 2.27 μg GAE g(-1) FW respectively. Both the ripe and unripe extracts of M. citrifolia were potent scavengers of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The ferric reducing capacity ranged from 11.26 ± 0.33 to 11.90 ± 0.20 mM Fe(2+) g(-1) FW while the IC50 values for the iron (II) chelating power were 0.50 ± 0.01 and 1.74 ± 0.01 g FW/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit extracts respectively. Cellular studies additionally demonstrated that noni were able to dose-dependently counteract accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress, a potential obesogenic factor within human liposarcoma SW872 cells as well as significantly restore cell death within the concentration range of 0.106-0.813 g/mL. Results reported herein suggest noni as an interesting source of prophylactic antioxidants modulated by its polyphenol composition.

  2. Role of aqueous extract of morinda citrifolia (Indian noni ripe fruits in inhibiting dental caries-causing streptococcus mutans and streptococcus mitis.

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    Barani Kumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans.Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml. The crude aqueous extract was lyophilized to yield a brown colored powder. Various concentrations (1000-100μg/ ml of the extract were tested for its antibacterial activity (Kirby and Bauer method against whole cells of S. mutans and S. mitis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by micro-dilution method, using serially diluted (2 folds fruit extract, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS.Crude aqueous extract (1000μg/ ml of ripe M. citrifolia fruits effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans (19±0.5 mm and S. mitis (18.6±0.3 mm compared to the streptomycin control (21.6±0.3 mm. The growth inhibition was clearly evident with "nil" bacteriostasis, even after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. The MIC of the extract for S. mutans and S. mitis was 125 μg and 62.5 μg, respectively.Our results suggest that phytochemicals naturally synthesized by M. citrifolia have an inhibitory effect on oral streptococci. Furthermore, purification and molecular characterization of the "bioactive principle" would enable us to formulate a sustainable oral hygiene product.

  3. Antiviral activity of extracts from Morinda citrifolia leaves and chlorophyll catabolites, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, against hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnoglik, Suratno Lulut; Aoki, Chie; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Komoto, Mari; Deng, Lin; Shoji, Ikuo; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hotta, Hak

    2014-03-01

    The development of complementary and/or alternative drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still needed. Antiviral compounds in medicinal plants are potentially good targets to study. Morinda citrifolia is a common plant distributed widely in Indo-Pacific region; its fruits and leaves are food sources and are also used as a treatment in traditional medicine. In this study, using a HCV cell culture system, it was demonstrated that a methanol extract, its n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from M. citrifolia leaves possess anti-HCV activities with 50%-inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 20.6, 6.1, and 6.6 μg/mL, respectively. Bioactivity-guided purification and structural analysis led to isolation and identification of pheophorbide a, the major catabolite of chlorophyll a, as an anti-HCV compound present in the extracts (IC(50) = 0.3 μg/mL). It was also found that pyropheophorbide a possesses anti-HCV activity (IC(50) = 0.2 μg/mL). The 50%-cytotoxic concentrations (CC(50)) of pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a were 10.0 and 7.2 μg/mL, respectively, their selectivity indexes being 33 and 36, respectively. On the other hand, chlorophyll a, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and pheophytin a barely, or only marginally, exhibited anti-HCV activities. Time-of-addition analysis revealed that pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a act at both entry and the post-entry steps. The present results suggest that pheophorbide a and its related compounds would be good candidates for seed compounds for developing antivirals against HCV.

  4. Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Ko, Chien-Hui; Yan, Yeong-Yu; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2014-03-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that adheres to host cells and injects cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found to possess antibacteria, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation activities, but its effect on H. pylori infection is still unknown. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of noni fruit were used in this study. The inhibitory effect on CagA and H. pylori-induced IL-8, iNOS, and COX-2 were determined. The coculture medium was collected for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis. Both extracts of noni fruit showed weak inhibition on H. pylori. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts provided antiadhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells and down-regulation on the CagA, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expressions. Results also indicated both extracts relieved neutrophil chemotaxis. Noni fruit extracts down-regulated inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, and the phenolic compounds play key role in antiadhesion.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents on melanogenesis in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Itoh, Kimihisa; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extract and its constituents on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells). A 50% ethanolic extract of noni seeds (MCS-ext) showed significant inhibition of melanogenesis with no effect on cell proliferation. MCS-ext was more active than noni leaf and fruit flesh extracts. Activity guided fractionation of MCS-ext led to the isolation of two lignans, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1) and americanin A (2), as active constituents. To elucidate the mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition by the lignans, α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells were treated with 1 (5 μM) and 2 (200 μM). Time-dependent increases of intracellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity, during 24 to 72 h, were inhibited significantly by treatment with the lignans. The activity of 1 was greater than that of 2. Western blot analysis suggested that the lignans inhibited melanogenesis by down regulation of the levels of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in suppression of tyrosinase expression.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.

  7. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Bhardwaj; Natanasabapathy Velmurugan; Sumitha; Suma Ballal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were r...

  8. Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Suppakpatana, Prapan; Arayapisit, Tawepong; Rodsutthi, Jit-aree; Chunhabundit, Panjit; Boonanuntanasarn, Surintorn; Sripairojthikoon, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    This present study investigated the potential of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract to induce osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured in complete medium, ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate, or Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity compared to culturing in complete medium or ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate. Matrixcontaining mineralized nodules were formed only when the cells were cultured in the presence of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. These nodules showed positive alizarin red S staining and were rich in calcium and phosphorus according to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In conclusion, Morinda citrifolia leaf extract promoted osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells, a clear indication of the therapeutic potential of Morinda citrifolia leaves in bone and periodontal tissue regeneration.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain and aloe vera (all in gel formulation), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Bhardwaj; Suma Ballal; Natanasabapathy Velmurugan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain, and aloe vera (all in gel formulations), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis-an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using dentin shavings collected at 2 depths of 200 and 400 μm. The total colony forming units at the end of 1, 3, and 5 days were assessed. Results: The overall percentage ...

  10. Peran Ekstrak Etanol Topikal Daun Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) pada Penyembuhan Luka Ditinjau dari Imunoekspresi CD34 dan Kolagen pada Tikus Galur Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Puti Rahmayani S; Ani Melani Maskoen; Bethy S. Hernowo

    2013-01-01

    Problems in wound healing occurred if proper care is not given and the wound develops into a chronic wound. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is one of the most common plants in tropical areas, including Indonesia, which fruit, leaves dan root are used in traditional treatment, for example wound healing. This experimental research with post test-only control group design identified the effect of topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract on wound healing by examining the histopathological ...

  11. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA LINN ROOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ashish

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at Pharmacognostic study and biological evaluation of analgesic activity of plants roots. The roots of plants were studies for Pharmacognostic characteristics namely, morphology, microscopy, physicochemical parameters, which can be of utilized in identification/authentication of the plant and/or its roots in crude drug form. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the dry residue was carried out by the chemical test and thin layer chromatographic method. The preliminary phytochemical screening of dry residue showed the presence of Saponins, Alkaloids, Glycoside, and Flavonoids in various extracts. However most of the medicinally potential phytoconstituents were present in methanolic and aqueous extracts. The Hydroalcoholic extract was selected for Biological screening due to high alcoholic-soluble extractive value, high yield of successive alcoholic extract and TLC results. The analgesic screening was done using Hot plate method, Tail immersion methods and acetic acid induced in rats and mice. Hydroalcoholic extract was administered orally at the acute doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg b.w. Several activities on these doses have already been reported. Both the doses showed significant (p<0.05 analgesic activity.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ROOT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol, distilled water, methanol and chloroform crude extracts of the roots of Tinospora crispa. Antimicrobial activity was examined by disc diffusion method against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with ethanol extract against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumonia followed by chloroform extract against the same organisms. Whilst distilled water extract showed a minimal zone of inhibition, methanol extract showed a moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. The values were compared with a standard antibiotic. The ethanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the growth of Candida albicans, whereas the lowest activity was shown with distilled water crude extract. Methanol and chloroform crude extracts showed considerably moderate activities against the fungal strain, as compared to the standard antibiotic used.

  13. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a (1)H NMR Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.

  14. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a 1H NMR Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60. After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a 1H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate, amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate, choline metabolism (betaine, creatinine metabolism (creatinine, and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline. Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.

  15. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-05-20

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal.

  16. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a 1H NMR Metabolomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a 1H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment. PMID:26798649

  17. Aktivitas Imunomodulator Ekstrak Buah Mengkudu pada Mencit yang Diinfeksi Staphylococcus aureus (IMMUNOMODULATORS ACTIVITY OF NONI (MORINDA CITRIFOLIA L. FRUIT EXTRACT IN MICE INFECTED WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrotul Mufidah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to determine the immunomodulatory activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia L. fruitextract in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Mice were divided into two group :  non-infected  andinfected. Non Infected group was without S. aureus infection whereas the infected group was infected withS. aureus. Group contain control, dose 1 (25 mg/kg BW, dose 2 (100 mg/kg BW, and dose 3 (300 mg/kg BW.Oral treatment carried out for 20 days in every morning and each sample was injected with  S. aureus atday 21 with 109 cell/mL. Relative number of T cell (CD4+, CD4+CD25+, and cytokine interferon-ã fromCD4+ T cell (CD4+IFN-ã+ subsets was measured using the BD FACSCaliburTM Flowcytometer. Data wereanalyzed by using Analysis of Varians (p<0,05 and SPSS 16 for windows. The result showed thatadministration of noni crude extract was significantly change the relative number of CD4+, CD4+IFN-ã+,and CD4+CD25+ T cells. Treatment of noni crude extract in non-infection group could increase  relativenumber of CD4+, CD4+IFN-ã+  and CD4+CD25+ T cells that might be caused by active compounds of noni asmitogen.  Giving of noni crude extract in infected group could reduce  the relative number of CD4+, CD4+CD25+and CD4+IFN-ã+ T cells due to it  active compounds as anti-inflamation. Noni fruit extract can be used aspreventive therapy on S. aureus infection  because it contains active compounds as an anti-inflammationeffect.

  18. Effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimy MF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeria tenella. One hundred day old chick (DOC of the Cobb strain broiler were randomly devided into 10 groups and each group consisted of 10 chickens. All groups were orally infected by 5000 sporulated oocyst of E. tenella on the 25th days old as a challenge infection. The chickens was treated by granule of kenikir leaves extract, noni leaves extract and granule of earthworm meal extract which level dosage was 100, 200 and 300 mg/kgbw, respectively on each treatment (K1, K2, K3; M1, M2, M3 and T1, T2, T3. Control (K0 did not treated by feed additive. Treatment was administered on drinking water. On the 5th days after challenge infection 5 chickens of each groups were slaughtered and necropted to evaluate lession score and histopatology of caeca. Oocyst per gram excreta was count on 7th days until 10th days after challenge infection of the others 5 chickens of each groups. The results showed that the lowest score of lession was obtained on M2 and M3 whereas the lowest total oocyst per gram excreta was obtained on M3. Histopathological observation revealed that there was no stadia development of E. tenella in M2 treatment. It was concluded that granule of noni leaves extract at 200 mg/kgbw (M2 was the most effective natural coccidiostat.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pa...

  20. Evaluations of antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badhe S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to screen antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum (AP root extract. An experiment was designed by different method such as Locomotor activity, Haloperidol-induced catalepsy, Forced swim test (FST, Tail suspension test (TST, Clonidine-induced hypothermia and Reserpine-induced hypothermia on Swiss male albino mice. Standard root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum (AP root extract showed an increase in ambulatory behaviour indicating a stimulant effect of the photoactometer. AP root extract produces a significant antidepressant effect in both FST and TST as they reduced the immobility. AP root extract was found to be effective in reversing hypothermia produced by clonidine and reserpine. In our study, we found that AP root extract inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These study suggest that AP root extract might produce antidepressant effect by interaction with adrenergic and dopamine receptor thereby increasing the level of noradrenaline and dopamine in brains of mice.

  1. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  2. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  3. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni Juice Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Almeida-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  4. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA LINN ROOT

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava Ashish; Sanjay Yadav

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at Pharmacognostic study and biological evaluation of analgesic activity of plants roots. The roots of plants were studies for Pharmacognostic characteristics namely, morphology, microscopy, physicochemical parameters, which can be of utilized in identification/authentication of the plant and/or its roots in crude drug form. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the dry residue was carried out by the chemical test and thin layer chromatographic method. The p...

  5. Root water extraction under combined water and osmotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using a numerical implicit model for root water extraction by a single root in a symmetric radial flow problem, based on the Richards equation and the combined convection-dispersion equation, we investigated some aspects of the response of root water uptake to combined water and osmotic stress. The

  6. Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy C

    2012-10-01

    This review investigated the relationship of noni juice, or its extract (fruit, leaves or root), to anticancer and/or immunostimulant properties. A Medline search was conducted using the key search words 'Morinda citrifolia' and 'Morinda citrifolia and cancer' (1964 to October, 2011) along with cross-referencing. Botanical and chemical indexes were not included. A total of 304 and 29 (10%) articles, respectively, were found under these key terms. Of the 19 studies actually related to cancer, seven publications were in vitro cancer studies, nine were in vivo animal cancer studies, and three were in vivo human cancer studies. Among the in vitro studies, a 'concentrated component' in noni juice and not pure noni juice may (1) stimulate the immune system to 'possibly' assist the body fight the cancer, and (2) kill a small percentage (0-36%) of cancer cells depending on the type. The nine animal studies suggest that a concentrated component in noni juice may stimulate the immune system; but only slightly increases the number (about 1/3; 25-45%) of surviving mice. Other than two case studies, only two human clinical studies existed. The first consisted of testing freeze-dried noni fruit, which reduced pain perception, but did not reverse advanced cancer. The second was on smokers ingesting an unknown concentration of noni juice who experienced decreased aromatic DNA adducts, and decreased levels of plasma superoxide anion radicals and lipid hydroperoxide. Factors to consider in the future are clearly defining the substance being tested, and whether or not the juice is pasteurized. Some reports of hepatotoxicity exist, although there were confounding factors in most of the case reports. More importantly, noni juice is high in potassium and needs to be monitored by patients with kidney, liver or heart problems. In conclusion, a few in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest a possible unidentified substance in unpasteurized noni fruit juice that may have a small degree of

  7. Chondroprotective potential of root extracts of Withania somnifera in osteoarthritis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Venil N Sumantran; Asavari Kulkarni; Sanjay Boddul; Trushna Chinchwade; Soumya J Koppikar; Abhay Harsulkar; Bhushan Patwardhan; Arvind Chopra; Ulhas V Wagh

    2007-03-01

    This is the first report describing two novel chondroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera root powder. First, these extracts had a statistically significant, short-term chondroprotective effect on damaged human osteoarthritic cartilage matrix in 50% of the patients tested. Second, these extracts caused a significant and reproducible inhibition of the gelatinase activity of collagenase type 2 enzyme in vitro.

  8. Studies of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of Wrightia tinctoria and Morinda citrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of leaf parts of Wrightia tinctoria and fruit powder of Morinda citrifolia have been studied against replication of HIV-1(IIIB in MT-4 cells and HCV in Huh 5.2 cells. Chloroform extract of Wrightia tinctoria exhibited a maximum protection of 48% against the cytopathic effect of HIV-1(IIIB in MT-4 cells. Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia exhibited a displayed marked cytotoxic activity in lymphocyte (MT-4 cells (CC50: 0.19 mg/ml. The 50% effective concentration for inhibition of HCV subgenomic replicon replication in Huh 5-2 cells by Morinda citrifolia was 0.98 µg/ml and by chloroform extract of Wrightia tinctoria was 10 µg/ml. The concentration that reduced the growth of exponentially proliferating Huh 5-2 cells by 50% was greater than 50 µg/ml.

  9. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  10. Single-Rooted Extraction Sockets: Classification and Treatment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chaar, Edgar; Oshman, Sarah; Fallah Abed, Pooria

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians have many treatment techniques from which to choose when extracting a failing tooth and replacing it with an implant-supported restoration and when successful management of an extraction socket during the course of tooth replacement is necessary to achieve predictable and esthetic outcomes. This article presents a straightforward, yet thorough, classification for extraction sockets of single-rooted teeth and provides guidance to clinicians in the selection of appropriate and predictable treatment. The presented classification of extraction sockets for single-rooted teeth focuses on the topography of the extraction socket, while the protocol for treatment of each socket type factors in the shape of the remaining bone, the biotype, and the location of the socket whether it be in the mandible or maxilla. This system is based on the biologic foundations of wound healing and can help guide clinicians to successful treatment outcomes. PMID:27608197

  11. 海巴戟DNA提取方法及SRAP分子标记聚类分析%DNA Extraction and SRAP Clustering Analysis of Morinda citrifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖茂良; 孙仁毅; 程江波; 聂风琴; 邢诒旺; 林道哲; 符文英

    2014-01-01

    应用SRAP分子标记技术开展海巴戟(Morinda citrifolia Linn,又名Noni)种质资源遗传多样性研究.结果表明,采用改良DNA提取方法能获得质量好,纯度高的海巴戟DNA.应用12对引物对78份海巴戟种质的SRAP分子标记扩增,共获得11 154条带,其中多态性条带有3 792条,多态性为33.99%,种质间具有很好的多态性.聚类分析结果表明,遗传距离为0.66时,78份海巴戟种质可归为2类,即海南本地种和西沙群岛种聚为一类,其余种质则聚为另一类;以0.86为阈值,78份海巴戟种质材料可聚为6类,从上至下依次是:万维2号种、新加坡种、大溪地种、万维1号种、海南本地种、西沙群岛种.其中,大溪地种和万维1号种的相似度较高,可以推断这2个种质亲缘关系较近,新加坡种与万维2号种的亲缘关系次之.

  12. Polysaccharide extraction from Sphallerocarpus gracilis roots by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zheng, Cuiping; Zhan, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    The extraction process of Sphallerocarpus gracilis root polysaccharides (SGRP) was optimized using response surface methodology with two methods [hot-water extraction (HWE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE)]. The antioxidant activities of SGRP were determined, and the structural features of the untreated materials (HWE residue and UAE residue) and the extracted polysaccharides were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the optimal UAE conditions were extraction temperature of 81°C, extraction time of 1.7h, liquid-solid ratio of 17ml/g, ultrasonic power of 300W and three extraction cycles. The optimal HWE conditions were 93°C extraction temperature, 3.6h extraction time, 21ml/g liquid-solid ratio and three extraction cycles. UAE offered a higher extraction yield with a shorter time, lower temperature and a lower solvent consumption compared with HWE, and the extracted polysaccharides possessed a higher antioxidant capacity. Therefore, UAE could be used as an alternative to conventional HWE for SGRP extraction. PMID:27032488

  13. First report of association of Mucor circinelloides on noni (Morinda citrifolia) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a popular medicinal plant found in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The fruit and juice extracts have properties that are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer (1,4). In our studies on noni juice produced from ...

  14. Postharvest ripening and fermentation of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  15. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Nalini, K; Rao, M S; Srinivasan, K K

    2002-12-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR), for 30 days in neonatal and young adult age groups of rat, significantly increased acetylcholine (ACh) content in their hippocampi as compared to age matched controls. Increase in ACh content in their hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory. PMID:12490229

  16. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin; Sm Faysal Bellah; Sarder Mohammad Raussel Rahman; Ahmed Ayedur Rahman; Gazi Mohammad Monjur Murshid; Talha Bin Emran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods: Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results:Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30%inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions: The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required.

  17. Inhibitory effect of morinda citrifolia L. On lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak-Dek, M S; Abdul-Hamid, A; Osman, A; Soh, C S

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.

  18. Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  19. Two New Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L., and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyra-noside (1 and amyl-1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, respectively.

  20. Solanum paniculatum root extract reduces diarrhea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh A.B. Tenório

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solanum paniculatum L., Solanaceae, locally known as "jurubeba", is widely used in Brazil for culinary purposes, and in folk medicine to treat of diverse disorder including gastric dysfunctions. In this study we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of S. paniculatum roots extract in rats at different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o using different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility, determined by in vivo experimental models. The major compound of root extract was characterized as chlorogenic acid based in the IR, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. All the extract doses achieved antidiarrheal potency, as indicated by reduced weight of feces in castor oil-induced diarrhea, decreased intestinal motility and significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling compared to the vehicle group. The highest dose (500 mg/kg produced greater anti-motility effect and better reduction of enteropooling, similar to the reference drug Loperamide (5 mg/kg. Extract from S. paniculatum L. roots had antidiarrheal activity, as shown by the lower weight of the feces as well as decrease in the accumulation of intestinal fluid and slower transit, justifying the traditional use of plant for diarrhea.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  2. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  3. Antibacterial Constituents of Hainan Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Yu; Hao, Wang-Jun; Huang, Wu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is an edible and medicinal plant distributed in Hainan, China. The antibacterial activities of the extracts of water (WE), petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), chloroform (CE), and n-butanol (BE) were assayed by the disk diffusion method. The results showed that the extracts from Noni leaves possessed antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among 5 different extracts, the BE produced the best antibacterial activity. The samples were first extracted by ethanol, and the primary compounds in the BE fraction of ethanol extract was further isolated and identified. Six phenolic compounds, including 5, 15-dimethylmorindol, ferulic acid, p-hydroxycinamic acid, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl ferulate, and methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, were identifiedby NMR. The results indicated that the phenolic compounds might significantly contribute to antibacterial activities of Noni leaves.

  4. Withania Somnifera L Root Extract Ameliorates Toxin Induced Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, R.; P.Manisha

    2015-01-01

    In this study the use of plants for medicinal purpose used locally in the treatment of various diseases and we examined for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present investigation is part of continuing programme related to the biochemical screening of local plants used in Ancient Indian Medicine, Ayurveda, Siddha and Yunani. An Aqueous root extract of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) was evaluated for its protective effect (antioxidant effect) against Cypermethrin (CM) tox...

  5. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1 the diabetic control (DC group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2 the positive control (PC group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3 the M. citrifolia (MC group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4 the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60–252.20 mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400 mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR- γ and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management.

  6. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-A(y) Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Yi, Sung-Hun; Nam, Young-Do; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste) were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) the diabetic control (DC) group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2) the positive control (PC) group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3) the M. citrifolia (MC) group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4) the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC) group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60-252.20 mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400 mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR-) γ and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management.

  7. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  8. Superheated water extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabkhiz, Mohammad A; Eikani, Mohammad H; Bashiri Sadr, Zeinolabedin; Golmohammad, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) has become an interesting green extraction method for different classes of compounds. In this study, SWE was used to extract glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the extraction conditions. The influence of operating conditions such as water temperature (100, 120 and 140°C) and solvent flow rates (1, 3 and 5mL/min) were investigated at 0.5mm mean particle size and 20bar pressure. Separation and identification of the glycyrrhizic acid, as the main component, was carried out by the RP-HPLC method. The best operating conditions for the SWE of licorice were determined to be 100°C temperature,15mL/min flow rate and 120min extraction time. The results showed that the amount of the obtained GA was relatively higher using SWE (54.760mg/g) than the Soxhlet method (28.760mg/g) and ultrasonic extraction (18.240mg/g). PMID:27211663

  9. Postharvest ripening of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and the microbial and chemical properties of its fermented juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  10. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential.

  11. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential. PMID:24409635

  12. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  13. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant Anthelmintic activity than Petroleum ether extract and the activities are comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate

  14. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sapra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

  15. Buah Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Meningkatkan Respon Imun Mencit (Mus musculus Terhadap Infeksi Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufidah Zumrotul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia Increase Immune Response in Mice (Mus musculus Infected Staphylococcus aureus. Infection disease caused by bacteria is one of the illness in several developing countries including in Indonesia, with high mortality rate. Infection of  S. aureus as the cause of problem resistance for antibiotic or multi drug resistance are giving the therapy of drug itself with change to medical herbal. The aim of this study is known the role of M.citrifolia extract to increase immune response of mice with infectioned of S. aureus. Mice were divided into two groups there are Non Infection and infection. Non Infection is without S. aureus and than infection has S. aureus. The each groups are including control, dose 1 (25 mg/kg BW, dose 2 (100 mg/kg BW, and dose 3 (300 mg/kg BW. Relative number of lymphocyte T cell (CD4+ subsets was measured  using the BD FACSCaliburTM Flowcytometer. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Varians (p<0,05 and using SPSS 16 for windows. The result showed that administration of  M. citrifolia crude extract in non infection groups was significantly increase the relative amounts T cell subsets (CD4+. Noni fruit extract can used as prevention therapy on infection disease of S. aureus bacteria because it contains active compounds that are anti-inflammation

  16. Effect of Allelochemicals of Chinese—fir root extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction on Chinese fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.

  17. Phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.

  18. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water ext

  19. Extraction of Root Words using Morphological Analyzer for Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvari S. Govilkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, more than 300 million people use Devanagari script for documentation. In Devanagari script, Marathi and Hindi are mainly used as primary language of Maharashtra state and national language of India respectively. As compared with English script, Devanagari script is reach of morphemes. Thus the lemmatization of Devanagari script is quite complex than that of English script. There is lack of resources for Devanagari script such as WordNet, ontology representation, parsing the keywords and their part of speech. Thus the overall task of information retrieval becomes complex and time consuming. Devanagari script document always carries suffixes which may cause problem in accurate information retrieval. We propose a method of extracting root words from Devanagari script document which can be used for information retrieval, text summarization, text categorization, ontology building etc. An attempt is made to design the Morphological Analyzer for Devanagari script. We have designed CORPUS containing more than 3000 possible stop words and suffixes for Marathi language. Morphological Analyzer can acts as a preliminary stage for developing any information retrieval application in Devanagari script. We have conducted the experiments on randomly selected Marathi documents and we found the accuracy of designed morphological analyzer is up to 96%.

  20. Interactions of Orthosiphon stamineus and Morinda citrifolia with hepatic aminopyrine metabolism by CYP3A in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Chin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-drug interaction studies have getting attention recently due to the increasingly use of herbal products worldwide. The porpose of the present study was to examine the in vitro effect of methanol leaf extract of Orthosiphon stamineus and Morinda citrofolia fruit juice extract on hepatic aminopyrine metabolism by CYP 3A in different age of normal and STZ-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Isolated rat hepatocytes were prepared using the collagenase perfusion technique. Aminopyrine was used as a probe substrate to determine the hepatic levels of CYP 3A by measuring the activity of N-demethylation of aminopyrine in rat hepatocytes according to the method described by Nash. Results obtained showed that aminopyrine N-demethylase activity measured from all diabetic rat hepatocytes was not affected by 0. stamineus and M. citrifolia extract. A significant decrease in the aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was observed in the normal old male SD rat hepatocytes preincubated with 0.1 mg/kg (P< 0.01 of methanol extract of 0. stamineus when compared to the respective control group. M. citrifolia juice extract at 0.1 mg/ml (P< 0.01 significantly increased aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in normal adult male SD rat hepatocytes as compared to the control group. For conclusion, both M. citrifolia and 0. stamineus extract could affect the in vitro metabolism of aminopyrine by CYP3A in normal rat hepatocytes. No significant change in the hepatic aminopyrine metabolism was observed in the diabetic rats after incubating with different concentrations of M. citrifolia and 0. stamineus extracts. The observed herb-drug interactions in the present study was age- and disease-dependent.

  1. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study

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    Anuj Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl, Group B (MCJ, Group C (Aloe vera, Group D (Propolis and Group E (Saline. These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5, coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. Results: 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. Conclusion: 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis.

  2. A Robust Formant Extraction Algorithm Combining Spectral Peak Picking and Root Polishing

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    Seo Kwang-deok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust formant extraction algorithm that combines the spectral peak picking, formants location examining for peak merger checking, and the root extraction methods. The spectral peak picking method is employed to locate the formant candidates, and the root extraction is used for solving the peak merger problem. The location and the distance between the extracted formants are also utilized to efficiently find out suspected peak mergers. The proposed algorithm does not require much computation, and is shown to be superior to previous formant extraction algorithms through extensive tests using TIMIT speech database.

  3. Water extraction variability in the banana root zone affects the reliability of water balance

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    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of soil water extraction from the root zone affect soil water balance determination. The number of sensors installed in the root zone in studies addressing water balance is still set arbitrarily. This study provided an investigation of the water extraction process by banana (Musa spp. roots by (i determining the variability of water extraction from the banana tree root zone, (ii detecting differences in the estimation of evapotranspiration (ET by the soil water balance method when the number of soil profiles monitored in the roots zone varies, (iii and; determining the minimum number of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR probes needed to obtain ET precision and accuracy similar to that determined by a drainage lysimeter. The field experiment was conducted in Cruz das Almas, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, where a drainage lysimeter was installed on a banana plantation. The water extraction in the banana root zone was quantified by the water content variations monitored in 72 points by TDRs, with measurements at 15-min intervals. The variability of water extraction in the banana root zone was medium to high. The range of variability affects the reliability of the crop evapotranspiration calculation by the soil water balance method. To prevent an overestimation of banana evapotranspiration, the water extraction in the soil profile must be monitored with at least 16 TDR probes installed at a minimum distance of 0.9 m and a minimum depth of 0.7 m.

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

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    Linggam Kamilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract′s antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain.

  5. Isolation and determination of ginsenosides in American ginseng leaves and root extracts by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, T; Ludwiczuk, A; Wolski, T; Buszewski, B

    2005-12-01

    Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were extracted from the root and leaves of locally cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.). For the isolation of compounds from plant samples three different extraction methods were utilized: accelerated solvent extraction, the ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and mechanical shaking assisted solvent extraction. The separation of compounds was achieved with a water-acetonitrile gradient system using a C18 reversed-phase column. Target compounds were identified in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments. The relative distribution of these ginsenosides in each root and leaf extract was established. The limit of detection of the method was less than 30 ng/ml. Recovery of ginseng saponins in spiked samples exceeded 80%, while the relative standard deviation ranged from 7.1 to 9.1%. The total concentrations of ginsenosides were 41 and 13 mg/g in root and leaves.

  6. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous root extract of Icacina senegalensis in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    GC Akuodor

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that the root extract of I. senegalensis possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, which might be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.

  7. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IlayI; RatnWD

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To determine the effect of a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal roots on sexual competence of male rats.Methods:Male rats were orally administered 3000 mg·kg-1·day-1 of root extract for 7 days.Their sexual behaviour was evaluated 7 days prior to treatment,day 3 and 7 of treatment,and day 7,14 and 30 posttreatment by pairing each male with a receptive female.Results:The root extract induced a marked impairment in libido,sexual performance,sexual vigour,and penile erectile dysfunction.These effects were partly reversible on cessation of treatment.These antimasculine effects ane not due to changes in testosterone levels or toxicity but may be attributed to hyperprolactinemic,GABAergic,serotonergic or sedative activities of the extract.Conclusion:Use of W.Somnifera roots may be detrimental to male sexual competence.

  8. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

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    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  9. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia in indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    A T Pawar; Anap, R M; Ghodasara, J V; Kuchekar, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possible effect of hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia against indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Male Wistar rats received vehicle or hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia (300 and 600 mg/kg) for 11 consecutive days. Enterocolitis was induced by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg) on 8 th and 9 th day. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring and histopathological examination...

  10. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Root Extract of Rubia cordifolia in Indomethacin-Induced Enterocolitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A T Pawar; Anap, R M; Ghodasara, J V; Kuchekar, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possible effect of hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia against indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Male Wistar rats received vehicle or hydroalcoholic root extract of Rubia cordifolia (300 and 600 mg/kg) for 11 consecutive days. Enterocolitis was induced by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg) on 8th and 9th day. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring and histopathological examination. ...

  11. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

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    Carvalho João E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines.

  12. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery.

  13. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

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    Vajihe Karbasizade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spores. In this investigation, the suspensions of tested microorganisms were cultured in sporulating agar. Sporulation process was assessed by optical microscopy following the staining of spores. Then the produced spores were exposed to various concentrations (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/mL of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root and finally the remaining spores were counted. With increasing concentrations of ethanol extract, the number of spores declined. Results: Pearson correlation showed inverse relation between the spores count and concentration of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root (r=-0.765, p<0.001. The most effective extract concentration was 300 mg /mL. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root, has sporicidal activity. Only, the sporicidal nature of ethanol extract has been evaluated by this study; therefore, the assessment of other extracts and essences is necessary.

  14. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  15. Antipyretic and antimicrobial potential of Sida spinosa linn. aqueous root extract

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    Basheer Ahmed Mannasaheb

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antipyretic and antimicrobial potential of Sida spinosa Linn. Aqueous root extract was evaluated using aspirin and chloramphenicol as standard drugs.Materials and methods: Roots were collected and extracted with water. The doses of the extract selected were 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, according to OECD guidelines. Antipyretic potential was evaluated in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats along with Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion technique.Results: Aqueous extract demonstrated highly significant (P<0.01 antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. Maximum attenuation (65.73% at 3h was observed at 400mg/kg o.p.Antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aeruginosa, was carried out. All microbes were sensitive and activity was concentration dependent.Conclusion: Sida spinosa Linn. root possesses potent antipyretic and antimicrobial activity and has therapeutic potential.

  16. Technical aspects on production of fluid extract from Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul roots

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Severino Martins; Henrique Pascoa; José Realino de Paula; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição

    2015-01-01

    Instruction: Despite the increased use of Brosimum gaudichaudii roots as raw material on medicine to treatment of vitiligo, there are not studies that showing the impact of unit operations on the quality and standardized of the extract of B. gaudichaudii. The quality of the herbal extract is essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical product. Due the medical and commercial importance, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method (ultrasound or percolatio...

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cichorium intybus root extract using orthogonal matrix design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Wang, Quanzhen; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Guo; Cui, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Solvent, impregnation time, sonication repetitions, and ultrasonic power were important factors in the process of ultrasound-assisted extraction from chicory (Cichorium intybus) root, while there were no studies about optimizing these 4 factors for extract yield, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity of the extracts using orthogonal matrix design. The present research demonstrated that the solvent composition played a significant role in the improving extract yield, TPC, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The other 3 factors had inequable effect on different purposes, ultrasonic power could improve TPC and antioxidant activity, but long time of extraction lowered antioxidant activity. The TPC increased from 22.34 to 27.87 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/100 g (dry extracts) with increasing solvent polarity. The half inhibition concentration (IC(50,) μg/mL) of the radical scavenging activity of the chicory extracts ranged from 281.00 to 983.33 μg/mL. The content of caffeoylquinic acids of root extract, which was extracted by the optimal combination was 0.104%. Several extracts displayed antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi, while Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. resisted against all the extracts. Combination of 70% ethanol v/v, 24-h impregnation time, 3 sonication rounds, and 300-W ultrasonic input power was found to be the optimal combination for the chicory extract yield, TPC, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity. PMID:23387896

  18. The ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as cleaner of the root canal wall smear layer

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    Erawati Wulandari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is one of traditional medicines. Pulpa tamaridorum consist of organic acid that is usually used as irrigant and to remove root canal wall smear layer. The aimed of this study was to elucidate the ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as a root canal irrigant to remove root canal wall smear layer. Eighteen tooth samples were cut on cervical line and divided into 2 then groups were prepared with K file and irrigated. Group 1 was irrigated by sterile aquabidest and group 2 was irrigated by 5% Tamarindus indica extract. Samples were cut longitudinally and formed 7 × 2× 2 mm specimen. Each specimen was photographed by scanning electron microscope, scored and summed. The total score obtained is used as the hygiene value of root canal wall. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using independent t test at 0.05 level. The result of the study showed there was a significant difference between 5% Tamarindus indica extract and sterile aquabidest (p < 0.05, the hygiene value of 5% Tamarindus indica extract was higher than sterile aquabidest. The conclusion of this investigation showed that 5% Tamarindus indica extract remove root canal wall smear layer.

  19. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. PMID:27516269

  20. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

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    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  1. Extraction and identification of antioxidants in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X; Suzuki, M; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Sada, Y; Nakanishi, T; Nagata, T

    1999-11-01

    Yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, an important economic species grown for its juicy tuberous root, is potentially beneficial in the diet to diabetics. The antioxidative activity of yacon root was studied by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Antioxidants were extracted by methanol and isolated and purified by gel permeation chromatography and preparative reverse-phase HPLC. Two of the major antioxidants were identified as chlorogenic acid and tryptophan by NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:10552877

  2. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen Faizi; Saima Sumbul; Muhammed Ali Versiani; Rubeena Saleem; Aisha Sana; Hira Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods: A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  3. KOMPISISI MINYAK BIJI MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia L. [Oil Composition of Mengkudu (Morinda Citrofolia L Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Timotius

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L. seeds were macerated or Soxhlet-extracted with various extractants (MeOH, EtAc, Chl : MeOH (2:1, v/v, hexane, and petroleum ether. Fatty acid profile was determined by using GC-MS.The amount of total lipid was varied from 4 - 8 % (w/w of seed weight depends on the extraction method and the polarity of extractant. The obtained major fatty acids were linoleic acid ( 55-63 % of the total fatty acid methyl esters followed by oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. Chromatography on a silica column with solvent of increasing polarity yielded 85 % neutral lipids, 10 % glycolipids, and 5 % phospholipids.

  4. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, GA; Seetharaman, AV; Subramanian, NR; Paddikkala, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many challenges are associated with the oral delivery of insulin, relating to the physical and chemical stability of the hormone, and its absorption and metabolism in the human body. The present study aims to demonstrate the oral delivery of insulin in both normal and steptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with the help of the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root. Human insulin was mixed with the aqueous extract of DG root (0.1 mg/ml) with human insulin (40 IU/ml) in ratio 1:1...

  5. Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera gel extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells

    OpenAIRE

    İLBAŞ, Ali İrfan; GÖNEN, Umut; YILMAZ, Semih; DADANDI, Mehmet Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera L. is a valuable medicinal plant and is currently used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries worldwide. In the present study, the effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera leaf gel extracts was investigated on mitotic and phase indexes of Allium cepa L. root tip cells for 24 and 48 h durations. The EC50 value of gel extracts was found to be 20% and was used to determine the experimental concentrations. The results indicated that the mitotic index and root growth rate ...

  6. Uji Aktivitas Beberapa Konsentrasi Ekstrak Daun Dan Buah Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) Terhadap Ulat Tritip Plutella Xylostella L. (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae) Di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This research is aim to to know activity from leaf extract and mengkudu fruit (M L citrifolia.) to tritip caterpillar ( P. xylostella L.). This Research is executed on Laboratory Pest Plant Faculty Of Agriculture University North Sumatra with height + 25 metre highland and was done on April - May 2005. This research use Factorial Complete Random Device with 2 Factor that is DB (Extract Leaf and Mengkudu fruit) and K ( Concentration). Consist with 6 treatment and 4 replicates. That is DK...

  7. Uji Aktivitas Beberapa Konsentasi Ekstrak Daun dan Buah Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) Terhadap Ulat Tritip Plutella xyU>stella L. (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae) Di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This research is aim to to know activity from leaf extract and mengkudu fruit (M L citrifolia.) to tritip caterpillar ( P. xylostella L.). This Research is executed on Laboratory Pest Plant Faculty Of Agriculture University North Sumatra with height + 25 metre highland and was done on April - May 2005. This research use Factorial Complete Random Device with 2 Factor that is DB (Extract Leaf and Mengkudu fruit) and K ( Concentration). Consist with 6 treatment and 4 replicates. That is...

  8. Nephroprotective effect ofCroton zambesicus root extract against gentimicin-induced kidney injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Paul A Nwafor; Kufre Noah

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the kidney protective effect of ethanolic root extract ofCroton zambesicus (C. zambesicus) against gentimicin-induced kidney injury in rats.Methods: The root extract (27 -81 mg/kg) was administered to rats for eight days with concurrent administration of gentimicin (100mg/kg) daily for the same period of time. Protective effect of the extract was evaluated in serum levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid as well as some ions like sodium, potassium and chloride. Histological examination of the kidneys from different treatment groups were also carried out.Results: Administration of the root extract significantly reduced histopathological changes in the kidneys of the extract-treated rats especially in the rats treated with lower doses of the extract (27and54 mg/kg). The levels of serum urea and creatinine were also reduced significantly (P<0.01) at these doses with no observable effect on the levels of uric acid and ions. Conclusions: The kidney - protective activity of this extract could be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  9. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  10. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  12. Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J J; Ahmad, S; Roslan, H A

    2013-12-15

    Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia.

  13. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Hamad Z. Alkhathlan; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. (S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene...

  14. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Methods Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacy...

  15. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran Kuppusamy; Annie Shirwaikar; Kishore G. Sam; Srinivasan K. Kaitheri

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ)-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight wer...

  16. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  17. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García-Carrasco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL. The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

  18. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM THUNB. ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Pham Tan Quoc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for total phenolic con- tent (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. Material and methods. The raw material used was Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root powder. Five fac- tors such as solvent type, solvent concentrations, solvent/material ratio, extraction time and microwave power were studied; TPC and AC values were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH free radical scavenging activity measurement, respectively. In addition, studies involved assaying the HPLC test of extracts and SEM of samples. Results. Optimal results pointed to acetone as the solvent, acetone concentration of 60%, solvent/material ratio of 40/1 (v/w, extraction time of 5 mins and microwave power of 127 W. TPC and AC obtained were approximates 44.3 ±0.13 mg GAE/g DW and 341.26 ±1.54 μmol TE/g DW, respectively. The effect of mi- crowaving on the cell destruction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Some phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC method, for instance, gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol. Conclusion. These factors significantly affected TPC and AC. We can use acetone as a solvent with micro- wave-assisted extraction to achieve the best result.

  19. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  20. Antioxidant activity and fructan content in root extracts from elecampane (Inula helenium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA PETKOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and fructans content in ethanol and water extracts of roots of elecampane (Inula helenium L., a Bulgarian medicinal plant. The extraction procedure included 95% (v/v ethanol extraction and subsequent water treatment. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by several reliable methods such as DPPH-, ABTS-, FRAP- and CUPRAC-assays, as well as the total phenolic content. In addition, the total fructans and sugar content were determinated by spectrophotomeric, TLC and HPLC-RID methods. The level of fructans in ethanol extracts was 14.1 g / 100 g dry weight, as nystose and 1-kestose were only 0.3 g / 100 g dry weight, and 0.5 g / 100g dry weight, respectively. The absence of fructooligosacharides and sugars in water extracts after the ethanol pretreatment was established. Inulin content was evaluated to be 32 g / 100 g dry weight. The metabolites profile of roots revealed their potential application as radical scavengers due to the presence of polyphenols. Therefore, the root extracts of elecampane could be assumed as a rich source of biologically active substance, in particular dietary fiber with potential prebiotic effect, due to the presence of polysaccharide inulin and fructooligosacharides.

  1. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S

    2015-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells.

  2. Determination of Pharmacologically Active Compounds in Root Extracts of Cassia alata L. by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Fernand, Vivian E.; Dinh, David T.; Washington, Samuel J.; FAKAYODE, SAYO O.; Losso, Jack N.; van Ravenswaay, Rick O.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of six phenolic compounds, five anthraquinones (rhein, aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) and a flavonoid (kaempferol), in root extracts from Cassia alata L. Solid-phase extraction, using C18 cartridges, was used to remove interfering substances from the root extracts. The extracts were analyzed on a C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of acetonit...

  3. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory. PMID:26361721

  4. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  5. Generic Lower Bounds for Root Extraction and Signature Schemes in General Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Koprowski, Maciej

    2002-01-01

    We study the problem of root extraction in finite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the problem of decrypting RSA ciphertexts. We study the complexity of this problem for generic algorithms, that is, algorithms that work for any group and do not...... use any special properties of the group at hand. We prove an exponential lower bound on the generic complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the public exponent itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms...... implement it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class groups. In all cases, security follows from a well defined complexity assumption (the strong root assumption), without relying on random oracles, and the...

  6. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  7. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  8. Inhibition of the emergence of multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Withania somnifera root extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuvo Datta; Nishith Kumar Pal; Ashoke Kumar Nandy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To search systematically for an alternative therapy with compounds particularly from plant origin.Methods: Efficacy test of different root extracts ofWithania somnifera (W. somnifera) (L) Dunalagainst multi drug resistant(MDR)Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus)variants was performed following the agar well diffusion method. Evaluation of susceptibility pattern of the isolates was carried out by employing disk diffusion method using standard antibiotic disks. Results:In vitro study withW. somniferaroot extracts was found to be effective against all the MDRS. aureusstrains isolated from local and patient sources. Different root extracts of WS showed different degree of effectiveness against the isolates.Conclusions: The major active principles responsible for the antibacterial efficacy were mainly present in methanol(MeOH) extract and ethanol (EtOH)extracts as well as in butanol (BuOH) extract fraction. Amongst all the extracts the BuOH fraction was found to be most active against all the isolates but aqueous extract was the least active one. Finally it may be concluded that the antimicrobials fromW. somnifera may raise an alternative therapy forMDR staphylococcal infections in near future.

  9. Phosphoprotein extraction from the dentine/cementum complex of human tooth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, S P; Clarkson, B H; Speirs, R L; Feagin, F F

    1990-01-01

    Root shards were placed in dialysis tubing and demineralized to completion in either 10% disodium EDTA, pH 7.4, 0.6 M HCl, 0.1 M HCl, 0.5 M acetic or 75 mM-25 mM lactic-acetic acids. The demineralized shards were then re-extracted with 0.05 M tris-HCl, 1.0 M NaCl. DEAE chromatography revealed that the major peak of the 0.6 M CHl and EDTA extracts contained organic phosphorus, whereas much less organic phosphorus was found in the major peak of the 0.1 M HCl extract. Analysis of the re-extracts gave a pattern opposite to that obtained from the initial extractions. Measurements of protein and organic phosphorus released during extraction and re-extraction confirmed these results. Staining of SDS-PAGE gels for phosphoprotein with Stains-All resulted in a blue smear in fractions containing organic phosphorus. Thus the extraction of phosphoproteins from human tooth roots differed depending upon the demineralizing conditions. This ability to remove phosphoprotein differentially will allow further investigation of the role of phosphoprotein in mineralization and remineralization. PMID:2115325

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens DC [Pedaliaceae] secondary root aqueous extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2006-03-15

    Harpagophytum procumbens DC [family: Pedaliaceae] is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments. In the present study, we have examined the anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (P<0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's extract (HPE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only partially and weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) produces its anticonvulsant activity by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or facilitating GABAergic action in the brain. In general, the average onset of convulsion was delayed, while the average duration of convulsion was markedly reduced. The plant's extract also depressed the central nervous system (CNS). It is, therefore, thought that the anticonvulsant property of the herb may be linked, at least in part, to its ability to depress the central nervous system. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant's extract in the treatment, management and/or control of epilepsy and childhood convulsions in some rural communities of South Africa. PMID:16464685

  11. Use of botanical extracts, cassava wastewater and nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode on carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of several plant species have shown promising in controlling root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, one of the most limiting agents for carrot cultivation. The current study evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from seven botanical species applied to 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 days after sowing 'Nantes' carrots in soil infested with root-knot nematode. Three other treatments included cassava wastewater, distilled water (control, which were applied in the same periods of the extracts application, in addition to carbofuran 50G (80Kg/ha, which was applied once at 60 days after carrot sowing. Evaluations were performed at 90 days after inoculation to determine shoot and root fresh weight, as well as the diameter and the length of principal roots and the number of galls on primary and secondary roots. Plants treated with cassava wastewater, extracts of Ricinus communis L. seeds, Crotalaria juncea L. seeds, R. communis leaves + branches + fruits, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves + branches + inflorescences and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. seeds showed the highest rates of total weight (root + shoot and shoot weight. The extract of R. communis leaves + branches + fruits provides the highest total root weight and principal root diameter. Cassava wastewater and extracts of R. communis seeds provided the highest principal root weight. The extract of R. communis seeds and cassava wastewater can be considered promising for the alternative control of M. incognita.

  12. Comparative bioactivity of dhaman grass root extracts in different polar solvents against plant and human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae is a very suitable and highly nutritive grass for environmental conditions of the desert; yet, no antimicrobial work has been done on this grass. Aim: To estimate in vitro the antibiotic activity of root extracts of C. ciliaris in various polar solvents to use the grass as a possible source for new antimicrobial compounds against important plant and human pathogens. Settings and Design: The antibiotic activity of C. ciliaris root extracts were evaluated against a few medically important pathogens including Gram-negative bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the fungi, Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: Dried, powdered, and weighted root material was successively extracted with different polar solvents [hexane, petroleum ether, toluene, benzene, isopropyl alcohol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, glacial acetic acid (GAA, and water] using a Soxhlet assembly. Antibiotic activity was performed by using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations by broth dilution method, against sensitive bacteria (with good inhibition zone. Most of the extracts, at higher concentrations, showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against selected bacteria. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and standard deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and P values were considered significant at P<0.05. Results and Conclusions: Results revealed that the highest antibiotic activity was exhibited by the water and GAA extracts against P. mirabilis, followed by isopropyl alcohol extract against K. pneumoniae and A. tumefaciens. Water extract was observed to be the most active extract with maximum zone of inhibition against A. tumefaciens (plant pathogen as compared to all other extracts.

  13. Evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial potentials ofIxora coccinea root extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagaraj Selvaraj; Baskar Lakshmanan; Papiya Mitra Mazumder; Muthukumar Karuppasamy; Simon Santosh Jena; Ashok Kumar Pattnaik

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the wound healing and antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Ixora coccinea (I. coccinea).Methods: To investigate the wound healing efficacy of root extract of I. coccinea Linn, five groups of animals were divided each containing six animals. Two wound models including incision and excision wound models were used in this study. The parameters studied were tensile strength on incision wound model and in terms of wound contraction for excision wound model were compared with standard Nitrofurazone(NFZ) ointment (0.2% w/w). Six extracts (ethanol, aqueous, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate ) ofI. coccinea were screened forin vitro growth inhibiting activity against different bacterial strainsviz, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilius, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi andPseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were compared with the standard drugs ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol for antibacterial and griseofulvin for antifungal screening. The serial dilution and cup (or) well plate methods were used for the antimicrobial study andMIC was determined.Results: The ethanolic extract showed significant (P<0.001) wound healing activity when compared to standard drugNFZ with respect to normal control group. Amongst all, ethanolic extract showed highly significant antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains used in this study when compared to standard. The aqueous extract showed moderate significant inhibition against all bacterial strains when compared to standard. All the extracts were shown negligible activity against the fungal strains used in this study. Conclusions: The ethanolic root extract of I. coccinea showed pronounced wound healing and antibacterial activity. The probable reason to heal the wound was that the external application of the extract prevented the microbes to invade through the wound thus the protection of wound occurs against the

  14. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

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    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  15. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

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    Wan-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA- induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC- γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK. These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  16. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Betu Kasangana; Pierre Selim Haddad; Tatjana Stevanovic

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (20...

  17. The effect of antibiotic and Morinda citrifolia waste bioactive as feed additive in layer ration

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    I.A. K Bintang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of zinc bacitracin antibiotic (ZnB and Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in layer ration was conducted. One hundred and twenty pullet of Isa Brown strain were allocated into 5 treatments with 6 replications with 4 birds/replication. The treatment were: control, control + antibiotic (50 ppm Zinc bacitracin and control + M. citrifolia waste at 3 levels (5, 10 and 15 g/kg ration. Analysis of variance was conducted in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were: feed intake, hen day (% HD, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR. The results showed that feed intake of hens with M. citrifolia waste 5g/kg for 6 month was significantly (P0.05. The percentage of HD with antibiotic and M. citrifolia waste did not significantly (P>0.05 differ, but tent to be higher than that of the control. Egg weight with M. citrifolia waste 5 g/kg was significantly (P0.05.differ. FCR with antibiotic and M. citrifolia waste 5 g/kg was significantly lower than that of control. Between antibiotic and M. citrifolia waste was not significantly different (P<0.05, but FCR with antibiotic and M. citrifolia waste 5 g/kg tent to be lower than that of M. citrifolia waste 10 and 15g/kg. It is concluded that the use of M. citrifolia waste 5 g/kg can substituted antibiotic in layer ration.

  18. Technical aspects on production of fluid extract from Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul roots

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    Frederico Severino Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruction: Despite the increased use of Brosimum gaudichaudii roots as raw material on medicine to treatment of vitiligo, there are not studies that showing the impact of unit operations on the quality and standardized of the extract of B. gaudichaudii. The quality of the herbal extract is essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical product. Due the medical and commercial importance, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method (ultrasound or percolation on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP from B. gaudichaudii. Materials and Methods: The extraction recovery was evaluate by high-performance liquid chromatography (C8 reverse phase column and acetonitrile: Water 45:55 and flow rate 0.6 mL/min. The extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UEA or percolation using a Box-Behnken design. Results: From both chemical markers (psoralen and bergapten, the optimal conditions for the UEA were an extraction time of 25 min, the mean particle size of 100 μm, and an ethanol: Water ratio of 55:45 (v/v. Conclusion: The extraction by percolation revealed that ethanol 55% was more efficient than ethanol 80% to extract psoralen and bergapten.

  19. REVERSAL EFFECT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILD (LILIACEAE ROOT EXTRACT ON MEMORY DEFICITS OF MICE

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    Ashwlayan Vrish Dhwaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of roots of Asparagus racemosus wild (Liliaceae was investigated for its reversal effect on memory deficits in mice. Two doses the extract (75 and 150 mg/kg, i.p. were administered for seven consecutive days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, i.p. were used to induce memory deficits (amnesia. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM were employed to evaluate short and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine and sodium nitrite treatment produced significant impairment of elevated plus maze and Morris water maze performance indicating impairment of memory. The methanolic root extract (150 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (p<0.05 improved EPM and MWM performance of scopolamine and sodium nitrite treated mice. The results indicated potential of the plant in relieving memory deficits.

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of the root extracts of nardostachys jatamansi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimicrobial activity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Nardostachys roots were studied in vitro against six pathogenic gram positive bacteria (Stayphylococcus aureus, streptococcus intermedius, S. faecalis, Bacillus Pumilus, B. cereus B. subtilus), six gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, S. Paratyphi B, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilus, Shigella flexneri) and five fungi (Trichophyton rubrum, T. schoenleinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, C. glabrata). Ethanolic root extract exhibited maximum antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and gungi, at concentration of 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml as compared to ethyl acetate and hexane extract, which did not show marked activity. Antimicrobial activity was compared with the activities of standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs, namely Ampicillin and Nystatin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were between 0.5-1 mg/ml against all the studied microorganisms. (author)

  1. Evaluation of phytochemical content, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antitumor activities of extract from Rumex hastatus D. Don roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sahreen, Sumaira; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Khan, Rahmat Ali; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2015-01-01

    Background Being a part of Chinese as well as ayurdic herbal system, roots of Rumex hastatus D. Don (RH) is highly medicinal, used to regulated blood pressure. It is also reported that the plant is diuretic, laxative, tonic, used against microbial skin diseases, bilious complaints and jaundice. The present study is conducted to evaluate phytochemical, antimicrobial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities of extract obtained from R. hastatus roots. Methods RH roots were powdered and extracted with...

  2. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats

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    Shiv Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD. Materials and Methods : Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Results : The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively in rats fed with the CD with Argyreia speciosa extract 500 mg/kg/day as compared to the CD alone. The extract also significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the serum contents of leptin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglycerides, which were elevated in rats fed with CD alone. In addition, the extract inhibited the induction of fatty liver with the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides. The extract also showed inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity by using triolein as a substrate. Conclusions : The ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots produces inhibitory effects on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  3. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  4. Toxicological and melanin synthesis effects of Polygonum multiflorum root extracts on zebrafish embryos and human melanocytes

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    Thanh Thi Hoai Dang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been commmonly used as folk medicine for treatment of various conditions, such as early graying of hair in humans. However, there have been limited studies which have evaluated the toxicological and biological effects of PM in vitro as well as in vivo. In this study, PM root extracts in ethyl acetate (PM-E and in distilled water (PM-W were examined for their effects on the development of teratogenic defects/deaths. Additionally, they were evaluated for their effects on melanin formation in human melanocytes and pigmentation in embryos/larvae of wild type strain AB zebrafish (Danio rerio. Our results showed that PM root extracts at concentrations of 40 mg/L and 105 mg/L induced the development of teratogenic defects, including yolk sac edema (or heart edema, hemovascular defects, necrosis and abnormal trunk in zebrafish embryos at 4 days post fertilization; teratogenic indexes (TIs were 1.43 and 0.63 for ethyl acetate extract and distilled water extract, respectively. Our results also demonstrated that PM-W significantly increased the pigmentation level of embryos/larvae and induced melanin formation in human melanocytes. The amount of melanin in PM-W-exposed embryos/larvae was 2.2-fold and 1.71-fold greater than those in the control embryos/larvae and control melanocytes, respectively. Our study also showed that the increased level of pigmentation in PM-W embryos/larvae or melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes were both regulated by activation of tyrosinase. Conclusively, our study suggests that PM root extracts could be used as potential agents for treatment of early hair graying as well as various other diseases related to loss of pigmentation. However, these PM root extracts may also have some negative effects on embryos; therefore it should be careful when using for women during pregnancy. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 808-818

  5. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus root against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae is popular in the indigenous system of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as leaves, root, flowers, and oils are used as anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic, digestive and in the treatment of jaundice and various liver disorders. Objective: The aim was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus against paracetamol (PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rat by PCM (2 g/kg b.w. p.o. for 7 days. The ethanolic extract of P. odoratissimus root was administered at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 7 days and silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o. as standard drug was administered once daily for a week. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin and triglycerides. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Experimental findings revealed that the extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of b.w. showed dose dependant hepatoprotective effect against PCM induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal that was comparable to that of silymarin, but the extract at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to be more potent when compared to that of 200 mg/kg. Besides, the results obtained from histopathological study also support the study. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus afforded significant protection against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  6. In vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action

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    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated both the antimicrobial activity and the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts used in irrigation solutions. The antimicrobial activities of the aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebintifolius Raddi and the quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium Roem & Schult hydroalcoholic extracts, of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and of 0.12% chlorhexidine (positive control against Enterococcus faecalis were tested with the agar well diffusion method. The level of root canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Twenty one single-rooted human teeth were divided into three groups according to the irrigation solution applied: 1 50% aroeira-da-praia; 2 50% quixabeira and 3 a combination of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA. All solutions tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The SEM analysis revealed that higher and lower degrees of surface cleaning were observed, in the three groups, respectively for the coronal and apical thirds, in that quixabeira showed the greatest efficiency in removing the smear layer in the apical third. All the agents tested presented antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. None, however, was able to completely remove the smear layer of the dentinal surface in the different thirds of the root canal. The results suggest that the analyzed plant extracts may represent a new therapeutic option in the list of alternative agents available for endodontic treatment.

  7. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chauhan, Rajinder S; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-01-01

    Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo), belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S); 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl); α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful results in

  8. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

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    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH, elevated plus maze (EPM and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P 0.05 effect. In open field model, 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg extract doses significantly (P < 0.05 increased locomotion of the mice more than the standard, while rearing and defecation were less in the extract groups. Conclusion: In different experimental models used significant anxiolytic effect was observed of the aqueous extract at different dose levels in comparison to reference standard and normal saline group. This clearly justified its folkloric application in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the aphrodisiac efficacy of sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea root extract in male rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Ayobami Dare; Shakiru Ademola Salami; Olufadekemi Kunle-Alabi Tolulope; Opeyemi Oreofe Akindele; Yinusa Raji

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR) on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle), 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respe...

  11. Measuring root disease suppression in response to a compost water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Pew, Tom; VanEtten, Hans D; Zhongguo, Xiong; Yu, Naitong; Hawes, Martha C

    2013-03-01

    Commercial application of compost to prevent plant disease is hindered by variable performance. Here, we describe the use of a growth pouch assay to measure impact of a compost water extract (CWE) on root infection under controlled conditions. Most pea roots (≥95%) inoculated with Fusarium solani or Phoma pinodella spores rapidly develop a single local lesion in the region of elongation. In the presence of CWE, infection of pea roots grown in pouches was reduced by 93 to 100%. CWE used as a drench on pea seedlings grown in sand also resulted in 100% protection but, in a heavy clay soil, infection was reduced by roots. CWE inhibited mycelial growth of both pea- and cucumber-infecting isolates of F. solani in culture but exerted root infection. CWE treatment of pea but not cucumber was associated with retention of a sheath of border cells interspersed with bacteria covering the region of elongation. Growth pouch assays may provide a system to monitor effects of specific compost mixtures on root-rhizosphere interactions, and to identify variables influencing disease control.

  12. The Extraction, Isolation and Identiifcation of Exudates from the Roots of Flaveria bidentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHANG Li-hui; SHI Cui-ping; SHANG Yan; ZHANG Jin-lin; HAN Jian-min; DONG Jin-gao

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of Flaveria bidentis’s root culturing solution were obtained by using DFT (deep lfow technique) equipment and these solution which was vacuum concentrated (10, 20 mg mL-1) can have a certain inhibition on Triticum aestivum, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Amaranthus retrolfexus, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crusgalli and Chloris virgata. This outcome suggested some active compounds in the root exudates of Flaveria bidentis can inhibit the germination, seedling elongation and root length. The dichloromethane extract of root exudates was identiifcated by GC-MS, and 29 kinds of compounds, including esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, thiazole, amines, etc. were obtained and the phthalate n-octyl ester, phthalate 2-ethylhexyl ester were proved to be allelochemicals. The culturing solution of root exudates was separated through the resin column and silica gel column and a component inhibiting seedling height, root length and fresh weight of wheat was got. There were 6 kinds of organic compounds in this component including dioctyl phthalate, 1,2-phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester by GC-MS.

  13. Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Onyeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm morphology was observed compared with the control. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone were measured and C. albidum extract also caused a dose related significant reduction (p<0.05 of serum testosterone, Luteinizing hormones and FSH concentrations in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The result showed that ethanol extract of the root bark of C. albidum suppresses the hormonal levels and sperm production in rats and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male contraceptive agent. Industrial relevance: The unique advantages of this antifertility option is that they are safer, reliable, affordable, long-lasting, acceptable and can be taken without consulting a health worker in comparison to pharmaceutical drugs that are expensive and have negative side effect. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum; Infertility; testosterone; gonadotrophin; testis

  14. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  15. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z.; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. ( S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  16. Aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root induce redox imbalance in male rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Salau, A K; Yakubu, M T; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A; Okogun, J I

    2010-08-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root on redox homeostasis in male rat liver and kidney was investigated. Rats were grouped into four: A, B, C and D, where A (the control) received orally 1 mL of distilled water; B, C and D (test groups) received orally 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 28 days. Extract administration significantly reduced (p .05) in the serum acid phosphatase activity. There was also significant decrease (p < .05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the liver and kidney. Liver and kidney levels of GSH, vitamins C and E were also significantly reduced (p < .05). Serum malonidialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide increased significantly (p < .05) in all the extract-treated groups. The available data from this study revealed that aqueous extract of S. longepedunculata root exerted its toxicity in the animals by depleting the antioxidant systems. This may consequently expose the cells and cellular macromolecules to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species generated either from the metabolism of the extract or other in vivo means. PMID:20144964

  17. In Vitro Scolicidal Effects of Salvadora persica Root Extract against Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Almalki, Esam; Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Quarishy, Saleh

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

  18. Evaluation of antiosteoporotic activity of Root extract of Rubia Cordifolia in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Kasabi Shivakumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the antiosteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract from the root of Rubia cordifolia (RC in bilateral-overiectomy induced osteoporotic rats. The study was performed on female Sprague-dawley rats. Two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of RC root were evaluated by acute oral toxicity test. Raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg was used as a reference standard. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 per group. Bilateral-overiectomy was performed for all the rats except for the rats from group-1, which were sham-operated and served as a basal control. Rats from group-2 were served as an OVX-control and received vehicle. Group-3 was administered with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg, p.o. and served as a standard control. Group-4 and 5 were administered with suspension of ethanolic root extract of RC (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. respectively. Treatment was given for 90 days starting from the 15th day after surgery. At the end of the study, the blood samples from all the groups were withdrawn to assess biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and femur bones were isolated for biomechanical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies. Increased biomechanical strength, calcium absorption, minimal osteoclastic activity and enhanced osteoblastic activity were observed in the rats treated with ethanolic extract of RC root. SEM data adds a confirmatory note to the findings. All these results demonstrate significantly antiosteoporotic activity of RC extract. Further studies are required to determine the active components that are responsible for its antiosteoporotic activity.

  19. Subchronic toxicity studies of the ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Jude E; Nwafor, Paul A; Ekpo, Memfin D

    2010-04-01

    Subchronic toxicity study of the crude root extract of Croton zambesicus (27-81 mg/kg), which is used traditionally as malarial remedy, was carried out in rodents to evaluate the safety profile. Effect of the extract on body weights, haematological indices as well as liver and kidney functions and histology of various organs were investigated. Subchronic treatment of rats for 21 days caused comparable increase in body weights of rats in extract treated and control groups. The extract caused a dose-dependent increases in RBC, PCV, Hb, WBC, bleeding time and clotting time. The increases were only significant (P0.05) differences in the means of other haematological parameters in the extract treated groups compared to control. The extract caused significant (P0.05) changes in the levels of albumin and AST. The extract did not produce any significant (P>0.05) changes in the mean concentrations of urea, creatinine, Na+, K+, and Cl- ions of rats in the extract treated groups compared to that of control. Histopathologic analysis of the vital organs revealed no significant lesions in the brain, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, ovary, and testis. The results suggest the extract to be safe when taken orally though with an insignificant effect on the liver. PMID:20363693

  20. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen; Faizi; saima; sumbul; Muhammed; Ali; Versiani; Rubeena; Saleem; Aisha; Sana; Hira; Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and diehloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera(M.oleufera)roots using GC/GC—MS.Methods:A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crashed root of M.oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and diehloromethane(20 L.each) at room temperature for 2 d.The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC—MS analysis.Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and diehloromethane extracts of M.oleifern roots,which showed promising biological activities,has resulted in the identification 102 compounds.These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons,fatty acids,esters,alcohols,isolhioeyanate.thiocyanale,pyrazine,aromalics.alkamides.cyanides,steroids,halocompounds.urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives,unsaturated alkenamides.alkyne and indole.GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extraet of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds,belonging to nine classes.Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract.The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-clocosene(37.9%).nonacosane(32.6%).cycloartenol(28.6%) nonadecanoic acid(13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8(13.9%).Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol(58.8%) along with oleic acid(46.5%),N—benzyl-N-(7—cyanato heptanamide(38.3%),N—benzyl-N—(1—chlorononyl) amide(30.3%),bis[3—benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one(19.5%) and N.N-dibeuzyl—2-ene pent 1.5—diamide(11.6%) were the main constituents.Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs.This result also enhances the traditional usage of M.oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  1. Plumbagin quantification in roots of Plumbago scandens L. obtained by different extraction techniques

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    Paiva Selma R. de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Plumbago genus belongs to the Plumbaginaceae family and it is known due to its variety of biological uses, most of them attributed to the presence of naphthoquinones. Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone that can be obtained from roots of Plumbago scandens L. In order to find out the better technique for plumbagin extraction, were applied: static maceration, dynamic maceration, with assistance of ultrasonic waves and in Soxhlet apparatus. Four compounds were qualitatively detected in all extracts: the naphthoquinones plumbagin and epi-isoshinanolone, palmitic acid and sitosterol. Plumbagin was always the major component in all analyzed extracts and it was quantitatively determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Soxhlet was the most efficient extraction technique however, prolonged heating time promoted plumbagin degradation.

  2. Matrix Solid-phase Dispersion Extraction of Alkaloids from the Roots of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wei; LI Xu-wen; SHI Xiao-lei; ZHOU Hong-yu; YANG Rui-jie; ZHANG Han-qi; JIN Yong-ri

    2011-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion(MSPD) was developed for the extraction of four alkaloids, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and deoxyaconitine, from the roots of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. The determination of the analyte was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The alkaline alumina was used as sorbent. The mixture of acetonitrile and water was used as elution solvent. Several extraction parameters, such as type of sorbent, the ratio of sample to solid support material, type of the elution solvent and the volume of the elution solvent were tested. Mean recoveries ranged from 93.16% to 102.73%, with relative standard deviations from 0.27% to 4.17%. With the extraction efficiency and time expenditure taken into account, MSPD extraction should be a comparatively good method.

  3. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi; S. M. Abdur Rahman; Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses ...

  4. Plumbagin quantification in roots of Plumbago scandens L. obtained by different extraction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva Selma R. de; Lima Lucilene A.; Figueiredo Maria Raquel; Kaplan Maria Auxiliadora C.

    2004-01-01

    The Plumbago genus belongs to the Plumbaginaceae family and it is known due to its variety of biological uses, most of them attributed to the presence of naphthoquinones. Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone that can be obtained from roots of Plumbago scandens L. In order to find out the better technique for plumbagin extraction, were applied: static maceration, dynamic maceration, with assistance of ultrasonic waves and in Soxhlet apparatus. Four compounds were qualitatively det...

  5. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

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    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  6. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Karbasizade; Arezoo Dabiri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa) root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spo...

  7. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Hitler; Parthasarathy Arumugam; Mathivanan Narayanasamy; Elangovan Vellaichamy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC (Fabaceae; DG), a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection) for 7 days induced LVH...

  8. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Linggam Kamilla; Surash Ramanathan; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and f...

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

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    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  10. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA LINN ROOT EXTRACTS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

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    Harneet Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is most common endocrine disease which exists globally and interests about 6 % of the world population. The recommendation of W.H.O. about diabetes has led to a rise in investigation of medicinal plants for hypoglycemic agents. Decoction prepared from roots of Jatropha gossypifolia Linn is used in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of successive extracts of the roots of the plant in comparison to metformin. Petroleum ether (60-80°C, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic mice for 7 days. Change in body weight and plasma glucose levels were estimated after the treatment. Methanol extract exhibited significant reduction in plasma glucose level as compared to diabetic control, followed by aqueous extract. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts were comparatively less active. The results confirm the folklore use of the plant in management of diabetes.

  11. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S M Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  12. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Subedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P<0.001 and P<0.05 inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P<0.001 after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins.

  13. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwaya, Moses Solomon; Vuzi, Peter California; Nandutu, Agnes Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p = 0.27), implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage. PMID:27069932

  14. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

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    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  15. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasangana, Pierre Betu; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin(®), but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin(®) by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r food industry. PMID:26783713

  16. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321

  17. Peran Ekstrak Etanol Topikal Daun Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L. pada Penyembuhan Luka Ditinjau dari Imunoekspresi CD34 dan Kolagen pada Tikus Galur Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Puti Rahmayani S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems in wound healing occurred if proper care is not given and the wound develops into a chronic wound. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. is one of the most common plants in tropical areas, including Indonesia, which fruit, leaves dan root are used in traditional treatment, for example wound healing. This experimental research with post test-only control group design identified the effect of topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract on wound healing by examining the histopathological appearance of fibroblas count, inflammatory cell infiltration, cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34 immunoexpression, and collagen deposition. The research was performed between November 2010 until September 2011 at the Pharmacology and Pathology Anatomy laboratories of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Excisions were made on each back of the rat of the 36 rats that were divided into control and test groups where the test group received topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract. The wound was examined on day 3, 7, and 14 using a light microscope. The result showed a tendency of better wound healing in the test group for all parameters based on the data on day 3, 7, and 14. Mann-Whitney Test with 95% confidence interval (p<0.05 showed that the p value for fibroblast count, inflammation cell infiltration, CD34 immunoexpression and collagen subsequently were p=0.319, p=0.290, p=0.251, and p=0.245, respectively. In conclusion, topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract has a benefit on wound healing although the results are not statistically significant.

  18. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IS SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED TO ITS-RFLP ANALYSIS OF MYCORRHIZAL ROOT TIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...

  19. Devil's Claw to Suppress Appetite—Ghrelin Receptor Modulation Potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Theeuwes, Wessel F.; McMullen, Michael K.; McMullen, Anna K.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek) stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits. PMID:25068823

  20. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Theeuwes, Wessel F; McMullen, Michael K; McMullen, Anna K; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Schellekens, Harriët

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek) stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits. PMID:25068823

  1. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  2. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

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    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  3. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) miers on some weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF; M. Badruzzaman SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germinati...

  4. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively. PMID:24635720

  5. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  6. In Vitro Skin Diffusion Study of Pure Forskolin versus a Forskolin-Containing Plectranthus barbatus Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hammell, Dana C.; Spry, Malinda; D’Orazio, John A.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro skin diffusion study of pure forskolin (1) versus a 1-containing Plectranthus barbatus root extract (P. barbatus extract) in hairless guinea pig skin and human skin in a flow-through diffusion cell system was conducted and is being reported for the first time. Both topical agents were formulated in a solution of 70% ethanol and 30% propylene glycol (v/v). The results showed that forskolin can be delivered through the stratum corneum and that the flux of this compound was enhanced when 1 was delivered as a constituent of the P. barbatus extract as compared to an equivalent amount in pure form. These results suggest that the P. barbatus extract used contains permeation enhancement activity from other compound(s) contained in the crude root extract. It is possible that P. barbatus root extract may be used as an economical source of 1 to perform topical chemical manipulation of pigmentation in high-risk populations. PMID:19281221

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    JianFeng Cao; PengYing Zhang; ChengWei Xu; TaoTao Huang; YunGui Bai; KaoShan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into ...

  8. Hepatoprotective effects of Astragalus kahiricus root extract against ethanol-induced liver apoptosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasha M.Allam; Dina A.Selim; Asser I.Ghoneim; Mohamed M.Radwan; Salwa M.Nofal; Amani E.Khalifa; Ola A.Sharaf; Soad M.Toaima; Aya M.Asaad

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Astragalus kahiricus (Fabaceae) roots against ethanol-induced liver apoptosis was evaluated and it showed very promising hepatoprotective actions through different mechanisms.The extract counteracted the ethanol-induced liver enzymes leakage and glutathione depletion.In addition,it demonstrated anti-apoptotic effects against caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation that were confirmed by liver histopathological examination.Moreover,the phytochemical study of this extract led to the isolation of four cycloartane-type treiterpenes identified as astrasieversianin Ⅱ (1),astramembrannin Ⅱ (2),astrasieversianin ⅩⅣ (3),and cycloastragenol (4).The structures of these isolates were established by HRESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments.The antimicrobial,antimalarial,and cytotoxic activities of the isolates were further evaluated,but none of them showed any activity.

  9. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

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    Rajendran Kuppusamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L. Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats while serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, magnesium, protein, albumin and glycogen, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels in kidney and liver were evaluated additionally in diabetic rats. Treatment with extract at both dose levels was found to exhibit antidiabetic activity, with the higher dose showing more significant activity.

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PALMYRA PALM ( BORASSUS FLABELLIFER ROOT EXTRACT

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    Saravanan C., Priya B.*, Asir Bradley S. and Uma Sundaram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical constituents of Borassus flabellifer was identified and evaluated the antibacterial activity of the acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts. A phytoconstituent analysis of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and saponins were performed on the various solvent extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well diffusion method against five pathogenic microorganisms, E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. The maximum zone of inhibition was exhibited for E.coli (14mm; P. aeruginosa (13mm and B. subtilis (11mmagainst compared to tested micro organisms. The methanolic extract of the palm root has showed consistently significant inhibitory activity on different bacterial species tested. Furthermore, identification of bioactive compounds will be analyzed.

  11. APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL ROOT EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF LANDOLPHIA DULCIS (SABINE PICHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Ilodigwe, E.N. Igbokwe, D.L. Ajaghaku and C.P. Ihekwereme

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the traditionally used sex enhancement natural remedies in south eastern Nigeria, L. dulcis root is very popular because of its quick onset of action. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. This study therefore investigated the effects of its ethanol extract and fractions on sexual behavior in male albino rats.Methods: Forty-five male albino rats were randomly divided into nine groups A1 – D1, A2 – D2 and E. Animals in groups A1 – D1 received daily doses of 500mg/kg of ethanol extract and fractions (n-Hexane, Ethylacetate and Methanol respectively while groups A2 – D2 received 1000mg/kg. Group E served as the control and receive 1ml of 10% tween 80. Equal numbers of female albino rats (45 were made receptive by hormonal treatment with estradiol benzoate (10µg/100g and progesterone (0.5mg/100g. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats when paired with receptive females were monitored on days 1, 3 and 5. Male serum testosterone concentration was also determined.Results: At 500 and 1000mg/kg, the ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L.dulcis showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies. This extract and fraction also significantly (p<0.05 reduce the mount and intromission latencies and prolonged ejaculation latency compared with the control animals. The ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L. dulcis also produced significant (p<0.05 increase in serum testosterone concentration.Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L. dulcis enhanced sexual ability in male rats and this could be attributed to relatively high contents of alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids. This study therefore justifies the traditional use of the root of L. dulcis in treating impotence and erectile dysfunction.

  12. Comparative toxicity profiles of Plumbago zeylanica L. root petroleum ether, acetone and hydroalcoholic extracts in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dushyant; Patil, Paragouda A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, Sanjiv D; Harsha V Hegde; Nair, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The root of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and various disorders. The toxicity of this plant has not yet been extensively evaluated. Aim: To evaluate and compare the toxicity of P. zeylanica root petroleum ether (PZPE), acetone (PZAC), and the hydroalcoholic (PZHY) extracts. Materials and Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicities of extracts were evaluated according to OECD guidelines 425 and 407, res...

  13. Bioactivity determination of methanol and water extracts for roots and leaves of Kenyan Psidium guajava L landraces against pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liharaka Kidaha, Mercy; Alakonya, Amos Emitati; Nyende, Aggrey Benard

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L) is native to South America and exists as both wild and cultivated. Guava has been used as a source of food and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to determine bioactivity of methanol and water extracts from root and leaves of Kenyan guava landraces against selected pathogenic bacteria. Study samples were collected from Western and South Coast of Kenya. One hundred grams of leaf and root ground powders were used for sequential extraction usin...

  14. Rapid validated HPTLC method for estimation of piperine and piperlongumine in root of Piper longum extract and its commercial formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Anagha A. Rajopadhye; Tejas P. Namjoshi; Anuradha S Upadhye

    2012-01-01

    Piperine and piperlongumine, alkaloids having diverse biological activities, commonly occur in roots of Piper longum L., Piperaceae, which have high commercial, economical and medicinal value. In present study, rapid, validated HPTLC method has been established for the determination of piperine and piperlongumine in methanolic root extract and its commercial formulation 'Mahasudarshan churna®' using ICH guidelines. The use of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) as an alternative to conventio...

  15. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

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    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  16. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  17. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

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    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  18. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  19. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Extract from Roots and Leaves of Citrullus lanatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia-gang; WANG Shuo; GUO Li-cheng; FAN Li-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of extract from the roots and leaves of Citrulluslanatus and assess their acute toxicity in animals.Methods The mouse model with ear edema induced by xyleneand the rat model with paw edema or granuloma by carrageenin or cotton pellet were used for anti-inflammatoryeffects of the extract.Effects of the extract on analgesia was tested respectively by measuring the latency of micelicking hind foot from hot plates and by counting the times of body twisting in response to acetic acid.The acutetoxicity of the extract was determined with the method of Bliss.Results The extract significantly inhibited the earedema,granuloma hyperplasia,and paw edema.It significantly lifted the pain threshold on mouse hot-plateresponses and reduced their writhing times.During the 7 d observation period in its acute toxicity assay,no apparenttoxic reaction was shown and all mice survived at a dose of 87 g extract per kg body weight.Conclusion Theextract could protecte mice/rates from inflammation and analgesia,and may be safe as an orally administered naturalproduct for humans.

  20. Antinociceptive and antidepressant like effects of Securidaca longepedunculata root extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, R A; Elsa, A T; Agaie, B M; Etuk, E U

    2006-09-19

    The aqueous root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata (polygalaceae) was investigated for possible antinociceptive and central nervous system (CNS) effects in mice. Three nociceptive models; acetic acid, formalin and tail-flick tests were used to study the antinociceptive activity. Rectal temperature test was employed as an adjunct to the nociceptive models. The extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly and dose dependently reduced the nociception induced by the acetic acid and in the early phase of formalin test (P<0.05). The extract exerted significant (P<0.05) hypothermic effect in the 15 and 30 min of the rectal temperature test. The antinociceptive and hypothermic effects were partially reversed by naloxone (1mg/kg). The tail-flick test produced an insignificant increase in tail-flick latency at 400 mg/kg after 60 min of the test, but significantly (P<0.05) increase tail-flick latency in the 400mg/kg group of animals pre-treated with naloxone (1 mg/kg) after 120 min of the test. The extract also produced a significant (P<0.05) naloxone reversible antidepressant like effect in the forced swimming test (an animal model of depression). Collectively, these results suggest that the extract possess antinociceptive and antidepressant like effects with possible involvement of opioidergic pathways. The extract at limit dose of 2 g/kg body weight appeared to be safe in oral formulation. PMID:16647235

  1. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Helfer

    Full Text Available Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs.

  2. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs.

  3. Hypoglycemic effects of a standardized extract of salvia miltiorrhiza roots in rats

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    Mauro A. M. Carai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae is a Chinese medicinal plant, the dried roots of which (known as Dan-Shen have been used for hundreds of years in the treatment of a series of ailments, including hyperglycemia. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of a new, standardized extract of S. miltiorrhiza. Materials and Methods: S. miltiorrhiza extract (containing 21% total tanshinones and 3.7% tanshinone IIA was administered acutely and intragastrically at the doses of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg to male, healthy, fasted Wistar rats 60 min before the intragastric infusion of a bolus of starch (3 g/kg; a semi-naturalistic experimental condition (Experiment 1 or glucose (2 g/kg (Experiment 2. Results: In both experiments, treatment with S. miltiorrhiza extract produced a dose-related decrease in glycemia, evidenced in terms of reduction of peak value and/or area under the curve of the time-course of glycemia. The effect of S. miltiorrhiza extract occurred at doses devoid of any behavioral toxicity in rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of S. miltiorrhiza extract was likely secondary to an action on carbohydrate metabolism. These results are consistent with several preclinical and clinical data and add further support to the hypothesis that S. miltiorrhiza extracts may act as effective anti-hyperglycemic remedies.

  4. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae Root Bark Extracts

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    Pierre Betu Kasangana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc and hexane (Hex. The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6 was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62. Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  5. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

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    Kavita Gahlot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl

  6. Extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension for pigment cell restoration in vitiligo

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    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo surgery has come up a long way from punch skin grafts to epidermal cell suspension and latest to the extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension (EHF-ORS-CS transplantation. The progressive development from one technique to the other is always in a quest for the best. In the latest development- EHF-ORS-CS, which is an enriched source of follicular inactive melanocyte (melanocyte stem cells, seems to be a good addition to the prevailing cell-based therapies for vitiligo; however, need to be explored further in larger, and preferably randomized blinded studies. This review discusses the principle, technical details, and stem cell composition of hair follicular outer root sheath cell suspension.

  7. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice

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    Pandy Vijayapandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn. using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing. Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies

  8. Renoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Rheum ribes root in diabetic female rats

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    Shokri Hamzeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medical plants, as rich sources of natural antioxidants with antidiabetic effects, are used worldwide to diminish a variety of symptoms and many diseases. R. ribes L., which belongs to the family of polygonaceae, can provide symptomatic relief and assist in the prevention of the secondary complications of the diabetes. Material and Methods: 36 female adult rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6. Normal Control groups treated with normal saline. Positive control groups treated with hydroalcohlic extract of R. ribes root (150 mg/kg daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Diabetes was inducedby injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Two diabetic groups were treated with different doses of R. ribes root extract. The sixth diabetic groups were treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg. At the end of 28 days, blood samples were collected and their kidney tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: The results showed that hydro-alcoholic extract of R. ribes decreased the level of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine in diabetic rats (p

  9. Uterotonic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-10-01

    Some traditional health practitioners of South Africa have claimed that Harpagophytum procumbens DC (family: Pedaliaceae) secondary root is a useful obstetric remedy for induction or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) on longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from non-pregnant and pregnant, young adult, female rats. HPE (10-800 microg/ml) induced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05) increases in the baseline tone, and caused powerful rhythmic, myogenic contractions of, oestrogen-dominated rat longitudinal uterine horn muscle strips taken from stilboesterol-pretreated, non-pregnant female rats. Relatively low to high concentrations of HPE (10-800 microg/ml) also provoked concentration-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) increases in the baseline tone of, and contracted, longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from female rats in the early, middle and late stages of pregnancy. Moderate to high concentrations of HPE (200-1,000 microg/ml) always provoked powerful contractions of isolated longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle preparations of non-pregnant and pregnant rats. The results of this in vitro study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses spasmogenic, uterotonic action on mammalian uterine muscles. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric obstetric uses of the plant's secondary root for induction and/or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. PMID:19907121

  10. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Ga; Seetharaman, Av; Subramanian, Nr; Paddikkala, J

    2010-04-01

    Many challenges are associated with the oral delivery of insulin, relating to the physical and chemical stability of the hormone, and its absorption and metabolism in the human body. The present study aims to demonstrate the oral delivery of insulin in both normal and steptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with the help of the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root. Human insulin was mixed with the aqueous extract of DG root (0.1 mg/ml) with human insulin (40 IU/ml) in ratio 1:1(v/v), to prepare oral insulin drug. Decreased plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rat suggested the probable absorption of insulin through GI tract when insulin was administered by mixing with DG extract. Indeed, insulin mixed DG potentially stimulates the release of insulin in STZ-induced diabetic rat rather than in normal animal. In vivo insulin secretaguage action of oral insulin drug was determined by isolated rat heart model and the results showed a significant cardio protection in STZ rat. The finding of this study suggests that insulin mixed with DG extract can be a promising vehicle for oral delivery of insulin. However, further studies are required to explore the exact compound(s) responsible for the protective delivery of insulin orally. Increased plasma insulin level by insulin mixed DG extract administration in STZ-treated diabetic rat indicates not only insulin secretaguage action of the mixture but also a probable altered insulin release mechanism in diabetic condition. PMID:21264119

  11. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  12. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  13. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  14. The Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Extract on Open Wound Healing in the Male Rats

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    N Ajand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healing cutaneous wounds is regarded as one of the most important issues in the medicine. Different chemical agents have been used in regard with promoting wound healing, most of which unfortunately present some side effects and defects. Since natural combinations have proposed less disadvantages, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Withania Somnifera root extract on cutaneous wound healing in the male rats. Methods: This study was performed on 36 rats weighing 180-220g that were divided into 6 groups (n=6. First, wounds (2x2 were made on the dorsal skin of the animals. The first group was left without treatment (control group, the second was treated with Eucerin(negative control, the third group received 1% of phenytoin cream and in the other groups, different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania Somnifera (20%, 40%, 60% w/w combined with Eucerin base were administrated once per day. The area of wounds was measured by Autocad software every day, from the 2nd day to 14th day. The study data were analyzed via SPSS software (ver.16 at the significant level of P<0.05. Results:The reduction of incisional wound area in the all groups treated with root extract of Withania Somnifera  ointment was significantly higher on the 8th  day. Moreover, dose of 60% and 90% revealed better effects (p<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that Withania Somnifera root, due to its significant reduction in the healing time as well as wound area, can be used as an effective material in regard with the cutaneous wound healing.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus root extract and its larvicidal effects.

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    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Jemimah, Irudayaraj Anto Amal; Ponmanickam, Ponnirul; Ayyanar, Muniappan

    2015-11-01

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, cost-effectiveness and being a novel method has an eco-friendly approach. Biological activity of root extracts as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus were evaluated against larvae of Aedes aegyptiand Culex quinquefasciatus. The structure and proportion of the synthesized nanoparticles was defined by exploitation ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. Reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with aqueous root extract at 60°C. Synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were confirmed by analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 423 nm. FTIR showed aliphatic amines and alkanes corresponding peaks to be presence of responsible compounds to produced nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. Spherical shaped and crystalline nature of particles was recorded under XRD analysis. Presence of silver metal and 35-55nm sized particles were recorded using EDAX and SEM respectively. Larvicidal activitywas observed after24 hrs of exposure to root extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles. The highest larval mortality was observed in synthesized silver nanopartiucles against Aedes aegypti (LC50= 2.01 ± 0.34; LC90= 5.29 ± 0.07 at 5.0 mg(-1) concentration) and Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50= 1.18 ± 0.15; LC90= 2.55 ± 0.76 at 3.5 to 5.0 mgl(-1) concentration) respectively. The present study provides evidence that synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus offer potential source for larvicidal activity againstthe larvae of both dengue and filariasis vectors. PMID:26688962

  16. Amelioration of apoptotic events in the skeletal muscle of intra-nigrally rotenone-infused Parkinsonian rats by Morinda citrifolia--up-regulation of Bcl-2 and blockage of cytochrome c release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kishore Kumar S; Paul, Liya; Sathyamoorthy, Yogesh Kanna; Srinivasan, Ashokkumar; Chakrapani, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Singh, Abhilasha; Ravi, Divya Bhavani; Krishnan, Thulasi Raman; Velusamy, Prema; Kaliappan, Kathiravan; Radhakrishnan, Rameshkumar; Periandavan, Kalaiselvi

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, which lead to abnormal movements and lack of activity, which in turn cause muscular damage. Even though studies have been carried out to elucidate the causative factors that lead to muscular damage in Parkinson's disease, apoptotic events that occur in the skeletal muscle and a therapeutical approach to culminate the muscular damage have not been extensively studied. Thus, this study evaluates the impact of rotenone-induced SNPc lesions on skeletal muscle apoptosis and the efficacy of an ethyl acetate extract of Morinda citrifolia in safeguarding the myocytes. Biochemical assays along with apoptotic markers studied by immunoblot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the current study revealed that the supplementation of Morinda citrifolia significantly reverted alterations in both biochemical and histological parameters in rotenone-infused PD rats. Treatment with Morinda citrifolia also reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and blocked the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria induced by rotenone. In addition, it augmented the expression of Bcl2 both transcriptionally and translationally. Thus, this preliminary study paves a way to show that the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities of Morinda citrifolia can be exploited to alleviate skeletal muscle damage induced by Parkinsonism.

  17. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

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    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  18. Toxicity Profile of the Aqueous Ethanol Root Extract of Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae in Rodents

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    Hind Lakmichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae is a Moroccan medicinal plant. Despite its popular usage, no study has been published concerning its toxicological profile. The acute toxicity of C. telephiifolia root extract was evaluated by giving it orally to mice at single doses of 5000, 10000, and 14000 mg/kg bodyweight. The extract was also administered at doses of 5, 70, and 2000 mg/kg bodyweight per day to rats for a forty-day toxicity study. No mortality or signs of toxicity were observed in the acute study. In the forty-day study in rats, the extract at 5 mg/kg/day showed no toxicological effects in either sex. At 70 mg/kg/day, the treated group differed from the control only by a significant decrease in serum concentrations of sodium and chloride ions (P<.05. At the dose of 2000 mg/kg/day, the extract significantly increased the serum concentrations of creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and phosphorus (P<.05 all suggestive of functional nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The relative bodyweight of both sexes decreased at the dose of 2000 mg/kg/day, with a fast recovery for males. Histological examination did not reveal any treatment-related effects. In conclusion, Corrigiola extract appears safe at the doses used ethno-medicinally. Much higher doses pose toxicological risks.

  19. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries

    OpenAIRE

    Riddhi Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers root extract (TCRE) in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as “normal” and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of “irradiated control” were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma r...

  20. Improving Anticancer Activities of Oplopanax horridus Root Bark Extract by Removing Water-soluble Components

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, SHI; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Williams, Stainley; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2010-01-01

    Oplopanax horridus is used as a folk medicine by natives in the Northern Pacific coast of North America. This experiment studied the anti-proliferative effects of the extract of O. horridus root bark and its fractions chromatographed from Dianion HP20 resin column with water, 30, 50, 70 and 100% ethanol on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The role of O. horridus in the cell cycle and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was also investigated. The results showe...

  1. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. PMID:27374554

  2. Melanogenesis-inhibitory saccharide fatty acid esters and other constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (noni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tochizawa, Shun; Takahashi, Nami; Yamamoto, Ayako; Zhang, Jie; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka

    2012-06-01

    Five new saccharide fatty acid esters, named nonioside P (3), nonioside Q (4), nonioside R (8), nonioside S (10), and nonioside T (14), and one new succinic acid ester, butyl 2-hydroxysuccinate (=4-butoxy-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid) (31), were isolated, along with 26 known compounds, including eight saccharide fatty acid esters, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 13, three hemiterpene glycosides, 15, 17, and 18, six iridoid glycosides, 21-25, and 27, and nine other compounds, 20, 28, 29, and 32-37, from a MeOH extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Upon evaluation of these and five other glycosidic compounds, 11, 16, 19, 26, and 30, from M. citrifolia fruit extract for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), most of the saccharide fatty acid esters, hemiterpene glycosides, and iridoid glycosides showed inhibitory effects with no or almost no toxicity to the cells. These compounds were further evaluated with respect to their cytotoxic activities against two human cancer cell lines (HL-60 and AZ521) and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells.

  3. Flavoring extracts of Hemidesmus indicus roots and Vanilla planifolia pods exhibit in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anish; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2013-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are important for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Search for potent and safe AChEIs from plant sources still continues. In the present work, we explored fragrant plant extracts that are traditionally used in flavoring foods, namely, Hemidesmus indicus and Vanilla planifolia, as possible sources for AChEI. Root and pod extracts of H. indicus and V. planifolia, respectively, produce fragrant phenolic compounds, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin). These methoxybenzaldehydes were shown to have inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Vanillin (IC50 = 0.037 mM) was detected as more efficient inhibitor than MBALD (IC50 = 0.047 mM). This finding was supported by kinetic analysis. Thus, plant-based food flavoring agents showed capacity in curing Alzheimer's disease and other neurological dysfunctions.

  4. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p bark extract of Securinega virosa contains biological active principle with antipsychotic potential.

  5. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Kumar; DK Patel; SK Prasad; K Sairam; S Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation deals with evaluation of antidiabetic (Type 2) activity of standardized alcoholic root extracts of Caesalpinia digyna in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna (ACD), obtained from Soxhlet extractor was standardized by HPLC. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Diabetic rats ware administered ACD at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg (p.o.) and different parameters such as normoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and anti-oxidant status in normal and diabetic rats. Results: Normoglycemic rats did not reduce the blood glucose level, whereas oral glucose tolerance test showed better tolerance of glucose in treated rats. The alcoholic extract showed a dose dependent reduction in fasting blood glucose level i.e. more pronounced at 750 mg/kg (P<0.05). ACD showed significant reduction in plasma lipid like triglycerides, total cholesterol and improvement in high density lipo-protein cholesterol (HDL-C) in treated groups. The decrease in lipid peroxides and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver clearly showed the antioxidant potential while rat hemi-diaphragm glucose uptake study revealed increases in peripheral glucose uptake of treated rats. Conclusions: Results showed that standardized alcoholic extract of C. digyna possessed significant antidiabetic activity which may be attributed to increase in glycogen storage, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity thus, rationalizing its traditional use.

  6. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented.

  7. Evaluation of Protein Extraction Methods for Vitis vinifera Leaf and Root Proteome Analysis by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neila Jellouli; Asma Ben Salem; Abdelwahed Ghorbel; Hatem Ben Jouira

    2010-01-01

    An efficient protein extraction method is crucial to ensure successful separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE)for recalcitrant plant species, in particular for grapevine(Vitis vinifera L.). Trichloroacetic acid-acetone(TCA-acetone)and phenol extraction methods were evaluated for proteome analysis of leaves and roots from the Tunisian cultivar 'Razegui'. The phenol-based protocol proved to give a higher protein yield,a greater spot resolution, and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gels for both leaf and root tissues compared with the TCA-based protocol. Furthermore, the highest numbers of detected proteins on 2-DE gels were observed using the phenol extraction from leaves and roots as compared with TCA-acetone extraction.

  8. The effect of Valerian root extract on the severity of pre menstrual syndrome symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Rezaei, Elham; Shirood Gholami, Roghaieh; Kheirkhah, Masomeh; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder. Due to the knowledge lack of the precise etiology of this syndrome, different treatment methods are recommended, one of them is the use of medicinal herbs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Valerian ( xié cǎo) root extract on the intensity of PMS symptoms. In this double-blind clinical trial, 100 female students of Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran Province, Iran, with PMS were randomly divided into groups receiving Valerian (scientific name: Valeriana officinalis) and placebo in 2013. The participants received 2 pills daily in the last seven days of their menstrual cycle for 3 cycles and recorded their symptoms. The data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire, daily symptom severity questionnaire, and a provisional diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome questionnaire. Data were compared previous, one, two, and three cycles after student's intervention using and analyzed by independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-squared test, and repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS 16. A significant difference was seen in mean emotional, behavioral and physical premenstrual symptom severity in the intervention group before and after the intervention (P Valerian root extract may reduce emotional, physical, and behavioral symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:27419099

  9. Micellar LC Separation of Sesquiterpenic Acids and Their Determination in Valeriana officinalis L. Root and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem U. Kulikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micellar liquid chromatography (MLC method was developed and validated according to ICH Guidelines for the determination of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic, hydroxyvalerenic, and acetoxyvalerenic acids in root and rhizome extract from Valeriana officinalis L. and valerian dry hydroalcoholic extract. Samples were analyzed on Nucleosil C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5 μm using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of Brij 35 (5% (w/v aqueous solution; pH 2.3±0.1 by phosphoric acid and 1-butanol (6% (v/v; UV detection was at 220 nm. Micellar mobile phase using allows to fully separate valerenic acids within 25 minutes. Linearity for hydroxyvalerenic, acetoxyvalerenic, and valerenic acids was 1.9–27.9, 4.2–63.0, and 6.1–91·3 μg.mL−1, and limit of detection was 0.14, 0.037, and 0.09 μg·mL−1, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions were not less than 2% for all investigated compounds. The proposed method was found to be reproducible and convenient for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpenic acids in valerian root and related preparations.

  10. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Root Extract of Zingiber Officinale

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    L. F. A. Anand Raj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using biological method is always eco friendly and attractive. The current study focuses on the production of ZnO nanoparticles using the aqueous root extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger. The root extracts were found to be rich in flavonoids which were confirmed by the flavonoid test thereby enhancing the biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticle. The Scanning Electron Microscope with the Energy Dispersive X-ray studies were used for characterization that provides the size and the elemental composition of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. The average size of the nanoparticles was found to be 30-50nm. The FTIR analysis played a pivotal role in displaying the important functional groups present in the ZnO nanoparticle, which showed that the sample had strong absorbance in the range of 1600 – 1450 cm-1. Hence the biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale, can be an alternative to chemical synthesis.

  11. ISOLATION AND SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF QUERCETIN FROM THE ALCOHOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena.P.N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials are used throughout developed and developing countries as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry and represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. It is therefore essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Some of quality control parameters of the root Clerodendrum species belonging to Verbenceae family were analyzed. It includes root powder characters, moisture content determination by LOD method, FOM determination, Rf value detection by TLC, using different solvents, Ash values, extractive values, bitterness value, Haemolytic activity, detection of tannins, Foaming Index, Detection of Arsenic and heavy metals, determination of micro organism .The isolation of the compound from the extract by column chromatography by using different solvents ,purified ,analysed by various spectral studies . The study ensures that the quality control parameters do help in the proper standard of the crude drugs in drug development process for global acceptances. The current study may be useful to progress further investigation on the isolation of other flavonoids and their biological potential for the treatment of human ailments.

  12. Antioxidant activity and optimization of extraction of polysaccharide from the roots of Dipsacus asperoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li-Hong; Zhang, Dan; Yu, Bao; Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Wang, Jian-Wei; Yao, Ling; Cao, Wei-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Polysaccharide extraction from Dipsacus asperoides roots (DAP) was proved to possess strong antioxidant activities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-Azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, inhibiting β-carotene bleaching and strong reducing power. Cell assay demonstrated that the crude DAP possessed antioxidant activity and were effective against H2O2-induced L02 cells injury. Then, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of DAP. The optimum variables given by central composite design (CCD) were as follows: ratio of water to raw material, 38.61mL/g; ultrasonic power, 308.68W; extraction time, 38.61min; and extraction temperature, 89°C. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of DAP obtained was 7.12±0.45%. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis suggested that the monosaccharide compositions of DAP contained primarily mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose, with a molar ratio of 0.22:0.48:2.29:0.34:1.39:1.41. The results of the present study showed that DAP could be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:26277747

  13. In vitro antibacterial effect of Withania somnifera root extract on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, an Indian traditional medicinal plant against Escherichia coli O78, a pathogenic strain. Materials and Methods: Two-fold serial dilutions of 20% aqueous W. somnifera root (WSR extract were inoculated with E. coli O78 @ 1x107 colony forming units grown in nutrient broth. Following inoculation, turbidity optical density was measured by spectrophotometer at 600 nm in all the tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Result: The results revealed that the maximum inhibition of bacterial growth was observed at 1:8 dilution of WSR extract. The highest dilution of the extract that showed inhibited growth of the test organism when compared with control was 1:16. Therefore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous extract of WSR is 1:16. Conclusion: It is concluded that WSR possessed good antibacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds and its rationalizing use in health care.

  14. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

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    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  15. Radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana on radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense exposure to ionization radiation by accidental, occupational or therapeutical purpose causes cellular damage mainly by formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by free radicals. Humans are intentionally exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The use of ionising radiation in cancer therapy may lead to transient and/or permanent injury to normal tissues within the treatment field. To increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy, various modes of radioprotection have been developed that selectively reduce cytotoxic effects to normal tissues. Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. Loeseneriella arnottiana, a member of family Hippocrateaceae, is a climbing shrub used by traditional medicine practitioners. To study the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana against electron beam radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Loeseneriella arnottiana roots were dried and extracted using methanol by solvent extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The lymphocytes were incubated for one hour with two different concentrations 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before exposure to 2 Gy electron beam radiation. 30 μg of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana exhibited 96% radical scavenging activity comparable to 15 μg of ascorbic acid. In reducing power assay it showed dose dependent increase in absorbance indicating that extract is capable of donating hydrogen atoms. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before irradiation resulted in reduction in the Comet length, Olive tail moment, percentage of DNA in tail when compared to the radiation control group. Results of this

  16. High anti-inflammatory activity of harpagoside-enriched extracts obtained from solvent-modified super- and subcritical carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, M; Laufer, S; Schmidt, P C

    2006-01-01

    Solvent-modified carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens have been investigated with respect to extraction efficiency and content of harpagoside, and compared with a conventional extract. The effects of pressure, temperature, type and concentration of the modifier have been examined. Two extraction steps were necessary in order to achievehigh anti-inflammatory harpagoside-enriched extracts. The first extraction step was carried out in the supercritical state using carbon dioxide modified with n-propanol to remove undesired lipophilic substances. The main extraction was performed either in the supercritical or in the subcritical state with carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The supercritical fluid extraction resulted in extracts containing up to 30% harpagoside. The subcritical extracts showed a harpagoside content of ca. 20%, but the extraction yield was nearly three times greater compared with supercritical conditions. The total harpagoside recovery resulting from the sum of the extract and the crude drug residue was greater than 99% in all experiments. The conventional extract and two carbon dioxide extracts were tested for in-vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase-2 biosynthesis. Both carbon dioxide extracts showed total inhibition on 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis at a concentration of 51.8 mg/L. In contrast, the conventional extract failed to show any inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis. PMID:16454469

  17. Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Archana; Suryanarayanan Srilalitha; Kurian Gino A; Padikkala Jose

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Methods The in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract was as...

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  19. Evaluation of the acute and sub acute toxicity ofAnnona senegalensis root bark extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theophine C Okoye; Peter A Akah; Adaobi C Ezike; Maureen O Okoye; Collins A Onyeto; Frankline Ndukwu; Ejike Ohaegbulam; Lovelyn Ikele

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the safety profile ofAnnona senegalensis (A. senegalensis).Methods:Dried powdered root-bark of A. senegalensis was prepared by Sohxlet extraction using methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) solution and concentrated to obtain the methanol-methylene chloride extract (MME).MME was fractionated to obtain then-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. Acute toxicity (LD50) test was performed withMME, HF, EF andMF in mice by oral route. The sub acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after14 days ofMME administration while haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored.Results:Medium lethal (LD50) values of1 296, 3 808, 1 265 and 2 154mg/kg were obtained for theMME, MF, HF andEF, respectively. The sub-acute toxicity studies indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight of both the treated rats and the control. The haematological tests indicated no change in the packed cell volume values but a significant (P<0.05) increase in the totalWBC count at100and 400 mg/kg doses. The differential analysis showed a decrease in the nutrophils and a non-significant increase in the lymphocyte counts. The liver transaminase enzymes, alanin transaminase and aspartate transaminase showed no significant increase compared to the control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections also indicted no obvious signs of hepatotoxicity except with the400 mg/kg dose that showed degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes.Conclusions:These results indicated that the root bark extracts ofA. Senegalensis are safe at the lower doses tested, and calls for caution in use at higher doses in treatment.

  20. Effect of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc root extracts on behavioral and radiology changes in arthritic rats

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    Madan L Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol root extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc (Family: Zingiberaceae on behavioral and radiology aspects of Freund′s Complete Adjuvant (FCA-induced monoarthritis in left ankle joint of rats using open-field test. Traditionally, Curcuma zedoaria root has been used as anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic drug. Behavioral aspects include latency time to explore, ambulatory, rearing, grooming, urination, and defecation. Animals were divided into ten groups each of six rats, all the animals were subjected to open-field test before the induction of arthritis at 0 day and thereafter 3, 7, 14 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of postinoculation FCA injection. The rat was placed in an open field and observed all behavioral aspects for 5 minutes and radiography analysis was made on day 42. Selected doses were 10 mg/kg.i.p. Indomethacin 200 mg/kg.p.o. marketed herbal drug Rumalaya forte and 200 and 400 mg/kg.p.o. of each extracts, respectively. The results showed significant decrease in ambulation and rearing; however, increase in latency time to explore and grooming, urination, and defecation in control group, but in contrast, drug-treated groups showed significant recovery in all behavioral aspects except methanol groups. On the basis of radiography examination, control and methanol groups showed highest swelling compared with normal group; however, all drug-treated groups showed significant reduced swelling. Treatments with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts recovery were observed in behavioral and radiological aspects in arthritic rats.

  1. DREB1A promotes root development in deep soil layers and increases water extraction under water stress in groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadez, V; Rao, J S; Bhatnagar-Mathur, P; Sharma, K K

    2013-01-01

    Water deficit is a major yield-limiting factor for many crops, and improving the root system has been proposed as a promising breeding strategy, although not in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The present work was carried out mainly to assess how root traits are influenced under water stress in groundnut, whether transgenics can alter root traits, and whether putative changes lead to water extraction differences. Several transgenic events, transformed with DREB1A driven by the rd29 promoter, along with wild-type JL24, were tested in a lysimeter system that mimics field conditions under both water stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. The WS treatment increased the maximum rooting depth, although the increase was limited to about 20% in JL24, compared to 50% in RD11. The root dry weight followed a similar trend. Consequently, the root dry weight and length density of transgenics was higher in layers below 100-cm depth (Exp. 1) and below 30 cm (Exp. 2). The root diameter was unchanged under WS treatment, except a slight increase in the 60-90-cm layer. The root diameter increased below 60 cm in both treatments. In the WW treatment, total water extraction of RD33 was higher than in JL24 and other transgenic events, and somewhat lower in RD11 than in JL24. In the WS treatment, water extraction of RD2, RD11 and RD33 was higher than in JL24. These water extraction differences were mostly apparent in the initial 21 days after treatment imposition and were well related to root length density in the 30-60-cm layer (R(2) = 0.68), but not to average root length density. In conclusion, water stress promotes rooting growth more strongly in transgenic events than in the wild type, especially in deep soil layers, and this leads to increased water extraction. This opens an avenue for tapping these characteristics toward the improvement of drought adaptation in deep soil conditions, and toward a better understanding of genes involved in rooting in groundnut. PMID:22672619

  2. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured.

  3. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured. PMID:27106908

  4. Protoscolecidal Effect of Berberis vulgaris Root Extract and Its Main Compound, Berberine in Cystic Echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the metacestode (larvae stage of dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and recognized as a major economic and public health concern in the world. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris L. roots and its main compound, berberine against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts.For this purpose, protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (0.25-2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062- 0.5 mg/ml were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by eosin exclusive test.In the present study, all of the various concentrations of the B. vulgaris methanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml revealed significant (P<0.05 scolicidal effects against protoscoleces of E. granulosus in a dose-dependent manner. Both berberine and methanolic extract exhibited 100% inhibition against protoscoleces of E. granulosus at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.5 mg/ml after 10 min incubation, respectively.According to the results, both B. vulgaris methanolic extract and berberine alone demonstrated high scolicidal activities against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in low concentration and short exposure time on in vitro model. However, in vivo efficacy of B. vulgaris and berberine also requires to be evaluated using an animal model with hydatid infection.

  5. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous root extract ofIcacina senegalensis in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akuodor GC; Udia PM; Bassey A; Chilaka KC; Okezie OA

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous root extract of Icacina senegalensis(I. senegalensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Method:Blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats were monitored after the administration ofI. senegalensis extract(100,200 and400 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for14 d.Different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also examined.Results:Treatment of alloxan diabetic rats with the extract showed significant(P<0.05) activity.The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the standard drug, glinbeclamide.Conclusions:The results suggest that the root extract of I. senegalensis possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, which might be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.

  6. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho João E; Foglio Mary A; Ruiz Ana LTG; Predes Fabricia S; Dolder Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot a...

  7. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

    OpenAIRE

    A Ahangarpour; M Mohaghegh; E Asadinia; F Ramazani Ali-Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g) were appli...

  8. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  9. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR. ROOTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Ashwini C.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotula aquatica (Lour. family-Boraginaceae roots are used for the treatment of diabetes traditionally. The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively, serum lipid profile was also examined. The dose of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight p.o. of the aqueous extract were evaluated and the dose of 200 mg/kg was identified as the most effective which reduced blood glucose level upto 40.6% after 4 hr of administration in normal rats and a fall of 38% in blood glucose level within 1 hr during glucose tolerance test (GTT in mild diabetic rats which has almost similar effect as that of standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg bw. Severe diabetic rats were treated daily with 200 mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 56% was observed in fasting blood glucose level respectively, urine sugar level was decreasing with increasing in body weight and total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG levels were decreased by 24, 59 and 41% respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL was increased by 26%. The data showed that aqueous extract has a remarkable hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  10. Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

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    Anant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs increases risk of having a range of gastrointestinal problems. Therefore, new anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic drugs having lesser side effects are being searched all over the world as alternatives to NSAIDs. Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic profile of Ocimum sanctum root extracts. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory profile of hexane (STH, chloroform (STC, ethyl acetate (STE, butanol (STB and water (STW extracts of OS was carried out by using carrageenan induced paw edema. STE a most active extract was further validated in dose dependent manner for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity as well as oral toxicity profile in small laboratory animals. Identification of bioactives flux and chemical signature of most active fraction STE was developed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting. Results: An ethyl acetate fraction (STE exhibit most potent anti-inflammatory activity followed by STB, STW, STC and STH. Dose response study of STE showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic potential in dose-dependent manner without any toxic effect at dose 2000 mg/kg. Chemical fingerprint revealed the presence of flavanoids. Conclusions: The present research revealed that STE possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. However, future research is advocated to evaluate the pharmacological properties of isolated bioactive compounds.

  11. Bioactivity determination of methanol and water extracts for roots and leaves of Kenyan Psidium guajava L landraces against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liharaka Kidaha, Mercy; Alakonya, Amos Emitati; Nyende, Aggrey Benard

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L) is native to South America and exists as both wild and cultivated. Guava has been used as a source of food and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to determine bioactivity of methanol and water extracts from root and leaves of Kenyan guava landraces against selected pathogenic bacteria. Study samples were collected from Western and South Coast of Kenya. One hundred grams of leaf and root ground powders were used for sequential extraction using methanol and water. Extracts were evaporated and 0.2gms dissolved using the extraction solvent and tested against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Data on inhibition zone was taken in mm and analyzed at 95% confidence interval. Extracts from Western region had significant inhibition compared to Coastal region. The two regions have different climatic conditions that result in these plants having different compounds even though they are the same species. Roots had higher inhibition compared to the leaves as they contain high levels of tannins compared to leaves. Water as an extracting solvent had higher inhibition than methanol as it is more polar and it absorbs more bioactive compounds. S. aureus was most inhibited followed by E. coli and B. subtilis respectively. There was no significant difference between the gram positive and negative bacteria. Remarkably, some methanol and water root extracts had significant inhibition against bacteria when compared to some commercial antibiotics used. Results of this study indicate that Kenyan guava roots from Western Kenya extracted with methanol and water have a potential to be used as a source of active compounds in treatment of gram positive and gram negative bacteria pathogens.

  12. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Kanayama, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuya; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; 菊苣 jú jù) root (chicory root extract), which contains inulin-type fructans, has favorable effects including antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects and the improvement of bowel movement. In this study, we examined the effects of chicory root extract on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties in 47 healthy adult participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a ...

  13. Metabonomic Analysis of Water Extracts from Different Angelica Roots by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Hei Chan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. 1H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of 1H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied 1H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites.

  14. Study on CO2-supercritical fluid extraction used to extract three kinds of tanshinones from the root of salvia meltiorrhiza bunge with different entrainers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To extract three kinds of tanshinones from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by CO2-supercritical fluid extraction technology with different entrainers at different flow rates, and to investigate the effects of different entrainers. Methods:Three kinds of tanshinones were extracted at the optimal operation condition, and the massconcentration of three kinds of tanshinones in the extracts was determined by HPLC. Results: Among the three entrainers, the extracting effects of ethanol is the best, for the stronger polarity, followed by ethanol and normal octane. Conclusion: To increase the extracting rate of three kinds of tanshinones by CO2-supercritical fluid extraction technics, it is essential to use polar solvent as entrainer.

  15. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings. PMID:27071248

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gopal; Gunasekar, Poosali Hariharan; Kokila, Dhanasegaran; Prabhu, Durai; Dinesh, Devadoss; Ravichandran, Nagaiya; Ramesh, Balasubramanian; Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Vijaiyan Siva, Ganesan

    2014-06-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous root extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The synthesized DdAgNPs were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared DdAgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416 nm and particles were polydispersed in nature, spherical in shape and the size of the particle obtained was ⩽85 nm. The DdAgNPs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus NCIM 2106, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The DdAgNPs showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a LC50 value of 9.6 ppm.

  17. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles. PMID:26826826

  18. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  19. Characterization of starch extracted from the roots of Cissus simsiana Roem. & Schult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the characterization of starch from Cissus simsiana Roem. & Schult. roots. The starch was extracted by steeping, wet grinding and sedimentation processes and its yield was calculated. Isolated starch was then characterized for chemical composition, morphology and granules size distribution, X-ray diffraction, mid-infrared spectra, swelling powder and solubility, pasting and thermal properties and clarity and syneresis behavior. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the root that can be isolated, were between 13.68% with 3.12 10-3 mg/g of carotenoids. C. simsiana granules were predominantly ellipsoids with 50-60 mm length and 20-30 mm wide. They exhibited B-type X-ray diffraction pattern with 41.2% of crystallinity, apparent amylose content of 26.2% and presented similar mid-infrared spectra to other starches. Onset and peak gelatinization temperatures were 64.2 and 68.56°C, respectively, and gelatinization enthalpy was 19.2 J/g. The apparent viscosity profile was comparable to cassava starch, but with higher peak viscosity (6500 cP, lower set back viscosity (600 cP and less clear gel showing syneresis.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  1. [Effect of fibrous root extract of Coptis chinensis on soil microbes and enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-Bo; He, Lin-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Coptis chinensis is widely used as Chinese medicine herbs and serious soil problems occur after continual cultivation of this medicinal plant. In the preset experiment, fibrous root extract of C. chinensis (REC) was added into soil to study the effect of REC on microbes and enzyme activity in soil. The results showed that both bacteria and actinomycetes decreased by about 2 times in contrast to fungi, which increased by about 3 folds. Phosphorus bacteria, potassium bacteria, azotobacter, ammonia bacteria, and nitrifying bacteria were also reduced significantly by REC, suggesting the inhibition of nitrogen biofixation and supply, mobilization of phosphorus and potassium, ad plant growth promotion as REC added into soil. There were multiple influences of REC on soil enzyme activities. Invertase activity was stimulated, while urease was inhibited and dehydrogenase unchanged by REC, indicating the interference of biochemical reactions in soil. In addition, type and total content of phosphorus lipid fatty acids (PLFAs) , the signature of microbes, decreased while the ratio of bacterium to fungus PLFAs increased as REC increased in soil, which suggested that fungi increased relatively with bacteria decreased thereby leading to easy occurrence of crop fungus diseases following cultivation of C. chinensis. The decrease in diversity and evenness indexes of microbial community in soil by REC indicated soil ecosystem deterioration and reduction of microbial groups and densities in soil. Therefore, allelopathic chemicals released from the roots of C. chinensis could change microbial community structure and resulted in serious soil problems by continual cropping of this medicinal plant. PMID:25775794

  2. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Kanayama, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuya; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; jú jù) root (chicory root extract), which contains inulin-type fructans, has favorable effects including antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects and the improvement of bowel movement. In this study, we examined the effects of chicory root extract on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties in 47 healthy adult participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group that drank chicory root extract and a placebo group that drank nonchicory root extract (ingesting 300 mL daily for 4 weeks). We performed hematological examinations and body composition measurements, and administered a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire for fecal properties at the baseline (Week 0) and after the intervention (Week 4) for the two groups. Although no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose or insulin were observed, hemoglobin A1c was found to decrease by ingesting chicory root extract. No intergroup differences in the levels of lipid metabolism parameters were observed. However, the level of adiponectin was significantly improved in the chicory root extract group when the baseline and postintervention values were compared. In addition, chicory root extract tends to improve the VAS score for fecal properties. These results suggest that chicory root extract could delay or prevent the early onset of diabetes mellitus and improve bowel movements. PMID:26151029

  3. Extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) using commercial enzymes and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Hoon H; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Do-Yeon; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Lee, Soo-Jeong

    2013-07-01

    A combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) was applied for the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Myer). The highest yield of ginsenosides was obtained by using a mixture of three enzymes (Celluclast + Termamyl + Viscozyme) along with HHP (100 MPa, at 50 °C for 12 h) in comparison to control samples (no enzymes, atmosphere pressure, P enzyme activity. Thus HHP-EH significantly improves the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots.

  4. Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Canesqui da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia in central Brazil. Fig trees present a diverse interaction with different groups of organisms. The inflorescence, or syconium, has characteristics that form a microenvironment in which interactions occur between fig trees and invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the insect fauna associated with the figs of Ficus citrifolia and to quantitatively describe the distribution pattern of the insects in the syconium, in an urban area in central Brazil. The syconia were used by 12 species of insects. Our results showed that the insects found on Ficus citrifolia presented a pattern of occurrence that depends on the composition of species found within each syconium.

  5. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Root Extract Regulates the Oxidative Status and Antioxidant Gene Transcripts in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Yasser S.; Lebda, Mohamed A.; Mohammed Hassinin; Neoman, Saad A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control); chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks); CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only); or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks) + CCl4 injecti...

  6. Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts

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    Raman Archana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Methods The in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed in an isolated rat heart model. Results Free radicals were scavenged by the extract in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all models. Administration of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root (100 mg per kg body weight before global ischemia caused a significant improvement of cardiac function and a decrease in the release of lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent, as well as the level of malondialdehyde in myocardial tissues. Conclusion The ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root protects the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in rats. The effects of the extract may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  7. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose extraction in aqueous carrot root extracts prepared at different temperatures by means of direct NMR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazor, Anne; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique; This, Hervé

    2006-06-28

    Solutions obtained by heating carrot roots in water (stocks) are widely used in the food industry, but little information is available regarding the metabolites (intermediates and products of metabolism) found in the stock. The effect of treatment temperature and duration on the sugar composition of stocks was investigated directly by quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy, to understand the extraction mechanism when processing at 100 degrees C. Stocks prepared at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 degrees C) were investigated for up to 36 h. Three sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) were detected and quantified. The concentrations of these three sugars reached a maximum after 9 h when the temperature of treatment was 50 or 75 degrees C. At 100 degrees C, the sucrose concentration reached a maximum after 3 h, whereas the concentration of glucose and fructose was still increasing at that time. Comparison of the kinetic composition of these carrot stocks with that of model sugar solutions leads to the proposal that the changes in stock composition result from sugar diffusion, sucrose hydrolysis, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. PMID:16787015

  8. Chemical analysis and antihyperglycemic activity of an original extract from burdock root (Arctium lappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties.

  9. Chemical analysis and antihyperglycemic activity of an original extract from burdock root (Arctium lappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties. PMID:24933284

  10. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhui Tang; Lifang Yan; Jing Gao; Haiyan Ge; Haidong Yang; Na Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ...

  11. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

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    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

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    Agata Campisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily. We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  13. An investigation into the kinetics and mechanism of the removal of cyanobacteria by extract of Ephedra equisetina root.

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    Rong Yan

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract of Ephedra equisetina root was found to induce cyanobacterial cell death. The extract displayed no negative effects on the fish populations but instead, improved the habitat conditions for the growth of macrophytes, zooplankton and bacteria because the inhibiting effects of the extracts on cyanobacteria helped clear up the water column. The removal kinetics of cyanobacteria by E. equisetina extract appears to be a first order process with the rate constant being extract-dose-dependent. Compounds including the flavonoids found in E. equisetina root kill the cyanobacteria in vitro at a dose of 5.0 µg extract per 100 mL water or above. The extract constituents act to disrupt the thylakoid membrane, interrupt the electronic transport, decrease the effective quantum yield, and eventually lead to the failure of photosynthesis in Microcystis aeruginosa. This study presents an easily-deployed, natural and promising approach for controlling cyanobacterial blooms as an emergency measure, and also provides insight into the dynamics and mechanism of the extract consisting of multiple compounds synergistically removing algae.

  14. Aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides restores the alterations in testicular parameters of sexually impaired male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quadri O Nurudeen; Taofeek O Ajiboye

    2012-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides (L.cupanioides)on the alterations in the testicular parameters of paroxetine-treated rats.Methods:Group A rats which is the control received distilled water orally for 5 d. Groups B, C, D, E and F consisted of paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction rats. In addition, Groups C, D, E and F rats were orally treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract and 7.14 mg/kg body weight of PowMax once daily for 5 d respectively.Results:Paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction resulted into significant (P<0.05) reduction in the levels of testicular protein, sialic acid, glycogen and cholesterols. These decrease were dose dependently reversed by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. The decrease in the specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the testes of paroxetine-treated rats were significantly (P<0.05) reversed. Testicular testosterone level decreased significantly (P<0.05) in sexually impaired rats. This decrease was significantly prevented by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. All these alterations brought about by the administration of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) compared significantly (P<0.05) with the reference drug, while the 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared significantly (P<0.05) with the control.Conclusions:The results of this study showed that aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioidesrestored the alterations in the testicular function parameters of sexually impaired rats. Thus supporting the use of the plants in the management of sexual dysfunction in the folkloric medicine of Nigeria.

  15. Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae) in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Canesqui da Costa; Gustavo Graciolli

    2010-01-01

    Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia in central Brazil. Fig trees present a diverse interaction with different groups of organisms. The inflorescence, or syconium, has characteristics that form a microenvironment in which interactions occur between fig trees and invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the insect fauna associated with the figs of Ficus citrifolia and to quantitatively describe the distribution pattern of the insects in the syconium, in an urban area in centr...

  16. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Adogwa; Godwin Isitor; Marshall, Julien R.; B Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, li...

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Anti bacterial Activity of Ethanolic root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Oral microbes

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    Geetha R.V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti bacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra on selected oral microbes. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was screened against Streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus using disc diffusion technique. The Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and Minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] of the extracts were also determined. The results of this study showed that the extracts at different concentrations exhibited anti bacterial activity against the bacterial species tested.

  18. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

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    Dong-Seon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB, were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31, 2 : 1 (BS21, 1 : 1 (BS11, 1 : 2 (BS12, and 1 : 3 (BS13. Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21.

  19. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  20. Effect of root-extracts of Ficus benghalensis (Banyan in pain in animal models

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    Dipesh Raj Panday

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the WHO, 70–80% population in developing countries still relies on nonconventional medicine mainly of herbal origin. Even in developed countries, use of herbal medicine is growing each year. Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Traditionally, different plant parts of Ficus benghalensis are claimed to have several analgesic properties. Few scientific evidences support these uses. Interestingly, still others contradict these uses. It was shocking to find very scarce scientific studies trying to solve the mystery. Materials and Methods: It was a quantitative experimental study in Swiss albino mice of either sex. Sample size was calculated using free sample size calculating software G*Power version 3.1.9.2. Hot-plate test and tail-flick test were central antinociceptive paradigms. Writhing test was peripheral model for pain. Test drugs were aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg mouse weight prepared by Soxhlet method. Suitable negative and positive controls were used. The experimental results were represented as mean ± standard deviation statistical level of significance was set at P < 0.05. For calculation, parametric test - one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA or nonparametric test - Mann–Whitney U-test was appropriately used. Results: Hot-plate reaction time at 100 mg/kg (13.64 ± 1.30 s and 200 mg/kg (10.32 ± 2.23 s were nonsignificant (P = 0.425 and P = 0.498, respectively compared to negative control (11.87 ± 1.92 s. One-way ANOVA revealed nonsignificant (P = 0.178 between-group comparison in mean tail-flick reaction time. Test drug at 200 mg/kg produced statistically significant more writhing (36.00 ± 14.85 in 10 min than negative control, normal saline (11.83 ± 12.43 in 10 min or the positive control, Indomethacin (3.50 ± 5.21 in 10 min, P value being 0.031 and 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at

  1. Performances of broiler supplemented with antibiotic and Morinda citrifolia waste as sources of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of Zinc bacitracin antibiotic (ZnB and dried Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in broiler ration was conducted. Two hundred and sixteen day old chicks (DOC was allocated into 4 treatments: control; control + 50 ppm ZnB, and control + M. citrifolia waste at 2 levels (5 and 10 g/kg ration with 9 replications. Each replicatation consist of 6 birds. The treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, percentages of carcass and internal organs (liver, gizard, abdominal fat, and thickness of intestine. The results showed that feed intake of M. citrifolia waste was significantly (P0.05 from that of control. The use of M. citrifolia waste (5 and 10 g/kg gave significantly lower (P0.05, but was significantly lower (P0,05 than that of control, control + antibiotic ZnB and M. citrifolia waste 5g/kg. It is concluded that the supplementation of M. citrifolia waste (5 g/kg could substitute ZnB to improve feed eficiency in broiler ration.

  2. Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effect of root extracts of eight Asphodeline taxa from Turkey: can Asphodeline roots be considered as a new source of natural compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gokhan; Locatelli, Marcello; Ceylan, Ramazan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2016-10-01

    Plant-based foods have become attractive for scientists and food producers. Beneficial effects related to their consumption as dietary supplements are due to the presence of natural occurring secondary metabolites. In this context, studies on these products are important for natural and safely food ingredients evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate root extract of eight Asphodeline species as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and phytochemical content. Spectrophotometric antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays were performed. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the chemical free-anthraquinones profiles were determined using routinely procedure (HPLC-PDA). Data show that Asphodeline roots can be considered as a new source of natural compounds and can be used as a valuable dietary supplement. Some differences related to biological activities can be inferred to other phytochemicals that can be considered in the future for their synergic or competitive activities. PMID:26207512

  3. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahebi S.; Khosravifar N.; SedighShamsi M.; Motamedifar M.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for...

  4. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production. PMID:22805840

  5. In Vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Siddique Afridi, Muhammad; Khattak, Mahrukh; Ahmad, Sohail; Shakirullah

    2014-01-01

    Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy) studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains. PMID:24592156

  6. Antioxidant and DNA Repair Stimulating Effect of Extracts from Transformed and Normal Roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides against Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in CHO Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Sitarek, Przemysław; Różalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Szemraj, Janusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Rhaponticum carthamoides has a long tradition of use in Siberian folk medicine. The roots and rhizomes of this species are used in various dietary supplements or nutraceutical preparations to increase energy level or eliminate physical weakness. This is the first report to reveal the protective and DNA repair stimulating abilities of R. carthamoides root extracts in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to an oxidative agent. Both transformed root extract (TR extract) and extract of soil-grown plant roots (NR extract) may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, but CHO cells stimulated with extract from the transformed roots demonstrated significantly stronger properties than cells treated with the soil-grown plant root extract. These differences in biological activity may be attributed to the differences in the content of phenolic compounds in these root extracts. Preincubation of the CHO cells with TR and NR extracts showed an increase in gene expression and protein levels of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2). R. carthamoides may possess antioxidant properties that protect CHO cells against oxidative stress. PMID:27034736

  7. Methanol extract ofDesmodium gangeticumDC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate pharmacological mimetic action of herbal extractDesmodium gangeticum (DG) roots on ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods:With the help of Langendroff perfusion technique, ischemic post condition (POC) mimetic action of DG methanol root extract was evaluated and compared by using standard drugs that acts as muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist, namely acetylcholine (Ach) and atropine (Atr) respectively in an isolated rat heart. Results:The physiological parameters like left ventricular developed pressure, end diastolic pressure and working index of isolated rat heart showed significant recovery in DG root extract administrated rat heart, similar to the recovery by POC. Kymogram results showed muscarinic receptor agonist like action for DG methanol root extract, confirmed in rat heart by muscarnic receptor agonist (acetylcholine) and anatoginst (atropine). Administration of DG root extract prior to reperfusion showed better antioxidant status in myocardial tissue homogenate and mitochondrial, complemented by the levels of cardiac specific marker proteins in myocardial tissue and perfusate. Even though DG methanol root extract mimics its action similar to that of Ach, the myocardial protection mediated by the extract was superior to Ach, due to the presence of antioxidants in the crude extract.Conclusions: DG methanol root extract provides myocardial protection towards IRI by stimulating muscarinic receptors.

  8. Antioxidant and DNA Repair Stimulating Effect of Extracts from Transformed and Normal Roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides against Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in CHO Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Sitarek, Przemysław; Różalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Szemraj, Janusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Rhaponticum carthamoides has a long tradition of use in Siberian folk medicine. The roots and rhizomes of this species are used in various dietary supplements or nutraceutical preparations to increase energy level or eliminate physical weakness. This is the first report to reveal the protective and DNA repair stimulating abilities of R. carthamoides root extracts in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to an oxidative agent. Both transformed root extract (TR extract) and extract of soil-grown plant roots (NR extract) may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, but CHO cells stimulated with extract from the transformed roots demonstrated significantly stronger properties than cells treated with the soil-grown plant root extract. These differences in biological activity may be attributed to the differences in the content of phenolic compounds in these root extracts. Preincubation of the CHO cells with TR and NR extracts showed an increase in gene expression and protein levels of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2). R. carthamoides may possess antioxidant properties that protect CHO cells against oxidative stress. PMID:27034736

  9. Antioxidant and DNA Repair Stimulating Effect of Extracts from Transformed and Normal Roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides against Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in CHO Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skała

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhaponticum carthamoides has a long tradition of use in Siberian folk medicine. The roots and rhizomes of this species are used in various dietary supplements or nutraceutical preparations to increase energy level or eliminate physical weakness. This is the first report to reveal the protective and DNA repair stimulating abilities of R. carthamoides root extracts in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells exposed to an oxidative agent. Both transformed root extract (TR extract and extract of soil-grown plant roots (NR extract may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, but CHO cells stimulated with extract from the transformed roots demonstrated significantly stronger properties than cells treated with the soil-grown plant root extract. These differences in biological activity may be attributed to the differences in the content of phenolic compounds in these root extracts. Preincubation of the CHO cells with TR and NR extracts showed an increase in gene expression and protein levels of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD2. R. carthamoides may possess antioxidant properties that protect CHO cells against oxidative stress.

  10. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

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    A Ahangarpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g were applied. After having a diet induced by sucrose 50% in drinking water for 5 weeks, the animals were randomly divided into two groups of control, sucrose induced, and three groups of sucrose induced along with Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract (50,100,200 mg/Kg (8 rats in each group. Treatment by extracts was used during 2 weeks (i.p. and 24 hours after the last treatment, heart blood samples were gathered. After Blood samples were centrifuged, fasting plasma glucose (12 h was determined by kit and fasting insulin concentration was assayed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa methods. Result: Glucose levels, insulin and FIRI in sucrose group significantly increased in comparison with control group. Glucose levels in aqueous extract groups; 50 mg/kg (116.14±16.64mg/dl and 200 mg/kg (90.66±22.58 mg/dl in comparison with sucrose group (140.5±18.73 mg/dl significantly decreased. Insulin level and FIRI in all of aqueous extract groups were significantly decreased (P<0.001 in comparison with sucrose group. Conclusions: Arctium Lappa root aqueous extracts in animal model has revealed significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels.

  11. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  12. Macrophage-oriented cytotoxic activity of novel triterpene saponins extracted from roots of Securidaca inappendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, S; Ubukata, K; Hodono, K; Kitahara, M; Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y; Yamazaki, M

    2001-10-01

    It is recognized that macrophages in peripheral tissues often proliferate under pathological conditions such as tumors, inflammation and atherosclerosis. Because the growth state of macrophages is believed to be a factor regulating the pathological process of the diseases, substances that regulate macrophage growth or survival may be useful for disease control. In this paper, we identified the activity inhibiting macrophage growth in a hot water extract of roots of Securidaca inappendiculata. The extract markedly inhibited macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF/CSF-1)-induced growth of macrophages, whereas it exerted a less potent effect on growth of Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated thymocytes or M-CSF-stimulated bone marrow cells. The inhibition of macrophage growth was caused by a cytotoxic effect rather than a cytostatic effect. Cell death was due to the induction of apoptosis, as judged by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). The cytotoxic activity seemed to be specific to peripheral macrophages; it showed a weak effect on the growth and survival of tumor cell lines including a macrophage-like cell line, J-774.1. Moreover, the saponin fraction induced apoptotic cell death of macrophages only when they were stimulated by M-CSF; it did not affect the viability of macrophages cultured without M-CSF or with granulocyte/macrophage-CSF. We determined the structures of the two active triterpene saponin compounds in the fraction, named securioside A and securioside B having a 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic group which is essential for the cell death-inducing activity. They are believed to be the primary compounds of new drugs for the treatment of pathological states in which macrophage proliferation occurs. PMID:11606030

  13. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  14. Phytochemical screening and "in-vitro" anti-oxidant activity of methanolic root extract of Erythrina indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyar Rangasamy Rathi Sre; Toda Sheila; Kandasamy Murugesan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Erythrina indica belongs to the family Leguminoseae and it is a medium-sized, spiny, deciduous tree normally growing up to 6-9 m tall. It is also known as “Indian coral tree” or “Tiger’s clow” or “variegated coral tree” or “Kalyana murungai” or “ Mulmurukku” (in Tamil). It is a native of costal forest communities from East Africa, through southeast to Australia. In India, it is distributed in coast forests from Bombay to Malabar . The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of methanolic root extract of Erythrina indica which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find out the presence of various bioactive compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis of methanolic root extract was performed by 1,1diphenyl, 2 picryl hydrazyl assay, nitric oxide assay, superoxide dismutase assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Results: The methanolic root extract showed the presence of various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, coumarins and carbohydrates. Besides it also possess strong antioxidant activity. Conclusions: It was concluded that Erythrina indica root possessed a wide range of pharmacologically important phytoconstituents which exhibited strong antioxidant activity.

  15. Antioxidative Effect of Trichosanthes tricuspidata Root Extract on Sildenafil Induced Migraine in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nithiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is considered a neurovascular disease involving the dilatation of cerebral arteries. Because of their dual role in modulating neuronal and vascular events, neuropeptides have been implied to be of importance in migraine pathophysiology. It is a highly prevalent disorder which manifests clinically as moderate to severe or severe headache attacks with frequent frontotemporal unilateral location and associated symptoms. The disability of migraine results in considerable economic and social losses .Nitric oxide, a short lived vasodilator and weak oxygen radical has been implicated in the genesis of migraine headaches. Hence the role of all enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants becomes in evitable in the treatment of migraine. Trichosanthes tricuspidata′s (red apple gourd antioxidant effect was tested over Sildenafil induced migraine in female albino mice. The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidase(LPO, catalase(CAT and glutahione peroxidase(GPx were more promising in the treatment group fed with the root extract of Trichosanthes tricuspidata.

  16. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyeon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS. This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  17. Gastroprotective activity of the chloroform extract of the roots from Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana C; Baggio, Cristiane H; Freitas, Cristina S; Lepieszynski, Juliana; Mayer, Bárbara; Twardowschy, André; Missau, Fabiana C; dos Santos, Elide P; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria C A

    2008-06-01

    Arctium lappa L. is used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect and the possible mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective effects of a chloroform extract (CE) of the roots from A. lappa and its fractions. Oral pretreatment with CE (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced gastric lesions induced by ethanol by 61%, 70% and 76%, respectively. Oral administration of CE (100 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 days) reduced the chronic gastric ulceration induced by acetic acid by 52%. Intraduodenal CE (100, 300 and 600 mg kg(-1)) reduced the total acidity of gastric secretion by 22%, 22% and 33%, respectively, while i.p. administration (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) inhibited total acidity by 50%, 60% and 67%, respectively. In-vitro, CE inhibited H+, K+ -ATPase activity with an EC50 of 53 microgmL(-1) and fraction A (30 and 100 microgmL(-1)) reduced this by 48% and 89%, respectively. CE had no effect on gastrointestinal motility. CE (250 microgmL(-1)) and fraction B (100 and 250 microgmL(-1)) had free-radical scavenging ability, inhibiting 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity by 50%, 20% and 55%, respectively. Collectively, the results show that the CE protects animals from gastric lesions by reducing gastric acid secretion via inhibition of gastric H+, K+ -ATPase.

  18. First Report of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Root Extract Causing Relaxation of Aortic Rings in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although Eurycoma longifolia has been studied for erectile function, the blood pressure- (BP-) lowering effect has yet to be verified. Hence, this study aims at investigating the BP-lowering properties of the plant with a view to develop an antihypertensive agent that could also preserve erectile function. Ethanolic root extract was partitioned by hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The DCM fraction, found to be potent in relaxing phenylephrine- (PE-) precontracted rat aortic rings, was further purified by column chromatography. Subfraction DCM-II, being the most active in relaxing aortae, was studied for effects on the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems in aortic rings. The effect of DCM-II on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also evaluated in vitro. Results showed that DCM-II reduced (p < 0.05) the contractions evoked by angiotensin I and angiotensin II (Ang II). In PE-precontracted rings treated with DCM-II, the Ang II-induced contraction was attenuated (p < 0.05) while bradykinin- (BK-) induced relaxation enhanced (p < 0.001). In vitro, DCM-II inhibited (p < 0.001) the activity of ACE. These data demonstrate that the vasodilatory effect of DCM-II appears to be mediated via inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and ACE as well as enhancement of Ang II type 2 receptor activation and BK activity.

  19. Prostate-specific targeting of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Tackie, R; Adjei, S

    2014-09-01

    Croton membranaceus Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. The study aimed at investigating organs that the aqueous root extracts of C. membranaceus (CMARE) target, which is absent in literature. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-140 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1, the control group received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 30, 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt CMARE respectively (oral gavage). Rats fed 90 days the standard chow diet ad libitum. Upon sacrifice, major organs were histologically examined and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemically determined. Only the prostate was abnormal. Histologically, H&E staining revealed thickness and infoldings of the epithelial cells shrinking with increasing dose. The 30 mg kg(-1) group showed low columnar or flattened epithelium cells, whereas the columnar epithelium infoldings of the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups were virtually nonexistent. The acini of the control, 30 mg kg(-1) b.wt group and the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups showed clear pinkish secretion. However, secretion of the high-dose group appeared light pink in colour and the stroma cells appeared much darker than all the treated and control group. C. membranaceus targets the prostate with significant PSA reduction (P < 0.01).

  20. Antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis root extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Sakly, Mohsen; Zourgui, Lazhar; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2010-12-01

    Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic root extract (ORE) was investigated for phenolic and flavonoids contents, in vitro evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and in vivo tested for its gastro-protective ability against 80% ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Phytochemical test of ORE were positive for phenolic and flavonoid contents. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of ORE showed an EC(50) of 118.65±2.51 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml respectively. In vivo the pre-treatment of rats with ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg doses of ORE significantly (p<0.05) reduced the 80% ethanol induced-ulcer lesion, with a rate of 82.68%, 49.21%, 83.13%, and 92.59% respectively, and prevented the depletion of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH), and inhibited the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat stomach tissues when compared with ethanol group. Also pre-treatment with ORE marked a dose-dependent attenuation of histopathology changes induced by ethanol. Phenolic and flavonoids wealth, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power, have been implicated for antiulcer property of ORE.

  1. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers root extract (TCRE) in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as "normal" and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of "irradiated control" were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Group 4 (experimental) were administered optimum dosage of TCRE with prior exposure to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Follicle cell counts were scored at autopsy intervals of 24 hrs, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after gamma irradiation. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also measured in all groups. TCRE supplementation rendered significant protection to ovaries by restoring follicle counts; it also reduced LPO levels and increased GSH levels in ovaries. It implies that TCRE administration protects ovaries against radiation exposure. PMID:26357520

  2. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers root extract (TCRE in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as “normal” and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of “irradiated control” were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Group 4 (experimental were administered optimum dosage of TCRE with prior exposure to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Follicle cell counts were scored at autopsy intervals of 24 hrs, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after gamma irradiation. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, lipid peroxidation (LPO and glutathione (GSH levels were also measured in all groups. TCRE supplementation rendered significant protection to ovaries by restoring follicle counts; it also reduced LPO levels and increased GSH levels in ovaries. It implies that TCRE administration protects ovaries against radiation exposure.

  3. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E O Agbaje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (SPH DC (Apocynaceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Doses of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous SPH were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema in mice, and formalin-induced mice hind paw oedema (sub-acute 6 days, using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg respectively as standard drugs. The study further explored the effect of the herbal drug on some inflammatory mediators-histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin, using only the highest dose of SPH. Results obtained showed that the extract exerted a dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, which compared favourably with the positive control.  Significant inhibitions of mediators were also recorded; however, the least inhibition (42.8 % was produced in the serotonin model. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and anthraquinones.  It is also noteworthy that zinc, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium were the elemental constituents in the aqueous extract of SPH, some of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. While 2 g/kg of SPH administered orally did not produce any mortality, the median lethal dose by i.p route was 39.81 mg/kg, and it is thought that the lead contribute to the toxicity recorded. The pH of the herbal drug was 6.7. Our findings substantiate the local use of SPH in the treatment of acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions, while it also suggests some possible pathways for its anti-inflammatory activity.  Lastly, since the herbal drug is liable to producing toxic effects, it must be used with caution. Industrial relevance: Herbal remedies continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions

  4. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  6. Rapid validated HPTLC method for estimation of piperine and piperlongumine in root of Piper longum extract and its commercial formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha A. Rajopadhye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piperine and piperlongumine, alkaloids having diverse biological activities, commonly occur in roots of Piper longum L., Piperaceae, which have high commercial, economical and medicinal value. In present study, rapid, validated HPTLC method has been established for the determination of piperine and piperlongumine in methanolic root extract and its commercial formulation 'Mahasudarshan churna®' using ICH guidelines. The use of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE as an alternative to conventional techniques has been explored. The methanol extracts of root, its formulation and both standard solutions were applied on silica gel F254 HPTLC plates. The plates were developed in Twin chamber using mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate (6:4, v/v and scanned at 342 and 325 nm (λmax of piperine and piperlongumine, respectively using Camag TLC scanner 3 with CATS 4 software. A linear relationship was obtained between response (peak area and amount of piperine and piperlongumine in the range of 20-100 and 30-150 ng/spot, respectively; the correlation coefficient was 0.9957 and 0.9941 respectively. Sharp, symmetrical and well resolved peaks of piperine and piperlongumine spots resolved at Rf 0.51 and 0.74, respectively from other components of the sample extracts. The HPTLC method showed good linearity, recovery and high precision of both markers. Extraction of plant using ASE and rapid HPTLC method provides a new and powerful approach to estimate piperine and piperlongumine as phytomarkers in the extract as well as its commercial formulations for routine quality control.

  7. Preclusion of radiation-mediated hematological and biochemical variations by root extract of Tinospora cordifolia (an indian medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the radiomodulatory influence of Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita root extract on the peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice after 5.0 Gy gamma irradiation in the presence (experimental or absence (control of Tinospora cordifolia (75 mg/kg b.wt/day. The animals from different groups were necropsied and their blood collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 postirradiation. A considerable decrease was recorded in the number of erythrocyte and total leucocyte counts, differential leucocytes, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit percentage in the irradiated control group, while a recovery pattern was recorded in experimental animals, however, without the attainment of normal levels up to the end of the experiment. Furthermore, Tinospora cordifolia root extract pretreatment significantly ameliorated radiation-induced elevation in cholesterol and lipid peroxidation levels, whereas, a decline in glutathione and total proteins concentration was noted.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  9. Radioprotection by Tinospora cordifolia root extract against gamma radiation induced testicular toxicity in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the deleterious effects of gamma radiation on testicular tissue and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, Swiss albino male mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) was administered double distilled water volume equal to TCE (75 mg/kg.b.wt/animal) by oral gavage. Group II was supplemented TCE as 75 mg/kg.b.wt once daily for 5 consecutive days. Group III (irradiated control) divided into three sub groups a, b and c, received DDW orally equivalent to TCE for 5 days then exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 Gy gamma radiation, respectively. Group IV (irradiated experimental) was administered TCE and exposed to gamma radiation (as in group III). Animals from all the above mentioned groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hrs and 30 days. Following radiation exposure, the spermatogonial population and spermatid counts decreased incessantly in a dose-dependent manner (2.5<5.0<7.5 Gy) from 12 hrs to 7th day post-irradiation but thereafter a statically significant increase in the number of spermatogonia was recorded however but the normal counts could not be obtained even by the last autopsy interval. In contrast, TCE pre-treatment resulted in the increased counts of all the types of spermatogenic cells as well as spermatids as compared to the irradiated controls, but the normal score could not be achieved in none of the group except that irradiated to 2.5 Gy gamma rays. Furthermore, these animals showed a significant restoration in radiation-induced elevated level of LPO, glutathione and catalase activity in testes at all the dose levels. These observations indicate that the TCE can be use as an efficient radio-protector against radiation mediated testicular injuries in mammals. (author)

  10. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations. PMID:24250446

  11. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz.) Swingle in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjana Jaijoy; Nadthaganya Suwanlikhid; Anongnad Ngamjariyawat; Amornnat Thuppia; Nirush Lertprasertsuke; Umarat Srisawat; Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female) did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 ma...

  12. Comparative clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract with standard Enalapril treatment in Canine chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nethaji Lokeswar Oburai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementing herbal drugs with conservative modern treatment could improve renal condition in canine chronic renal failure (CRF. Objective: In this study, clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract was carried out in CRF in dogs in comparison with standard enalapril. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dogs of mixed breeds suffering from CRF from 1 to 2 months were divided into two groups (n = 10 and treated as follows: Group I - Enalapril at 0.5 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 90 days + amoxicillin and cloxacillin at 25 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 1-week; Group II - B. diffusa root extract at 500 mg p.o per dog daily for 90 days. Both groups were maintained on a supportive fluid therapy. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post-hoc test. Results: CRF caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urinary protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and glutamyl transferase (GGT. A significant (P < 0.05 decrease in hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count (TEC was also observed. Nephrosonography revealed indistinct corticomedullary junction, altered renal architecture, hyper-echoic cortex, medulla, and sunken kidneys. Both the treatments significantly (P < 0.05 reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by day 30. Serum Creatinine, urea nitrogen, phosphorus, urinary protein, ALP, and GGT showed significant (P < 0.05 reduction by day 60 in both the treatments. However, potassium levels were normalized only by B. diffusa root extract treatment by day 30. Both the treatments failed to show a significant improvement in nephrosonographic picture even after 90 days posttreatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs.

  13. Preclusion of radiation-mediated hematological and biochemical variations by root extract of Tinospora cordifolia (an indian medicinal plant)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Priyanka; Goyal Pradeep K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the radiomodulatory influence of Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita) root extract on the peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice after 5.0 Gy gamma irradiation in the presence (experimental) or absence (control) of Tinospora cordifolia (75 mg/kg b.wt/day). The animals from different groups were necropsied and their blood collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 postirradiation. A considerable decrease was recorded in the number of erythroc...

  14. Effects of Cichorium Intybus L. Root Extract on Secretory Activity of the Stomach in Health and Ulcer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, S G; Vymyatnina, Z K; Zueva, E P; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G; Litvinenko, V I

    2015-09-01

    Gastroprotective effect of Cichorium intybus L. root extract is demonstrated on H. Shay's model of experimental ulcer in rats. The effect is attributed to the antisecretory activity of the plant and stimulation of defense barrier function of the gastric mucosa. The regulatory effect of the phytocomplex on seasonal characteristics of the gastric secretory and defense functions in dogs with Basov's fistula is detected. PMID:26468023

  15. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  16. A Hydroalcoholic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. Roots Exerts Anthelmintic Activity against Free-Living and Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Liebau, Eva; Peppler, Carolin; Raue, Katharina; Werne, Steffen; Strube, Christina; Heckendorn, Felix; Agyare, Christian; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds.Within an in vitro mortality assay, the extract showed a lethal activity against T. cati (LC50 of 112 µg/mL), T. vulpis (LC50 of 17 µg/mL), and C. elegans (LC50 2.5 of mg/mL), but not against A. caninum. Additionally, effects on egg hatching and larval migration of H. contortus were investigated, but no inhibitory activity was observed.Overall, these findings rationalize the traditional use of the root extract from P. pinnata as an anthelmintic remedy and provide insight into the phytochemical composition of the extract. PMID:27286336

  17. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root extract regulates the oxidative status and antioxidant gene transcripts in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; Lebda, Mohamed A; Hassinin, Mohammed; Neoman, Saad A

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract) to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control); chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks); CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only); or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks) + CCl4 injection on days 16 and 17. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and molecular biomarkers were estimated twenty-four hours after the last CCl4 injection. Pretreatment with chicory extract significantly reduced CCl4-induced elevation of malondialdehyde levels and nearly normalized levels of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), and arylesterase in the liver. Chicory extract also attenuated CCl4-induced downregulation of hepatic mRNA expression levels of GPx1, CAT and PON1 genes. Results of DNA fragmentation support the ability of chicory extract to ameliorate CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chicory extract is rich in natural antioxidants and able to attenuate CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury, likely by scavenging reactive free radicals, boosting the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and overexpressing genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25807561

  18. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. root extract regulates the oxidative status and antioxidant gene transcripts in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S El-Sayed

    Full Text Available The ability of Cichorium intybus root extract (chicory extract to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity was evaluated in male rats. The rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: saline (control; chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily, given orally for 2 weeks; CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection for 2 consecutive days only; or chicory extract (100 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 weeks + CCl4 injection on days 16 and 17. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and molecular biomarkers were estimated twenty-four hours after the last CCl4 injection. Pretreatment with chicory extract significantly reduced CCl4-induced elevation of malondialdehyde levels and nearly normalized levels of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT, paraoxonase-1 (PON1, and arylesterase in the liver. Chicory extract also attenuated CCl4-induced downregulation of hepatic mRNA expression levels of GPx1, CAT and PON1 genes. Results of DNA fragmentation support the ability of chicory extract to ameliorate CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chicory extract is rich in natural antioxidants and able to attenuate CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury, likely by scavenging reactive free radicals, boosting the endogenous antioxidant defense system, and overexpressing genes encoding antioxidant enzymes.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Hypericum perforatum adventitious roots cultured in a mist bioreactor against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.

  20. Effects of Moringa oleifera root extract on the performance and serum biochemistry of Escherichia coli challenged broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Bolu Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and phytochemical effects of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera roots on E. coli challenged broiler chicks were investigated. Ninety one-day old broiler chicks were orally inoculated with E. coli at 1.23×108 CFU/ml and then divided into six treatment dose levels: 5g/l, 10g/l, and 15g/l Moringa root extract (MRE, positive control, negative control and a standard (commercial antibiotics. The extract showed no significant difference (P>0.05 in performance, carcass and nutrient retention indices of birds compared to the controls. However, at 10g/l dose level, serum parameters including cholesterol and uric acid were higher (P<0.05 at 118.9Mmol/l and 4.07Mmol/l respectively, but lower in total protein (4.40g/l, P<0.05. Birds fed 15g/l dosage had lower (P<0.05 serum cholesterol level (77.503Mmol/l and lower (P<0.05 mortality (1% compared to other treatments (2.2-3.3% and the negative control (5.5%. The findings of this study suggest that the active ingredients from Moringa oleifera roots could significantly assist in combating endogenous pathogenic activities.

  1. Efficacy of a Morinda citrifolia Based Skin Care Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A six week clinical trial of a Morinda citrifolia (noni based skin care regimen was conducted with 49 women, ages 38 to 55 years. Daily application of three product formulations to the face and neck resulted in significant reductions in lateral canthal fine lines and wrinkles (crow’s feet, as measured by technician scoring and digital image analysis. Use of the regimen also improved skin elasticity and firmness Cutometer® measurements. No evidence of skin irritation was present in any participant at any time during the trial. A study questionnaire revealed that the measured improvements were visibly perceptible to more than 90% of the participants. The trial results substantiate traditional uses of the noni plant to improve skin health.

  2. Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Sanguisorba officinalis Root by Pressurized Liquid Extraction%加压提取地榆根中黄酮成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于慧荣; 赵文英; 朱兆友

    2011-01-01

    The extraction process of flavonoids from Sanguisorba officinalis root using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was studied and compared with reflux extraction. Significant parameters affecting PLE procedure such as the concentration of ethanol, solid-liquid ratio, temperature, pressure, time, and material size were discussed and optimized by the orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimized conditions were as follows:the extraction solvent 60% ethanol water solution,the material size 40 mesh,ratio of mass of raw material to volume of extraction solvent 1:20,extraction temperature 120 ℃ ,extraction 30 min under 5.0 kg/cm2 of pressure. The recovery of extraction could remch 17.35%.Comparing with reflux extraction, PLE can obviously increase the recovery of extraction.%研究加压提取地榆中黄酮的最佳提取工艺.探讨了乙醇浓度、料液比、粒径、提取压力、提取温度和提取时间6个因素对黄酮得率的影响,并通过正交试验优化,确定了加压提取地榆中黄酮的最佳条件.结果表明加压提取地榆中黄酮的最佳提取条件:浸提温度120℃,料液比为1:20,提取溶剂为60%的乙醇,浸提时间为30min,浸提压力为5 kg/cm2,粒径为40目,在该条件下黄酮提取率可达17.35%.与回流提取法相比,加压浸提法可显著提高浸提率.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  4. Interval Waktu Penambahan Ampas Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L. dalam Ransum terhadap Performans Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Primandini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Time interval of supplementation of Morinda citrifolia L. by product on the performance broiler chicken  ABSTRACT. The research using Completely Randomized Design with 3x2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicated. Dose of Morinda citrifolia by product (T that is 0 g/kg ( T0; 0.50 g/kg ( T1; 0.75 g/kg ( T2 and 1.00 g/kg (T3 as first factor and time interval that is continue (A1 and 1 week interval (A2 as second factor. The performance parameters observed were : feed intake, body weight and small intestine measure. The result showed that no significant effect of time interval and interaction between time interval with Morinda citrifolia by product dose (p>0.05 on feed intake and small intestine measure. The addition dose of Morinda citrifolia by product increased (p<0.05 body weight, there was interaction (p<0.05 between time interval and Morinda citrifolia by product dose on body weight.

  5. Supplementation of Morinda citrifolia waste as bioactive compound on the performances of broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of dried Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in broiler ration was conducted. One hundred day old chicks (doc were allocated into 4 levels (control; 0.0; 1.2; 2.4 and 4.8 g/kg feed of M. citrifolia waste with 5 replication. Each replication had 5 birds. The treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were: feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, percentages of carcass and internal organs ( liver. gizard, abdominal fat, and thickness of intestine. The results showed that M citrifolia waste supply did not significantly (P>0.05 affect all variables measured, but feed intake of those fed with high levels (4,8 g/kg of M. citrifolia waste was significantly (P<0.05 lower than those fed with 1.2 g/kg. FCR was significantly (P<0.05 lower as compared to the control; 1.2 and 2.4 g/kg. It is concluded that the best treatment was the supplementation of M. citrifolia waste of 4.8 g/kg, this treatment improved feed efficiency by 5% as compared to the control.

  6. PEMURNIAN PROTEASE DARI BUAH DAN DAUN MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia L. [Purification of Proteases from Fruits and Leaves of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ishartani1,2*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases have been widely used in cancer treatment, wounds healing, overcoming digestion disorder and other modern pharmaceutical applications. Proteases may be present in fruits and leaves of noni (Morinda citrifolia L. since the plant has been used traditionally in wound healing. This research aimed to purify proteases from noni’s fruits and leaves at two maturity stages, i.e. fruits with green-yellow (TK2 and white-yellow (TK4 skin colour, also leaves from shoot and base. Proteases were purified through several steps consisting of extraction, precipitation using saturated ammonium sulfate and dialysis followed by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE and zymography. The specific activity of the four extracts showed different trend during purification. The specific activity of TK2 fruit, shoot and base leaves decreased whereas TK4 fruits increased. TK2 crude extract had a higher specific activity (3.79 U/mg than the other crude extracts. SDS-PAGE and zymogram using 12% acrylamide indicated that the dialysates were not pure proteases. The molecular weight profiles of the TK2 dialysates were similar to TK4 dialysates, while those of shoot leaves dialysates were similar to the base leaves dialysates. The SDS-PAGE separated the enzymes in the fruit dialysates into several bands of polypeptides,i.e. 24-26kDa, 14-15kDa, 12-13kDa and the smaller ones, and also separated the enzymes in the dialysates of leaves into two bands, 70kDa and 58-61.5kDa. Protease bands detected in the zymogram of fruits were estimated at ~25kDa, ~27kDa, and 37-38kDa, whereas of those of leaves were estimated at ~29kDa and ~50kDa. The ~25kDa and ~29kDa protein bands appearing in zymogram were similar to papain’s and bromelain’s molecular weight.

  7. Solute transport and extraction by a single root in unsaturated soils: model development and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contaminant transport model was developed to simulate the fate and transport of organic compounds such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), using the single-root system. Onions were planted for this system with 50-ml plastic tubes. Mass in the soil, soil solution, root and leaf was monitored using 14C-TNT. Model parameters were acquired from the experiments in the single-root system and were used to simulate total TNT concentration in soil, providing the average concentrations in the rhizosphere and bulk soil as well as root and leaf compartments. Because the existing RCF (root concentration factor) and TSCF (transpiration stream concentration factor) equations based on log Kow (octanol-water partition coefficient) were not correlated to TNT uptake, a new term, root uptake rate (Rur), and a new Tscf equation, based on the experimental data, were introduced in the proposed model. The results from both modeling and experimental studies showed higher concentrations of TNT in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, because mass transported from the surrounding soil into the rhizosphere was higher than that by root uptake

  8. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  9. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil A.Nirmal; Jayashri M.Ingale; Shashikant R.Pattan; Sanjay B.Bhawar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski.(Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice.METHODS:Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n =6).Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg,intraperitoneally).Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and piperine (5 mg/kg,per oral).Ulcer index,colitis severity,myeloperoxidase (MPO),malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue.Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).RESULTS:Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration,hemorrhage,necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation.Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg,respectively.The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg,respectively (P < 0.05).Similarly,this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue.Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS.CONCLUSION:The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl,eugenol and benzene,and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic,anti-inflammatory,and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A.roxburghianus root.

  10. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Dorcas Bolanle; Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; Sallau Abdullahi Balarabe; Owolabi Olumuyiwa Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves ofVitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl albino rats.Methods:4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks.Results:There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage.Conclusion:Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  11. Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T; Sugaya, A; Ohguchi, H; Kishida, N; Sugaya, E

    1997-08-01

    Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model were examined. Neuron damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frequent spike discharges induced by application of metallic cobalt to the cerebral cortex of rats were completely prevented when peony root extract was continuously administered orally at 1 g/kg/day for 30 days prior to cobalt application. Component crude gallotannin fraction showed marked but incomplete protective action. A combination of crude gallotannin fraction and paeoniflorin showed complete protective action in the same way as peony root extract against neuron damage although use of paeoniflorin alone had no effect. These findings together with our previous reports indicate that peony root extract and its component, gallotannin, have excellent protective effects on neuron damage in addition to anticonvulsant action by prior oral administration.

  12. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research. PMID:27606776

  13. ISOLATION AND SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF QUERCETIN FROM THE ALCOHOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Leena.P.N; Dr.N.A.Aleykutty

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials are used throughout developed and developing countries as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry and represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. It is therefore essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Some of quality control parameters of the root Clerodendrum species belonging to Verbenceae family were analyzed. It includes root powder characters, moist...

  14. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  15. Role of Mitochondrial Enzymes and Sarcoplasmic ATPase in Cardioprotection Mediated by Aqueous Extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC Root on Ischemic Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, G. A.; Paddikkala, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigate the protective effect of aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum in preserving mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase during ischemia reperfusion injury. The isolated rat hearts in both drug and control group were subjected to warm ischemia (37°), followed by reperfusion with the Langendorff perfusion system. The aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was found to be effective in the rat heart for the management of ...

  16. NOOTROPIC ACTION OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA ROOT EXTRACT ON THE DENDRITIC MORPHOLOGY OF HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 NEURONS IN ONE MONTH OLD RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that Glycyrrhiza glabra (family: Leguminosae) aqueous root extract treatment in Wistar albino rats enhances both spatial learning ability and retention of learned tasks accordingly, the present study was designed to investigated the nootropic action of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra treatment on the dendritic morphology (dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections) of hippocampal CA1 neurons in one month old male Wistar albino rats. Methods: T...

  17. Phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial of chicory root extract in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee

    OpenAIRE

    Jonnala Geetha; Branch Valerie K; Olsen Nancy J; Seskar Mira; Cooper Melisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Extracts of chicory root have anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models of arthritis. The primary objective of this investigator-initiated, Phase 1, placebo-controlled, double blind, dose-escalating trial was to determine the safety and tolerability of a proprietary bioactive extract of chicory root in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Secondary objectives were to assess effects on the signs and symptoms of this disorder. Methods Individuals greater than ...

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  19. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE OIL EXTRACTED FROM ROOT BARK OF VALLARIS SOLANACE (ROTH KUNTZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Punam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats are integral part of human diet and to match the demands of ever increasing population, there is a continuous search for new edible oils. In the present study, root barks of Vallaris solanacea were examined. As the plant has root and the root bark of Vallaris solanacea found to contain fine oil in 40% yield. The various physico-chemical properties of the extract also revealed the presence of fixed oil from root bark of Vallaris solanacea. The results of gas chromatographic analysis indicate that oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids like oleic, linolenic and polyunsaturated fatty acid like arachidonic acid which are the essential requirement of human diet. The oil also contains saturated fatty acids like caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid and erucic acid and is proven to be non-toxic on animal experimentation’s (rat. Since the oil is present in good yield, is non-toxic and contains essential fatty acids so has to promise to be used as an alternate source of edible oil.

  20. Studies on the antioxidant properties of extracts from the roots and shoots of two Scutellaria species in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina; Olas, Beata

    2015-01-01

    We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe(2+) (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml(-1)) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26015995

  1. Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoscale particles using Morinda citrifolia L. and its inhibitory activity against human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Gobinath, Chandrakasan; Karpagam, Karuppiah; Hemamalini, Vedagiri; Premkumar, Kumpati; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2012-06-15

    Leaf extract of Morinda citrifolia L. was assessed for the synthesis of silver nanoscale particles under different temperature and reaction time. Synthesized nanoscale (MCAgNPs) particles were confirmed by analysing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 420 nm. Further SEM, HRTEM analysis confirmed the range of particle size between 10 and 60 nm and SEAD pattern authorizes the face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline nature of the MCAgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) of synthesized MCAgNPs confirms the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds in the plant extract which may possibly influence the reduction process and stabilization of nanoparticles. Further, inhibitory activity of MCAgNPs and plant extract were tested against human pathogens like Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus cereus and Enterococci sp. The results indicated that the MCAgNPs showed moderate inhibitory actions against human pathogens than crude plant extract, demonstrating its antimicrobial value against pathogenic diseases.

  2. A comparative study on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosae root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian Gino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging effect of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG root in different antioxidant models and experimentally induced ischemic reperfusion in an isolated rat heart. The rats were divided into three groups namely control, reperfusion control, and drug treated. For in vivo study, ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI was induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion of Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 15 minutes or 30 minutes or 45 minutes. Oral administration of DG extract (50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 30 days was performed in rats of drug group and an increase of enzymatic activity of SOD, catalase and GPx along with an inhibition of lipid per-oxidations were observed. However, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation and reduction in myocardial SOD, catalase, and GPx were observed during IRI. The inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 in DPPH, superoxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were found to be 51.3, 24.6, 52.7, 53.2 and 415 µg/mL respectively. The presence of cactine, an alkaloid used to treat irregular heartbeat, angina pectoris and cardiac neuralgia was reported in DG through GS-MS analysis. The above results suggest that the aqueous extract of DG root exhibit potential free radical scavenging effect that can reduce the oxidative stress exhibited by IRI.

  3. The effects of Securidaca longepedunculata root extract on ionic currents and contraction of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzou, A P; Bulteau, L; Raymond, G

    1999-05-01

    The effects of the primary extract roots of Securidaca longepedunculata were tested on sodium, calcium and potassium currents in rat skeletal muscle cells developed in culture. In addition, they were tested on depolarisation-induced contraction and resting intracellular calcium levels. S. longepedunculata extract (10(-6) g/l) increases sodium current at all potentials. No clear effect was observed on calcium current except for a slight increase at negative potentials (-30, -10 mV) revealing a 5 mV shift towards negative potentials of the I(Ca)/V curve, as with potassium current. In contrast, at the same concentration, S. longepedunculata enhanced the contractile response elicited by durable depolarisation. This was not attributable to the slight increase in resting intracellular free calcium concentration which did not change during and following S. longepedunculata application. These results strongly suggest that S. longepedunculata root extract contains one or more components acting on the voltage-sensor of excitation-contraction coupling (dihydropyridine receptors), regardless of its implication as a calcium channel. PMID:10465656

  4. Assessment of in vitro Antacid Activity of Different Root Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers by Modified Artificial Stomach Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandhya S; Venkata Ramana K; Vinod K R; Chaitanya Rsnakk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present investigation is to rule out the antacid activity of Tephrosiapurpurea root by in vitro method using a self fabricated and modified artificial stomach model. The reason for selecting in vitro method was to minimize the usage of experimental animals. Method:In this work we have used air bubbles from an aerator to mimic the peristaltic movements of stomach. Sodium bicarbonate and water were used as reference and control respectively. The parameters evaluated were neutralizing effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity and effect of temperature on pH. We evaluated the potency of the plant by extracting with three solvents in increasing order of polarity. Results: The neutralization effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity were found to be higher for methanol root extract than sodium bicarbonate, whereas ethyl acetate and chloroform extract produced moderately good response but less when compared to standard drug but higher than water. Conclusion: Hence this plant can be an effective alternative for sodium bicarbonate which is reported to have side effects like edema n the feet, alteration in systemic pH, belching etc.

  5. Effects of aqueous root extract of Carpolobia alba G. Don on sexual behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmogne, H; Koloko, B; Hambe, C; Domkam, J; Ngaha Njila, M; Bend, E; Oundoum Oundoum, P; Massoma Lembè, D; Dimo, T

    2016-10-01

    Several lines say that a number of natural products, mostly plant based, have been claimed to cure male sexual dysfunction. One of such botanicals is Carpolobia alba G. Don which is used in Cameroon to treat erectile dysfunction and related male sexual debilities. However, the traditional claim has not been scientifically tested. Thirty adult male rats (five groups of six animals) were orally treated daily with distilled water, sildenafil citrate (positive control), 75, 150, 300 mg/kg of C. alba G. Don roots aqueous extract. The erection and ejaculation properties were recorded on the first, seventh and fourteenth day of treatment by following copulation settings: number of erections (NE), mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), average interval of copulation (AIC) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). The extract resulted in an improvement of copulation parameters through significant reduction (p erectile and pro-ejaculatory potential of aqueous root extract of this plant in male rats. PMID:27681647

  6. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on spontaneous estrogen receptor-negative mammary cancer in MMTV/Neu mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazal, Kamel F; Hill, Donald L; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2014-11-01

    The cancer-preventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female transgenic (MMTV/Neu) mice that received a diet containing the extract (750 mg/kg of diet) for 10 months. Mice in the treated group (n=35) had an average of 1.66 mammary carcinomas, and mice in the control group (n=33) had 2.48, showing a reduction of 33%. The average weights of the carcinomas were 2.36 g for mice in the treated group and 2.63 g for the controls, a difference of 10%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen marker in mammary carcinomas of the treated group were 35% and 30% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding control group. Expression of the chemokine was reduced by 50%. These results indicate that the root extract reduced the number of mammary carcinomas that developed and reduced the rate of cell division in the carcinomas.

  7. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  8. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  9. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes. PMID:24085515

  10. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes.

  11. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen.) [Polygalaceae] root-bark aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2008-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties of Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen.) root-bark aqueous extract (SLE) in mice and rats. The analgesic effect of SLE was evaluated by 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' analgesic test methods in mice; while its anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects were examined in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus models. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs for comparison. SLE (50-800 mg/kg i. p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally- and chemically-induced nociceptive pain in mice. The plant's extract (SLE, 50-800 mg/kg p. o.) also dose-dependently and significantly inhibited (p < 0.05-0.001) fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation, and caused significant hypoglycaemia (p < 0.05-0.001) in normal (normoglycaemic) and STZ-treated diabetic (hyperglycaemic) rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that S. longepedunculata root-bark aqueous extract (SLE) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the anecdotal, folkloric and ethnomedical uses of S. longepedunculata root-bark in the treatment, management and/or control of painful, arthritic, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural communities of South Africa. PMID:18046514

  12. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  13. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  14. Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ovadje

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML is a heterogeneous disease that is not only hard to diagnose and classify, but is also highly resistant to treatment. Available forms of therapy for this disease have not shown significant effects and patients rapidly develop resistance early on in therapy. These factors lead to the very poor prognosis observed with CMML patients, with median survival duration between 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. This study is therefore centered around evaluating the selective efficacy of a natural extract from dandelion roots, in inducing programmed cell death in aggressive and resistant CMML cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To confirm the induction of programmed cell death in three human CMML cell lines, nuclear condensation and externalization of the phosphatidylserine, two main characteristics of apoptosis, were detected using Hoechst staining and annexin-V binding assay. The induction of another mode of cell death, autophagy, was determined using a monodansylcadaverine (MDC stain, to detect the formation of autophagy vacuoles. The results from this study indicate that Dandelion Root Extract (DRE is able to efficiently and selectively induce apoptosis and autophagy in these cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner, with no significant toxicity on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More importantly, we observed early activation of initiator caspase-8, which led to mitochondrial destabilization and the induction of autophagy, suggesting that DRE acts through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The inability of DRE to induce apoptosis in dominant-negative FADD cells, confirms the mechanism of action of DRE in in vitro models of CMML. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that natural products, in particular Dandelion Root Extract, have great potential, as non-toxic and effective alternatives to conventional modes of chemotherapy available today.

  15. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract

    OpenAIRE

    George Awuku Asare; Daniel Afriyie; Ngala, Robert A; Appiah, Alfred A.; Yvonne Anang; Iddi Musah; Samuel Adjei; Kwabena Bamfo-Quaicoe; Derick Sule; Gyan, Ben A.; Peter Arhin; Dominic A. Edoh

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonogr...

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones and inulin from chicory roots: extraction, identification, enzymatic release and sensory analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, E.

    1992-01-01

    Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the many species of the family Compositae. Chicory has been cultivated for the production of leaves or chicons, which have been used as a vegetable since approximately 300 BC, and for its roots, which can be used as a coffee substitute after roasting.

  17. Tannins Alter Soil Organic Matter Extraction, Solubility of Metals, and Root Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannins are common plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that precipitate proteins and react with other biomolecules but knowledge of their effects on soil organic matter, the solubility of metals, and root physiology is incomplete. Soil from forest and pasture systems was treated with tannic acid (...

  18. Impact of feeding ethanolic extract of root bark of Cananga odorata (Lam) on reproductive functions in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, P; Indira, M

    2006-12-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract of the root bark of C. odorata administered orally at the dose of 1g/kg body weight/day for 60 days resulted in decreased epididymal sperm motility and sperm count in male albino rats. Morphological abnormalities were also observed in the sperms. The testicular glycogen, the activities of 3beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, sorbitol dehydrogenase in seminal vesicle, fructose in seminal plasma and serum testosterone were significantly decreased in treated group. While testicular cholesterol level, the concentration of the fecal bile acids, urinary excretion of 17 ketosteroids, the activities of 17beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, epididymal lactate dehydrogenase and that of testicular HMG CoA reductase were increased in treated group when compared to control. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. odorata possesses the spermatotoxic effects in male albino rats. PMID:17176670

  19. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Ganga; Rao; P.Umamaheswara; Rao; E.Sambasiva; Rao; T.Mallikarjuna; Rao; V.S.Praneeth.D

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the in-vitro antihacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts(Hydro-alcoholic,methanolic,ethyl acetate and hexane)of Rauvolfia tetraphylla(R.tetraphylla)root bark in Carrageetiaii induced acute inflammation in rats.Methods:In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay.Hydro-alcoholic extract(70%v/v ethanol)at 200,400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic,ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100,200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs.Results:All extracts of R.tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains.In Carrageenan induced inflammation model,hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R.tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant(P<0.00l)reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane,ethyl acetate extracts.Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R.tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  20. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V. S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results: All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  1. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity and in silico PASS assisted prediction of Cordia dichotoma (Forst. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G Jamkhande

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present work suggest that the extract of C. dichotoma significantly interferes with motility pattern of P. posthuma. The paralysis and mortality of P. posthuma might be due to the combined effects different phytoconstituents. The extract of C. dichotoma promises natural sources to control worm infection.

  2. Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S.R.; Kammenga, J.E.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an E

  3. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PALMYRA PALM ( BORASSUS FLABELLIFER) ROOT EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan C., Priya B.*, Asir Bradley S. and Uma Sundaram

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical constituents of Borassus flabellifer was identified and evaluated the antibacterial activity of the acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts. A phytoconstituent analysis of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and saponins were performed on the various solvent extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well diffusion method against five pathogenic microorganisms, E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginos...

  4. Burdock root extracts limit quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes and biofilm architecture in major urinary tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Ramesh, Samiraj; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Elangomathavan, Ramaraj; Kamalanathan, Chakkaravarthi

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms are serious concern in patients infected with urinary tract infections, complicated urinary tract infections and other device-associated infections. Microbes within the biofilms are effectively shielded from antibiotics and host immune cells, hence can be treated only with agents which has the potential to disassemble the biofilms. The study is focused on the root extracts of Arctium lappa Linn. as a source for complementary medicine against three major biofilm forming clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Methanol extracts of burdock roots (BR) showed no bactericidal activity (p > 0.05) against the uropathogens, whereas restrained the biofilms (p < 0.05) on polystyrene and glass surfaces at a biofilm inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. The 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the biofilm architecture which showed significant reduction in the surface area. Z-stack analysis has also revealed substantial reduction in the biofilm thickness (E. coli-50.79%, P. mirabilis-69.49%, and S. marcescens-75.84%). Further, BR extracts also inhibited quorum-sensing (QS)-controlled cellular phenotypes such as violacein, prodigiosin, swarming motility, and cell surface hydrophobicity. LC-MS/MS analysis of BR extracts identified the presence of two major quercetin derivatives (miquelianin and peltatoside) along with few other constituent components. Exploring such phytocompounds will provide potential agents to treat infections caused by biofilm forming uropathogens. The antibiofilm and anti-QS agents will ultimately serve as armor, facilitating the host immune system to fight infections.

  5. Burdock root extracts limit quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes and biofilm architecture in major urinary tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Ramesh, Samiraj; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Elangomathavan, Ramaraj; Kamalanathan, Chakkaravarthi

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms are serious concern in patients infected with urinary tract infections, complicated urinary tract infections and other device-associated infections. Microbes within the biofilms are effectively shielded from antibiotics and host immune cells, hence can be treated only with agents which has the potential to disassemble the biofilms. The study is focused on the root extracts of Arctium lappa Linn. as a source for complementary medicine against three major biofilm forming clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Methanol extracts of burdock roots (BR) showed no bactericidal activity (p > 0.05) against the uropathogens, whereas restrained the biofilms (p < 0.05) on polystyrene and glass surfaces at a biofilm inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. The 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the biofilm architecture which showed significant reduction in the surface area. Z-stack analysis has also revealed substantial reduction in the biofilm thickness (E. coli-50.79%, P. mirabilis-69.49%, and S. marcescens-75.84%). Further, BR extracts also inhibited quorum-sensing (QS)-controlled cellular phenotypes such as violacein, prodigiosin, swarming motility, and cell surface hydrophobicity. LC-MS/MS analysis of BR extracts identified the presence of two major quercetin derivatives (miquelianin and peltatoside) along with few other constituent components. Exploring such phytocompounds will provide potential agents to treat infections caused by biofilm forming uropathogens. The antibiofilm and anti-QS agents will ultimately serve as armor, facilitating the host immune system to fight infections. PMID:25226848

  6. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA AND PREDNISOLONE ON THE KIDNEYS OF WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medubi L.J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of ethanolic root extract of Jatropha gossypifolia and prednisolone on the kidney histology and renal function of albino rats was studied to assess the safety and toxicity of the plant as an herbal remedy.The rats were divided into four groups I, II, III and IV. Group I served as control and was given feed and water only. Group II, III, and IV were subdivided into Group IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb, IVa and IVb. Groups IIa, IIIa, and IVa received 10 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg/kg b.w of the extract while Group IIb, IIIb and IVb received 10 mg ,20 mg and 30 mg/kg b.w of the extract respectively plus 10 mg/kg b.w of prednisolone per day. The animals were sacrificed on day 7, 10 and 14 and their kidneys harvested and processed for histological studies. Their blood was also collected for serum urea measurement.Photomicrographs of the histological sections of Groups II, III and IV rats revealed changes compared to the control group and serum urea levels were significantly higher in these groups. Histological changes observed are consistent with glomerulonephritis and include increased urinary (Bowman's space, shrinkage and distortion of the glomerular tuft as well as scarring of the glomeruli. Changes appear to be both dosage and time dependent and the administration of prednisolone as an adjunct did not exert any ameliorative effect.We conclude that ethanolic root extract of Jatropha gossypifolia is toxic to the kidney and causes increased urea retention in the blood.

  7. Chronological comparison of root dentin moisture in extracted human teeth stored in formalin, sodium azide, and distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Ahn, Chul; Zhang, Song; Zhu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified in vitro the root dentin moisture when 10% formalin (Group A), 3% sodium azide (Group B), and distilled water (Group C) were used as teeth storage media. The root dentin moisture of 66 extracted human mandibular single-rooted teeth was measured at baseline (day 0) and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days using a digital grain moisture meter. The baseline dentin moisture value was used as a covariate in the generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. The mean dentin moisture values (%) ± standard deviation on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 were 10.6±0.64, 14.3±0.71, 14.6±0.84, 14.4±0.64, and 14.7±0.75 (Group A); 11.4±0.94, 14.6±0.95, 14.6±0.76, 14.6±0.93, and 14.8±0.81 (Group B); and 10.2±0.95, 12.8±0.90, 13.3±0.95, 13.0±0.91, and 13.2±0.89 (Group C), respectively. The dentin moisture increased in all three groups; however, there was no overall significant difference in moisture between the formalin and sodium azide groups. PMID:19540443

  8. The morphological characterization of the dry seeds and reserve mobilization during germination in Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelamaris de Oliveira Paula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information about the morphology, chemical composition and reserve mobilization is important in understanding the establishment of native and exotic species. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, chemical composition, and mobilization of reserves during germination of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.. Biometric and morphological analyzes were performed with 100 randomly selected dried seeds. Other seeds were treated with sulfuric acid PA and soaked in Petri dishes. Collected seeds of five different times of germination were used for cytochemical and chemical analysis. For cytochemical analysis, the cuts of 5μm were submitted to dyes TB at pH 4.0; XP at pH 2.5, reaction of PAS and Sudan IV. The seeds were crushed for chemical analysis with lipids, proteins and soluble sugars extraction that were determined gravimetrically, by the Bradford method and the Antrona method, respectively. The fatty acid composition of the dry seed was determined by gas chromatography. Noni seeds are albuminous and have a thick seed coat, rich in lignin. Lipid and protein bodies were observed inside the endosperm cells, representing 43.50% and 9.15% respectively, while the reservoir of soluble sugars was less than 5%. Linoleic acid was the most prevalent with 68.1%. The lipids were mobilized during germination, suffering a reduction of up to 38% of its total. Proteins, as well as lipids decreased by 25.78% during the germination period observed. The main reserves of noni seeds are lipids and proteins that are mobilized during germination to provide energy and matter to the developing embryo and synthesis of more complex compounds.

  9. Root resection under the surgical field employed for extraction of impacted tooth and management of external resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Vivekananda Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report illustrates determination of prognosis and immediate resection carried out, before completing the endodontic therapy, during the surgery employed for managing a nonperiodontal problem. This case showed external pressure resorption in the distobuccal root of maxillary second molar caused by the impingement of impacted third molar. Extraction of third molar was decided when healing was not seen, despite initiating endodontic therapy in second molar. Following elevation of flap and extraction of third molar, the poor prognosis due to severe bone loss around the resorbed root was evident. But due to strategic value of second molar, it was found beneficial to employ resection. Therefore, immediate resection was carried out in the same surgical field before the completion of endodontic therapy. This prevented the need for another surgical entry with its associated trauma to carry out resection separately later. Resection followed by the completion of endodontic therapy and full crown assisted in salvaging the remaining functional portion of the tooth and prevented the occurrence of distal extension with its potential drawbacks.

  10. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  11. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous root extract ofMerremia tridentata (L.) Hall. f. in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract ofMerremia tridentata (M. tridentata) root(MTRAE) in normal, glucose-loaded hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Oral administration ofMTRAE at the doses of50, 100 and150 mg/kg was studied in normal, glucose-loaded andSTZ-diabetic rats. The three doses caused significant reduction in blood glucose levels in all the models.Results: The effect was more pronounced in100and150mg/kg than50 mg/kg.MTRAE also showed significant increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats while there was significant reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol.MTRAE also showed significant antilipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect ofM. tridentata was compared with glibenclamide, a well known hypoglycemic drug.Conclusions:The results indicate that aqueous extract ofM. tridentata root possesses significant antidiabetic activity.

  12. Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive Activity of a Root Extract of Smilax aristolochiifolia, Standardized on N-trans-Feruloyl-Tyramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Arely Botello Amaro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS is a condition consisting of various metabolic abnormalities that are risk factors for developing kidney failure, cardiovascular, vascular and cerebrovascular diseases, among others. The prevalence of this syndrome shows a marked increase. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect of Smilax aristolochiifolia root on some components of MS and obtain some of the active principle using chromatographic techniques. The compound isolated was N-trans-feruloyl tyramine NTF (1, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The whole extract and the standardized fractions were able to control the weight gain around 30%; the fraction rich in NTF was able to decrease the hypertriglyceridemia by 60%. The insulin resistance decreased by approximately 40%; the same happened with blood pressure, since the values of systolic and diastolic pressure fell on average 31% and 37% respectively, to levels comparable to normal value. The treatment also had an immunomodulatory effect on the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity, since it significantly decreased the relative production of pro-inflammatory cytokines regarding anti-inflammatory cytokines, both kidney and adipose tissue. Therefore it can be concluded that the extract and fractions of Smilax aristolochiifolia root with NTF are useful to counteract some symptoms of MS in animal models.

  13. Altered dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons in young adult rats orally intubated with Clitorea ternatea aqueous root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kiranmai S; Murthy, K Dilip; Rao, Muddanna S; Karanth, K Sudhakar

    2005-07-01

    Young adult (60 day old) Wistar rats of either sex were orally intubated with 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days, along with age-matched saline controls. These rats were then subjected to passive avoidance tests and the results from these studies showed a significant increase in passive avoidance learning and retention. Subsequent to the passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation. The amygdala was processed for Golgi staining and the stained neurons were traced using a camera lucida and analysed. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic intersections, branching points and dendritic processes arising from the soma of amygdaloid neurons in CTR treated rats especially in the 100 mg/kg group of rats, compared with age-matched saline controls. This improved dendritic arborization of amygdaloid neurons correlates with the increased passive avoidance learning and memory in the CTR treated rats as reported earlier. The results suggest that Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract enhances memory by increasing the functional growth of neurons of the amygdala. PMID:16161034

  14. Anthelmintic action of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarumAção anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum

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    Danilo Rodrigues Barros Brito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic effect of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarum was evaluated in chicken naturally infected. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adults helminthes in disposable petri dishes, containing Tyrode solution, pre warmed in which aqueous or ethanolic extracts were added. The material was maintained in a BOD at 37ºC (±1. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts presented the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL-1 and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 e 66.72 mg.mL-1, respectively. It was used as positive control, a solution of tetrahidrate citrate of piperazin in the concentration of 50 mg/mL. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10 mL/Kg/PV during three consecutive days. The feces were collected during four days in each group, washed in water and sifted. In the fifth day post-treatment, the chickens were slaughtered and necropsy was performed in order to count and identify remaining helminthes. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the in vivo test there was no significant difference between the aqueous extract and the control group (water (p>0.05 in the elimination of H. gallinarum. The ethanolic extract presented an elimination of 20.35%, differing statistically from the control group (p A ação anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum foi avaliada em galinhas poedeiras naturalmente infectadas. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro foi determinada em helmintos adultos colocados em placas de petri descartáveis, contendo solução Tyrode pré-aquecida, nas quais foi adicionado o extrato aquoso ou etanólico e mantidas em BOD a uma temperatura de 37oC (±1. Os extratos aquoso e etanólico foram usados nas seguintes concentrações: 1,69; 3,37; 6,74; 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1 e 4,17; 8,34; 16,68; 33,36 e 66,72 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. Como controle positivo usou-se uma solu

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromádková, Z; Ebringerová, A; Valachovic, P

    2002-01-01

    The insoluble plant residues, obtained after preparation of medicinal tinctures from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction with aqueous ethanol in a pilot plant, were subsequently treated with hot water to isolate the accessible polysaccharide cell wall components. At almost equal amounts of the hot-water extractable material, the yields of the recovered polysaccharides were lower in the ultrasonical experiment. This is due to the fact that a part of accessible polysaccharides were already solubilised by the aqueous ethanol and recoverable from the medicinal tincture. Therefore, the net yield of extracted polysaccharides was enhanced in the ultrasonical procedure. This fact as well as the sugar composition and structural features of the isolated polysaccharides suggest that ultrasonication have attacked the integrity of cell walls, released and degraded its most accessible polysaccharides (pectic polysaccharides and starch) and increased also the extractibility of its less accessible components--xylan, mannan and glucan. The water-soluble polysaccharide fractions from both the conventional and ultrasonical experiments exhibit significant immunostimulatory activities in mitogenic and comitogenic thymocyte tests. PMID:11602994

  16. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  17. HPLC Fingerprint and LC-TOF-MS Analysis on Extract from Roots of Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qi; SHANG Ping-ping; ZHANG Yong-min; JIA Na; HE Jiao; ZHAO Wen-na; SUN Wen-ji

    2012-01-01

    Objective Establishing a fingerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality.Methods RP-HPLC was developed for fingerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G macrophylla roots from different sources.LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the fingerprint.Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides.Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS.Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data.Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identification and comprehensive evaluation of G macrophylla.

  18. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Jesurun RS; Lavakumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute renal failure (ARF) is at present called acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is a reversible condition in which there is a sudden decline in renal function, manifested by elevated SCr and BUN which occurs in hours to days to weeks. The present study was to evaluate the nephron protective effect of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure in wistar albino rats. Methods: Experimental evaluation was done in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. 2...

  19. Sesquiterpene lactones and inulin from chicory roots: extraction, identification, enzymatic release and sensory analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, E.

    1992-01-01

    Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the many species of the family Compositae. Chicory has been cultivated for the production of leaves or chicons, which have been used as a vegetable since approximately 300 BC, and for its roots, which can be used as a coffee substitute after roasting.Chicory leaves are appreciated for their slightly bitter taste. Two bitter compounds were known at the start of this project: lactucin (Lc) and lactucopicrin (Lp), both sesquiterpene lactones with a guaia...

  20. Effect of plumbagin free alcohol extract ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. root on reproductive system of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gupta Sandeep; Ahirwar Dheeraj; Sharma Neeraj Kumar; Jhade Deenanath; Ahirwar Bharti

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of plumbagin-free alcohol extract (PFAE) ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae) (P. zeylanica) root, on female reproductive system and fertility of adult female wistar rats.Methods: After the oral acute toxicity study, thePFAE was administered at two dose levels to perform the estrous cycle study, anti-implantation and abortifacient activity and hormonal analysis. However, the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity was evaluated at only one most effective dose.Results:LD50cut-off was5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract exhibited significant anti-implantation and abortifacient activity at the tested dose levels (300 and500 mg/kg,p.o.) (P<0.01). The extract dose-dependently decreased the levels of serum progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, while a dose-dependent increase was observed in the concentration of serum prolactin. The extract did not show any significant changes in structure and function of uterus when given alone, but when given along with ethinyl estradiol, it exhibited significant antiestrogenic activity in immature overiectomized female rats(P<0.001). Biochemical parameters in the serum/blood and haematological parameters did not show appreciable changes throughout and after the course of investigation. However, all the altered parameters returned to normalcy within30 days following withdrawal of treatment. Conclusions: All findings suggest that the antifertility activity of extract could possibly be through the changes in the implantation site, altered hormonal levels, prolonged estrous cycle and anti-estrogenic activity. Hence, the extract possesses reversible antifertility activity without adverse toxicity in female rats.

  1. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B. Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R.; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

  2. Microorganisms and antifungal properties associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit and fermented juice in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia), a medicinal plant grown in Hawaii and other Polynesian regions, is reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Noni fruit often produce fermented juice that differs in chemical, physical and microbial properties. To determine ho...

  3. Surfactant-induced non-lethal release of anthraquinones from suspension culture of Morinda citrifolia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassetti, L.; Hagendoorn, M.J.M.; Tramper, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach based on the use of the surfactant Pluronic F-68 to obtain non-lethal release of plant cell intracellular products was investigated. Suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), producing anthraquinones as secondary metabolites, were selected as model system. By supplementin

  4. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25 was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (<.003. On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11% which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, <.022. Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia.

  5. Do the health claims made for Morinda citrifolia (Noni) harmonize with current scientific knowledge and evaluation of its biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Patel, Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia, also known as Great Morinda, Indian Mulberry, or Noni, is a plant belonging to the family Rubiaceae. A number of major chemical compounds have been identified in the leaves, roots, and fruits of Noni plant. The fruit juice is in high demand in alternative medicine for different kinds for illnesses such as arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, muscle ached and pains, menstrual difficulties, headache, heart diseases, AIDS, gastric ulcer, sprains, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, arteriosclerosis, blood vessel problems, and drug addiction. Several studies have also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effect of Noni in various cancers. Based on a toxicological assessment, Noni juice was considered as safe. Though a large number of in vitro, and, to a certain extent, in vivo studies demonstrated a range of potentially beneficial effects, clinical data are essentially lacking. To what extent the findings from experimental pharmacological studies are of potential clinical relevance is not clear at present and this question needs to be explored in detail before an recommendations can be made.

  6. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Almeida-Souza; Noemi Nosomi Taniwaki; Ana Cláudia Fernandes Amaral; Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza; Kátia da Silva Calabrese; Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work,...

  7. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) and their insulin mimetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Yang, Jun-Li; Uddin, Mohammad N; Park, So-Lim; Lim, Seong-Il; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Oh, Won-Keun

    2013-11-22

    As part of our ongoing search for new antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of Morinda citrifolia showed potential stimulatory effects on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this active extract yielded two new lignans (1 and 2) and three new neolignans (9, 10, and 14), as well as 10 known compounds (3-8, 11-13, and 15). The absolute configurations of compounds 9, 10, and 14 were determined by ECD spectra analysis. Compounds 3, 6, 7, and 15 showed inhibitory effects on PTP1B enzyme with IC50 values of 21.86 ± 0.48, 15.01 ± 0.20, 16.82 ± 0.42, and 4.12 ± 0.09 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 3, 6, 7, and 15 showed strong stimulatory effects on 2-NBDG uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. This study indicated the potential of compounds 3, 6, 7, and 15 as lead molecules for antidiabetic agents.

  9. Automated DNA extraction of single dog hairs without roots for mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Bram; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Opdekamp, Anouschka; Decorte, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Dogs are intensely integrated in human social life and their shed hairs can play a major role in forensic investigations. The overall aim of this study was to validate a semi-automated extraction method for mitochondrial DNA analysis of telogenic dog hairs. Extracted DNA was amplified with a 95% success rate from 43 samples using two new experimental designs in which the mitochondrial control region was amplified as a single large (± 1260 bp) amplicon or as two individual amplicons (HV1 and HV2; ± 650 and 350 bp) with tailed-primers. The results prove that the extraction of dog hair mitochondrial DNA can easily be automated to provide sufficient DNA yield for the amplification of a forensically useful long mitochondrial DNA fragment or alternatively two short fragments with minimal loss of sequence in case of degraded samples.

  10. EVALUATION POTENTIAL OF VALERIAN ROOTS EXTRACT AND VALEPOTRIATES ON BEHAVIORAL TESTS IN MICE

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    Edvaldo Rodrigues de Almeida

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was to evaluate the effect of Valerian extract marketed in Recife PE Brazil and Valepotriates and their actions in the CNS in mice. Intraperitoneal administration were used to assess the hypnotic effect (Sodium Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping Time, anxiolytic (Elevated plus-maze, Hole-board, Marble burying, and the observation of possible anticonvulsant activity (seizures induced by Pentylenetetrazol, using doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg / kg for the extract and 12 mg/kg for Valepotriates. Data indicate an anxiolytic action, and hypnotic only by the intraperitoneal route, but oral administration showed no significant effect on the behavioral tests (data not shown. This study demonstrated an anxiolytic and hypnotic action extract of Valeriana officinalis, as well as the Valepotriates at a dose of 12 mg/kg.

  11. Effect of root extracts of Brachiaria humidicola on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in rice and wheat crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted in 2009-2010 to study the effect of root extracts of Brachiaria humidicola on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in rice and wheat crops. The experiment was conducted with rice (var. Pusa Sugandh-5) as the test crop in kharif season and in rabi season wheat (var. HD-2894) was grown as the test crop with seven treatments. Three level of nitrogen were applied as 30, 60 and 90 mg N kg-1 soil through '15N labelled (NH4)2SO4 as source of N. Recommended dose of P (30 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil) and K (30 mg K2O kg-1 soil) through KH2PO4 and KCI were applied. Nitrogen levels and inhibitors had significant effect on rice grain yield. It was maximum 20.37 g pot-1 in case of T4 (buffer solution extract) and low 13.10 g pot-1 in T7 (control). Nitrogen uptake in rice straw was found more in BNI treatments as compared to plant based (neem oil coating) and standard nitrification inhibitors. Nitrogen use efficiency in rice plant was highest in case of T1 (70 % alcohol extract) 41.90 followed by T4 (buffer solution extract) 41.30. Among the treatments T5 (neem oil coating) performed better in wheat yield as compared to other treatments. Nitrogen uptake and NUE were maximum in T3 (salt solution extract) followed by T5 (neem oil coating) in wheat crop. The maximum nitrogen use efficiency was observed at 60 mg N kg-1 soil as compared to other levels. (author)

  12. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECR significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECR showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECR caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. rotundus. PMID:19894649

  13. Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroidal components on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Homma, M; Oka, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of organic-solvent extracts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. The membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase fraction was prepared from a patient with BPH by a differential centrifugation of the tissue homogenate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by 10(-4)-10(-5) M of ouabain. The hexane extract, the ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract, and the butanol extract of the roots caused 27.6-81.5% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, a column extraction of stinging nettle roots using benzene as an eluent afforded efficient enzyme inhibiting activity. Steroidal components in stinging nettle roots, such as stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, and campesterol inhibited the enzyme activity by 23.0-67.0% at concentrations ranging from 10(-3)-10(-6) M. These results suggest that some hydrophobic constituents such as steroids in the stinging nettle roots inhibited the membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the prostate, which may subsequently suppress prostate-cell metabolism and growth. PMID:7510891

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Effects of Phosphorus on Extracts and Exudates of Sudangrass Roots in Relation to Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Suzanne M.; Menge, John A.; Leonard, Robert T.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made of water-soluble root exudates and extracts of Sorghum vulgare Pers. grown under two levels of P nutrition. An increase in P nutrition significantly decreased the concentration of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids in exudates, and decreased the concentration of carboxylic acids in extracts. Higher P did not affect the relative proportions of specific carboxylic acids and had little effect on proportions of specific amino acids in both extracts and exudates. Phosphorus amendment resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of arabinose and a decrease in the proportion of fructose in exudates, but did not have a large effect on the proportion of individual sugars in extracts. The proportions of specific carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids varied between exudates and extracts. Therefore, the quantity and composition of root extracts may not be a reliable predictor of the availability of substrate for symbiotic vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Comparisons of the rate of leakage of compounds from roots with the growth rate of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggest that the fungus must either be capable of using a variety of organic substrates for growth, or be capable of inducing a much higher rate of movement of specific organic compounds across root cell membranes than occurs through passive exudation as measured in this study. PMID:16663297

  15. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  16. Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Root Extract On Some Serum Liver Marker Enzymes (AST, ALT In Gentamicin Intoxicated Rats

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    Nayma Sultana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver is an essential metabolic organ. It can be damaged due to prolonged use and higher doses of drugs, exposure to some chemicals, toxins, or infectious agents. Herbal plants as ashwagandha (Withania somnifera may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage.Objective: To observe the effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera root extract on gentamicin induced changes of some liver marker enzymes e,g serum aspartate amino transferase (AST and alanine amino transferase (ALT in Wistar albino rats.Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka from 1st July 2010 to 30th June 2011. A total number of 35 Wistar albino rats, aged 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 grams were selected for the study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into control group (Group A and experimental group (Group B. Control group was again subdivided into group A1 (baseline control, consisted of 10 rats and group A2 (gentamicin treated control group, consisted of 10 rats. Again, experimental group (Group B-ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin treated group consisted of 15 rats. All groups of animals received basal diet for 22 consecutive days. In addition to this, group A2 also received gentamicin subcutaneously (100mg /kg body weight/day for the last eight (15th to 22nd day consecutive days. Again, group B received ashwagandha root extract (500mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 22 consecutive days and gentamicin subcutaneously (100mg/kg body weight /day for last eight (15th to 22nd day days. All the animals were sacrificed on 23rd day. Then blood and liver samples were collected. For assessment of liver function, serum AST, ALT and bilirubin levels were estimated. All these tests were done by standard Laboratory technique. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and Bonferroni test as

  17. Normoglycaemic, Normolipidaemic and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Acacia ataxacantha Root in Streptozotocin - induced Diabetic Rats

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    Rotimi Olusanya ARISE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic, normolipidaemic, antioxidant and safety evaluations of ethanolic extract of Acacia ataxacantha roots (EEAAR were investigated in streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats, to verify its use in traditional African medicine and as alternative to synthetic normoglycaemic agents in diabetic treatments. Thirty albino rats (Rattus novergicus were randomized into six groups - control, diabetic control, EEAAR-treated at 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weights (b.wts. and metformin groups, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoid, saponins, tannins and terpenoid. Blood glucose was significantly reduced (p 0.05 in malondialdehyde concentration of rats administered with 125 mg/kg b.wt. of extract and metformin. Superoxide dismutase activity was elevated (p < 0.05 in all groups and compared favourably with the control in each of the tissues. This study revealed the antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of EEAAR, which may be due to the antioxidant properties of some of the phytochemical constituents. However, the extract may not be safe at large and repeated doses.

  18. The cleanliness differences of root canal irrigated with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract and 2.5% NaOCl

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    Anis Sakinah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal treatment consists of preparation, sterilization, and obturation. During root canal preparation, debris is smeared over the dentinal surface forming a smear layer. Smear layer will reduce the attachment of root canal filling materials. Organic material in smear layer can be substrated for microorganism. Preparation of root canal should be followed by irrigation. NaOCl is common irrigation solution in endodontics. It has been very effective for their disinfecting and tissue-dissolving properties, but it is incapable of removing the smear layer. On the other hand, saponin of mangosteen peel extract has an ability as a surfactant to lower the surface tension, and it can dissolve debris containing of anorganic and organic materials. Purpose: This study aims to know the differences between 2.5% NaOCl and 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract in removing the debris in the root canal after the preparation procedure. Method: Three groups of teeth (7 teeth in each were instrumented with K-file and irrigated as follow: group 1 (control with aquadest; group 2 with 2.5% NaOCl; and group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract. Furthermore, those teeth were split horizontally and longitudinally 4mm above the apical. The apical third of root canal walls was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Result: There were significant differences between each group (p<0.05. Median value of the group 3 was score 1 considered as the smallest value. It indicates that Group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract was the cleanest group. Conclusion:It can be concluded that 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract can clean the smear layer of the root canal better than 2.5% NaOCl.

  19. Role of Mitochondrial Enzymes and Sarcoplasmic ATPase in Cardioprotection Mediated by Aqueous Extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC Root on Ischemic Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, G A; Paddikkala, J

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigate the protective effect of aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum in preserving mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase during ischemia reperfusion injury. The isolated rat hearts in both drug and control group were subjected to warm ischemia (37°), followed by reperfusion with the Langendorff perfusion system. The aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was found to be effective in the rat heart for the management of ischemic reperfusion injury. Physiological parameters were significantly (PDesmodium gangeticum treated rat heart. These results suggest that Desmodium gangeticum aqueous root extract can preserve the mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase in the myocardium, resulting in the improvement of cardiac function after ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:21969747

  20. Optimization and Scale-up of Inulin Extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas; Klemm, Andrea; Ziesse, Patrick; Harms, Karsten; Wach, Wolfgang; Rupp, Steffen; Hirth, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales. The stirrer speed in the large scale was adjusted to 3.25 rpm regarding a 300 rpm stirrer speed in the 1 L-scale and relevant physical and process engineering parameters. Assumptions were confirmed by approximately homologous extraction kinetics in both scales. Since T. kok-saghyz is in the focus of research due to its rubber content side-product isolation from residual biomass it is of great economic interest. Inulin is one of these additional side-products that can be isolated in high quantity (- 35% of dry mass) and with a high average degree of polymerization (15.5) in large scale with a purity of 77%.

  1. Histological Evidence of Nephroprotective Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Root Extract against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

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    Sadia Choudhury Shimmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney damage can occur due to exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, chemicals, toxins and infectious agents, ultimately leading to renal failure, management of which is a great challenge. So, efforts have been focused on traditional and herbal medicines for the treatment of renal failure. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera may have free radical scavenging activity and can be used for the prevention and treatment of kidney damage. Objective: To observe the histological evidence of nephroprotective effect of Ashwagandha root against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka. A total number of 31 male Wistar albino rats were acclimatized for 14 days. Then, these were divided into two groups, control group consisted of 18 rats (Group A and Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group consisted of 13 rats (Group B. Control group was again subdivided into baseline control and gentamicin-treated control groups (A1 and A2 ─ each group contained 9 rats. All the animals received basal diet for 22 consecutive days. In addition to this, animals of Group A2 received gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day and animals of Group B received Ashwagandha root extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 22 consecutive days and gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day. All the animals were sacrificed on 23rd day. Then kidney samples were collected and histology was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Results: Histological examination of kidney revealed abnormal histological findings in 100% of gentamicin-treated rats. But 92.31% of rats in Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group showed almost normal structure and 7.69% showed mild histological changes. Conclusion: Ashwagandha root may have some nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced

  2. Identification of methyl salicylate as the principal volatile component in the methanol extract of root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata Fers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, T K; Stevenson, P C; Belmain, S R; Farman, D I; Hall, D R

    2002-06-01

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a medicine in many parts of Africa and shows promise for protecting stored grain against insect pests. Analysis of a methanol extract of the root bark by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showed a major component accounting for over 90% of the volatile material. This was identified as methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate (methyl salicylate) by comparison of the GC retention times and mass spectrum with those of synthetic standards. This conflicts with an earlier report that the major component is methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. Two minor components had mass spectra characteristic of 2-hydroxybenzoate esters and were identified as methyl 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate and its benzyl analogue, again conflicting with an earlier report. PMID:12112739

  3. Inhibitory effects of devil's claw (secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens) extract and harpagoside on cytokine production in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kazunori; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-04-01

    Successive oral administration (50 mg/kg) of a 50% ethanolic extract (HP-ext) of devil's claw, the secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. HP-ext dose-dependently suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, was found to be one of the active agents in HP-ext and inhibited the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7. PMID:20177800

  4. Spermicidal action of a protein isolated from ethanolic root extracts of Achyranthes aspera: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuja, M M; Nithya, R S; Swathy, S S; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2011-06-15

    A previous study conducted in our department, showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the roots of Achyranthes aspera possess spermatotoxic effects. Preliminary studies also revealed that the active principle may be a protein. In this study a 58 kDa Achyranthes protein (Ap) was isolated from Achyranthes aspera using standard protocols and their effects on the rat sperm was studied in vitro in comparison with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). The sperm immobilization studies showed that about 150 μg of Ap was able to immobilize sperms completely within seconds at a lower concentration than N-9 (250 μg). The sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in the Ap-treated and N-9 treated groups in comparison to the control. In the Ap and N-9 treated groups the number of acrosome reacted cells were found to be high and it also caused agglutination of the sperms indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5' nucleotidase and acrosin enzyme. Hence this study showed that the protein isolated from the roots of Achyranthes aspera possess spermicidal activity in vitro and can act as a spermicide similar to that of nonoxynol 9. Ap also possessed spermicidal activity against human sperms in vitro. PMID:21306884

  5. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M.; Pan, Li; Isaac-Márquez, Angelica P.; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Isaac-Márquez, Ricardo; Pech-Dzib, MY; Barbi, Joseph; Calomeni, Edward; Parinandi, Narasimham; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) manifests as localized skin lesions, which lead to significant tissue destruction and disfigurement. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mayan traditional healers use Pentalinon andrieuxii Muell.-Arg. (Apocynaceae) roots for the topical treatment of CL. Here, we studied the effect of P. andrieuxii root hexane extract (PARE) on the parasites and host cells in vitro and examined its efficacy in the topical treatment of CL caused by L. mexicana. PARE exhibited potent antiparasitic activity in vitro against promastigotes as well as amastigotes residing in macrophages. Electron microscopy of PARE-treated parasites revealed direct membrane damage. PARE also activated NF-κB and enhanced IFN-γR and MHC class II expression and TNF-α production in macrophages. In addition, PARE induced production of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells as well as enhanced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. In vivo studies showed that L. mexicana-infected mice treated by topical application of PARE resulted in the significant reduction in lesion size and parasite burden compared to controls. These findings indicate that PARE could be used as an alternative therapy for the topical treatment of CL. PMID:24347110

  6. Effect of petroleum ether extract of Sesbania sesban (Merr.) roots in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjusha; Neha Aggarwal; Nitesh; Pankaj Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the petroleum ether extract of Sesbania sesban (SS)(Merr.) roots, which are widely used in inflammation, fever, ulcers, leucoderma and diabetes in various parts of India. Methods: SS was administered orally at different doses (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced type- 2 diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), biochemical parameters in serum, change in body weight, internal organs weight, food intake, water intake and glycogen level in livers were performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic effects.Results: All the doses of SS caused a marked decrease of FBG in STZ induced type -2 diabetic mice. SS decreased the cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, creatinine level and increased the insulin, HDL cholesterol, and total protein level. Decrease in body weight and glycogen level induced by STZ was restored. Increase in water and food intake induced by STZ was decreased. Conclusions: The results suggest that SS may have hypoglycemic potential for the type 2- diabetes and support the traditional use of the roots of plant as a hypoglycemic agent.

  7. Ameliorative effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Priyanka; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus) roots are extensively used in traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of A. racemosus root extract (ARE) against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit. Kindling was successfully induced by repeated administration of a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.) at an interval of 48 ± 2 h in 43 days (21 injections). Pretreatment with valproate (300 mg/kg; i.p.), a major antiepileptic drug as well as ARE significantly suppressed the progression of kindling. Moreover, ARE also ameliorated the kindling-associated depression and memory deficit as indicated by decreased immobility time and increased step-down latency, respectively, as compared to vehicle control animals. Further, these behavioral observations were complemented with analogous neurochemical changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that ARE treatment has an ameliorative effect against PTZ-induced kindling and associated behavioral comorbidities. PMID:26970996

  8. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study

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    Vijay R. Ambiye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera has been described in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac that can be used to treat male sexual dysfunction and infertility. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the spermatogenic activity of Ashwagandha root extract in oligospermic patients. Forty-six male patients with oligospermia (sperm count < 20 million/mL semen were enrolled and randomized either to treatment (n=21 with a full-spectrum root extract of Ashwagandha (675 mg/d in three doses for 90 days or to placebo (n=25 in the same protocol. Semen parameters and serum hormone levels were estimated at the end of 90-day treatment. There was a 167% increase in sperm count (9.59 ± 4.37 × 106/mL to 25.61 ± 8.6 × 106/mL; P<0.0001, 53% increase in semen volume (1.74 ± 0.58 mL to 2.76 ± 0.60 mL; P<0.0001, and 57% increase in sperm motility (18.62 ± 6.11% to 29.19 ± 6.31%; P<0.0001 on day 90 from baseline. The improvement in these parameters was minimal in the placebo-treated group. Furthermore, a significantly greater improvement and regulation were observed in serum hormone levels with the Ashwagandha treatment as compared to the placebo. The present study adds to the evidence on the therapeutic value of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, as attributed in Ayurveda for the treatment of oligospermia leading to infertility.

  9. A semi-automatic method for extracting thin line structures in images as rooted tree network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Soille, Pierre [EC - JRC

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of line networks in digital images - e.g., road or hydrographic networks in satellite images, blood vessels in medical images, robust. For that purpose, we improve a generic method derived from morphological and hydrological concepts and consisting in minimum cost path estimation and flow simulation. While this approach fully exploits the local contrast and shape of the network, as well as its arborescent nature, we further incorporate local directional information about the structures in the image. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the line network. The algorithm is demonstrated for the extraction of blood vessels in a retina image and of a river network in a satellite image.

  10. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

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    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  11. Investigation of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Alcoholic Extracts of Flower and Root of Dendrostellera Lesserti on Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    M. Alamhulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: With increasing the information about the dangerous side effects of synthetic antibiotics , the demand for natural alternative of these drugs has increased. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of root and flower extracts of the medicinal plant of Dendrostellera lesserti against some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, Dendrostellera lesserti was collected from Hamadan province in 2013. After identification, the extracts were prepared by maceration method. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar well diffusion method, MIC (serial dilution method and MBC. Antioxidant properties by DPPH method and amount of phenolic and flavonoid were measured by Folin-ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods , respectively. The data were analyzed using sas software version 9.2 (P<0.05. Results: The largest growth inhibition zone with diameter of 21.33±.66 mm was seen in Salmonella typhi culture against root methanolic extract. MIC and MBC of root extract was lower in comparison with flower. Methanolic extract of flower in at concentration of 0.8 mg/ml had the highest scavenging percentage of free radical. The higher amount of phenol and flavonoid was related to methanol extract of root, 111.8±2.69 mgGAE/g and 2.25±0.35 mgQ/g, respectively Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the root and flower methanolic extracts of Dendrostellera lesserti contain compounds with antibacterial and antioxidant properties. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:277-285

  12. An in vivo and in vitro analysis of free radical scavenging potential possessed by Desmodium gangeticum chloroform root extract: interpretation by gsms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivats, Shyam; Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Paddikkala, Jose; Kurian, Gino Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of DG chloroform root extract was assessed on isolated rat heart and in-vitro antioxidant models. Ischemia reperfusion injury was experimentally induced by using Langendroff apparatus. The free radical scavenging potential was studied in vitro by using different antioxidant models such as DPPH, super oxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity and nitric oxide scavenging activity. Both experimental approaches not only substantiate its antioxidant potential but also the cardio-protection imparted by the extract. The cardio-stimulatory effects were investigated for the extract by treating it as a pre-conditioning agent against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The improved antioxidant status of the myocardium indirectly predicts reduced oxidative stress mediated by ischemic reperfusion with evident reduction of infarct size determined by cardiac marker protein. These findings indicate that DG chloroform root extract may possess therapeutic potential against ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22186306

  13. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC0-t by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats

  14. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  15. First ayurvedic approach towards green drugs: anti cervical cancer-cell properties of Clerodendrum viscosum root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Nirmalananda, Swami; Jenkins, Charles E; Debnath, Shawon; Balambika, Rema; Fata, Jimmie E; Raja, Krishnaswami S

    2013-12-01

    The concept of Ayurvedic expert guided drug discovery and development is defined and put to test systematically for the first time in literature. Western Science has explored only ~5% of the approximately 25,000 species of higher plants for drug leads. The ancient medical science of Ayurveda has however employed a much larger spectrum of plants for clinical treatment. Clerodendrum viscosum (CV), a commonly growing weed in the Indian subcontinent has been employed by S. Nirmalananda (Ayurvedic expert) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Here we isolate and characterize a water extract fraction (Cv-AP) from the root of CV and evaluate its anticervical cancer cell bioactivity. Our results indicate that Cv-AP possesses pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-migratory activity in a dose-dependent fashion against cervical cancer cell lines. In contrast, primary fibroblasts (control healthy cells), when exposed to similar concentrations of this extract, fail to undergo apoptosis and remain relatively unaffected. These findings suggest that Clerodendrum viscosum (CV) is a readily available source of components with potent anti-cancer activity and selective bioactivity against cervical cancer cells. The major component in CV-AP was identified as a glycoprotein via SDS Page and Concanavalin-A binding studies. This study serves to illustrate that systematic collaboration with Ayurveda is a practical and powerful strategy in drug discovery and development. PMID:23387970

  16. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  17. Teratogenic Effects of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae on the Femur of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses

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    Mokutima A. Eluwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used as a sedative and in the treatment of psychotic tendency. This study was on the teratogenic effects of its root bark and leaf extracts on Wistar rat’s fetal femurs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five female rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided into 5 groups, of 5 rats each. Group A was the control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with mature male rats to allow for pregnancy. Groups B and C animals received orally 150 mg/kg each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, while Groups D and E animals received 250 mg/kg bodyweight each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, from day 7 to day 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses were examined, and their femurs were dissected out and preserved, decalcified, and routinely processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method. Results. Histological observations of the fetal femur bones showed numerous osteoblast and osteoclast, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of bone cells compared with the control. Conclusion. Ethanolic root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may lead to advanced skeletal development.

  18. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  19. Highly Potent Extracts from Pea (Pisum sativum) and Maize (Zea mays) Roots Can Be Used to Induce Quiescence in Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Hiltpold, Ivan; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-09-01

    Root exudates can play an important role in plant-nematode interactions. Recent studies have shown that the root cap exudates obtained from several plant species trigger a state of dormancy or quiescence in various genera of nematodes. This phenomenon is not only of fundamental ecological interest, but also has application potential if the plant-produced compound(s) could be used to control harmful nematodes or help to prolong the shelf-life of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The identification of the compound(s) involved in quiescence induction has proven to be a major challenge and requires large amounts of active material. Here, we present a high-throughput method to obtain bioactive root extracts from flash-frozen root caps of green pea and maize. The root cap extract obtained via this method was considerably more potent in inducing quiescence than exudate obtained by a previously used method, and consistently induced quiescence in the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis, even after a 30-fold dilution. Extracts obtained from the rest of the root were equally effective in inducing quiescence. Infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis exposed to these extracts readily recovered from their quiescent state as soon as they were placed in moist soil, and they were at least as infectious as the IJs that had been stored in water. Excessive exposure of IJs to air interfered with the triggering of quiescence. The implications of these results and the next steps towards identification of the quiescence-inducing compound(s) are discussed from the perspective of applying EPN against soil-dwelling insect pests.

  20. Probing occurrence of phenylpropanoids in Morinda citrifolia in relation to foliar diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Rath, Chiranjibi; Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Nath, Vishal; Singh, Hari Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell walls of different plant organs leading to increased lignification is an early defence response of plants against biotic stress. The aim of this work was to delineate occurrence of cell wall-bound (CWB) phenolic compounds in Morinda citrifolia leaves. Alkaline hydrolysis of the cell wall material of leaf tissues yielded 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) as the major bulk of the phenolic compounds in all Morinda germplasms. Next in line was 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Other phenolics identified were vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and ferulic acid. Concentrations of all the CWB phenolics were highest in the germplasm CHN-5, followed by the germplasm CHN-1. Incidentally, these two Morinda germplasms recorded lowest incidence of foliar diseases. Significantly higher amounts of 4-CA in combination with other phenolics may be the reasons for lowest incidence of foliar diseases in CHN-5 and CHN-1 germplasms of M. citrifolia.

  1. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saiba Abdul Wahab Nusaiba; Kumaraswamy Murugan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa.Methods:Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent.Conclusion:The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  3. Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera Root Extract Against Gentamicin Induced Changes of Serum Urea and Creatinine Levels in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayma Sultana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Kidney is an important excretory organ. Its damage can be occurred due to prolonged use and higher doses of drugs, exposure to some chemicals, toxins, or infectious agents. Herbal plants as Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of kidney damage.Objective: To observe the nephroprotective effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera root against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka from 1st July 2010 to 30th June 2011. A total number of 35 Wistar albino rats, age ranged from 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 grams were included in this study. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into control group (Group A and experimental group (Group B. Control group was again subdivided into group A1 (baseline control, consisted of 10 rats and group A2 (gentamicin treated control group, consisted of 10 rats. Again, experimental group (Group B- Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin treated group consisted of 15 rats. All groups of animals received basal diet for 22 consecutive days. In addition to this, group A2 also received gentamicin subcutaneously (100mg /kg body weight/day for the last eight (15th to 22nd day consecutive days. Again, group B received ashwagandha root extract (500mg/kg body weight/ day; orally for 22 consecutive days and gentamicin subcutaneously (100mg/kg body weight /day for last eight (15th to 22nd day days. All the animals were sacrificed on 23rd day. Then blood and kidney sample were collected. Estimation of serum urea, creatinine levels were done by using standard Laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and Bonferroni test as applicable.Results: The mean serum urea, creatinine levels were significantly (p<0.001 higher in gentamicin

  4. Effect of hydro-alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica l alone and its combination with aqueous leaf extract of Camellia sinensis on haloperidol induced parkinsonism in wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ittiyavirah, Sibi P.; R., Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines have been used to treat PD in ancient medical systems in Asian countries such as India, China, Japan and Korea based on their own anecdotal or experience-based theories. Mucuna pruriens commonly known asvelvet beans, or cow itch, are used in case of spasms associated with Parkinsonism. Purpose To investigate the antiparkinsonism activity of hydro alcoholic root extract of P. zeylanica L (PZE) aloneand its combination withaqueous extract of C. sinensis leaves (AECS)...

  5. Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A literature review and recent advances in Noni research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mian-Ying; Brett J WEST; C Jarakae JENSEN; Diane NOWICKI; SU Chen; Afa K PALU; Gary ANDERSON

    2002-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L (Noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years, and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, antihelmin,analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the Noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians' claim, a literature review and recent advances in Noni research is given below.

  6. Morinda citrifolia (Noni): a literature review and recent advances in Noni research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian-Ying; West, Brett J; Jensen, C Jarakae; Nowicki, Diane; Su, Chen; Palu, Afa K; Anderson, Gary

    2002-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia L (Noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years, and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, antihelmin, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the Noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians' claim, a literature review and recent advances in Noni research is given below. PMID:12466051

  7. Effect of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) aqueous extracts on the performance of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)

  8. Evaluation of anti-estrogenic or estrogenic activities of aqueous root extracts of Gunnera manicata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiane de Cássia Mariotti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gunnera perpensa (Gunneraceae is an African plant widely used in traditional medicine. This species is known for its activity involving the female reproductive system, such as inducing or increasing labor, treating female infertility, expelling the placenta and/or preventing post-partum hemorrhage. These properties are probably due to (z-venusol, a majoritary compound, and its action in conjunction with substances in the whole extract and other natural products. In southern Brazil, a native species Gunnera manicata L. that also belongs to Gunneraceae can be found. In spite of the traditional use of G. perpensa, there is no pharmacological and phytochemical information regarding the South American Gunnera species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of Brazilian G. manicata aqueous extracts on the reproductive system of immature female Wistar rats through a uterotrophic assay and to verify the presence of (z-venusol by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and Bonferroni´s post-hoc test (pGunnera perpensa (Gunneraceae é uma planta de origem africana extensamente utilizada na medicina tradicional do país. Esta espécie é conhecida por suas atividades no sistema reprodutor feminino, como indução ou aumento do trabalho de parto, tratamento da infertilidade em mulheres, expulsão da placenta e/ou impedimento de hemorragia pós-parto. Tais atividades devem-se, provavelmente, ao sinergismo existente entre o (z-venusol, composto majoritário, e outros compostos presentes na planta. No sul do Brasil, encontra-se uma espécie nativa, Gunnera manicata L., pertencente à família Gunneraceae. Apesar do uso tradicional de G. perpensa, não há informações farmacológicas e fitoquímicas a respeito da espécie sul Americana de Gunnera. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a atividade de extratos aquosos da espécie brasileira G

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage. PMID:24929543

  10. Withania somnifera root extract prolongs analgesia and suppresses hyperalgesia in mice treated with morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Alessandro; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Kasture, Sanjay; Cottiglia, Filippo; Acquas, Elio; Mascia, Maria Paola; Anzani, Nicola; Ruiu, Stefania

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), a safe medicinal plant, prevents the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. In the present study, we investigated whether WS extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg, i.p.) may also modulate the analgesic effect induced by acute morphine administration (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the tail-flick and in the hot plate tests, and if it may prevent the development of 2.5 mg/kg morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test. Further, to characterize the receptor(s) involved in these effects, we studied, by receptor-binding assay, the affinity of WSE for opioid (μ, δ, k), cannabinoid (CB1, CB2), glutamatergic (NMDA), GABAergic (GABAA, GABAB), serotoninergic (5HT2A) and adrenergic (α2) receptors. The results demonstrated that (i) WSE alone failed to alter basal nociceptive threshold in both tests, (ii) WSE pre-treatment significantly protracted the antinociceptive effect induced by 5 and 10 mg/kg of morphine only in tail-flick test, (iii) WSE pre-treatment prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test, and (iv) WSE exhibited a high affinity for the GABAA and moderate affinity for GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. WSE prolongs morphine-induced analgesia and suppresses the development of morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia probably through involvement of GABAA, GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of WSE as a valuable adjuvant agent in opioid-sparing therapies.

  11. EFFECTS OF BU GU ZHI(PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA L) AND BAI ZHI (DAHURIAN ANGELICA ROOT) EXTRACTS ON MELANOCYTE ADHESION AND MIGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Huiqun; Feng Jie; Zhang Xianqi; Mu Kuanhou; Liu Chao; Niu Xinwu; Dang Qianli

    2005-01-01

    Objective To find direct effect of Chinese herbs Bu Gu Zhi (Psoralea corylifolia L) and Bai Zhi (Dahurian angelica root) Extracts on melanocyte adhesion and migration in vitro. Methods Ethanol extracts obtained from two kind of Chinese medicinable herbs were tested. Human melanocytes were obtained from neonatal foreskins and 48-well culture dish covered with fibronectin were used to perform melanocyte adhesion assay; Motility was assessed using the micropore filter method. Results: The extracts of Bu Gu Zhi(Psoralea corylifolia L), Bai Zhi(Dahurian angelica root) obviously showed an effect in increasing of human melanocyte adhesion and migration on fibronectin. Conclusion It is suggested that Buguzhi(Fructus Psoraleae) and Baizhi(Radix Angelicae Dahuricae) might induce melanocyte adhesion and/or migration in the treatment of vitiligo.

  12. PENGUKURAN KANDUNGAN SKOPOLETIN PADA BEBERAPA TINGKAT KEMATANGAN BUAH MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia Linn DENGAN METODE KLT DENSITOMETRI

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    Diana Nurus Sholehah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia fruit has been used as remedies in Indonesia because many diseases could be healed. Scopoletin, one of major component of Morinda citrifolia was chosen as  marker compound because of  its various activites such as  hypotensive, antiinflamatory and antihistamine. The research aimed to determinate scopoletin in some maturations stage of Morinda citrifolia fruit in order to get best fruit for traditional medicine and phytopharmaca with optimal therapeutical effect . A simple and reliable TLC-Densitometry which has been validated before, was choosen to this aim. Fruit at stage 1,2,3 and 4 were taken  20, 45, 105 and 120 days after flowering. TLC was held on silica gel plates as stationary and ether : toluene : acetic acid 10 % (58:45:0,4 as mobile phase of fruit at stage 1, 2 and 4 and also ether : toluene : acetic acid 10 % (58:45:0,8 as mobile phase of fruit at stage 3.  Mean concentration of scopoletin at stage 1 was found to be (10,72±0,45 ppm, stage 2 was found to be (19,19±0,68 ppm, stage 3 found to be (57,94±0,79 ppm and stage 4 (14,11±0,39 ppm respectively.

  13. Mechanical scarification in seeds of Morinda citrifolia aiming to speed up the process of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. C. Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Morinda Citrifolia are plants known as important properties with pharmacological and medicine, and the growth of this kind of plant has been increased in the last years. This work has as objective of developing different methods of seed germination of the Morinda citrifolia. The work was carried out in the laboratory of seed analyses at federal university of mato grosso, Sinop. The seeds were collected in plants of Bianchi farm. The material was benefited in the shade and stored in a container by 30 days. Used DIC as design, with treatment and 4 reprises; T1 witness; T2 with smashed seeds part; T3 seeds in water for 6 hours and T4 with smashed seeds part in water for 6 hours. For each treatment was studied with 4 reprises of 25 seeds, The seeds were treated with hypochlorite in 2%. The germination was conducted in special papers of germination, in greenhouse BOD at 30C. The tests of rate germination and speed was started in 24 hours after the installation of experiment. T1 and T3 doesnt present germination, the treatment T4 and presents germination between 42 % and 30% respective. T4 presented IUV of 1,77 and T2 of 2,77, been this treatments recommended for germination of Morinda citrifolia.Key words: Germination, numb, seeds.

  14. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of sevenArtemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Mohabatkar; Mandana Behbahani; Mohammad Reza Rahimi Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of sevenArtemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) toxicity andHIV-1 replication. Methods:The studiedArtemisia species wereArtemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi andArtemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts onHIV-1 replication andCD4 expression was performed byHIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increasedPBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency ofCD4 expression inPBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect onHIV-1 replication. Conclusions:In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts ofArtemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  15. Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Effect of Musa balbisiana Root Extract: A Potent Agent for Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Himadri; Boruah, Dulal C.; Deori, Meetali; Hazarika, Ankita; Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Folklore studies have revealed that Musa balbisiana Colla (MB; Family: Musaceae) has high medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of MB extracts, i.e., root extract (RE), shoot extract and inflorescence extract were determined by using various methods viz 1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a method to assess their possible effect on glucose diffusion across gastrointestinal tract and identify bioactive compound of potent extract. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. RE showed highest antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radical (IC50 32.96 μg/ml) and inhibit 30% glucose movement in vitro. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound. Furthermore, RE treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. PMID:27199747

  16. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  17. Anti-breast cancer properties and toxicity of Dillenia suffruticosa root aqueous extract in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifah; Saiful; Yazan; Yong; Sze; Ong; Nur; Elena; Zaaba; Razana; Mohd; Ali; Jhi; Biau; Foo; Yin; Sim; Tor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the anti-breast cancer activities and the safety oral consumption of Dillenia suffruticosa root aqueous extract(DRAE)in BALB/c mice.Methods:In the anti-breast cancer study,female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups(n=12),which were(1)positive control(with breast cancer,untreated),(2)negative control(without breast cancer,untreated)and other three groups of mice with breast cancer treated with 1 000,500 and 250 mg/kg of DRAE,respectively,by oral gavage for 28 days.All mice except from the negative control group were injected into the mammary fat pad with 4T1 cells(1×1054T1 cells/0.1 m L of phosphate buffer solution).DRAE was administered orally on Day 11 after the tumor has developed.Results:The tumor volume of the 1 000 mg/kg of DRAE group reduced significantly compared to the positive control while treatment with 500 mg/kg of DRAE had significantly inhibited metastasis to the heart.In the acute toxicity study,treatment with up to5 000 mg/kg of DRAE was not toxic to the animals,indicating its safety when a large amount of this plant extract was ingested.Based on the sub-acute toxicity study,treatment of the highest dose of DRAE(1 000 mg/kg)had mild liver toxicity indicated by mild focal hemorrhage.Conclusions:DRAE possesses anti-breast cancer properties but at the same time it shows mild toxicity to the liver.The non observable adverse effect dose for DRAE is500 mg/kg.

  18. Anti-breast cancer properties and toxicity of Dillenia suffruticosa root aqueous extract in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifah Saiful Yazan; Yong Sze Ong; Nur Elena Zaaba; Razana Mohd Ali; Jhi Biau Foo; Yin Sim Tor

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anti-breast cancer activities and the safety oral consumption of Dillenia suffruticosa root aqueous extract (DRAE) in BALB/c mice. Methods: In the anti-breast cancer study, female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups (n = 12), which were (1) positive control (with breast cancer, untreated), (2) negative control (without breast cancer, untreated) and other three groups of mice with breast cancer treated with 1 000, 500 and 250 mg/kg of DRAE, respectively, by oral gavage for 28 days. All mice except from the negative control group were injected into the mammary fat pad with 4T1 cells (1 × 105 4T1 cells/0.1 mL of phosphate buffer solution). DRAE was administered orally on Day 11 after the tumor has developed. Results: The tumor volume of the 1 000 mg/kg of DRAE group reduced significantly compared to the positive control while treatment with 500 mg/kg of DRAE had signif-icantly inhibited metastasis to the heart. In the acute toxicity study, treatment with up to 5 000 mg/kg of DRAE was not toxic to the animals, indicating its safety when a large amount of this plant extract was ingested. Based on the sub-acute toxicity study, treatment of the highest dose of DRAE (1 000 mg/kg) had mild liver toxicity indicated by mild focal hemorrhage. Conclusions: DRAE possesses anti-breast cancer properties but at the same time it shows mild toxicity to the liver. The non observable adverse effect dose for DRAE is 500 mg/kg.

  19. Neuroprotection of n-Butanol Extract from Roots of Potentilla anserina on Hypoxic Injury in Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-jing; LI Ling-zhi; LV Qi; YU Bao-guo; YANG Shu-wang; HE Tao; ZHANG Yong-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of n-butanol extract from the roots of Potentilla anserina (NP) on hypoxic hippocampal neurons in neonatal rats.Methods Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were pretreated with different concentration of NP (0.25,0.0625,and 0.0156 mg/mL) before incubation in a low oxygen (0.1%) environment for 4 h.Cell viability was evaluated by Trypan blue staining assay.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by neurons into the medium was measured.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cell cytosol was determined using nitroblue tetrazolium.Morphological changes and mitochondrial function were observed by transmission electron microscopy.Results Hypoxic injury could decrease the cells viability of neuron,enhance LDH release (P < 0.05),decrease SOD activity,and increase mitochondrial injury.Pretreatment with NP significantly increased cell viability,decreased LDH release (P < 0.05),promoted SOD activity (P < 0.05),and remarkably improved cellular ultra-microstructure compared with the model group.Conclusion NP could protect the primary hippocampal neurons from hypoxic injury by attenuating mitochondrial cell death.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many women experience sexual dysfunction where there are orgasm disorders and sexual difficulties. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a herb known to improve the body’s physical and psychological condition. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a high-concentration ashwagandha root extract (HCARE supplementation for improving sexual function in healthy females. Methods. In this pilot study, 50 study subjects were randomized to either (i HCARE-treated group or (ii placebo- (starch- treated group. The subjects consumed either HCARE or placebo capsules of 300mg twice daily for 8 weeks. Sexual function was assessed using two psychometric scales, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI Questionnaire and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS, and by the number of total and successful sexual encounters. Results. The analysis indicates that treatment with HCARE leads to significantly higher improvement, relative to placebo, in the FSFI Total score (p<0.001, FSFI domain score for “arousal” (p<0.001, “lubrication” (p<0.001, “orgasm” (p=0.004, and “satisfaction” (p<0.001, and also FSDS score (p<0.001 and the number of successful sexual encounters (p<0.001 at the end of the treatment. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that oral administration of HCARE may improve sexual function in healthy women. The present study is registered in the Clinical Trial Registry, Government of India, with a number CTRI/2015/07/006045.

  1. Study on Allelopathy of Root Extract from Grafted Watermelon%嫁接西瓜根系浸提液化感作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑芳; 吴芳芳

    2011-01-01

    Watermelon itself as receptor, the allelopathy of root water extract from grafted watermelon was studied by bioassay methods. The result showed that compared with the control, watermelon seed germination exhibited allelopathic promotion in 0.01 g/ml,0.02 g/ml and 0.04 g/ml root extract treatments,seed germination exhibited allelopathic inhibition in 0. 08 g/ml root extract treatment,in which the allelopathic potential of 0. 01 g/ml and 0.02 g/ml root extract treatment was better. In terms of watermelon seedling growth,root length or plant height improved and plant dry weight increased in 0. 01 g/ml and 0. 02 g/ml root extract treatments, which played allelopathic promotion on seedling growth. In 0.04 g/ml and 0.08 g/ml root extract treatments, watermelon seedling growth was inhibited, and the allelopathic potential of 0. 08 g/ml root extract treatment was the best. The change of MDA content explained that plant was injury by high concentration extract treatment and growth was inhibited. As a whole, allelopathy of root water extract from grafted watermelon was stimulatory in lower concentration and inhibitory in higher concentration.%以西瓜自身为受体,采用生物测定的方法,研究嫁接西瓜根系水浸液的化感作用.结果表明,与对照相比,0.01、0.02、0.04 g/ml浸提液处理对种子萌发有化感促进作用,0.08 g/ml浸提液处理表现为化感抑制作用,0.01 g/ml和0.02g/ml处理化感强度较大.从西瓜幼苗生长状况来看,0.01 g/ml和0.02 g/ml根系浸提液处理促进根系生长或植株苗的生长,苗干重增加,对西瓜幼苗生长起化感促进作用,0.04 g/ml和0.08 g/ml浸提液处理对西瓜幼苗生长起抑制作用,0.08 g/ml浸提液处理化感强度最大.幼苗体内MDA含量的变化,表明在较高浓度浸提液处理下,植株受到伤害,进而生长受抑.嫁接西瓜根系浸提液的化感作用整体表现为低促高抑.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota Linn root formulated cream on wound healing using excision and incision wound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil; Amit D Kandhare; Sucheta D Bhise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Daucus carota L. (Carrot) (Apiaceae) is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments. The aim of present investigation was to formulate and evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root on excision wound model and incision wound model. Methods: The soft paraffin based cream containing 1%, 2% and 4% w/w of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. (EEDC) root was formulated and evaluated for pharmaceutical parameters such as rheological properties, pH, skin irritation and external characters. Excision wounds sized 300 mm2 and 2 mm depth were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization at different time intervals. Incision wounds six centimeter long and two linear-paravertebral incisions were used for the study of tensile strength, total protein and hydroxyproline content measured on 10th day old incision wound. Results: Ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root cream formulation when applied topically did not show any sign and symptoms of skin irritation. Animals treated with topical EEDC cream formulation (1%, 2%and 4% w/w) showed significance decrease in wound area, epithelization period and scar width whereas rate of wound contraction significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.001 and P<0.001 resp.) as compared to control group animals in excision wound model. In incision wound model there was significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein content of animals treated with topical EEDC cream formulation (2% and 4% w/w, respectively). Conclusions: Wound-healing property of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root may be attributed to the various phytoconstituents like flavonoids and phenolic derivatives present in the root and the quicker process of wound healing could be a function of either its antioxidant or antimicrobial potential. The present findings provide scientific evidence to the ethanomedicinal properties of Daucus

  3. Experiment on Tissue Culture of Morinda citrifolia%海滨木巴戟组织培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳; 朱鹏飞; 房丹; 高中海; 徐梁

    2013-01-01

    The axillary buds of Morinda citrifolia were used as the explants to establish the micro-propagation system. The orthogonal experiment of bud differentiation was carried out by TDZ, BA and IBA. The results showed that three hormones had no significant(p < 0.05) effect on bud differentiation, but IBA inhibited the differentiation. The number of vitrification shoots increased with the concentration of BA when the medium was only added BA. Experiment on rooting induction demonstrated that the influences of NAA and IBA had no obvious difference (p<0.05). However, more callus were induced from the base of explant in the medium with IBA.%以海滨木巴戟(Morinda citrifolia)的嫩芽为外植体进行组培研究,以1/2MS+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂6 g/L为基本培养基,以TDZ、BA、IBA三种激素进行不定芽的诱导分化实验,以IBA、NAA进行生根实验。结果表明,各因素对外植体分化的影响皆不显著(p<0.05),IBA抑制外植体分化;在只添加BA的培养基中,随着BA浓度的升高,外植体玻璃化的现象有增加的趋势;生根实验结果表明,NAA和IBA诱导生根效果相差不大(p<0.05),但是IBA在外植体基部诱导出更多的愈伤组织。

  4. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. Leaf, Flower, Stem and Root Extracts for Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam Amutha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition zones ranged between 16–29 mm. Leaves extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition, followed by that of flowers, which also inhibited all the bacteria except C. albicans. The most susceptible microbes to all extracts were S. aureus and Micrococcus sp. Root extract displayed larger inhibition zones against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and had larger inhibition zones compared to stem extract. The lowest MIC values were obtained with E. coli and C. albicans (3.12 mg/mL, followed by S. aureus (12.50 mg/mL and P. mirabilis (50.00 mg/mL. All the other bacteria had MIC values of 100.00 mg/mL. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM studies revealed that the cells exposed to leaf extract displayed a rough surface with multiple blends and invaginations which increased with increasing time of treatment, and cells exposed to leaf extract for 36 h showed the most damage, with abundant surface cracks which may be related to final cell collapse and lossThe antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots were evaluated against some medically important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringensis, four Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and P. mirabilis and one yeast (Candida albicans species were screened. Inhibition

  5. 花生根中白藜芦醇的提取%Research on Extraction Technology of Resveratrol from Roots of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志

    2014-01-01

    The extraction technology of resveratrol from peanut roots was studied.The resveratrol was extracted by traditional solvent method and the content of resveratrol was used as inspect index.The four factors , including temperature, the ratio of solvent to material, time and the extraction concentration, were studied by orthogonal experimental design.The results showed that ethanol concentration and the ratio of solvent to material were chief factors for the extraction of the resveratro 1.The optimum extraction conditions were that the temperature was 70 ℃, the ethanol concentration was 70%, solvent to material ratio was 1:20, and the extraction time was 1.5 h.Under the optimum extraction condition , the ratio of resveratrol was 0.083%.This extraction technology could be used for the extraction of the resveratrol from peanut roots.%采用传统的溶剂浸提法提取白藜芦醇,以白藜芦醇的提取量为考察指标,进行正交试验,考察温度、乙醇浓度、液料比对白藜芦醇提取效果的影响。结果显示,乙醇浓度和料液比是影响白藜芦醇提取量的显著性因素。优化工艺参数为:温度70℃,乙醇浓度70%,液料比1砄20,提取时间1.5 h,该条件下,藜芦醇的得率为0.083%。该工艺稳定,可用于花生根中白藜芦醇的提取。

  6. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  7. [Effect of stress conditions on the activity and isozyme composition of peroxidase of vacuoles and tissue extract of red beet roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradedova, E V; Nimaeva, O D; Saliaev, R K

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the enzymatic activity of phenol-dependent peroxidase (PO) of vacuoles and tissue extract of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots in different phases of plant development and in hyperosmotic stress and pathogen infection were found. The highest activity was observed during root growth and the lowest PO activity occurred in dormancy, respectively. Activation of the enzyme was observed in infected roots. The isozyme composition of PO was characterized by lability, and the number of cationic isoforms varied significantly. The optimum pH of the enzyme changed depending on the growth phase and stressor, tending to shift towards low values at rest and in hyperosmotic stress. The shift in the optimum pH coincided with the appearance of additional cationic PO isoforms. PMID:25731036

  8. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera so-lution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966. The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  9. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. Only teeth without conditions such as cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification were included in the study. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subse-quent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number colonies of the bacte-ria were then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent T-test (p= 0.966. The in-hibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator but it is suggested for the future studies to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera for longer durations and as an intracanal medicament.

  10. Regeneration of Stem Segments of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.)%诺丽茎段的离体再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓晴; 吴田; 蓝增全; 吴腾超; 陶燕蓝

    2014-01-01

    We established two regeneration systems ( Pattern Ⅰ:adventitious roots were induced after adventitious bud;PatternⅡ:adventitious roots were induced before adventitious bud ) with stem segments as explant in MS culture medium with dif-ferent hormones combinations. The best medium for the inducement of callus was 3%MS+1.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.05 mg/L NAA.In the Pattern Ⅰ, the optimal culture medium for the inducement of adventitious bud from the callus was 3%MS+3.0 mg/L 6-BA, and 3%MS+0.2 mg/L NAA was best for the inducement of adventitious roots .In the PatternⅡ, the op-timal culture medium was 3%MS+0.05 mg/L NAA.%以诺丽( Morinda citrifolia Linn.)不含腋芽的茎段薄片为外植体,在添加不同种类和质量浓度的3%MS培养基上离体培养,建立模式Ⅰ为先诱导不定芽后诱导不定根、模式Ⅱ为先诱导不定根后诱导不定芽两种离体再生模式。结果表明:诱导诺丽茎薄片产生愈伤组织的最优培养基为3%MS+1.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.05 mg/L NAA;在模式Ⅰ中,诱导诺丽茎薄片愈伤组织分化出不定芽的最优培养基为3%MS+3.0 mg/L 6-BA,诱导不定芽生根的最优培养基为3%MS+0.2 mg/L NAA;在模式Ⅱ中,诱导诺丽茎薄片的愈伤组织先分化出不定根再分化出不定芽的最优培养基为3%MS+0.05 mg/L NAA。

  11. ANTI-ULCER EFFECT ON THE ETHANOL EXTRACT OF THE BARK & ROOT OF FICUS RELIGOISA LINN. IN DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL ULCER MODELS IN RATS

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    Sonali Thorat, Dhananjay Deshmukh*, Dushant Gaikwad and Nirmala Grampurohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ficus religiosa L (Moraceae is widely distributed in northern part of India has traditionally been used in India as medicinal plant for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. In the present study ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa L was used for investigation of antiulcer activity by using pylorus ligation as antisecretory model and ethanol induced ulceration models as cytoprotective model. Animals pretreated with ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa L at the dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg showed significant decrease in ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection in all models. The results suggested that the extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg showed significant protection (P<0.001 by reducing ulcerative lesions when compared with control group of animals. These findings indicate that Ficus religiosa L. bark and root extract shows significant antiulcer activity.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activity of Root Extracts of Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy (Agavaceae

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    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy (Agavaceae is a perennial plant widely distributed in tropical Africa. Preparations of the plant are commonly used across Nigeria for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Based on the fact that herbal medicine is a strong component of integrative medicine, this study was conducted to evaluate the anticancer activity of root extracts of Sansevieria liberica. Methods. Sulforhodamine B (SRB in vitro cytotoxicity assay, Sarcoma-180 (S-180 ascites and solid tumor, and L1210 lymphoid leukemia in vivo models were used in this study. Results. SL-A002 (IC50 23 µg/mL with HeLa, SL-A003 (IC50 22 µg/mL with HCT-116, and SL-A004 (IC50 23 and 18 µg/mL with A549 and THP-1, resp. demonstrated significant activity in the SRB cytotoxicity assay. Potency was highest with the following pairs of extract : cancer cell line: SL-A002 : HeLa (IC50 23 µg/mL, SL-A003 : HCT-116 (IC50 22 µg/mL, and SL-A004 : THP-1 (IC50 18 µg/mL. SL-A002 demonstrated significant dose-dependent antitumor activity in the Sarcoma-180 (S-180 ascites model with peak effect produced at the dose of 120 mg/kg (i.p. with inhibition of 89.36% compared to 97.96% for 5-FU (20 mg/kg i.p.. The inhibition of tumor growth by SL-A002 in the S-180 solid tumor model was 47.40% compared to a value of 50.18% for 5-FU. SL-A002 was also significantly active in the L1210 lymphoid leukemia model with 158.33% increase in mean survival time, the same value for 5-FU. Conclusions. The hydroethanolic extract of Sansevieria liberica, SL-A002, possesses significant anticancer activity to warrant further extensive study to identify, isolate, and characterize the specific bioactive molecules responsible for the observed antitumor activity and the precise mechanism(s of action.

  13. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Daniel; Ngala, Robert A; Appiah, Alfred A; Anang, Yvonne; Musah, Iddi; Adjei, Samuel; Bamfo-Quaicoe, Kwabena; Sule, Derick; Gyan, Ben A; Arhin, Peter; Edoh, Dominic A

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients' results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm(3)  (P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. PMID:26106434

  14. Mitochondria-dependent apoptogenic activity of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus against human BPH-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Lin, J; Peng, J; Hong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Croton membranaceus aqueous root extract (CMARE) is among the widely used phytotherapeutics in Ghana for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of action of CMARE remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to establish whether apoptosis is involved in the antiproliferative effect of CMARE on human BPH-1 cells. We determined the effect of treatment with 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg/mL CMARE for 24, 48, and 72 h on the viability and morphology of BPH-1 cells using the MMT assay and phase-contrast microscopy, respectively. We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of CMARE after 48 h at the cellular level using Hoescht 33258 and JC-1 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to confirm the apoptotic effects of CMARE at the molecular level. CMARE induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition in the proliferation of BPH-1 cells (P < 0.05) and an alteration in their morphology and a reduction their density. Furthermore, CMARE induced dose-dependent staining of the nuclear chromatin, significant DNA fragmentation with G₀/G₁ sub-diploid cells (P < 0.01), and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cells compared to the controls after 48 h (P < 0.01). Additionally, while CMARE induced a significant upregulation of the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, those of Bcl2 did not change significantly. Therefore, induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of BPH-1 cells may be a possible mechanism of action of CMARE.

  15. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Awuku Asare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA, renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30 patients (66 ± 11 years completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients’ results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL improved (P=0.001. Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P=0.002; fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P=0.045; and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm3  (P=0.023. C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of the response to silver ions and yeast extract in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Shen, Ye; Shen, Zhuo; Zhao, Le; Ning, Deli; Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Rong; Huang, Luqi

    2016-10-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses can inhibit plant growth, resulting in losses of crop productivity. However, moderate adverse stress can promote the accumulation of valuable natural products in medicinal plants. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms thus might help optimize the variety of available plant medicinal materials and improve their quality. In this study, Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures were employed as an in vitro model of the Chinese herb Danshen. A comparative proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS was performed. By comparing the gel images of groups exposed to the stress of yeast extract (YE) combined with Ag(+) and controls, 64 proteins were identified that showed significant changes in protein abundance for at least one time point after treatment. According to analysis based on the KEGG and related physiological experimental verification, it was found that YE and Ag(+) stress induced a burst of reactive oxygen species and activated the Ca(2+)/calmodulin signaling pathway. Expression of immune-suppressive proteins increased. Epidermal cells underwent programmed cell death. Energy metabolism was enhanced and carbon metabolism shifted to favor the production of secondary metabolites such as lignin, tanshinone and salvianolic acids. The tanshinone and salvianolic acids were deposited on the collapsed epidermal cells forming a physicochemical barrier. The defense proteins and these natural products together enhanced the stress resistance of the plants. Since higher levels of natural products represent good quality in medicinal materials, this study sheds new light on quality formation mechanisms of medicinal plants and will hopefully encourage further research on how the planting environment affects the efficacy of herbal medicines.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of the response to silver ions and yeast extract in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Shen, Ye; Shen, Zhuo; Zhao, Le; Ning, Deli; Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Rong; Huang, Luqi

    2016-10-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses can inhibit plant growth, resulting in losses of crop productivity. However, moderate adverse stress can promote the accumulation of valuable natural products in medicinal plants. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms thus might help optimize the variety of available plant medicinal materials and improve their quality. In this study, Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures were employed as an in vitro model of the Chinese herb Danshen. A comparative proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS was performed. By comparing the gel images of groups exposed to the stress of yeast extract (YE) combined with Ag(+) and controls, 64 proteins were identified that showed significant changes in protein abundance for at least one time point after treatment. According to analysis based on the KEGG and related physiological experimental verification, it was found that YE and Ag(+) stress induced a burst of reactive oxygen species and activated the Ca(2+)/calmodulin signaling pathway. Expression of immune-suppressive proteins increased. Epidermal cells underwent programmed cell death. Energy metabolism was enhanced and carbon metabolism shifted to favor the production of secondary metabolites such as lignin, tanshinone and salvianolic acids. The tanshinone and salvianolic acids were deposited on the collapsed epidermal cells forming a physicochemical barrier. The defense proteins and these natural products together enhanced the stress resistance of the plants. Since higher levels of natural products represent good quality in medicinal materials, this study sheds new light on quality formation mechanisms of medicinal plants and will hopefully encourage further research on how the planting environment affects the efficacy of herbal medicines. PMID:27372730

  18. Chemopreventive effect of Korean Angelica root extract on TRAMP carcinogenesis and integrative "omic" profiling of affected neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Li; Tang, Suni; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanol extract exerts anti-cancer activity in several allograft and xenograft models. Here we examined its chemopreventive efficacy through gavage administration against primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice and wild type littermates were given a daily gavage (5 mg/mouse, Monday-Friday) of AGN or vehicle, beginning at 8 wk of age (WOA). All mice were terminated at 24 WOA, unless earlier euthanasia was necessitated by large tumors. Whereas AGN-treated TRAMP mice decreased dorsolateral prostate lesion growth by 30% (P = 0.009), they developed fewer and smaller neuroendocrine-carcinomas (NE-Ca) (0.12 g/mouse) than vehicle-treated counterparts (0.81 g/mouse, P = 0.037). We analyzed the proteome and transcriptome of banked NE-Ca to gain molecular insights. Angiogenesis-antibody array detected a substantial reduction in AGN-treated NE-Ca of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an angiogenesis stimulator. iTRAQ proteomics plus data mining suggested changes of genes upstream and downstream of FGF2 functionally consistent with AGN inhibiting FGF2/FGFR1 signaling at different levels of the transduction cascade. Moreover, AGN upregulated mRNA of genes related to immune responses, restored expression of many tumor suppressor genes, and prostate function and muscle differentiation genes. On the other hand, AGN down-regulated mRNA of genes related to neuron signaling, oncofetal antigens, inflammation, and mast cells, Wnt signaling, embryonic morphogenesis, biosynthesis, cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. These changes suggest not only multiple cancer cell targeting actions of AGN but also impact on the tumor microenvironments such as angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune surveillance.

  19. Effect of extracts of trichosanthes root tubers on HepA-H cells and HeLa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming Dou; Ji-Cheng Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cytotoxic activity of extracts of trichosanthes root tubers (EOT) on HepA-H cells and HeLa cells compared with trichosanthin (TCS), and to explore the possible mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of EOT on HeLa cells.METHODS: Tumor cells were culturedin vitro, and then microculture tetrzoalium assay (MTT) was used to investigate drugs' cytotoxic activity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe ultrastructural changes of cells, and electrophoresis was performed to detect changes of biochemical characteristics of intercellular DNA.RESULTS: TCS and EOT had no obvious effects on HepAH cells (P>0.05), but had remarkable effects on HeLa cells in a time and dose dependent manner (r>0.864, P<0.05or P<0.01). The inhibitory rate of EOT was much higher than that of TCS (P<0.01). Median inhibitory rates (IC50)of TCS and EOT on HeLa cells were 610.9 mg/L and 115.6 mg/L for 36 h, and 130.7 mg/L and 33.4 mg/L for 48 h respectively. Marked morphologic changes were observed including microvillus disappearance or reduction, cell membrane bledding, cell shrinkage, condensation of chromosomes and apoptotic bodies with complete membranes. Meanwhile, apoptosis of HeLa cells was confirmed by DNA ladder formation on gel electrophoresis.CONCLUSION: TCS and EOT have no obvious effects on HepA-H cells, but have significant inhibitory effects on HeLa cells, indicating that EOT is superior to TCS in anti-tumor activity.

  20. IN VITRO COMPARATIVE CYTOTOXIC AND GROWTH INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF THE METHANOL EXTRACTS OF THE LEAF, STEM AND ROOT BARKS OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONTIFOLIUS (MILL.) JOHNST (EUPHORBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Oise Ikpefan

    2013-01-01

    Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is one of the recipes indicated in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of tumor-related ailments in parts of Nigeria. This claim was examined using assay methods involving cytotoxicity and growth inhibitory evaluations of the methanol extracts of the leaf, stem and root barks of the plant against tadpole of Raniceps ranninus and guinea corn Sorghum bicolor seeds. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated between 10-400 µg/ml over a period of 24hr while the growt...

  1. The antibacterial, phytochemicals and antioxidants evaluation of the root extracts of Hydnora africanaThunb. used as antidysenteric in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wintola, OA; Afolayan, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the anti-dysenteric, phytochemicals and antioxidative properties of the root extracts of Hydnora africana. The use of plants for the treatment of dysentery and other diseases in traditional medicine has increased on the basis of these rich traditional medicine systems. Series of pharmacological tests are recommended since the aetiology of many diseases may be due to more than one factor. Methods The agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of...

  2. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic root extract of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ottu OJ; Atawodi SE; Onyike E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the methanolic extract of the root of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Methods: Malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin as indices of liver damage and lipid peroxidation were detected in rats after intraperitoneal administration of extract (5 mg/kg). Results: The liver, kidney and heart showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in the levels of MDA from (0.18±0.04), (0.23±0.07) and (0.26±0.10) nmol/mg respectively in the CCl4 control to (0.15±0.03), (0.17±0.04) and (0.17±0.07) nmol/mg protein in groups pre-treated with the extract for three days at 5 mg/kg). Similarly, compared to the CCl4 control, significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum AST, ALT and bilirubin as well as in level of total cholesterol and MDA with concomitant increase in HDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels when CCl4-intoxicated rats were treated with Cassia singueana root extract for two weeks. Conclusions:These results suggest that methanolic extract of Cassia singueana contain potent antioxidant compounds that can offer significant protection against hepatic and oxidative injuries.

  3. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude root and fruit extracts of Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Laychiluh Bantie

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbiaceae (Croton macrostachyus H.; bā dòu) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria, gonorrhea, diabetes, wounds, fungal infections, and helminths. No scientific investigations have been performed to substantiate these claims. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract of the fruit and the root of Croton macrostachyus H. in a rodent model of malaria. The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei was used to inoculate healthy 8-week-old male Swiss albino mice weighing 23-27 g. Each of the hydroalcoholic crude extracts (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of mice. The parameters of parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were determined using Peter's test and Rane's test. Both extracts significantly inhibited parasitemia and increased survival time in infected mice. Maximum suppression and prolongation were obtained at the highest doses used in the study. The crude extracts prevented loss of weight and temperature, but did not affect the packed cell volume. This study suggests that the root and fruit extracts of the plant both have promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner, which supports the folkloric use of the plant for treating malaria.

  4. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoid from Root of Arctium lappa%牛蒡根总黄酮的提取工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宁; 管莹; 李艳辉; 鲁巍巍; 李宏博

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To optimize extraction technology of total flavonoid from root of Arctium lappa. Method: With extraction rate as index, effect of different factors on extraction technology was investigated by single factor test, including the concentration of ethanol, solid-liquid ratio, crush size, extraction times, ultrasonic time, temperature and power; Orthogonal test was use to optimize ultrasonic extraction conditions of total flavonoid from root of A. lappa with extraction time, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power and crush size as factors, and test data was statistical analysing by SPSS software. Result: Ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power and crush size were main factors, which influencing extraction effect of total flavonoid. Optimum extraction technology was as follows; crush size of A. lappa root of the most coarse powder, extracted 3 times with 20 the amount of 60% ethanol at 60 ℃ , 40 min each time, ultrasonic power 60 W. Conclusion: Optimized extraction technology was stable and feasible, it could be suitable in industrial production.%目的:优化牛蒡根总黄酮的超声提取工艺.方法:以总黄酮提取率为指标,采用单因素考察乙醇体积分数、料液比、粉碎粒度、提取次数、超声时间、温度及功率对牛蒡根总黄酮提取工艺的影响;选取乙醇体积分数、提取时间、超声功率及粉碎粒度为考察因素,通过正交试验法优化牛蒡根总黄酮超声提取条件,并使用SPSS软件对试验数据进行统计分析.结果:乙醇体积分数、超声时间、超声功率和粉碎粒度是影响牛蒡根总黄酮提取效果的主要因素.优选的提取工艺为牛蒡根最粗粉加20倍量60%乙醇提取3次,每次40 min,超声功率60 W,温度60℃.结论:优选的提取工艺稳定可行,可推广于大生产应用.

  5. Cytological changes in meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. root tip treated with extracts from callus of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don

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    Agnieszka Pietrosiuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an ethanolic extract from callus of Catharanthus roseus on Allium cepa root cells divisions was investigated. Two lines: white and green callus, were established on solid B5 medium with IAA 1 mg/l and kinetin 0.1 mg/l. The HPLC analysis of callus extracts showed the presence of indole alkaloids, however not known pharmacologically active alkaloids or derivatives used in semisynthesis (vinblastine, ajmalicine, serpentine, yohimbine, vindoline and catharanthine have been found. The ethanolic extract of C. roseus callus inhibited the number of mitoses in Allium cepa root tip cells. Short (1-3 hours treatment resulted in an increase in the index of late prophases, with characteristic light spaces, and the index of metaphases with twisted chromosomes forming an equatorial plate or irregular structures of c-metaphases. At the same time, the percentage of anaphases and telophases decreased significantly. Longer treatment of the root tip inhibited mitotic activity, stopping it completely already after 12 hours. Interphase nuclei became at first denser and homogeneous, eventually their structure became , partitioned into zones and formation of chromatin territories, with distinct large nucleoli has been observed. Electron microscope observations revealed well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and thick, invaginating cell membrane.

  6. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae on the fetal heart

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    Mokutima A Eluwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim : This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results : There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion : This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of

  7. 微波辅助胶团提取甘草中的甘草酸和甘草甙%Microwave-assisted Micellar Extraction and Determination of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Liquiritin in Licorice Root by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨; 谢渝春; 刘会洲

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of employing non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) as an alternative and effective solvent for the microwave-assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and liquiritin (LQ) from licorice root was studied.The optimal extraction parameters based on the microwave-assisted micellar extraction technique were determined.Under the optimal conditions, i.e. 5% (by volume) Triton X-100, microwave-assisted extraction for 3-5min at 373K, the percentage extraction of active ingredients reached the highest value. The preconcentration factor for GA and LQ (about 13.5) and the extraction efficiency for these two ingredients approached 100% showed the coupling of microwave-assisted extraction and cloud-point extraction could be employed as a new and effective technique for the rapid extraction and preconcentration of pharmacologically active ingredients from medicinal plants such as licorice root without disturbing chromatographic analysis.

  8. Application of chromatography and mass spectrometry to the characterization of cobalt, copper, manganese and molybdenum in Morinda citrifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2013-03-15

    An analytical procedure was proposed to determine the manganese species and to study the fractionation of microelements such as copper, cobalt and molybdenum in Noni juice. Morinda citrifolia is known as a noni fruit, Indian mulberry, nunaakai, dog dumpling, mengkudu, beach mulberry, vomit fruit and cheese fruit. It is a tropical plant with a long tradition of medicinal use in Polynesia and tropical parts of eastern Asia and Australia. This article covers the determination of manganese species in Noni juice and established by fractionation by size exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC ICP MS) and next characterization of species by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). Also presented the fractionation analysis of copper, cobalt and molybdenum in Noni juice sample using SEC ICP MS - juice was treated with buffer and enzymatic extraction media and analyzed. For the evaluation of the amounts of the metal fractions distinguished, the ICP MS was used off-line prior to the determination of copper, cobalt, molybdenum and manganese concentrations in the juice. It was established that elements are present in the analyzed samples in different species and their concentration is μg mL(-1) and ng mL(-1) range in fruit. The accuracy of the entire fractionation scheme and sample preparation procedures involved was verified by the performance of the recovery test. For the information about the bioavailability of these elements, in vitro bioavailability investigation was used by SEC ICP MS technique. Two step digestion model simulating gastric (pepsin digestion) and intestinal (pancreatin digestion) juices. In Noni juice, manganese is complexed from flavonoids - rutin, from dye like anthraquinone (alizarin) and glycosides - asperulosidic acid (ESI MS - characterization). The study shows that copper and molybdenum contained in Noni juice are complexed by peptides, and cobalt by organic acids (which are 3.6% of juice). Molybdenum in

  9. Evaluation of Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicities of Aqueous Ethanol Root Extract of Raphia hookeri Palmaceae on Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Mbaka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of treatment with aqueous ethanol root extract of Raphia hookri (Palmaceae on rats. In acute toxicity study, the root extract in a graded doses of 125-2000 mg/kg bwt administered Intra-Peritoneal (IP produced dose dependent mortality with median acute toxicity (LD50 of approximately 562.3 mg/kg bwt. The animals fed with the extract by gavages tolerated up to 4000 mg/kg body weight (bwt with no sign of physical/behavioural changes hence 1/20th of the dose (200 mg/kg was used as the highest therapeutic dose. In sub-chronic toxicity study, significant increase (p0.05 decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC count and haemoglobin (Hb level while White Blood Cell (WBC showed increase. In tissue analysis, the extract caused marked deleterious effect on the testes leading to drastic reduction in sperm cells whereas tissues of liver, kidney and heart however showed normal appearance.

  10. Active root distribution profiles of Indian potato cultivars in relation to their capacity to extract phosphorus from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified 32P injection technique consisting of feeding the radioactive solution through a decapitated stem was employed to characterize the active root distribution profiles of three Indian potato cultivars of varying maturity patterns. The earlier the cultivar could mature the shallower the root system, whereas late-maturing cultivars could strike deep roots even early in their growing period. The earlier the cultivar matures the greater its preference for fertilizer-P; late-maturing cultivars could, however, recycle P from deeper soil horizons. The layer of soil located 20 to 40 cm deep contributed P to the plant in disproportionately larger quantities than the relative root permeation in this layer, possibly due to the conductive growth environment obtained herein. (author)

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  12. Study on Free Radical Scavenging in vitro and Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from Cook Noni (Morinda citrifolia ) Juice%库克诺你果汁提取物体外清除自由基及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌; 谢明勇; 聂少平; 陈军辉; Barbara Zimmermann

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of different extracts from Cook noni juice, including noni polysaccharide (noni-ppt), ethanol solute and ethyl acetate extract. Superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals were generated from autoxidation of pyrogallol (PR) and Fenton reaction (Fe2 +/H2O2). Furthermore 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was applied to evaluate the scavenging activity of the extracts. Malondialdehyde (MDA) ,the product of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was induced by adding Fe2+ into yolk homogenate. The ability of preventing LPO was measured by thibarbituric acid (TBA) method. All measurements were performed by spectrophotometric methods. The results suggested that the fraction of ethanol solute and ethyl acetate extract showed significant scavenging and antioxidant ability; L-ascorbic acid served as the standard. Noni-ppt had weaker activity on hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, and LPO, and could accelerate the procedure of PR autoxidation. The abilities of the extracts may be related to their polarity.%本文对诺你果汁多糖、乙醇溶出物和乙酸乙酯萃取物体外对超氧阴离子(O2-·)、羟自由基(·OH)、DPPH和脂质过氧化(LPO)的抑制作用进行了研究.超氧阴离子(O2-·)由邻苯三酚自氧化产生;羟自由基(·OH)由Fenton反应产生;利用Fe2+诱发卵黄脂蛋白产生丙二醛(NDA),TBA法测定.所有测定均为分光光度法.结果表明,与已知抗氧化剂L-抗坏血酸相比,乙醇溶出物和乙酸乙酯萃取物均有明显的捕捉自由基和抗氧化能力,而多糖捕捉自由基和抗氧化能力很低,且对O2-·没有抑制作用,反而会增加其生成速度.

  13. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nor Nasriah; Osman, Rozita; Juahir, Hafizan; Saim, Norashikin

    2016-04-30

    E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL(-1) (r² = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.

  14. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nor Nasriah; Osman, Rozita; Juahir, Hafizan; Saim, Norashikin

    2016-01-01

    E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL(-1) (r² = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes. PMID:27144555

  15. Cell cycle arrest and mechanism