WorldWideScience

Sample records for citrates

  1. Citrat og nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Citrate is an important naturally occurring inhibitor of calcium stone formation in urine. Urinary citrate excretion was examined in 43 consecutive patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 50 normal controls by a specific enzymatic technique. Hypocitraturia (<1.6 mmol/24h...

  2. Trisilver(I citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fischer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Trisilver(I citrate, 3Ag+·C6H5O73−, was obtained by evaporation of a saturated aqueous solution of the raw material that had been obtained from sodium dihydrogen citrate and silver nitrate. It features one formula unit in the asymmetric unit. There is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the OH group and one of the terminal carboxylate groups. Different citrate groups are linked via the three Ag+ ions, yielding a three-dimensional network with rather irregular [AgO4] polyhedra.

  3. Citrate Metabolism by Pediococcus halophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbe, Chiyuki; Uchida, Kinji

    1987-01-01

    Several strains of non-citrate-metabolizing Pediococcus halophilus have previously been isolated from soy sauce mash or moromi. The factors controlling the metabolism of citrate in soy pediococci were studied. All the soy pediococcal strains tested which failed to decompose citrate did not possess citrate lyase [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase; EC 4.1.3.6] activity. In P. halophilus, citrate lyase was an inducible enzyme, and the optimum pH for activity was 7.0. The metabolism of citrate in P. halophi...

  4. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  5. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Arhan; Seyfettin K(o)klü; Aydln S K(o)ksal; (O)mer F Yolcu; Senem Koruk; Irfan Koruk; Ertugrul Kayacetin

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment.Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity.

  6. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  7. Enhancement of Aminoacylase Activity by Sodium Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于范利; 曹志方; 李森; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Kidney and other tissues of animals and humans have a high concentration of citrate which is an important intermediate substance in the citrate cycle. Citrate may play an important physiological role in metabolism. In this paper, we studied the interaction of the sodium salt of citrate with aminoacylase which is an important enzyme in metabolism and found sodium citrate can enhance the activity of aminoacylase. The maximum enzyme activity induced by sodium citrate increased approximately 3 folds over the enzyme activity without sodium citrate. The initial reaction rates (Ⅴ) for different concentrations of sodium citrate were obtained, showing that sodium citrate is a non-competitive activator. The result of the ANS binding fluorescence measurements for aminoacylase indicated that increasing sodium citrate concentrations markedly increased the ANS binding fluorescence with a blue shift of the emission spectra peak. This suggests the formation of more hydrophobic regions. Aggregates formed quickly when aminoacylase was incubated with sodium citrate (0.3 mol/L) and guanidinium chloride (0- 3. 5 mol/L). Aminoacylase lost enzyme activity in the guanidinium chloride more quickly in the presence of sodium citrate than in the absence of sodium citrate. The intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity decreased more quickly and the red shift of the emission spectra peak was larger than that without sodium citrate.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium citrate to complete the reaction. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1298 Ferric citrate. (a) Ferric citrate (iron (III) citrate, C6H5FeO7, CAS Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  16. Ranitidine bismuth citrate: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastroduodenal disease has increased greatly in recent years. To avoid complications of H pylori infection, such as the development of recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcers, effective therapies are required for eradication of the infection. This article reviews ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, a novel complex of ranitidine, bismuth and citrate, which was developed specifically for the purpose of eradicating H pylori. Dual therapy with RBC in combination with clarithromycin for 14 days yields eradication rates of 76%. Triple therapy bid for one week with a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or a nitroimidazole (tinidazole or metronidazole is advocated as the treatment of choice for H pylori eradication. Analogous regimens with RBC in place of proton pump inhibitors show effective eradication rates in comparative studies and with pooled data. RBC, used alone or in combination with other antibiotics, appears to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of H pylori infection. Bismuth levels do not appear to rise to toxic levels.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  18. The Role of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium Citrate in Regulating Urinary Citrate Level and Preventing Nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Aggarwal, Piyush; Li, Xiaoming; Oakman, Crystale; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Urinary Citrate is an inhibitor of Calcium oxalate stone formation. It is reabsorbed in the proximal kidney through sodium dicarboxylate co-transporters (NaDC-1, NaDC-3) present in the renal tubular epithelium. Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters. We investigated the effect of lithium carbonate (LiC) and lithium citrate (LiCit) in regulating urinary citrate levels and preventing nephrolithiasis (NL) in the rat model. Experimental approach: We...

  19. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

  20. Anaphylaxis related to fentanyl citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a fulminant, unexpected, immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reaction that can be triggered by multiple agents. Common causative agents include neuromuscular blocking drugs, latex, antibiotics, colloids, hypnotics, and opioids. Fentanyl citrate, however, is an extremely unusual cause of anaphylaxis. Pulmonary edema, although uncommon in anaphylaxis, can be a prominent feature, as was in one of the patient. An adverse drug reaction is a noxious or unintended reaction to a drug that is administered in standard doses by the proper route for the purpose of prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment. Reactions are classified into two major subtypes: type A, which are dose dependent and predictable; and type B, which are not dose dependent and unpredictable. Unpredictable reactions include immune (allergic or no immune drug hypersensitivity reactions and are related to genetic susceptibilities or undefined mechanisms (formally called idiosyncratic and intolerance reactions. A drug allergy is always associated with an immune mechanism for which evidence of drug-specific antibodies or activated T lymphocytes can be shown. In the last few years, many novel drugs have entered clinical practice (i.e., biologic agents generating novel patterns of drug hypersensitivity reactions. As old drugs continue to be used, new clinical and biologic techniques enable improvement in the diagnosis of these reactions.

  1. Rerouting Citrate Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis to Citrate-Driven Transamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxaloacetate is an intermediate of the citrate fermentation pathway that accumulates in the cytoplasm of Lactococcus lactis ILCitM(pFL3) at a high concentration due to the inactivation of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. An excess of toxic oxaloacetate is excreted into the medium in exchange for citrate

  2. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. 14 N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  4. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  5. Ventricular tachycardia after administration of sildenafil citrate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Jeppe G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has not previously been reported that sildenafil citrate causes malignant arrhythmias in humans. Case presentation A 41-year-old man developed sustained ventricular tachycardia following sildenafil citrate administration. Conclusion It cannot be dismissed that this patient experienced ventricular tachycardia as an adverse effect of sildenafil citrate administration.

  6. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made...

  7. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting approximately equimolecular quantities of ferric hydroxide, choline,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid, followed by treatment with ammonium hydroxide, evaporating, and drying. The resulting product occurs in two forms depending on the stoichiometry of the initial reactants. (1) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron...

  9. Nickel electrodeposition from novel citrate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of electroplating bath suitable for nickel electrodeposition was developed. Trisodium citrate was used as a complexing agent and a buffer in the bath. The buffering capacity between trisodium citrate and boric acid were compared. The effects were investigated under different conditions of bath composition, current density, pH and temperature on the potentiodynamic cathodic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing index, as well as the electrical conductivity of these baths. The optimum conditions for producing sound and satisfactory nickel deposits were: NiSO4·6H2O 350 g/L, NiC12·6H2O 45 g/L and Na3C6H5O7 30 g/L at pH=4 and 55 ℃. The surface morphology of the as-plated Ni deposit was examined by SEM. The results reveal that the nickel deposition obtained from the optimum conditions are composed of compact, non-porous fine grains covering the entire surface. X-ray analysis shows that nickel deposits obtained from the citrate bath have a fine crystal structure compared with deposits from the Watts bath.

  10. Dietary citrate treatment of polycystic kidney disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, George A; Tanner, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    Progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the heterozygous male Han:SPRD rat is dramatically slowed by ingestion of potassium or sodium citrate. This study examined the efficacy of delayed therapy with sodium citrate, the effect of sodium citrate therapy on kidney cortex levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and the response to calcium citrate ingestion. Rats were provided with citrate salts in their food, and renal clearance, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and survival determinations were made. Sodium citrate therapy was most effective when started at age 1 month, and delay of therapy until age 3 months produced no benefit. Kidney cortex TGF-beta levels were elevated in 3- and 8-month-old rats with ADPKD, but not in 6-week-old rats. Sodium citrate treatment, started at age 1 month, lowered TGF-beta levels to normal in 3-month-old rats, but this is probably not the primary mechanism of citrate's beneficial effect. Calcium citrate had only a modest effect in preserving glomerular filtration rate. Effective treatment of ADPKD in this rat model requires early administration of a readily absorbed alkalinizing citrate salt. Existing data on ADPKD patients on vegetarian diets or with kidney stones should be studied in light of these findings.

  11. Functional characterization and Me2+ ion specificity of a Ca2+-citrate transporter from Enterococcus faecalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blancato, Victor S.; Magni, Christian; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary transporters of the bacterial CitMHS family transport citrate in complex with a metal ion. Different members of the family are specific for the metal ion in the complex and have been shown to transport Mg2+-citrate, Ca2+-citrate or Fe3+-citrate. The Fe3+-citrate transporter of Streptococcu

  12. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  13. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  14. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIAID)

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  15. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the well-s

  16. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  17. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended... citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended ] form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute...

  18. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  19. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  20. Role of Ga-67 citrate imaging in pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Kakuma, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    1988-11-01

    Two patients with pancreatitis in whom an area of predominant uptake of Ga-67 citrate was demonstrated involving the entire pancreas are presented. Ultrasound and x-ray CT did not reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas, whereas Ga-67 citrate imaging indicated the presence of active inflammatory change. Ga-67 citrate imaging may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and laboratory data, especially when ultrasound and/or x-ray CT cannot reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas.

  1. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  2. Citrate uptake into Pectobacterium atrosepticum is critical for bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbany, Claude; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2008-05-01

    To analyze whether metabolite import into Pectobacterium atrosepticum cells affects bacterial virulence, we investigated the function of a carrier which exhibits significant structural homology to characterized carboxylic-acid transport proteins. The corresponding gene, ECA3984, previously annotated as coding for a Na(+)/sulphate carrier, in fact encodes a highly specific citrate transporter (Cit1) which is energized by the proton-motive force. Expression of the cit1 gene is stimulated by the presence of citrate in the growth medium and is substantial during growth of P. atrosepticum on potato tuber tissue. Infection of tuber tissue with P. atrosepticum leads to reduced citrate levels. P. atrosepticum insertion mutants, lacking the functional Cit1 protein, did not grow in medium containing citrate as the sole carbon source, showed a substantially reduced ability to macerate potato tuber tissue, and did not provoke reduced citrate levels in the plant tissue upon infection. We propose that citrate uptake into P. atrosepticum is critical for full bacterial virulence.

  3. Competitive and cooperative adsorption of arsenate and citrate on goethite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Rong; JIA Yongfeng; WANG Chengzhi

    2009-01-01

    The fate of arsenic in natural environments is influenced by adsorption onto metal (hydr)oxides. The extent of arsenic adsorption is strongly affected by coexisting dissolved natural organic acids. Recently, some studies reported that there existed competitive adsorption between arsenate and citrate on goethite. Humic acid is known to interact strongly with arsenate by forming complexes in aqueous solution, hence it is necessary to undertake a comprehensive study of the adsorption of arsenate/citrate onto goethite in the presence of one another. The results showed that at the arsenate concentrations used in this study (0.006--0.27 mmol/L), citrate decreased arsenate adsorption at acidic pH but no effect was observed at alkaline pH. In comparison, citrate adsorption was inhibited at acidic pH, but enhanced at alkaline pH by arsenate. This was probably due to the formation of complex between arsenate and citrate like the case of arsenate with humic acid. These results implied that the mechanism of the adsorption of arsenate and citrate onto goethite in the presence of one another involved not only competition for binding sites, but the cooperation between the two species at the water-goethite interface as well.

  4. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated ...

  5. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  6. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  7. Treatment Efficacy and Safety During Plasma Exchange With Citrate Anticoagulation: A Randomized Study of 4 Versus 15% Citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonic, Manja; Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    In plasma exchange (PE), contrary to dialysis, there is no ultrafiltration, and the volume of anticoagulant contributes to volume overload of the patient and might also reduce PE efficiency through dilution. To reduce the volume of citrate, we compared 4 and 15% citrate anticoagulation protocols in PE in a randomized study, aiming to evaluate PE efficacy, anticoagulation efficiency, and overall safety. In addition to standard biochemical analyses during PE treatments, the elimination rate (ER) of immunoglobulins was calculated to evaluate PE efficacy. Anticoagulation was evaluated by postfilter ionized calcium, visual evaluation of the extracorporeal system, and change in the sieving coefficient (SC) during PE. Accumulation of citrate was determined by calculating the total-to-ionized calcium ratio and measuring the citrate concentration after PE. One hundred forty procedures (70 in each group) were performed in 37 patients. The mean citrate infusion rate was 197 ± 10 mL/h in the 4% and 59 ± 5.5 mL/h in the 15% groups, respectively; the total volume of infused citrate was 502 ± 77 mL versus 164 ± 52 mL (P comparable. Ionized calcium was stable during the procedures, and there were no significant side effects. Although postfilter ionized calcium was on the upper limit of the target range (0.41 ± 0.16 vs. 0.37 ± 0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.38), the visual assessment score was excellent, and even a rise in SC was observed during the procedures in both groups. The total-to-ionized calcium ratio was increased in 20 versus 22% of procedures, and citrate concentrations after PE were also similar (1306 ± 441 vs. 1263 ± 405 μmol/L). To conclude, we were unable to show superior PE efficacy in the 15% citrate group, but we significantly reduced the infused volume, which is important in patients with fluid overload. Both citrate protocols were found to provide excellent anticoagulation without significant metabolic disturbances

  8. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K; Allred, Benjamin E; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-10-16

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up (55)Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations.

  9. 76 FR 33219 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ..., sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution, and regardless of packaging type. The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend....

  10. Theoretical Study on Sulfur Dioxide Absorption with Citrate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛娟琴; 洪涛; 王召启; 李林波

    2006-01-01

    The citrate absorption of SO2 is currently one of the most successful and economic methods to harness sulfur dioxide pollution.In order to theoretically elucidate the mechanism of SO2 absorption by citrate solution and provide theoretical instruction for experiments and industrial process, the theory of multi-buffer solution, combined with computer numerical calculation methods, was applied to study the distribution parameters of the components of the citrate solution in the process of SO2 absorption and the following results were obtained: (1) HCi2- and H2Ci- in the citrate solution played the dominant role in the absorption and desorption processes; (2) Through the calculation for the buffer capacity of citrate solution, it was found that the pH of the absorption and desorption solution should be in the range of 2~8, while at pH=4.5 the buffer capacity reached its maximum. Some valuable parameters were obtained, which are instructive to the ensuing experiments and industrial design.

  11. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  12. Effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-BinHuang; Cheng-LiangXiong; Cheng-GaoYu; Jie-LingZhou; Ji-YunShen

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of male rhesus macaque. Methods:Twenty Macaca mulatta were divided into the sildenafil treated and the control groups of l0 animals each. The penile size, the corpus cavernosal electromyogram (EMG) and the intra-corpus cavernosal pressure (ICP) were determined. Results: The diameter of penis and the ICP were significantly increased and the corpus cavernosal EMG significantly reduced in the sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate increases the penile size and ICP and reduces the corpus cavernosal EMG in male rhesus macaque. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 233-235)

  13. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  14. Hemodiafiltration using pre-dilutional on-line citrate dialysate: A new technique for regional citrate anticoagulation: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhouane Bousselmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, observational, feasibility study was carried out on four patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing bicarbonate hemodialysis to study the feasibility of an on-line hemodiafiltration technique using a citrate dialysate with pre-dilutional infusion of citrate as a technique for regional citrate anticoagulation. All patients had contraindication to systemic heparin anticoagulation. The dialysis technique consisted of an on-line hemodiafiltration with a citrate dialysate without calcium using a Fresenius 4008S dialysis machine and Fresenius Polysulfone F60 dialyzers. The infusion solution was procured directly from the dialysate and was infused into the arterial line. To avoid the risk of hypocalcemia, calcium gluconate was infused to the venous return line. The study was carried out in two stages. During the first stage, the citrate infusion rate was 80 mL/min and the calcium infusion rate was 9 mmol/h. At the second stage, the rates were 100 mL/min and 11 mmol/h, respectively. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of thrombosis in the extracorporeal blood circuit and/or the dialyzer. A total of 78 sessions were conducted. All the sessions were well tolerated clinically and there were no major incidents in any of the four patients. At the first stage of the study, there were five incidences of small clots in the venous blood chamber, an incidence of extracorporeal blood circuit thrombosis of 12.5%. At the second stage of the study, no cases of extracorporeal blood circuit or dialyzer thrombosis were noted. Hemodiafiltration with on-line citrate dialysate infusion to the arterial line is safe and allows an effective regional anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit without the need for systemic anticoagulation.

  15. Polymeric architectures of bismuth citrate based on dimeric building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Four bismuth complexes, (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)4/3]·(H2O)x (1), (H2En)3[Bi2(cit)2Cl4]·(H2O)x (2), (HPy)2[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)8/5]·(H2O)x (3) and (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2](H2O)x (4) [cit = citrate4-; En = ethylenediamine; Py = pyridine] have been synthesized and crystallized. The crystal structures reveal that the basic building blocks in all of these complexes are bismuth citrate dimeric units which combine to form polymeric architectures. The embedded protonated ethylenediamine and pyridine moieties in the polymeric frameworks have been identified by X-ray crystallography and solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR. Based on the framework of complex 1, a structural model of a clinically used antiulcer drug, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) was generated. The behavior of the protonated amine-bismuth citrate complexes in acidic aqueous solution has been studied by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  16. Genetics of mesophilic citrate fermenting lactic acid bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prerequisite for the stabilization of important features, such as aroma production, in starter strains used in dairy fermentations, is an extensive knowledge of the genetic basis of these properties. In this thesis the genetic basis of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. di

  17. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  18. {sup 14}N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, David, E-mail: david.stephenson@sta.uwi.edu; Singh, Nadia [University of the West Indies, Chemistry Department (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2015-04-15

    The {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  19. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacill

  20. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  1. The effect of the Ti (IV-citrate complex on staphylococcus aureus growth and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko Viktor A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the Ti (IV-citrate complex on growth dynamics and biofilm formation of S. aureus. Speciation analysis was performed in order to estimate the structure of the Ti complex existing in citrate solutions at near-physiological pH. It is estimated that the fully deprotonated tris(citratetitanate ion [Ti(C6H4O73]8- predominates in solution at pH 6.46-7.44, and that this is most probably the biologically active form of Ti(IV-citrate. In in vitro experiments, increasing concentrations of citric acid solutions (0.05, 0.005, 0.0005 M, served as positive controls, while the effects of respective concentrations of Ti(IV-citrate were examined. The obtained results indicate that citrate decreased S. aureus 48 growth at all studied concentrations, whereas S. aureus 44 growth was decreased only by high concentrations of citrate (0.05M. Incubation of S. aureus culture with Ti(IV-citrate significantly potentiated citrate-induced effects. Ti(IV-citrate significantly altered specific bacterial growth rate in a similar manner. The most significant growth reduction was observed at the initial period of bacterial growth. At the same time, the opposite effect was detected in investigations of the effect of citrate and Ti(IV-citrate on S. aureus biofilm formation. Citric acid suppressed S. aureus biofilm formation, whereas Ti(IV-citrate displayed a significant stimulatory effect. Our findings suggest that Ti(IV-citrate possesses a more pronounced biological effect than citrate. The proposed mechanism of this action is activation of complex transport into the cell and induction of oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism of Ti(IV-citrate biological action on bacterial cultures remains unknown.

  2. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  3. Metformin-clomiphene citrate vs. clomiphene citrate alone: Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women that is associated with reproductive and metabolic disorders. Objectives: We compared the ovulation and conception rates after the treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC alone and in combination with metformin in infertile patients presented with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial of independent cases and controls was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 01 to December 31, 2008. The 42 subjects diagnosed as PCOS were divided into group A and B (21 subjects in each for management with CC + metformin and CC alone, respectively. Group A received 500 mg three times a day of metformin continuously from the first cycle for 6 months or till pregnancy was confirmed. In both groups CC was started at a dose of 50 mg from day-2 till day-6 of the menstrual cycle. The dose of CC was increased to 100 mg in second and 150 mg in third cycle, and then remained 150 mg for the remaining three cycles. With ovulation the dose of CC was unaltered in both groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: More than 50% females in both groups were had body mass index > 25. Group A achieved high rate of regular cycles, ovulation success, and conception than group B (71.4% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.03, (76.2% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.021, and (66.6% vs. 28.6%; P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Management with metformin + CC increased the ovulation and conception rates.

  4. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%.

  5. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... dihydrate and anhydrous forms of sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\1\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium... monosodium salt, respectively. Citric acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and...

  6. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  7. Sildenafil citrate and uteroplacental perfusion in fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, Sildenafil citrate, affects uteroplacental perfusion. Materials and Methods: Based on a randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, forty one pregnant women with documented intrauterine growth retardation at 24-37 weeks of gestation were evaluated for the effect of a single dose of Sildenafil citrate on uteroplacental circulation as determined by Doppler ultrasound study of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Statistical analysis included χ2 -test to compare proportions, and independent-samples t-test and paired student′s t-test to compare continuous variables. Results: Sildenafil group fetuses demonstrated a significant decrease in systolic/diastolic ratios (0.60 [SD 0.40] [95% Cl 0.37-0.84], P=0.000, and pulsatility index (0.12 [SD 0.15] [95% Cl 0.02-0.22], P=0.019 for the umbilical artery and a significant increase in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI (0.51 [SD 0.60] [95% Cl 0.16-0.85], P=0.008. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry index values reflect decreased placental bed vascular resistance after Sildenafil. Sildenafil citrate can improve fetoplacental perfusion in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. It could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR.

  8. TRANSPORT OF CITRATE CATALYZED BY THE SODIUM-DEPENDENT CITRATE CARRIER OF KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE IS OBLIGATORILY COUPLED TO THE TRANSPORT OF 2 SODIUM-IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOLKEMA, JS; ENEQUIST, H; VANDERREST, ME

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this experimen

  9. Transport of citrate catalyzed by the sodium-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae is obligatorily coupled to the transport of two sodium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Enequist, Hans; Rest, Michel E. van der

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this experimen

  10. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  11. 柠檬酸铅在柠檬酸钠溶液中溶解行为%Dissolution behavior of lead citrate in sodium citrate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东升; 李巧双; 杨典奇; 杨聪; 王贤晨; 杨家宽

    2014-01-01

    Lead citrate was prepared by the reaction of lead oxide and citrate. The effects of dissolution time, dissolution tempera-ture, sodium citrate concentration, and the addition amount of citric acid on the dissolution rate of lead citrate in sodium citrate solution were investigated. Experimental results show that, dissolution temperature, sodium citrate concentration, and the addition amount of citric acid are the main influencing factors. Increasing the dissolution temperature or the sodium citrate concentration can significantly improve the dissolution rate of lead citrate. The dissolution rate of lead citrate has a positive linear relation with the dissolution tempera-ture, and the fitted linear equation is Y=0.76+0.63T. Adding citric acid can inhibit the dissolution of lead citrate.%通过氧化铅与柠檬酸反应制备了柠檬酸铅,考察了溶解时间、溶解温度、柠檬酸钠浓度和柠檬酸加入量对柠檬酸铅在柠檬酸钠溶液中溶解率的影响.结果表明:温度、柠檬酸钠浓度及柠檬酸加入量是主要影响因素,升高温度和提高柠檬酸钠浓度可显著提高柠檬酸铅溶解率;温度和溶解率呈正线性关系,拟合的线性方程为Y=0.76+0.63T;加入柠檬酸则对柠檬酸铅溶解有抑制作用.

  12. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion

    OpenAIRE

    Yíldíz,Hamit; Durmus, Ali Said; Şimşek,Halil; Yaman, Mine

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. METHODS: Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7), torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10), torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10) and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10). Unilateral testicular torsion was created b...

  13. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  14. Renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate in renal amyloidosis due to Familiar Mediterranean Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo-Marraco, J.; Abos-Olivares, M.D.; Iribar-Ibabe, M.C.; Prats-Rivera, E.; Banzo-Marraco, J.I.; Teijeiro-Vidal, J.; Nerin-Mora, E.; Nerin de la Puerta, I.

    1981-06-01

    Renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate is described in a patient with biopsy-proven amyloidosis of the kidneys, due to Familiar Mediterranean Fever. After administration 150 MBq (4mCi) /sup 67/Ga-citrate, scans were done at 48, 72, and 120 h. Intense uptake was noted in both kidneys. A renal biopsy done 5 days after the /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan revealed a pattern typical of amyloidosis. Gallium scanning can be useful in patients with fever of unknown origin. Renal amyloidosis can be considered when renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate associated with nephrotic syndrome is observed.

  15. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... management of renal tubular acidosis with calcium stones, hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis of any etiology, and uric acid lithiasis with or without calcium stones. Potassium Citrate, 10...

  16. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Ewald

    Full Text Available Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation.

  17. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.

  18. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  19. Structures of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Davide M; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Rizzi, Menico

    2015-02-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway of all aerobic organisms and is responsible for the synthesis of many important precursors and molecules. TCA cycle plays a key role in the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is involved in the adaptation process of the bacteria to the host immune response. We present here the first crystal structures of M. tuberculosis malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, two consecutive enzymes of the TCA, at 2.6 Å and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. General analogies and local differences with the previously reported homologous protein structures are described.

  20. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  1. Green synthesis of multi metal- citrate complexes and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Usha; Warkar, Sudhir G.; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Four new multi metal-citrate complexes have been synthesized through green synthetic pathways. Their synthesis by hydrothermal route in the present research is decorated with features such as, a simple one pot synthesis, cost effectiveness, easy to scale up for commercial production, efficient synthesis conditions like mild temperature and shorter duration which further rules out the possibility of forming byproducts which may cause damage to the environment and being environmental benign as it eliminates the use and recovery of harmful organic solvents such as N, N- dimethyl formamide and N, N- diethyl formamide, used by the researchers in the past during the synthesis of similar metal- organic framework complexes. All four complexes are well defined crystalline materials with polynuclear multi metal-citrate framework having cubic crystal structure as indicated by their Powder X-ray Diffraction patterns. These complexes have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Powder XRD techniques.

  2. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon and (strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.

  3. ATP citrate lyase inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xu-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Liu, Jiang-Hua; Cao, Ren-Xian; Zhong, Jing; Yi, Guang-Hui; Quan, Zhi-Hua; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL or ACLY) is an extra-mitochondrial enzyme widely distributed in various human and animal tissues. ACL links glucose and lipid metabolism by catalyzing the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate produced by glycolysis in the presence of ATP and CoA. ACL is aberrantly expressed in many immortalized cells and tumors, such as breast, liver, colon, lung and prostate cancers, and is correlated reversely with tumor stage and differentiation, serving as a negative prognostic marker. ACL is an upstream enzyme of the long chain fatty acid synthesis, providing acetyl-CoA as an essential component of the fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, ACL is a key enzyme of cellular lipogenesis and potent target for cancer therapy. As a hypolipidemic strategy of metabolic syndrome and cancer treatment, many small chemicals targeting ACL have been designed and developed. This review article provides an update for the research and development of ACL inhibitors with a focus on their patent status, offering a new insight into their potential application.

  4. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stergios Vradelis; Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Yalda Sharifi; Otto Buchel; Satish Keshav; Roger W Chapman; Barbara Braden

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient's tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. METHODS: A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone ( n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules ( n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. RESULTS: The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group ( P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen ( P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). CONCLUSION: The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome.

  5. Antiproliferative Effects of Zinc-Citrate Compound on Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Hoo Hong; Yong Sun Choi; Hyuk Jin Cho; Ji Youl Lee; Joon Chul Kim; Tae Kon Hwang; Sae Woong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antiproliferative effects of zinc-citrate compound on hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).Methods:HRPC cell line (DU145) and normal prostate cell line (RWPE-1) were treated with zinc,citrate and zinc-citrate compound at different time intervals and concentrations to investigate the effect of zinc-citrate compound.Mitochondrial (m)-aconitase activity was determined using aconitase assay.DNA laddering analysis was performed to investigate apoptosis of DU145 cells.Molecular mechanism of apoptosis was investigated by Western blot analys s of P53,P21waf1,Bcl-2,Bcl-xL and Bax,and also caspase-3 activity analysis.Results:Treatment with zinc-citrate compound resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell number of DU145 cells in comparison with RWPE-1.M-aconitase activity was significantly decreased.DNA laddering analysis indicated apoptosis of DU145 cells.Zinc-citrate compound increased the expression of P21waf1 and P53,and reduced the express on of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins but induced the expression of Bax protein.Zinc-citrate compound induced apoptosis of DU145 cells by activation of the caspase-3 pathway.Conclusion:Zinc-citrate compound can induce apoptotic cell death in DU145,by caspase-3 activation through up-regulation of apoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins.

  6. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  7. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid)......

  8. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate.

  9. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  10. Facile synthesis of Ag2S nanoparticles functionalized by carbon-containing citrate shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silver sulfide nanoparticles with non-toxic citrate shell are synthesized by chemical bath deposition from aqueous mixtures of silver nitrate and sodium sulfide in the presence of sodium citrate used as a complexing and stabilizing agent. The prepared nanoparticles have Ag2S core with monoclinic crystal structure functionalized by a carbon-containing citrate shell. By varying the concentrations of reagents it was possible to prepare core-shell nanoparticles with pre-assigned size of Ag2S core from 10 and 50 nm and pre-assigned thickness from 1.5 to 10 nm of citrate shell. A probable mechanism of formation of carbon-containing citrate shell on Ag2S core has been proposed.

  11. A novel citrate selective electrode based on surfactant modified nano-clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminejad, Mahdieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    A citrate-selective sensor was prepared by modification of a PVC membrane with modified nano-clinoptilolite particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium surfactant (SMZ). A Nernstian slope of 29.9 ± 0.2 mV per decade of citrate concentration was obtained over the concentration range of 5.0 × 10(-5)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) of citrate. The electrode showed a fast response time (⩽ 10 s) and a detection limit of 1.3 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) of citrate. The linear range and detection limit were respectively changed to 1.0 × 10(-4)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) of citrate when the micronized clinoptilolite particles were used.

  12. NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE AND FUNCTIONAL-PROPERTIES OF A SODIUM-DEPENDENT CITRATE TRANSPORT-SYSTEM FROM KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERREST, ME; SIEWE, RM; ABEE, T; SCHWARZ, E; OESTERHELT, D; KONINGS, WN

    1992-01-01

    The gene of the sodium-dependent citrate transport system from Klebsiella pneumoniae (citS) is located on plasmid pES3 (Schwarz, E., and Oesterhelt, D. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 1599-1603) and encodes a 446-amino acid protein. Transport of citrate via this citrate transport protein (CitS) is dependent on th

  13. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

  14. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  15. Rôle modeste du citrate comme transporteur d'acétyl-CoA chez l'animal vivant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, S

    1971-02-09

    2,4-(14) C-Citrate incorporated to a far greater extent than 1,5-(14) C-citrate into liver, carcass or adipose tissue fatty acids of living mice. This finding excludes the possibility that the acetyl units emerge from the mitochondria in the form of citrate.

  16. Sufentanil citrate: a new opioid analgesic for use in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, C E

    1984-01-01

    Sufentanil citrate is a potent analogue of fentanyl that has been evaluated primarily for use in opioid anesthesia. It is a pure mu receptor agonist and produces the typical spectrum of opioid effects. The major side effects are truncal rigidity and prolonged respiratory depression. In doses of 4-30 micrograms/kg sufentanil produces hypnosis and suppresses most hemodynamic and hormonal responses to surgery without producing significant cardiovascular depression. In this respect sufentanil and fentanyl have clear advantages over morphine, meperidine and potent inhalation anesthetics. Compared to fentanyl, sufentanil has a more rapid onset and shorter duration of action. The relatively high concentration of commercially available sufentanil injection will make it much more convenient for its intended application than fentanyl injection. This new agent will be used primarily for open-heart surgery and major operations in patients with severe cardiovascular compromise.

  17. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  18. Use of Blemaren citrate formula in gout patients with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Eliseev

    2008-01-01

    Results. After completion of a course of Blemaren therapy, there was an 8% reduction in the mean serum UA levels, which correlated with an increase in its daily excretion (by an average of 20%. The highest increase in UA excretion was observed in 20 patients with baseline hypoex-cretion (<700 mg/day: from 226,3 (range 201,6-436,8 to 635,0 (range 272,2-705,6 mg/day (p = 0,01. UA excretion substantially unchanged in patients with normal uricosuria (>700 mg/day. Side effects that could cause the agent to be discontinued were absent. Conclusion. The Blemaren citrate formula used in gout patients with nephrolithiasis causes a significant increase in the renal excretion of UA (p = 0,01, normalizes its metabolic parameters, and shows a high safety, without worsening hepatic and renal functions and electrolyte metabolism.

  19. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  20. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure in three large, randomized, comparative clinical studies. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is also an effective and generally well tolerated colorectal cleansing agent in children and adolescents; the preparation was more effective than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in this population. Further research is thus required to accurately position sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and fully establish its efficacy and tolerability prior to various

  1. Protective effects of sildenafil citrate administration on cisplatin-induced ovarian damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yay, Arzu; Adali, Ertan; Balcioglu, Esra; Inceboz, Umit

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate on cisplatin-induced ovarian toxicity. Thirty-two female rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: saline control; group 2: cisplatin; group 3: sildenafil citrate; and group 4: cisplatin plus sildenafil citrate group. In groups 2 and 4, the rats were injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin intraperitoneally (i.p.). In groups 3 and 4, the rats were injected with 1.4 mg/kg sildenafil citrate i.p. The ovaries were removed two weeks later in all groups. Histopathologic examination, follicle counting and classification were performed. The expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was detected immunohistochemically in the ovarian tissues. Sildenafil alleviated cisplatin-induced histopathological changes in the ovarian tissue. Primordial, secondary and tertiary follicles were diminished in group 2 compared with group 1 (p sildenafil citrate preserved primordial follicle count in group 4 compared with group 2, and the difference was statistically significant (p sildenafil citrate is beneficial for protecting the ovaries from cisplatin-induced damage. Sildenafil citrate can be a choice for fertility preservation.

  2. Effect of sodium citrate on preparation of nano-sized cobalt particles by organic colloidal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaping ZHU; Hao LI; Huiyu SONG; Shijun LIAO

    2009-01-01

    Nano-sized cobalt particles with the diameter of 2 nm were prepared via an organic colloidal process with sodium formate, ethylene glycol and sodium citrate as the reducing agent, the solvent and the complexing agent, respectively. The effects of sodium citrate on the yield, crystal structure, particle size and size distribution of the prepared nano-sized cobalt particles were then investigated. The results show that the average particle diameter decreases from 200 nm to 2 nm when the molar ratio of sodium citrate to cobalt chloride changes from 0 to 6. Furthermore, sodium citrate plays a crucial role in the controlling of size distribution of the nano-sized particles. The size distribution of the particle without sodium citrate addition is in range from tens of nanometers to 300 or 400 nm, while that with sodium citrate addition is limited in the range of (2±0.25) nm. Moreover, it is found that the addition of sodium citrate as a complex agent could decrease the yield of the nano-sized cobalt particle.

  3. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  4. Citrate impairs the micropore diffusion of phosphate into pure and C-coated goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Lang, Friederike; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Anions of polycarboxylic low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) compete with phosphate for sorption sites of hydrous Fe and Al oxides. To test whether the sorption of LMWOA anions decreases the accessibility of micropores (citrate-induced changes in microporosity and the phosphate sorption kinetics of synthetic goethite in the presence and absence of citrate in batch systems for 3 weeks (500 μM of each ion, pH 5). We also used C-coated goethite obtained after sorption of dissolved organic matter in order to simulate organic coatings in the soil. We analyzed our samples with N 2 adsorption and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Citrate clogged the micropores of both adsorbents by up to 13% within 1 h of contact. The micropore volume decreased with increasing concentration and residence time of citrate. In the absence of citrate, phosphate diffused into micropores of the pure and C-coated goethite. The C coating (5.6 μmol C m -2) did not impair the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. In the presence of citrate, the diffusion of phosphate into the micropores of both adsorbents was strongly impaired. We attribute this to the micropore clogging and the ligand-induced dissolution of goethite by citrate. While the diffusion limitation of phosphate by citrate was stronger when citrate was added before phosphate to pure goethite, the order of addition of both ions to C-coated goethite had only a minor effect on the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. Micropore clogging and dissolution of microporous hydrous Fe and Al oxides may be regarded as potential strategies of plants to cope with phosphate deficiency in addition to ligand-exchange.

  5. Purification of L-glutamate-dependent citrate lyase from Clostridium sphenoides and electron microscopic analysis of citrate lyase isolated from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa, Streptococcus diacetilactis and C. sphenoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antranikian, G; Klinner, C; Kümmel, A; Schwanitz, D; Zimmermann, T; Mayer, F; Gottschalk, G

    1982-08-01

    Citrate lyase from Clostridium sphenoides was purified 72-fold with a yield of 11%. In contrast to citrate lyase from other sources the activity of this enzyme was strictly dependent on the presence of L-glutamate. The purified enzyme was only stable in the presence of 150 mM L-glutamate or 7 mM L-glutamate plus glycerol, sucrose or bovine serum albumin. Changes of the L-glutamate pool and of enzyme activity in growing cells of C. sphenoides indicated that citrate lyase activity in this organism was regulated by the intracellular L-glutamate concentration. Citrate lyase isolated from C. sphenoides, Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa and Streptococcus diacetilactis was investigated by electron microscopy using the negative staining technique. Three different projections of enzyme molecules were observed: 'star' form, 'ring' form and 'triangle' form. In samples from R. gelatinosa and S. diacetilactis, star and ring forms occurred in a ratio of about 1:9. Using the enzyme from S. diacetilactis it was demonstrated that this ratio could be altered in favour of the star form by the addition of citrate or tricarballylate. The triangle form was observed in less than 1% of all evaluated molecules and may represent a transition form. In lyase samples from C. sphenoides there existed a correlation between enzyme activity and the proportion of stars and rings at varying concentrations of L-glutamate.

  6. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  7. CcpA-independent regulation of expression of the Mg2+-citrate transporter gene citM by arginine metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, JB; Magni, C; Lolkema, JS; Warner, Jessica B.

    2003-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the Mg2+ -citrate transporter, CitM, the main citrate uptake system of Bacillus subtilis, was studied during growth in rich medium. Citrate in the growth medium was required for induction under all growth conditions. In Luria-Bertani medium containing citrate, citM expr

  8. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation enhances rehydration and recovery from rapid body mass loss in trained wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Medijainen, Luule; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Vähi, Mare; Unt, Eve; Oöpik, Vahur

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary sodium citrate supplementation during a 16 h recovery from 5% rapid body mass loss (RBML) on physiological functions, affective state, and performance in trained wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers performed an upper body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test under three conditions: before RBML, after RBML, and after a 16 h recovery from RBML. During recovery, the subjects ate a prescribed diet supplemented with sodium citrate (600 mg·kg(-1); CIT group, N = 8) or placebo (PLC group, N = 8) and drank water ad libitum. RBML reduced (p sodium citrate increases blood buffering capacity and PV and stimulates BM regain during a 16 h recovery from RBML in trained wrestlers. However, sodium citrate does not improve UBISP nor does it have an impact on the affective state.

  9. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution.

  10. Electrodeposition and characterisation of Ni/Cu nanostructured multilayers from citrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Meuleman, W R A

    2002-01-01

    A study of the effect of chemical and electrochemical parameters such as solution composition, pH, and current and potential waveforms on magnetic metal multi-layers plated from citrate electrolytes was carried out. Until now, magnetic multilayers have usually been electrodeposited mainly form sulfamate electrolytes; far less information is available on Cu-Ni multilayers obtained from citrate electrolytes. Since copper is deposited at its diffusion limiting current during multilayer deposition from citrate electrolytes, a rotating disc electrode study was carried out. It was found that the apparent diffusion coefficient changes significantly depending on the citrate ion concentration and pH, indicating the importance of metal speciation. In order to identify the rate controlling species, speciation calculations were carried out in order to model the dependence of the limiting current on the solution composition. The model is based on the assumption that complexes in solution are either labile or inert. A vert...

  11. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch... Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May...

  12. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch... Notice; Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China:...

  13. Citrate influences microbial Fe hydroxide reduction via a dissolution-disaggregation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Klier, Christine; Schröder, Christian; Händel, Matthias; Bosch, Julian; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is partly dependent on Fe hydroxide particle size: nanosized Fe hydroxides greatly exceed the bioavailability of their counterparts larger than 1 μm. Citrate as a low molecular weight organic acid can likewise stabilize colloidal suspensions against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion but also increase Fe bioavailability by enhancing Fe hydroxide solubility. The aim of this study was to see whether adsorption of citrate onto surfaces of large ferrihydrite aggregates results in the formation of a stable colloidal suspension by electrostatic repulsion and how this effect influences microbial Fe reduction. Furthermore, we wanted to discriminate between citrate-mediated colloid stabilization out of larger aggregates and ferrihydrite dissolution and their influence on microbial Fe hydroxide reduction. Dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite aggregates induced by different concentrations of citrate and humic acids were compared to microbial reduction kinetics with Geobacter sulfurreducens. Dynamic light scattering results showed the formation of a stable colloidal suspension and colloids with hydrodynamic diameters of 69 (±37) to 165 (± 65) nm for molar citrate:Fe ratios of 0.1 to 0.5 and partial dissolution of ferrihydrite at citrate:Fe ratios ⩾ 0.1. No dissolution or colloid stabilization was detected in the presence of humic acids. Adsorption of citrate, necessary for dissolution, reversed the surface charge and led to electrostatic repulsion between sub-aggregates of ferrihydrite and colloid stabilization when the citrate:Fe ratio was above a critical value (⩽ 0.1). Lower ratios resulted in stronger ferrihydrite aggregation instead of formation of a stable colloidal suspension, owing to neutralization of the positive surface charge. At the same time, microbial ferrihydrite reduction increased from 0.029 to 0.184 mM h-1 indicating that colloids stabilized by citrate addition enhanced microbial Fe reduction. Modelling of

  14. Solute clearance effect of citrate anticoagulation hemodialysate for hemodialysis in patients with high risk of bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the solute clearance effect of the new concentrated anticoagulation hemodialysate of citrate for hemodialysis in patients with high risk of bleeding. Methods Forty-two kidney failure patients with high risk of bleeding were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B) according to their hemodialysis manners. Patients in Group A were hemodialyzed with bicarbonate hemodialysate with low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) anticoagulation and those in Group B with the new citrate anticoag...

  15. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanoplates by Citrate Reduction of AuCl4- at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan HUANG; Zhi Rui GUO; Meng WANG; Ning GU

    2006-01-01

    Single-crystalline, regular-edged gold nanoplates are synthesized through chemical reduction of AuCl4- by a suitable amount of citrate at room temperature, without additional capping agents or surfactants. The suitable molar ratio of sodium citrate to HAuCl4, low reaction temperature and the presence of natural light are critical factors for the formation of the regularly shaped nanoplates.

  16. Citrate adsorption can decrease soluble phosphate concentration in soils : results of theoretical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Duputel, M.; Devau, N.; Brossard, Michel; Jaillard, B; Jones, D. L.; Hinsinger, P.; F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    A major problem for 21st century agriculture is the prospect of P scarcity. Adsorption of PO4 on the soil's solid phase is the primary mechanism regulating P availability. Release of citrate by roots is generally thought to increase the availability of P, which in turn improves P acquisition by plants. However, the interaction between citrate and PO4 remains poorly understood in soils and conflicting results are found in the literature. Here modeling is used to investigate the effects of citr...

  17. Citrate adsorption can decrease soluble phosphate concentration in soil : experimental and modeling evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Duputel, M.; Van Hoye, F.; Toucet, Joële; F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption/desorption of phosphate (PO4) on soil minerals is a major process regulating soluble phosphate concentrations (i.e. phosphorus availability) and ultimately PO4 bio-availability. Release of citrate by roots is widely recognized as an effective biological mechanism for increasing available phosphorus (P) in soil. However, interactions between citrate and PO4 are poorly understood and little investigated in soils. Using surface complexation modeling we recently predicted that citr...

  18. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  19. USE OF TRANSDERMAL GEL OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshid Patel , Amit Maniyar and Hiren Patel*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Premature Ejaculation (PE is one of the most common forms of Sexual Dysfunction and is thought to affect up to 30 % of men. This is the most frequently encountered sexual complaint of men and couples. The physical problem associated with premature ejaculation can be simply described as “over-sensitivity” of the penis. Psychological causes of PE are often associated with “performance anxiety” – anxiety relating to sexual intercourse. The most common treatment today is the oral treatment with phosphodiesterase -5 (PDE-5 inhibitors. There are currently three different inhibitors available Sildenafil, Vardenafil, and Tadalafil. Sildenafil citrate is a drug of choice used in the treatment of premature ejaculation disorder. It was licensed for use in the United States in 1998; Sildenafil has shown in studies that it improves ED in men regardless of disease etiology, severity of disease, or even age. Transdermal gel has gained more and more importance because the gel based formulations are better percutaneously absorbed than creams and ointment bases. Transdermal drug delivery systems are defined as self-contained, discrete dosage forms which, when applied to the intact skin, deliver the drug, through the skin, at a controlled rate to the systemic circulation. Present Status - A review by Barry in 2001 showed, the transdermal route has vied with oral treatment as the most successful innovative research area in drug delivery.

  20. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  1. /sup 67/Ga citrate scintiscanning in active inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheingold, O.J.; Tedesco, F.J.; Block, F.E.; Maldonado, A.; Miale, A. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-five hospitalized patients were studied prospectively with /sup 67/Ga citrate (GA) abdominal scintillation scanning in an attempt to define its role in the evaluation of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were nine patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), seven with Crohn's disease (CD), and nine controls. In four patients, two with UC and two with CD, a tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio was obtained and compared to normals. All the UC patients had positive GA scans and only one of seven of the CD patients had a positive scan. There were no false positive scans. Scans performed after a 3- or 5-day delay were more accurate than 6-hr scans alone. Well-delineated colinic radioactivity 6 hr after injection which persists for 3 to 5 days indicates the presence of UC in patients with IBD, while a negative scan is more consistent with active CD. Colonic uptake at 6 hr which clears by 48 or 72 hr is not indicative of UC. This procedure aided in following the course of UC, delineating the extent of disease, and in differentiating active CD from an intraabdominal abscess. Tissues from UC patients had increased tissue/plasma ratioactivity ratios while tissues from CD patients had normal or decreased ratios which were consistent with the imaging data.

  2. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  3. Bench-to-bedside review: Citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy, from science to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Ostermann, Marlies

    2012-12-07

    To prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) anticoagulation is required. Heparin is still the most commonly used anticoagulant. However, heparins increase the risk of bleeding, especially in critically ill patients. Evidence has accumulated that regional anticoagulation of the CRRT circuit with citrate is feasible and safe. Compared to heparin, citrate anticoagulation reduces the risk of bleeding and requirement for blood products, not only in patients with coagulopathy, but also in those without. Metabolic complications are largely prevented by the use of a strict protocol, comprehensive training and integrated citrate software. Recent studies indicate that citrate can even be used in patients with significant liver disease provided that monitoring is intensified and the dose is carefully adjusted. Since the citric acid cycle is oxygen dependent, patients at greatest risk of accumulation seem to be those with persistent lactic acidosis due to poor tissue perfusion. The use of citrate may also be associated with less inflammation due to hypocalcemia-induced suppression of intracellular signaling at the membrane and avoidance of heparin, which may have proinflammatory properties. Whether these beneficial effects increase patient survival needs to be confirmed. However, other benefits are the reason that citrate should become the first choice anticoagulant for CRRT provided that its safe use can be guaranteed.

  4. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Aghanejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (68Ga citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC, chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS, radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe, and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC, specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM, chemical purity (Sn, FeConclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  5. Citrate versus unfractionated heparin for anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-jie; ZHANG Ling; ZENG Xiao-xi; FU Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Unfractionated heparin is the most commonly used anticoagulant in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT),but it can increase the risk of bleeding.Citrate is a promising substitute.Our study was to assess the efficacy and safety of citrate versus unfractionated heparin in CRRT.Methods We searched the MEDLINE,the EMBASE,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database until up to November 2011 for randomized controlled trials comparing citrate with unfractionated heparin in adult patients with acute kidney injury prescribed CRRT.The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes included circuit survival,control of uremia,risk of bleeding,transfusion rates,acid-base statuses,and disturbance of sodium and calcium homeostasis.Results Four trials met the inclusion criteria.Meta-analysis found no significant difference between two anticoagulants on mortality.Less bleeding and more hypocalcemic episodes were with citrate.Citrate was superior or comparable to unfractionated heparin in circuit life.Conclusions Citrate anticoagulation in CRRT seems to be superior in reducing bleeding risk and with a longer or similar circuit life,although there is more metabolic derangement.Mortality superiority has not been approved.

  6. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  7. Is it safe to prescribe clomiphene citrate without ultrasound monitoring facilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coughlan, C

    2010-05-01

    The majority of triplet and higher order multiple pregnancies now result from ovulation induction\\/superovulation rather than in vitro fertilisation. However, clomiphene citrate is still widely prescribed by gynaecologists and general practitioners who do not have access to ultrasound monitoring. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of multifollicular development with different doses of clomiphene citrate. A retrospective review of transvaginal ultrasound monitoring of 425 cycles in 182 women receiving clomiphene citrate from January 2002 to December 2003, was studied. Three or more follicles of >or= 14 mm were identified in 58 cycles (14%). Patients received 50 mg of clomiphene citrate in 52 of these 58 cycles and 25 mg in the remaining six. One patient was noted to have developed five follicles and 10 patients developed four follicles. One patient developed six follicles, despite receiving only 25 mg clomiphene citrate daily. It was concluded that a significant number of women (14%) developed three or more follicles, despite receiving low doses of clomiphene citrate.

  8. Citrate, a Ubiquitous Key Metabolite with Regulatory Function in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Niels; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Belhage, Bo; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-01-05

    Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and (13)C-NMR to investigate metabolic processes in cultured neurons and astrocytes resulting in the important observation that citrate was specifically synthesized in and released from astrocytes in large amounts which is in keeping with the high concentration found in the CSF. The aim of this review is to highlight the possible roles of citrate in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the CNS. An interesting feature of citrate is its ability to chelate Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Zn(2+)and thereby playing a pivotal role as an endogenous modulator of glutamate receptors and in particular the NMDA subtypes of these receptors in the CNS. Besides its presence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) citrate is also found in high amounts in prostate fluid reaching concentrations as high as 180 mM and here Zn(2+) seems also to play an important role, which makes prostate cells interesting for comparison of features of citrate and Zn(2+) between these cells and cells in the CNS.

  9. Overexpression of Citrus junos mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana confers aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Li, Zhengguo; Yang, Yingwu; Hu, Nan; Wu, Yu

    2009-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major factors that limit plant growth in acid soils. Al-induced release of organic acids into rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al-tolerance mechanism in many plant species. In this study, Al tolerance of Yuzu (Citrus Junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) was tested on the basis of root elongation and the results demonstrated that Yuzu was Al tolerant compared with other plant species. Exposure to Al triggered the exudation of citrate from the Yuzu root. Thus, the mechanism of Al tolerance in Yuzu involved an Al-inducible increase in citrate release. Aluminum also elicited an increase of citrate content and increased the expression level of mitochondrial citrate synthase (CjCS) gene and enzyme activity in Yuzu. The CjCS gene was cloned from Yuzu and overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. Increased expression level of the CjCS gene and enhanced enzyme activity were observed in transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Root growth experiments showed that transgenic plants have enhanced levels of Al tolerance. The transgenic Nicotiana plants showed increased levels of citrate in roots compared to wild-type plants. The exudation of citrate from roots of the transgenic plants significantly increased when exposed to Al. The results with transgenic plants suggest that overexpression of mitochondrial CS can be a useful tool to achieve Al tolerance.

  10. A second mechanism for aluminum resistance in wheat relies on the constitutive efflux of citrate from roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Harsh; Gupta, Sanjay; Horst, Walter J; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first confirmed mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in plants is encoded by the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene, TaALMT1, on chromosome 4DL. TaALMT1 controls the Al-activated efflux of malate from roots, and this mechanism is widespread among Al-resistant genotypes of diverse genetic origins. This study describes a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat that relies on citrate efflux. Citrate efflux occurred constitutively from the roots of Brazilian cultivars Carazinho, Maringa, Toropi, and Trintecinco. Examination of two populations segregating for this trait showed that citrate efflux was controlled by a single locus. Whole-genome linkage mapping using an F(2) population derived from a cross between Carazinho (citrate efflux) and the cultivar EGA-Burke (no citrate efflux) identified a major locus on chromosome 4BL, Xce(c), which accounts for more than 50% of the phenotypic variation in citrate efflux. Mendelizing the quantitative variation in citrate efflux into qualitative data, the Xce(c) locus was mapped within 6.3 cM of the microsatellite marker Xgwm495 locus. This linkage was validated in a second population of F(2:3) families derived from a cross between Carazinho and the cultivar Egret (no citrate efflux). We show that expression of an expressed sequence tag, belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family, correlates with the citrate efflux phenotype. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence that citrate efflux is a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat.

  11. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30 % decrease in urine calcium excretion. These data lend support to the hypothesis that alkali therapy reduces urine calcium

  12. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger, E-mail: inger.vikholm-lundin@uta.fi [University of Tampere, BioMediTech, Tampere (Finland); Fimlab Laboratories Ltd., Tampere (Finland); Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri [Abo Akademi University, Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Finland); Munter, Tony [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Process Chemistry end Environmental Engineering, Tampere (Finland); Honkimaa, Anni [University of Tampere, Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Tampere (Finland); Marjomäki, Varpu [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Nanoscience Center, Jyväskylä (Finland); Albers, Willem M. [BioNavis Oy Ltd., Ylöjärvi, Tampere (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Abo Akademi University, Center for Functional Materials, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Finland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The self-assembled layers were all hydrophilic with Lipa-pTHMMAA exhibiting close to full wetting. • The polyacrylamide layers smoothen the gold surface to a higher extent than the polyethylene glycol and lipoic acid terminated with an amino group. • SPR resonance curves shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. • Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. • By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface. - Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more

  13. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  14. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Andrew; Sharpe, Lindsay T; Tufail, Adnan; Kell, Philip D; Ripamonti, Caterina; Jeffery, Glen

    2007-06-08

    The erectile dysfunction medicine sildenafil citrate (Viagra) inhibits phosphodiesterase type 6 (PDE6), an essential enzyme involved in the activation and modulation of the phototransduction cascade. Although Viagra might thus be expected to impair visual performance, reports of deficits following its ingestion have so far been largely inconclusive or anecdotal. Here, we adopt tests sensitive to the slowing of the visual response likely to result from the inhibition of PDE6. We measured temporal acuity (critical fusion frequency) and modulation sensitivity in four subjects before and after the ingestion of a 100-mg dose of Viagra under conditions chosen to isolate the responses of either their short-wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone photoreceptors or their long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive (L- and M-) cones. When vision was mediated by S-cones, all subjects exhibited some statistically significant losses in sensitivity, which varied from mild to moderate. The two individuals who showed the largest S-cone sensitivity losses also showed comparable losses when their vision was mediated by the L- and M-cones. Some of the losses appear to increase with frequency, which is broadly consistent with Viagra interfering with the ability of PDE6 to shorten the time over which the visual system integrates signals as the light level increases. However, others appear to represent a roughly frequency-independent attenuation of the visual signal, which might also be consistent with Viagra lengthening the integration time (because it has the effect of increasing the effectiveness of steady background lights), but such changes are also open to other interpretations. Even for the more affected observers, however, Viagra is unlikely to impair common visual tasks, except under conditions of reduced visibility when objects are already near visual threshold.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  16. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  17. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.; Ryan, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al3+ tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al3+-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approa...

  18. Can citrate efflux from roots improve phosphorus uptake by plants? Testing the hypothesis with near-isogenic lines of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; James, Richard A; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Rattey, Allan; Lewis, David C; Bovill, William D; McDonald, Glenn; Rathjen, Tina M; Wang, Enli; Fettell, Neil A; Richardson, Alan E

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency in some plant species triggers the release of organic anions such as citrate and malate from roots. These anions are widely suggested to enhance the availability of phosphate for plant uptake by mobilizing sparingly-soluble forms in the soil. Carazinho is an old wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar from Brazil, which secretes citrate constitutively from its root apices, and here we show that it also produces relatively more biomass on soils with low P availability than two recent Australian cultivars that lack citrate efflux. To test whether citrate efflux explains this phenotype, we generated two sets of near-isogenic lines that differ in citrate efflux and compared their biomass production in different soil types and with different P treatments in glasshouse experiments and field trials. Citrate efflux improved relative biomass production in two of six glasshouse trials but only at the lowest P treatments where growth was most severely limited by P availability. Furthermore, citrate efflux provided no consistent advantage for biomass production or yield in multiple field trials. Theoretical modeling indicates that the effectiveness of citrate efflux in mobilizing soil P is greater as the volume of soil into which it diffuses increases. As efflux from these wheat plants is restricted to the root apices, the potential for citrate to mobilize sufficient P to increase shoot biomass may be limited. We conclude that Carazinho has other attributes that contribute to its comparatively good performance in low-P soils.

  19. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red) Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broncová, Gabriela; Shishkanova, Tatiana V.; Krondak, Martin; Volf, Radko; Král, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements with citrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal background electrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodes described here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with a low detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid and acetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of citrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red) electrodes are presented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillary electrophoresis. PMID:27879724

  20. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  1. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  2. Bio-inspired citrate functionalized apatite coating on rapid prototyped titanium scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Peng [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lu, Fang [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Wang, Di [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Xiaojing [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaolan [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhang, Yu; Li, Lihua [General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Designed and reproducible porous titanium scaffolds were produced. • Hydrophilic nanoporous film was built on scaffold. • Apatite coating was deposited on scaffold under the modulation of citrate ions. • Citrate ions could affect CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation in apatite coatings. - Abstract: Scaffold functionalized with appropriate osteogenic coatings can significantly improve implant-bone response. In this study, with designed model and optimized manufacture parameters, reproducible and precise titanium scaffolds were produced. Reconstructed three-dimensional image and sectional structure of the scaffold were examined by micro-computed tomography and relative software. Alkali treatment was carried out on these manufactured porous scaffolds to produce nanoporous hydrophilic film. After 6 days deposition in simulated body fluid (SBF) containing sodium citrate (SC-SBF), plate-like amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coating was deposited on scaffold surface. Ultrasonication tests qualitatively indicated an enhanced adhesion force of apatite coatings deposited in SC-SBF compared to that deposited in SBF. And the effect of citrate ions on the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation rate in apatite coating was quantitatively examined by bending vibration of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at ∼874 cm{sup −1}. Results indicated the highest carbonate content was obtained at the citrate ion concentration of 6 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in SC-SBF. These three-dimensional porous titanium-apatite hybrid scaffolds are expected to find application in bone tissue regeneration.

  3. Comparison of 24-hour urinary citrate excretion in stone formers and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor in stone formers (SF. This study aimed to measure the urinary citrate excretion in SF and healthy volunteers at our center from 12 June 2008 to 20 August 2009. There were 28 SF patients (18 males and ten females and 27 (18 males and nine females age-matched healthy adult volunteers who participated in this study. Both groups had a similar living environment, extrinsic factors, diet and genetic descent. After collecting 24-h urine, citrate was measured using an enzymatic kit. Routine urinalysis and 24-h creatinine and uric acid were also performed. There was a significant difference in urinary citrate excretion level among SF (mean 310, SD 260 mg/L and normal volunteer subjects (mean 800, SD 300 mg/L. By applying the previously defined normal values (320 mg/24 h of urinary citrate in the local population, 43% of the SF in our study group was hypocitric, and none among the controls. We conclude that prevalence of hypocitraturia in stone formers was higher than that in healthy volunteers in our population.

  4. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanta Adhikary

    Full Text Available Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1 and citrate transporter (citC genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  5. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  6. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  7. [Influence of PO4(3-) and citrate on REE accumulation and fractionation in wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-Cai; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Li; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2005-09-01

    This paper has studied the influence of phosphate (Pi, one of inorganic ligands) and citrate (Cit, one of organic ligands) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat based on aqueous culture, added with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE) and ICP-MS analysis technology. The results show that initial phosphate (Pi) solution of different levels followed by exposure to fixed-MRE solution has no significant effects on accumulation of the total concentrations of REEs (sigma REE) in the wheat roots, but it decrease the REE dramatically in the wheat leaves. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solution caused obvious decreases of the sigma REE both in wheat roots and leaves. Compared to the control (no Pi or citrate was added), the distribution and fractionation characters of MRE had M-type tetrad effect and MREE enrichment in wheat roots, and W-type tetrad effect and HREE enrichment in wheat leaves. Different levels of Pi had no significant effects on the tetrad effect of MRE, but it notable increased the enrichment of HREE in wheat leaves. Added with citrate of different levels led the fractionation of REE decreasing gradually in wheat roots and leaves, as the concentration of citrate > or = 150 micromol x L(-1), light REE (LREE) enrichment both existed in the roots and leaves.

  8. Enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance dependence of silver nanoparticles on the stoichiometric ratio of citrate stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Felicia A.; Gaye-Campbell, Shauna; Hai Ting, Andy Yuen; Mitchell, James W.

    2013-02-01

    A stoichiometric approach to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with appreciable enhancements in the localized surface plasmon resonance is presented. Microwave irradiation afforded AgNPs, optimized to a thermodynamic equilibrium by varying the silver to trisodium citrate (Ag0/citrate3-) stoichiometric ratio from 1:1 to 1:10, and ranging in size from 32 to 65 nm (±1-9 nm, hydrodynamic diameter). The concentration-dependent plasmonic enhancements were monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry, showing absorption maxima typical of AgNPs, at 440-450 nm. A linear accession in plasmon absorbance intensity, approaching 1:5 (Ag0/citrate3-), followed by a linear depletion, at larger stoichiometries (1:6-1:10), was observed. Size distribution measurements, using dynamic light scattering, showed the highest polydispersity index, 0.547, for 1:10 suspensions and the lowest, 0.305, for the thermodynamic maximum, determined to occur at 1:5. Surface charge measurements approaching 0 mV confirm the destabilizing effect of high concentrations of citrate, leading to greater instances of aggregation and large hydrodynamic diameters. Reaction kinetics data suggests an increased preference for Ag n + -citrate, metal/ligand complexation, at 1:10, diminishing nanoparticle production.

  9. Cardiovascular safety of sildenafil citrate (Viagra): an updated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Graham; Montorsi, Piero; Cheitlin, Melvin D

    2006-09-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra; Pfizer Inc, New York, NY) relaxes vascular smooth muscle, resulting in modest reductions in blood pressure that are insufficient to stimulate a reflex increase in heart rate. These blood pressure reductions are similar for healthy men and men with coronary artery disease (CAD) or who use antihypertensive drugs. Sildenafil does not affect the force of cardiac contraction, and cardiac performance is unaffected. Sildenafil is mildly vasodilating in the coronary circulation and does not increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. During exercise and recovery, sildenafil does not cause clinically significant alterations in hemodynamic parameters in men with CAD, and it has no negative effects on coronary oxygen consumption, ischemia, or exercise capacity. Clinical trial data from >13,000 patients, 7 years of international postmarketing data, and observational studies of >28,000 men in the United Kingdom and 3813 men in the European Union reveal that (1) there are no special cardiovascular concerns when sildenafil is used in accordance with product labeling and (2) the risk for serious events such as myocardial infarction or death is not increased. However, because safety has not been established in patients with recent serious cardiovascular events, hypotension or uncontrolled hypertension, or retinitis pigmentosa, physicians should consult their current local prescribing information before prescribing sildenafil for these patients. Among men with erectile dysfunction treated with sildenafil, the adverse event profile is similar overall to that in men with comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is similar between those with and without CAD, and it is similar between those who take and those who do not take antihypertensive drugs (regardless of the number or class). In a controlled interaction study of sildenafil and amlodipine, the mean additional reduction in supine blood pressure was 8 mm Hg systolic and 7 mm Hg diastolic. Sildenafil

  10. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Interaction of monolaurin, eugenol and sodium citrate on growth of common meat spoilage and pathogenic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszyk, M; Holley, R A

    1998-02-17

    Interactions of monolaurin, eugenol (phenolic compound) and sodium citrate (chelator) on the growth of six organisms including common meat spoilage (Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sake, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Brochothrix thermosphacta) and pathogenic (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) organisms were investigated. The combinations of 100 to 250 ppm monolaurin with 500 and 1000 ppm eugenol, and 0.2 and 0.4% sodium citrate were more effective than each component separately. More than one combination prevented detectable growth of each organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and E. coli O157:H7 were most resistant and L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta most sensitive to control by the chosen combinations. The presence of sodium citrate was necessary to yield potent inhibition of Lb. curvatus and Lb. sake growth by the monolaurin and eugenol combinations.

  12. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate: such a big deal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Monte G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lo Monte, Angela Graziano, Isabella Piva, Roberto Marci Department of Morphology, Surgery, and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Abstract: For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra® in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate should be kept as the last option. Keywords: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD, sildenafil citrate

  13. Utility of Certain Π Acceptors for Spectrophotometric Determination of Sildenafil Citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora H. Al-Shaalan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate was determined through charge transfer complexes (CTC formation with three electron acceptor reagents. The methods involve the reaction of Sildenafil citrate as n-donor with either Chloranil (tetrachloro 1,4-benzoquinone, tetracyanoethylene (TCNE or 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ as n-acceptors, to give a stable and highly colored radical anion. The colored products were quantified spectrophotometrically. The condition ranges adhering to Beer's law are 0.05-3.00 mg/ml. The molar ratios of the reactants were ascertained. The different parameters were carefully studied and optimized. Statistical analysis of the results revealed equal precision and accuracy to the results of the reported method. The methods were applied for determination of sildenafil citrate in pure form and in Viagra tablets.

  14. Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water with Sodium Citrate as Sole Carbon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; ZHAO Lin; TAN Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of using sodium citrate(NaC6H5O6*2H2O)as sole carbon source for nitrate removal from drinking water.With sodium citrate as sole carbon source, batch experiments have been conducted to study the law of denitrification influenced by pH, C/N and temperature. Results show that a denitrification rate reaching 1.32 g NO-3-N /(g Biomass*d) was obtained when pH was at 7.5,C/N at 1.7(atom ratio), and temperature from 20 ℃ to 30 ℃. The results also show that denitrification rate with sodium citrate as carbon source approaches to that with methanol as carbon source.

  15. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0...... using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply...... of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg−1 (removals: 78...

  16. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  17. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  18. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  19. SODIUM CITRATE INFLUENCE ON FORMATION OF CEMENT STONE IN THE ALUMINOUS BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of sodium citrate on the formation of a cement stone in the aluminous binder. Formation of cement stone framework in cement hydraulic binder is accompanied with complicated physical and chemical processes of interphase interactions and dispersion, these processes are predicated on qualitative and quantitative composition of the cement mortar, continuous changes in its properties from preparation stage till curing. Addition of sodium citrate to tempering water enhances hydration of both Portland cement and calcium aluminate cement. Process pertaining to an increase of cement hydration rate is considered as a consequence of destruction in surface formations and exclusion of damping effect in respect of hydration rate and hydrolysis of products resulted from interaction of clinker material with tempering. It has been established that sodium citrate makes it possible to control processes of hydration, hydrolysis, binding and curing for cement mass. High degree of hydration of aluminous cement in the presence of sodium citrate provides fast binding and curing of binder, low porosity and rather high compression breaking strength of cement stone for all curing stages. An increase in concentration of sodium citrate in cement mixture up to 10 % of the cement mass exerts an influence not only on the process of cement mortar liquefaction, reduction of time for cement mass setting and hardening but also increases compression strength of cement stone. An analysis of the structure for cleavage surface of cement stone gives ground to declare that the addition of sodium citrate provides cement stone sealing and reduces its water absorption.

  20. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate-cyclodextrin nanosuspension complexes for use in metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Phetmung, Hirihattaya; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-10-15

    Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate was complexed with α-, hydroxypropyl-β- and γ-cyclodextrin (α-CD, HP-β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to enhance its water solubility. The complexes of sildenafil citrate monohydrate with all types of CDs were characterized by phase solubility diagrams, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and dielectric constants. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate complexed with CDs was developed as nanosuspensions for use in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations were prepared by a bottom-up process using dried ethanol as a solvent and HFA-134a as an antisolvent and propellant in order to form nanosuspensions. A 3×3 factorial design was applied for the contents of the dried ethanol and HFA-134a propellant. The phase solubility profiles of the sildenafil and cyclodextrins were described as AL type with a mole ratio 1:1. The piperazine moiety of sildenafil formed an inclusion in the cavity of the CDs. The particle diameters of the sildenafil citrate monohydrate suspensions in pMDIs were all within a nanosuspension size range. An assay of the sildenafil content showed that the formation of complexes with CDs was close to 100%. In the case of the formulations with CDs, the emitted doses varied within 97.4±10.8%, the fine particle fractions (FPFs) were in a range of 45-81%, the fine particle dose (FPD) was 12.6±2.0 μg and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were 1.86±0.41 μm. In contrast, the formulations without CDs produced a low emitted dose of sildenafil (<60%). Therefore, only sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations containing CDs were suitable for use as aerosols.

  1. Light wavelength influence on surface plasmon resonance in citrate-gold nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupusoru, Raoul-Vasile; Pricop, Daniela A.; Andries, Maria; Creanga, Dorina

    2016-12-01

    Citrate-gold particles were yielded according to classical method of auric salt reduction in two different synthesis media aiming to use them further applications in biomedical and environmental domains. The analysis of citrate-gold interaction was done through UV-vis and IR spectroscopy as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dark Field (DF) Microscopy. Average particle size was higher for citrate-gold NPs synthesized with NaOH (32.5 nm) than for NPs synthesized with NaCl (15 nm). Dimensional histograms of one year aged colloidal suspensions presented mean size of 29 nm and respectively 18 nm. The influence of 90 min light exposure, analyzed by UV-vis, evidenced that for both NaOH synthesis protocol and NaCl protocol, plasmon band maxima at 528 nm and respectively 538 nm didn't changed, neither for white nor for green light. For one year aged samples this band shifted to 540 nm for green light irradiation in the case of citrate-gold NPs synthesized with NaOH. Also, for these NPs, both green and white light exposures resulted in plasmon band intensity changes for native as well as for aged samples. FTIR investigation showed also different changes at the level of the intensity of main vibration bands of citrate-gold after exposure to light, suggesting stronger adsorption of citrate in the case of NaCl addition in the initial reaction medium than in the case of NaOH. Finally, the utilization of NaCl in the synthesis protocol seems to favor the synthesis of more stable and lower toxicity colloidal suspensions, both during time and under the light irradiation.

  2. Studies on sildenafil citrate (Viagra) interaction with DNA using electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Sakandar; Nawaz, Haq; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Khalid, Ahmad M

    2007-05-15

    The interaction of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) with DNA was studied by using an electrochemical DNA biosensor. The binding mechanism of sildenafil citrate was elucidated by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry at DNA-modified glassy carbon electrode. The decrease in the guanine oxidation peak area or peak current was used as an indicator for the interaction in 0.2M acetate buffer (pH 5). The binding constant (K) values obtained were 2.01+/-0.05 x 10(5) and 1.97+/-0.01 x 10(5)M(-1) with constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. A linear dependence of the guanine peak area or peak current was observed within the range of 1-40 microM sildenafil citrate with slope=-2.74 x 10(-4)s/microM, r=0.989 and slope=-2.78 x 10(-3)microA/microM, r=0.995 by using constant current potentiometry and differential pulse voltammetry, respectively. Additionally, binding constant values for sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction were determined for the pH range of 4-8 and in biological fluids (serum and urine) at pH 5. The influence of sodium and calcium ions was also studied to elucidate the mechanism of sildenafil citrate-DNA interaction under different solution conditions. The present study may prove to be helpful in extending our understanding of the anticancer activity of sildenafil citrate from cellular to DNA level.

  3. Sildenafil Citrate ( Viagra effect on the pattern of controlled hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside or nitroglycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. Radwan and Nemat El Baz Mohamed

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral sildenafil Citrate (viagra is an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED . There are reports of serious hypotension when sildenafil citrate is given to patients taking certain vasodilators . This study was designed to assess the effects of sildenafil citrate (viagra therapy on the dose, efficacy and safty of I.V. infusion of nitrovasodilators; sodium nitroprusside or nitroglycerin, to induce controlled "delibrate" -! g/kg/min or nitroglycerin "#!$ !%&&''(((& &(&&%& *!$& && (variables; mean arterial blood pressure "MAP" and "ECG" pattern, were monitored. In control groups it was found that, ( SNP infusion achieved a rapid induction of controlled hypotension accompanied by reflex hypertension after drug infusion discontinuation. However, (NTG infusion failed to decrease the (MAP to the target level, and upon discontinuation of its infusion, return of arterial blood pressure to control values, was moderately slower. Comparison between the effect of the two drugs revealed a significant difference in mean arterial blood pressure after infusion. Treatment with sildenafil citrate (viagra , augmented the (MAP reduction caused by (SNP, and improved the lack of potency of (NTG induced hypotension . Comparison between the effect of the two drugs revealed a significant difference during drug infusion, and after drug infusion discontinuation. Doses of (SNP or (NTG required to induce delibrate hypotension in groups treated with sildenafil were decreased when compared to that in control groups. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP infusion induced increase in the mean heart rate (HR without ECG changes in control or treated groups. Sildenafil citrate treatment increased significantly the initial HR in comparison to control group. In contrast, nitroglycerin (NTG infusion, did not change significantly the (HR in control group. However, in sildenafil citrate treated group, (NTG infusion induced significant increase in the HR throughout the study , and there

  4. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II--clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically significant. Letrozole can be preferred in clomiphene citrate resistant cases before starting other expensive therapies.

  5. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis;

    2013-01-01

    , and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time......, it also provides better quality images whose high resolution permits quantitative analyses, thus improving the management of patients suffering from infections or inflammation. The purpose of our study was to develop a fast and reliable synthesis protocol for the preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate under good...

  6. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis;

    , and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time......, it also provides better quality images whose high resolution permits quantitative analyses, thus improving the management of patients suffering from infections or inflammation. The purpose of our study was to develop a fast and reliable synthesis protocol for the preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate under good...

  7. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and β-cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Ana E; Coco K. Y. A. Okio; Sinisterra, Rubén D.

    2012-01-01

    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with β-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffactometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and ¹H-NMR with ¹H spin lattice relaxation (¹H T1) measurements and 13C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and β-cyclodextrin.

  8. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II citrate and β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E. Burgos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion compound of rhodium(II citrate with β-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffactometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC, infrared and ¹H-NMR with ¹H spin lattice relaxation (¹H T1 measurements and 13C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II citrate and β-cyclodextrin.

  9. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  10. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  11. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS. Scintigraphie pulmonaire au citrate de Ga67 chez des patients VIH(+) ou sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumal, J.; Pena, C.; Mata, F.; Paternostro, C.; Penafiel, A. (Hopital Son Dureta, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))

    1993-04-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs.

  12. Antitumor effect of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles on mice bearing breast cancer: a systemic toxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; de Souza Filho, José; Carneiro, Marcella Lemos' Brettas; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; da Silva, Matheus Oliveira; de Souza, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia Nair

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer types among women. The use of magnetic fluids for specific delivery of drugs represents an attractive platform for chemotherapy. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated that maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate (Magh-Rh2Cit) induced in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity, followed by intratumoral administration in breast carcinoma cells. In this study, our aim was to follow intravenous treatment to evaluate the systemic antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Female Balb/c mice were evaluated with regard to toxicity of intravenous treatments through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine and liver, kidney, and lung histology. The antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2Cit), Magh-Rh2Cit, and maghemite nanoparticles coated with citrate (Magh-Cit), used as control, was evaluated by tumor volume reduction, histology, and morphometric analysis. Magh-Rh2Cit and Magh-Cit promoted a significant decrease in tumor area, and no experimental groups presented hematotoxic effects or increased levels of serum ALT and creatinine. This observation was corroborated by the histopathological examination of the liver and kidney of mice. Furthermore, the presence of nanoparticles was verified in lung tissue with no morphological changes, supporting the idea that our nanoformulations did not induce toxicity effects. No studies about the systemic action of rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles have been carried out, making this report a suitable starting point for exploring the therapeutic potential of these compounds in treating breast cancer.

  13. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  14. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  15. 75 FR 71078 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China...: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review--Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts (August 17, 2010). Partial... Biochemical Co., Ltd. Hunan Dongting Citric Acid Chemicals Co., Ltd. Hunan Yinhai Petrochemicals Group...

  16. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid...

  17. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review...

  18. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 25423 (May 1, 2013). \\2\\ Archer Daniels Midland...

  19. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time...

  20. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from..., 2011, Huangshi Xinghua Biochemical Co., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric...

  1. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric...

  2. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See... of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit....

  3. Comparison between tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation and successful conception in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhyan Baker Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Tamoxifen has shown comparable efficacy and safety as compared to clomiphene citrate and it can be a good alternative to clomiphene citrate in patients of primary or secondary anovulatory infertility with PCOS. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1349-1352

  4. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1... functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch, where the excipient constitutes at least 2 percent,...

  5. Plasma Membrane Na+-Coupled Citrate Transporter (SLC13A5 and Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom D. Bhutia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150–200 μM. Li+ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy. Human SLC13A5 differs from rodent Slc13a5 in two important aspects: the affinity of the human transporter for citrate is ~30-fold less than that of the rodent transporter, thus making human SLC13A5 a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and the rodent Slc13a5 a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter. In the liver, SLC13A5 is expressed exclusively in the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes, where it plays a role in the uptake of circulating citrate from the sinusoidal blood for metabolic use. In the testis, the transporter is expressed only in spermatozoa, which is also only in the mid piece where mitochondria are located; the likely function of the transporter in spermatozoa is to mediate the uptake of citrate present at high levels in the seminal fluid for subsequent metabolism in the sperm mitochondria to generate biological energy, thereby supporting sperm motility. In the brain, the transporter is expressed mostly in neurons. As astrocytes secrete citrate into extracellular medium, the potential function of SLC13A5 in neurons is to mediate the uptake of circulating citrate and astrocyte-released citrate for subsequent metabolism. Slc13a5-knockout mice have been generated; these mice do not have any overt phenotype but are resistant to experimentally induced metabolic syndrome. Recently however, loss-of-function mutations in human SLC13A5 have been found to cause severe epilepsy

  6. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence.

  7. The impact of sodium citrate on dialysis catheter function and frequency of catheter-related bacteriemia and haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Szymczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is one of the most important problems of hemodialysis therapy. It is known that an arteriovenous fi sutla provides the best vascular access, but its creation is not always possible. Other solutions, such as the insertion of a central venous catheter, are then required. Adequate protection of such catheters by interdialytic fi ll with locking solution affects the frequency of hemodialysis-related complications. The most widespread catheter locking solution is heparin. Sodium citrate is being used more frequent recently. Available data indicate that hemorrhage is 11.9 times more frequent if the catheter locking solution is 5000 IU/ml heparin than if 4�0sodium citrate or 1000 IU/ml heparin is used. Other data indicate that the frequency of infection is statistically decreased when 30�0sodium citrate is used to fi ll the catheter instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin. Analogous data on 46.7�0sodium citrate are not consistent. It seems that the use of 4�0sodium citrate instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin does not decrease the frequency of infections. Numerous studies indicate that sodium citrate at various concentrations exerts a positive infl lence on catheter function. However, not all data are in accord. The spill of sodium citrate from the catheter to the systemic circulation is connected with a risk of adverse events. It may be dangerous if the citrate concentration is 46.7�20However, adequate fi lling of the catheter should prezent such events. Available data indicate that fi lling of the catheter with a solution of citrate of a concentration of no more than 30�0should be safe. Data on 46.7�0citrate are not conclusive, so precautions should be taken.

  8. THE SURFACE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF PROCYMIDONE IN PRESENCE OF AMMONIUM FERRIC CITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osipov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procymidone was chosen as the model compound and its phototransformation was followed under sunlight irradiation. The main photodegradation products on silica is 3,5-dichloroaniline and 3,5-diclorphenilisocyanate. The use of ammonium ferric citrate enhances the degradation of the procymidone.

  9. Regulation and expression of the metal citrate transporter CitM of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge - Warner, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the regulation of transcription of the citM gene of Bacillus subtilis, encoding the major metal citrate transporter. CitM belongs to a small family of secondary transport proteins, the MeCit family, that is comprised of 12 members. CitM mediates the transport of meta

  10. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chun eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate (POC showed approximately 70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers (CUPEs and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20% and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that they are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  11. The safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation in sustained low efficiency dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation in sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) .Methods A total of 45 patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) admitted in our hospital from August 2011 to

  12. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Period of Review...-others rate made effective by the LTFV investigation. See Citric Acid Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703. These... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON A NEW TYPE CONCENTRATED ANTICOAGULANT HEMODIALYSATE OF CITRATE IN DOGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂保松; 高卫华; 桂琳; 吕星; 王亮琪; 郭蕊军

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the hemodialysis effect of t he new type of concentrated anticoagulant hemodialysate of citrate. Methods Ten dogs were given intermittent hemodialysis and were divided into 3 groups according to hemodialysis manners. Group 1 was saline-flush hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodialysate; Group 2 was hemodialysed with citrate hemodialysis without any anticoagulant; Group 3 wa s hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodialysate and heparin .ACT, Ca2+, BUN, Cr,ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, Na+, Cl-, HCO3- and venous pressure were monitored in the animals of each group during hemodialysis. Results During the hemodialysis in Group 1,venous pressure increased lastingly, resulting in t he failure of hemodialysis for 2 hours. Hemodialysis for 2 hours in Group 2 were all finished successfully. ACT was extended and Ca2+ decreased obviously in the venous end during hemodialysis.And ALT、AST、Ca2+、K+、Na+、Cl -、HCO3- after the hemodialysis in Group 2 were not changed(P>0.05).Moreover, the clearance rat e of the dialyzers with citrate dialysate increased significantly compared with those of saline-flush and heparin anticoagulation.Conclusion The anticoagulant and dialytic effects of the new t ype citrate hemodialysis are satisfactory and better than that of saline-flush ..

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON A NEW TYPE CONCENTRATED ANTICOAGULANT HEMODIALYSATE OF CITRATE IN DOGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To observe the hemodialysis effcet of the new type of concentrated anticoagulant hemodialysate of citrate.Methods:Ten dogs were given intermittent hemodialysis and were divided into 3 groups according to hemodialysis manners.Group 1 was saline-flush hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodialysate;Group 2 was hemodialysed with citrate hemodialysis without any anticoagulant;Group 3 was hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodlalysate and heparin,ACT,Ca2+,BUN,Cr,ALT,AST,TBIL,BDIL,Na+,Cl-,HCO3- and venous pressure were monitored in the animals of each group during hemodialysis.Results:During the hemodialysis in Group 1,venous pressure increased lastingly,resulting in the failure of hemodialysis for 2 hours.Hemodialysis for 2 hours in Group 2 were all finished successfully.ACT was extended and Ca2+ decreased obviously in the venous end during hemodialysis,And ALT,AST,Ca2+,K+,Na+,Cl-,HCO3- after the hemodialysis in Group 2 were not changed(P>0.05).Moreover,the clearance rate of the dialyzers with citrate dialysate increased significantly compared with those of saline-flush and heparin anticoagulation.Conclusion:The anticoagulant and dialytic effects of the new type citrate hemodialysis are satisfactory and better than that of saline-flush.

  15. Calcium citrate improves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by acidosis in proximal tubular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodriguez Cabalgante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a key event in renal fibrosis. The aims of the study were to evaluate acidosis induced EMT, transforming-growth-factor (TGF β1 role and citrate effect on it. METHODS: HK2 cells (ATCC 2290 were cultured in DMEM/HAM F12 medium, pH 7.4. At 80% confluence, after 24 hr under serum free conditions, cells were distributed in three groups (24 hours: A Control: pH 7.4, B Acidosis: pH 7.0 and C Calcium citrate (0.2 mmol/L + pH 7.0. Change (Δ of intracellular calcium concentration, basal and after Angiotensin II (10-6M exposition, were measured to evaluate cellular performance. EMT was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and E-cadherin by immunocytochemistry and/or Western blot. TGF-β1 secretion was determined by ELISA in cell supernatant. RESULTS: At pH 7.0 HK2 cells significantly reduced E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expression (EMT. Supernatant TGF-β1 levels were higher than in control group. Calcium citrate decreased acidosis induced EMT and improved cells performance, without reduction of TGF-β production. CONCLUSIONS: Acidosis induces EMT and secretion of TGF-β1 in tubular proximal cells in culture and citrate improves cellular performance and ameliorates acidosis induced EMT.

  16. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na(+)-citrate transporter CitS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na(+)-citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly re

  17. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  18. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rana Choudhary,1 Kavita Desai,2 Hetal Parekh,3 Kedar Ganla1 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ankoor Fertility Clinic, 2Department of Radiology, Dadar Imaging and Diagnostic Centre, 3IVF Department, Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India Abstract: Fetal growth restriction (FGR and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. Keywords: sildenafil citrate, fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, thin endometrium

  19. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts.

  20. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p <0.01). Four patients had inco...

  2. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte...

  3. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yíldíz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. METHODS: Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7, torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10, torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10 and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10. Unilateral testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720º in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. After torsion (2 h and detorsion (2 h periods, rats were killed. RESULTS: The level of reduced glutathion (GSH (p0.05. Histopathological changes were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that biochemically and histologically torsion/detorsion injury occurs in the contralateral testis following 2-h torsion and 2-h detorsion and that administration of low-dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular tissue.

  4. Enhancing uranium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera; Calvo, C Prieto

    2011-12-30

    A systematic study was made of the effects of three soil amendments on the solubilization of uranium from a granitic soil. The aim was to optimize solubilization so as to enhance bioavailability for the purposes of remediation. The three amendments tested were with citrate, EDTA, and EDDS as chelating agents. The effects of pH, chelator concentration, and leaching time were studied. The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. In the absence of chelating agents, the greatest solubilization was obtained for alkaline conditions, with values representing about 15% of the total uranium activity in the bulk soil. There were major differences in uranium solubilization between the different amendments. The citrate treatment was the most efficient at acidic pH, particularly with the greatest concentration of citrate tested (50 mmol kg(-1)) after 6 days of treatment. Under these conditions, the uranium concentration in solution was greater by a factor of 356 than in the control suspension, and represented some 63% of the uranium concentration in the bulk soil. Under alkaline conditions, the EDTA and EDDS treatments gave the greatest uranium activity concentrations in solution, but these concentrations were much lower than those with the citrate amendment, and were not very different from the control results. The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA.

  5. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  6. Effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Aleem; Varsha Padwal; Jyoti Choudhari; Nafisa Balasinor; Priyanka Parte; Manjeet Gill-Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male decondensation, acridine orange (AO) dye uptake, concentration of thiol-groups, levels and/or expression of transition proteins 1, 2 (TP1, TP2), protamine 1 (P1), cyclic AMP response element modulator-τ (CREMτ), androgenbinding protein (ABP) and cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cAMP) were evaluated after 60 days of exposure in adult male rats. Controls received the vehicle. Results: Tamoxifen citrate enhanced the rates of chromatin decondensation, increased AO dye uptake and reduced free thiols in caput epididymal sperms and reduced the levels of TP1, TP2, P1, and CREMτ in the testis, while cAMP was unaffected. P1 deposition was absent in the sperm. The transcripts of TP1, TP2 were increased, of P1 and ABP decreased, while those of CREMτ unaffected in the testis.Conclusion: Tamoxifen citrate reduced caput epididymal sperm chromatin compaction by reducing the testicular levels of proteins TP1, TP2 and P1 and the CREMτ involved in chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis.Tamoxifen citrate affects the expression of these genes at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  7. Diversity of RuBisCO and ATP citrate lyase genes in soda lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, O.L.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Kolganova, T.V.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from six soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) and from hypersaline alkaline lakes of Wadi Natrun (Egypt) were analyzed for the presence of cbb and aclB genes encoding key enzymes Ci assimilation (RuBisCO in Calvin-Benson and ATP citrate lyase in rTCA cycles, respectively). The

  8. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... March 26, 2010. The final rule amended the color additive regulations by increasing the permitted use level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp....

  9. Aqueous solubility of calcium citrate and interconversion between the tetrahydrate and the hexahydrate as a balance between endothermic dissolution and exothermic complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solubility of calcium citrate tetrahydrate was found to decrease with increasing temperature, while solubility of hexahydrate increased with a transition temperature at 51.6 °C. Excess citrate increased calcium citrate solubility but decreased the calcium ion activity of the saturated sol...

  10. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia.

  11. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  12. Developmental toxicity of orally administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in SWR/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy; Al-Meteri, Mokhlid Hamed

    2011-04-01

    Normal adult inbred SWR/J mice were used to investigate the teratogenic and other possible toxic effects of various dose levels of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on fetuses. Multiple dose levels of 6.5, 13.0, 19.5, 26.0, 32.5 or 40.0 mg of sildenafil citrate/kg body weight (which correspond to the multiples of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 of human 50 mg Viagra, respectively) were orally administered into pregnant mice on days 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15 of gestation. On day 17 of pregnancy, all fetuses were removed and examined for toxic phenomena (embryo-fetal toxicity) and for external, internal and skeletal malformations. A total of 285 pregnant mice were used in the present study. None of the dams treated with sildenafil citrate at any of the oral dose levels used in the present study died during the experimental period and all dams treated with the drug failed to reveal overt signs of maternal toxicity. Moreover, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate that none of the multiple oral dose levels of the drug at any time interval used has induced any external, internal or skeletal malformations in the fetuses obtained from treated females. However, the dose level of 40 mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate has a growth suppressing effect on alive fetuses when it was administered at all the time intervals used in the present study. Furthermore, the dose levels 26.0, 32.5 and 40 mg/kg of the drug have embryo-fetal toxicity when the drug is applied on days 13-15 of gestation. The possible mechanisms involved in the embryo-fetal toxicity and fetal growth suppressing effects of sildenafil citrate were discussed. The results of this study have important implications for the widespread use of this drug.

  13. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs.

  14. Evolution of allosteric citrate binding sites on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Usenik

    Full Text Available As an important part of metabolism, metabolic flux through the glycolytic pathway is tightly regulated. The most complex control is exerted on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1 level; this control overrules the regulatory role of other allosteric enzymes. Among other effectors, citrate has been reported to play a vital role in the suppression of this enzyme's activity. In eukaryotes, amino acid residues forming the allosteric binding site for citrate are found both on the N- and the C-terminal region of the enzyme. These site has evolved from the phosphoenolpyruvate/ADP binding site of bacterial PFK1 due to the processes of duplication and tandem fusion of prokaryotic ancestor gene followed by the divergence of the catalytic and effector binding sites. Stricter inhibition of the PFK1 enzyme was needed during the evolution of multi-cellular organisms, and the most stringent control of PFK1 by citrate occurs in vertebrates. By substituting a single amino acid (K557R or K617A as a component of the allosteric binding site in the C-terminal region of human muscle type PFK-M with a residue found in the corresponding site of a fungal enzyme, the inhibitory effect of citrate was attenuated. Moreover, the proteins carrying these single mutations enabled growth of E. coli transformants encoding mutated human PFK-M in a glucose-containing medium that did not support the growth of E. coli transformed with native human PFK-M. Substitution of another residue at the citrate-binding site (D591V of human PFK-M resulted in the complete loss of activity. Detailed analyses revealed that the mutated PFK-M subunits formed dimers but were unable to associate into the active tetrameric holoenzyme. These results suggest that stricter control over glycolytic flux developed in metazoans, whose somatic cells are largely characterized by slow proliferation.

  15. Studies on the reduction of aortic calcification by alkali citrates in an ex vivo tissue preparation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C H; Schwille, P O

    1993-08-01

    The effect of orally administered alkali citrates on the calcification of arterial vessel was studied in the rat. Freshly dissected aortic segments were placed in Millipore diffusion chambers and grafted intraperitoneally. Within 21 days calcification of the media had developed. Under treatment with 2.1 mmol citrate per animal and day a significant decrease in histologically detectable calcification areas occurred, as assessed by greatest thickness and longitudinal expansion. This effect was more pronounced with potassium citrate and potassium sodium citrate, and less marked with sodium citrate. The calcium and phosphorus content of aortic tissue remained unchanged, but magnesium increased significantly. The spheroid particles deposited in the media were characterized in more detail by electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and determination of the molar calcium-phosphorus ratio. The combined data suggest that in the model selected for studying biocalcification not mature hydroxyapatite but some precursor of this substance is deposited, and that in animals receiving alkali citrate treatment deposition of amorphous calcium phosphate is likely. It is concluded that in the ex vivo aortic wall preparation oral alkali citrates a) bring about a reduction in calcification areas in the media layer, b) impair the maturation of hydroxyapatite and its deposition in the arterial tissue; c) promote the accumulation of magnesium. Whether these results are of significance for the calcification of arteries in situ and treatment regimens is unknown.

  16. Availability of zinc and the ligands citrate and histidine to wheat: does uptake of entire complexes play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Anja; Tandy, Susan; Frossard, Emmanuel; Eikenberg, Jost; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-11-06

    Organic ligands in soils affect the availability of trace metals such as Zn to plants. This study investigated the effects of two of these ligands, citrate and histidine, on Zn uptake by wheat under hydroponic conditions. Uptake of (65)Zn in the presence of these ligands was compared to uptake in the presence of EDTA at the same free Zn concentration (Zn(2+) ~ 50 nM). In the presence of citrate Zn root uptake was enhanced ~3.5 times and in the presence of histidine, by a factor of ~9, compared to the EDTA treatments. Citrate uptake was slightly reduced in the treatment containing ligands and Zn compared to the treatment containing the same ligand concentration but no Zn. In addition, a higher uptake of Zn than of citrate was observed. This suggests that the enhanced Zn uptake was primarily due to increased supply of Zn(2+) by diffusion and dissociation of Zn-citrate complexes at the root surface. Histidine uptake was much higher than citrate uptake and not influenced by the presence of Zn. As histidine forms stronger complexes with Zn than citrate, the results suggest that the enhancement of Zn uptake in the presence of histidine was in part due to the uptake of undissociated Zn-histidine complexes.

  17. Observational study of need for thrombolytic therapy and incidence of bacteremia using taurolidine-citrate-heparin, taurolidine-citrate and heparin catheter locks in patients treated with hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laurie R; Cheesbrough, John S; Bhargava, Ramya; Mitsides, Nicos; Heap, Michael; Green, Gerwyn; Diggle, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections may be reduced by interdialytic locking with Taurolidine, a nontoxic antimicrobial agent. A formulation of 1.35% Taurolidine in 4% citrate (TC) is associated with a greater need for thrombolysis to maintain catheter patency than 5000 U/ml heparin. Our aim was to determine whether addition of 500 Units/ml of heparin to TC reduces the need for thrombolysis. TCH (1.35% taurolidine, 4% citrate and 500 U/ml heparin) was compared to TC and Heparin 5000 U/ml using retrospective data. Hundred and six adult hemodialysis patients with internal jugular tunnelled intravascular catheters using TCH were compared with 34 patients using TC and 34 patients using heparin 5000 U/ml respectively. Outcomes were time to first use of thrombolysis and bacteremia rates.TCH reduced the need for thrombolysis compared to TC (hazard ratio, 0.2; 95%CI: 0.06, 0.5; p < 0.001) and was not significantly different from heparin 5000 U/ml (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95%CI: 0.5, 3.9; p = 0.5). The bacteremia rates from all causes were 1.33, 1.22 and 3.25 per 1000 catheter- days (p < 0.001) in the TCH, TC and heparin groups respectively. Addition of 500 U/ml heparin to TC reduces the need for thrombolysis without increasing bacteremia and may achieve patency comparable to heparin 5000 U/ml.

  18. Acute hyponatremia with seizure and mental change after oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sun; Nam, Kyung Min; Park, Jang Ho; Byun, Sang Hwan; Ryu, Jin Suck; Kim, Hyun Ju

    2014-12-01

    Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (Picolight Powder), which is used as a bowel preparation for the colon and the rectum, can cause a severe electrolyte imbalance like hyponatremia. When hyponatremia gets severe or occurs rapidly, it can lead to death due to associated complications. We have experienced a case of hyponatremia associated with seizure and loss of consciousness in a 76-year-old woman, who took sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate as a bowel preparation for colonoscopy. She was taking thiazide and synthroid for the treatment of hypertension and hypothyroidism, respectively, and she had other underlying medical conditions such as a history of seizure and dementia. Following the diagnosis of hyponatremia, we used an intravenous injection of 3% NaCl to normalize the sodium level in her serum, and her associated symptoms soon disappeared.

  19. Morphology controllable synthesis of yttrium oxide-based phosphors from yttrium citrate precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Manlian; GUO Kai; MAN Zhenyong; CHEN Haohong; YANG Xinxin; XU Fangfang; ZHAO Jingtai

    2011-01-01

    A novel yttrium citrate-templated conversion method for morphology controlled synthesis ofY2O3 microspheres,microflowers and microsheets was reported for the first time.The precursors with controllable morphologies were synthesized with a homogenous precipitation method in aqueous solution without any surfactant.Y2O3 samples with well-preserved morphological architectures were obtained by a subsequent thermal transformation strategy.The chemical formula of the precursor was identified and a two-stage growth mechanism was proposed.The effects of the aging time,reaction temperature,reactant concentration and molar ratio of yttrium nitrate to sodium citrate were discussed.The photoluminescence properties of the Y2O3∶Eu3+ microspheres,microflowers and microsheets prepared were also studied.

  20. Absorption of Sulphur Dioxide with Sodium Citrate Buffer Solution in a Rotating Packed Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiuping; LIU Youzhi; GU Meiduo

    2011-01-01

    Absorption of SO2 from a SO2/air mixture with sodium citrate buffer solution was investigated using a rotating packed bed(RPB) in laboratory scale.The effects of operating parameters,such as the rotation speed of RPB,liquid-gas ratio,inlet gas flow rate,inlet concentration of SO2 in flue gas,sodium citrate buffer concentration and initial pH of absorption solution,on the SO2 concentration in the absorption solution or removal efficiency of SO2 were examined.Incremental rate of sulfate radical ions in the absorption solution was also examined.Experimental results indicate that the efficiency of this regenerative process will be improved by using RPB under appropriate operating conditions,and the generation of SO2-4 will be restrained in the process in RPB.

  1. EFFECT OF ROSIGLITAZONE AND METFORMIN ON CLOMIPHENE CITRATE RESISTANCE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianhuai; Cao Zuansun; Zong Lu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of rosiglitazone and metformin on ovarian response, hirsutism and insulin action in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Ninety women resistant to clomiphene citrate with PCOS were randomized, 40 cases to rosiglitazone group, 50 cases to meformin group. Rosiglitazone and metformon were administered for 6 months in combination with clomiphene citrate on cycle day 5th to 9th, respectively. The clinical evaluations were performed monthly. Reproductive hormone, serum glucose and insulin levels were observed before and after treatment. The data were analyzed using repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results There were significant changes in reducing hirsutism score, serum testosterone level, LH/FSH ratio, and restoration of ovarian ovulation after metformin or rosiglitazone administration respectively (P0.05). Conclusion Rosiglitazone can increase insulin sensitivity. Metformon may reduce BMI. They all restore regular menstrual cycles, increase pregnancy rate, and reduce testosterone and LH concentration in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. A new method for determination of postmortem interval: citrate content of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Henry P; Agur, Kristina; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2010-11-01

    Few accurate methods exist currently to determine the time since death (postmortem interval, PMI) of skeletonized human remains found at crime scenes. Citrate is present as a constituent of living human and animal cortical bone at very uniform initial concentration (2.0 ± 0.1 wt %). In skeletal remains found in open landscape settings (whether buried or not), the concentration of citrate remains constant for a period of about 4 weeks, after which it decreases linearly as a function of log(time). The upper limit of the dating range is about 100 years. The precision of determination decreases slightly with age. The rate of decrease appears to be independent of temperature or rainfall but drops to zero for storage temperature <0°C.

  3. The efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate and metformin on ovulation induction in patients suffering from anovulatory infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Patel

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Ovulation rate was significantly higher compared to pregnancy rate. We could not find any benefit of adding metformin to the standard treatment with clomiphene citrate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1241-1246

  4. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN SOME ORGANIC SOLVENTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    OpenAIRE

    S. BALUJA; K. Bhesaniya

    2015-01-01

    The solubility of Sildenafil citrate in some organic solvents; hexane, toluene,1-butanol and 1,2 dichloroethane has been determined using gravimetric method over different temperature range (298.15 K to 328.15 K) at one atmospheric pressure. The modified Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazczak λh equations were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. Further, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated from these solubility data.

  5. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN SOME ORGANIC SOLVENTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baluja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of Sildenafil citrate in some organic solvents; hexane, toluene,1-butanol and 1,2 dichloroethane has been determined using gravimetric method over different temperature range (298.15 K to 328.15 K at one atmospheric pressure. The modified Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazczak λh equations were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. Further, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated from these solubility data.

  6. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN SOME ORGANIC SOLVENTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baluja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of Sildenafil citrate in some organic solvents; hexane, toluene,1-butanol and 1,2 dichloroethane has been determined using gravimetric method over different temperature range (298.15 K to 328.15 K at one atmospheric pressure. The modified Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazczak λh equations were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. Further, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated from these solubility data.

  7. Metallocoenzyme-mediated reductive transformation of carbon tetrachloride in titanium (III) citrate aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, P.C.; Reinhard, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Transformation pathways for carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) catalyzed by hematin or vitamin B{sub 12} in aqueous titanium(III) citrate solution are proposed. The reaction of CCl{sub 4} with B{sub 12} was zero order in CCl{sub 4} and first order in B{sub 12}, and the rate constant was measured from pH 7.3 to pH 10.3. The proposed rate-limiting step is the reduction of the stable trichloromethylcobalamin (CCl{sub 3}-Cbl) intermediate by titanium(III) citrate at alkaline pH and the sterically induced CCl{sub 3}-Cbl decomposition at neutral pH. The reaction kinetics can be described by a modified Michaelis-Menten model in the saturated regime. With hematin, only the pseudo-first-order rate constant was determined due to the significant deactivation of the coenzyme. The turnover number of hematin (molecules of CCl{sub 4} transformed/molecule of hematin deactivated) was 27 at pH 8.0 and 42 at pH 9.9. Vitamin B{sub 12} was a more stable and more effective catalyst (on a molar basis) than hematin with respect to CCl{sub 4}. Chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) was the primary product in titanium(III) citrate solution, and the yield was a function of pH, Ti(III) concentration, and organic content regardless of whether a coenzyme was present or which coenzyme was used. Although B{sub 12} and hematin can both enhance the CCl{sub 4} transformation rate, they have little effect on the CHCl{sub 3} yield. Titanium(III) citrate, on the other hand, controls not only the transformation rate but also CHCl{sub 3} formation. 77 refs., 10 figs.

  8. A Multicentre, Observational Study of Sodium Picosulfate and Magnesium Citrate as a Precolonoscopy Bowel Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Love

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (PSMC has been available as a precolonoscopy bowel preparation in Canada since 2005. A high patient acceptability and preference appears to have contributed to its wide adoption across the country. Despite its frequent use, there are relatively few published studies of this product, especially reports regarding its use in routine clinical practice. Moreover, to date, there have been no Canadian studies of any kind.

  9. Induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate in the Indian vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Pakrasi, P L

    2000-06-15

    The ovulation induction property of clomiphene citrate (CC) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was studied in Scotophilius heathi, an Indian tropical vespertilionid bat, during the period of delayed ovulation between December to early January. The results of the study showed that 10 microg of CC alone was ineffective to induce ovulation, whereas 100 microg CC and 10 IU hCG alone induced ovulation. A significant (P physiology of reproduction.

  10. Effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Peng-Fei Nie; Xiu-Cui Li; Ferdinand An Rompis; Hang Huang; Hua Zhang; Zhong-Lin Mu; Lei Peng; Wei Wang; Qing-Yu Chen; Zhong-Qin Lin; Shao-Wen Cheng; Dong-Quan Kou; Xiao-Zhou Ying; Yue Shen; Xiao-Jie Cheng

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To explore effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model, and to compare the bone formation with different sizes by radiological and histological study. Methods:Twenty-four male Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (GroupA, B, C) in this study. Under anesthesia, defects of four sizes (1.2, 1.5, 2.0 and2.5 mm) were created in each of the rabbits. Commercially pure calcium citrate powder was placed inside the medullary compartment of the femur (Experimental), while in the contralateral femur (Control) nothing was implanted. The defects were analyzed using radiography and histological analysis by using Imagepro-Plus6.0 software after animal was sacrificed at 4th(GroupA), 6th(GroupB) and8th(GroupC) weeks postoperatively. Four samples were analyzed for each size of defect and each healing period.Results:The histological and the radiologic evaluation were performed after sacrification of all rabbits on postoperative4th and6th weeks, It showed significant difference between the experimental group and the control group when these defects were less than or equal to2.0 mm. No statistical difference was observed when these defects were larger than2.0 mm at all healing periods except at the4th week.Conclusions: Calcium citrate affects the early periods of bone defects healing mechanism in Japanese white rabbits positively, especially when the defect is not too large. We suggest further studies on calcium citrate to determine the effects of various dosages, administration ways and the experimental time on the bone defects.

  11. Lattice Constant Dependence on Particle Size for Ceria prepared from a Citrate Sol-Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V N [Analog Devices, Raheen Business Park, Raheen, Limerick (Ireland); Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Farrell, R A [Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Sexton, A M [Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Morris, M A [Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Centre for Research into Advanced Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-02-22

    High surface area ceria nanoparticles have been prepared using a citrate solgel precipitation method. Changes to the particle size have been made by calcining the ceria powders at different temperatures, and X-ray methods used to determine their lattice parameters. The particle sizes have been assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameter found to fall with decreasing particle size. The results are discussed in the light of the role played by surface tension effects.

  12. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Al-doped barium ferrite with sodium citrate as chelate agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daming, E-mail: chendaming1986@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Yingli, E-mail: lyl@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Yuanxun; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, M-type Al-doped barium ferrites were successfully synthesized using sodium citrate (SC) as the chelate agent by a chemical process complemented by a suitable thermal treatment of the precursor. It was found in TGA/DTA and XRD analysis that the crystallization and formation of single phase BaM had completed before 860 °C. The XRD data also confirmed Al substituting into Fe sites. Meanwhile, it can be seen from the SEM images that the particle size and morphology were not affected by Al doping. However, Al substitution played an important role on the magnetic properties. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of BaAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} decreased from 51.43 emu/g for the sample with x=0 to 28.32 emu/g at x=1.5. The anisotropy field (H{sub a}), however, increased from 16.21 kOe to 25.01 kOe. In addition, M{sub s} increased with enhancing the ratio of SC/Ba{sup 2+}(molar ratio), reaching a maximum when SC/Ba{sup 2+} was 13. - Highlights: ► Doped barium ferrite was successfully synthesized using sodium citrate as chelate agent. ► Sodium citrate allows the mixing of metal cations in the as-synthesized barium ferrite. ► The radio of Sodium citrate/Ba{sup 2+} pay an important effect on magnetic properties.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA damage associated with lipid peroxidation of the mitochondrial membrane induced by Fe2+-citrate

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Iron imbalance/accumulation has been implicated in oxidative injury associated with many degenerative diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, beta-thalassemia, and Friedreich's ataxia. Mitochondria are particularly sensitive to iron-induced oxidative stress - high loads of iron cause extensive lipid peroxidation and membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria. Here we detected and characterized mitochondrial DNA damage in isolated rat liver mitochondria exposed to a Fe2+-citrate c...

  14. Cytogenetic effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on SWR/J mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the cytogenetic effects of sildenafil citrate in SWR/J mouse bone marrow cells. Thirty-six males and 36 females were used and divided into four groups. Each group contained 18 animals (9 males and 9 females), weighing 30-35 g. These animals were orally administered with a single dose of 13, 26 or 40 mg/kg sildenafil citrate solution. A control group received normal saline in an identical condition. The animals were sacrificed at 12, 24 or 48 h, after the treatment. Chromosome aberrations were investigated in 50 metaphases per animal. No significant differences in the percentages of mitotic indices or in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed between treated male and female mice at any doses or at any time intervals used, therefore, data from the two sexes were pooled when analyzed statistically. No significant (p < 0.05) differences in the percentages of mitotic indices or in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed between sildenafil citrate-treated groups and the control group at any doses or at any time intervals used. However, the percentages of centromeric adhesions increased significantly (p < 0.01) in treated groups as compared with the control group at all doses and at all time intervals used. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that sildenafil citrate does not have cytogenetic effects on mouse bone marrow cells, but the centromeric adhesions induced by this drug need further studies to confirm them and to investigate the possible mechanism(s) responsible for such effect.

  15. [The conservative treatment of phosphate calculi by citrate buffer (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, O; Höltl, G

    1975-05-02

    3 patients with U-tube pyelonephrostomy were treated conservatively for multiple struvite (triple phosphate) stones in the kidney by means of constant irrigation with citrate buffer (pH 4.8). Complete dissolution of the stones was achieved in 2 patients. Conservative therapy was unsuccessful in the third case in view of narrowing of the renal calyces. Combined therapy by means of direct irrigation and oral chemotherapy is recommended.

  16. Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 μmol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 μmol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM.

  17. Moessbauer and magnetic studies of cobalt substituted lithium zinc ferrites prepared by citrate precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soibam, Ibetombi [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003, Manipur (India)], E-mail: ibetombi_phys@rediffmail.com; Phanjoubam, Sumitra [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003, Manipur (India); Prakash, Chandra [Directorate of ER and IPR, DRDO Bhawan, Rajaji Marg, New Delhi 110011 (India)

    2009-05-05

    Nanocrystalline lithium zinc ferrites substituted with cobalt were synthesized by the citrate precursor method. X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the spinel phase. Moessbauer studies at room temperature were carried out to study the effect of cobalt concentration on the various hyperfine interactions. Variation of the saturation magnetization with respect to composition was discussed. The result shows some anomalous behaviour when cobalt is substituted to lithium ferrite in presence of zinc.

  18. Functional analysis of the citrate activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis implicates a divalent metal in ligand binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Blancato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD= 1.2±0.2 µM, while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation.

  19. Functional Analysis of the Citrate Activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis Implicates a Divalent Metal in Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Magni, Christian; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2016-01-01

    The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM), while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation. PMID:26903980

  20. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow...

  1. Immunohistochemical Study on the PCNA-Immunoreactivity in the Uterus of Rats Ovariectomized or Treated With Antiestrogen Clomiphene Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, Leyla

    2014-01-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the uterus of mature rats was investigated after long term administration of clomiphene citrate and ovariectomy. In the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma regions, few PCNA-immunoreactive cells were observed. PCNA reactivity was estimated for the luminal and glandular epithelium and for the stromal cells. Treatment of clomiphene citrate decreased the proliferation of the luminal epithelial cell and...

  2. Immunohistochemical Study on the PCNA-Immunoreactivity in the Uterus of Rats Ovariectomized or Treated With Antiestrogen Clomiphene Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, Leyla

    1999-01-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the uterus of mature rats was investigated after long term administration of clomiphene citrate and ovariectomy. In the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma regions, few PCNA-immunoreactive cells were observed. PCNA reactivity was estimated for the luminal and glandular epithelium and for the stromal cells. Treatment of clomiphene citrate decreased the proliferation of the luminal epithelial cell and...

  3. Stability of clavulanic acid in PEG/citrate and liquid–liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase system

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. N.; Souza, K. P. S.; Mota, A; J.A. Teixeira; Porto, C S; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana L. F.

    2014-01-01

    β-Lactamases are enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics, being produced by several pathogenic bacteria. Clavulanic acid is a commercially and clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor, its extraction being possible by the application of aqueous two-phase system. In this study, clavulanic acid stability was investigated at different molar mass PEG (400, 1 000 and 20 000 g mol−1) and at different citrate concentrations (5 and 20%) PEG/citrate aqueous-two phase systems (...

  4. Sildenafil citrate protects skeletal muscle of ischemia-reperfusion injury: immunohistochemical study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira Armstrong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: vehicle-treated control (CTG, sildenafil citrate-treated (SCG, and sham group (SG. CTG and SCG had femoral artery occluded for 6 hours. Saline or 1 mg/kg of SC was given 5.5 hours after occlusion. SG had a similar procedure without artery occlusion. Soleus muscle samples were acquired 4 or 24h after the reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry caspase-3 analysis was used to estimate apoptosis using the apoptotic ratio (computed as positive/negative cells. Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Eighteen animals were included in the 4h reperfusion groups and 21 animals in the 24h reperfusion groups. The mean apoptotic ratio was 0.18±0.1 for the total cohort; 0.14±0.06 for the 4h reperfusion groups and 0.19±0.08 for the 24h groups (p<0.05. The SCG had lower caspase-3 ratio compared to the control groups at the 24h reperfusion time point (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate administration after the onset of the ischemic injury reduces IR-induced cellular damage in skeletal muscle in this rat hindlimb ischemia model.

  5. Citrate coated silver nanoparticles change heavy metal toxicities and bioaccumulation of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Injeong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Hyun-A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Sang Don; Hwang, Yu-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Citrate-coated AgNPs (c-AgNPs) have negatively charged surfaces and their surface interactions with heavy metals can affect metal toxicity in aquatic environments. This study used Daphnia magna to compare the acute toxicities and bioaccumulation of As(V), Cd, and Cu when they interact with c-AgNPs. The 24-h acute toxicities of As(V) and Cu were not affected by the addition of c-AgNPs, while bioaccumulation significantly decreased in the presence of c-AgNPs. In contrast, both the 24-h acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd increased in the presence of c-AgNPs. These toxicity and bioaccumulation trends can be attributed to the interactions between the AgNP surface and the heavy metals. As(V) and c-AgNPs compete by negative charge, decreasing As(V) toxicity. Copper adheres readily to c-AgNP citrate, decreasing Cu bioavailability, and thus reducing Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation. Citrate complexes with divalent cations such as Ca and Mg reduce the competition between divalent cations and Cd on biotic ligand, increasing toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd. This study shows that surface properties determine the effect of c-AgNPs on heavy metal toxicities and bioaccumulations; hence, further studies on the effect of nanoparticle by it surface properties are warranted.

  6. Effect of caffeine citrate on the blood gas indexes in newborns with apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yan Wu; Xiao-Jiao Wang; Yuan-Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of caffeine citrate on the blood gas indexes in newborns with apnea.Methods: A total of 108 primary premature infants diagnosed with apnea were included in the study and randomized into the caffeine citrate treatment group and the aminophylline control group with 54 cases in each group. The apnea episode duration 72 h after medication, and the blood gas before medication and 24, 48, 72 h after medication between the two groups were compared.Results: The apnea episode duration 24, 48, 72 h after medication in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group. PaO2 24, 48, 72 h after medication in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PaCO2 was significantly reduced when compared with the control group.Conclusions:Caffeine citrate has achieved a significantly clinical effect in the treatment of newborn apnea, as a new therapeutic drug, is worthy of being widely recommended in the clinic.

  7. Manganese(II)-catalyzed and clay-minerals-mediated reduction of chromium(VI) by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Binoy; Naidu, Ravi; Krishnamurti, Gummuluru S R; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2013-01-01

    Unlike lower valent iron (Fe), the potential role of lower valent manganese (Mn) in the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in soil is poorly documented. In this study, we report that citrate along with Mn(II) and clay minerals (montmorillonite and kaolinite) reduce Cr(VI) both in aqueous phase and in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (SDOC) extracted from a forest soil. The reduction was favorable at acidic pH (up to pH 5) and followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The citrate (10 mM) + Mn(II) (182.02 μM) + clay minerals (3% w/v) system in SDOC accounted for complete reduction of Cr(VI) (192.32 μM) in about 72 h at pH 4.9. In this system, citrate was the reductant, Mn(II) was a catalyst, and the clay minerals acted as an accelerator for both the reductant and catalyst. The clay minerals also serve as a sink for Cr(III). This study reveals the underlying mechanism of the Mn(II)-induced reduction of Cr(VI) by organic ligand in the presence of clay minerals under certain environmental conditions.

  8. Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  9. The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Senpei; Bai, Guangling; Chen, Lingli; Shen, Qun; Diao, Xianmin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-08-15

    Under physiological conditions, exogenous chelators such as polyphenols might interact with non-protein bound ferric complexes, such as Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, Fe(III) and citrate are widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables which are also rich in phenolic acids. In this study, we focus on the interaction between phenolic acids (gallic acid, methyl gallate and protocatechuic acid) and Fe(III) in the presence of excessive citrate by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for thermodynamic studies, and stopped-flow absorption spectrometry for fast kinetic studies. Results reveal that all of these three phenolic acids can bind to the Fe(III) with the same stoichiometry (3:1). Moreover, the binding constants of these three compounds with Fe(III) are greatly dependent on ligand structure, and are much higher than that of Fe(III)-citrate. Based on their stoichiometry and superhigh binding constants, it is most likely that these three phenolic acids can displace the citrate to bind with one iron(III) ion to form a stable octahedral geometric structure, albeit at different rates. These findings shed light on the interaction between phenolic acids and Fe(III) in the presence of citrate under either physiological conditions or in a food system.

  10. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase in isolated hepatocytes. Stoichiometry and relation to the phosphoenzyme intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M C; Palmer, J L; Pointer, R H; Kowaloff, E M; Koumjian, L L; Avruch, J

    1982-02-25

    We have estimated the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase by two methods. Isolated hepatocytes incorporate extracellular 32P into [gamma-35P] ATP and immunoprecipitated ATP-citrate lyase to steady state levels by 1 h. The content of acid-stable 32P in hepatocyte ATP-citrate lyase at steady state is 0.33 +/- 0.038 mol of P/mol (tetrameric) holoenzyme. Insulin (1 milliunit/ml) increases the 32P content of immunoprecipitated lyase 2- to 3-fold in 10 min. Over 90% of acid-stable 32P on lyase is 32P-serine in enzyme isolated from both control and insulin-treated cells. ATP-citrate lyase isolated from hepatocytes contains 0.95 +/- 0.1 mol of alkali-labile phosphate/mol of holoenzyme. Insulin treatment of hepatocytes (1 milliunit/ml for 10 min) increases the alkali-labile P content by 45%. Evidence is presented which indicates that the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation does not arise by intramolecular migration from the catalytic phosphoenzyme intermediate. These observations support the conclusion that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase is mediated either by an insulin-induced increase in the activity of lyase kinase and/or decrease in a lyase phosphatase. The functional role of the substoichiometric phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase remains unknown.

  11. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Ryan, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al(3+) tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al(3+)-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approach to increase the Al(3+) tolerance of barley by transforming it with two MATE genes that encode citrate transporters: SbMATE is the major Al(3+)-tolerance gene from sorghum whereas FRD3 is involved with Fe nutrition in Arabidopsis. Independent transgenic and null T3 lines were generated for both transgenes. Lines expressing SbMATE showed Al(3+)-activated citrate efflux from root apices and greater tolerance to Al(3+) toxicity than nulls in hydroponic and short-term soil trials. Transgenic lines expressing FRD3 exhibited similar phenotypes except citrate release from roots occurred constitutively. The Al(3+) tolerance of these lines was compared with previously generated transgenic barley lines overexpressing the endogenous HvAACT1 gene and the TaALMT1 gene from wheat. Barley lines expressing TaALMT1 showed significantly greater Al(3+) tolerance than all lines expressing MATE genes. This study highlights the relative efficacy of different organic anion transport proteins for increasing the Al(3+) tolerance of an important crop species.

  12. Accumulation of cadmium by durum wheat roots: bases for citrate-mediated exceptions to the free ion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelaar, Edward; Hale, Beverley A

    2003-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) roots from hydroponic solutions, with the proportion of total Cd (8.9-445 nM Cd) as Cd2+ varied by the addition of citrate, was determined to test the free-ion model (FIM) of metal bioavailability for higher plants. Calcium, Mg, and K were also varied. Citrate enhanced root-Cd accumulation at higher Cd2+ concentrations but not lower relative to the same Cd2+ concentrations in solutions containing 0 mM citrate. Elevating Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the citrate solution to the same as those in control solutions alleviated some of the citrate-mediated enhancement but not all. Solutions containing 66% less Ca or Mg than control but the same Cd2+ concentration and no citrate also resulted in increased root Cd. Elevated K+ did not influence Cd accumulation. Regression relationships between root-Cd accumulation and total Cd in solution were similar for the control and pooled amended solutions, whereas they were different for root-Cd accumulation and solution Cd2+. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that the FIM alone is likely insufficient to predict plant accumulation of metals from soils, although it may be a useful probe for the mechanistic bases of metal bioavailability.

  13. High-throughput and rapid fluorescent visualization sensor of urinary citrate by CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shujuan; Gong, Jiajia; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Changqing

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we have presented a novel CdTe quantum dots (QDs) based fluorescent sensor for visual and turn-on sensing of citrate in human urine samples. The europium ion (Eu(3+)) can lead to the fluorescence quenching of thioglycollic acid (TGA) modified CdTe QDs due to photoinduced electron transfer accompanied by the change of emission color from yellow to orange. Next, addition of citrate breaks the preformed assembly because citrate can replace the CdTe QDs, based on the fact that the Eu(3+) ion displays higher affinity with citrate than the CdTe QDs. Thus the photoinduced electron transfer is switched off, and the fluorescence emission of CdTe QDs is rapidly (within 5min) recovered, simultaneously, the orange emission color restores to yellow. Such proposed strategy may conveniently discriminate the patient of renal stone from normal person by naked eyes. In addition to visualization detection, the fluorescence responses can be used for well quantifying citrate in the range of 0.67-133μM. So, the present, simple, low-cost and visualized citrate fluorescence sensor has great potential in the applications for earlier screening in clinical detection.

  14. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  15. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  16. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, Kim; Brown, Janice; Jones, Jessica C; Cabral, Shawn; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Vera, Nicholas B; Zhu, Yimin; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Yingjiang; Vernochet, Cecile; Riccardi, Keith; Wolford, Angela; Pirman, David; Niosi, Mark; Aspnes, Gary; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E; Magee, Thomas V; Uccello, Daniel P; Loria, Paula; Di, Li; Gosset, James R; Hepworth, David; Rolph, Timothy; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Erion, Derek M

    2015-12-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints.

  17. Optimized sildenafil citrate fast orodissolvable film: a promising formula for overcoming the barriers hindering erectile dysfunction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; El-Say, Khalid Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate, a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays poor aqueous solubility, which delays its onset of action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of sildenafil citrate include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The objective of this study was to prepare sildenafil citrate using a fast orodissolvable film (ODF) containing the drug in a solid dispersion (SD) to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of sildenafil citrate in β-cyclodextrin derivatives was estimated, and SDs were prepared and characterized. To develop an ODF that disintegrates rapidly and releases the maximum amount of sildenafil citrate, a 3(3) Box-Behnken experimental design was used to estimate the effects of different concentrations of film forming polymer (X1), the film modifier (X2), and the plasticizer (X3) on the responses, i.e. the disintegration time (Y1) and the amount of drug released (Y2). Pharmacokinetic studies with the optimized (ODF) were conducted on human volunteers. SD prepared using hydroxybutyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced the solubility of sildenafil citrate by more than eightfold. The Y1 for the optimized ODF was 89 seconds, and the Y2 was 86%; this formula also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced by 2.25-fold compared with that of the marketed tablet. The ODF is a promising formulation for sildenafil citrate that results in higher solubility, a rapid onset of action, and enhanced systemic bioavailability.

  18. The role of VuMATE1 expression in aluminium-inducible citrate secretion in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei Ya; Chen, Wei Wei; Xu, Jia Meng; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium (Al)-activated citrate secretion plays an important role in Al resistance in a number of plant species, such as rice bean (Vigna umbellata). This study further characterized the regulation of VuMATE1, an aluminium-activated citrate transporter. Al stress induced VuMATE1 expression, followed by the secretion of citrate. Citrate secretion was specific to Al stress, whereas VuMATE1 expression was not, which could be explained by a combined regulation of VuMATE1 expression and Al-specific activation of VuMATE1 protein. Pre-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor suppressed VuMATE1 expression, indicating that de novo biosynthesis of proteins is required for gene expression. Furthermore, post-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor inhibited citrate secretion, indicating that post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 is critical for citrate secretion. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies showed that reversible phosphorylation was important not only for transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 expression but also for post-translational regulation of VuMATE1 protein activity. These results suggest that citrate secretion is dependent on both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1. Additionally, VuMATE1 promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion lines revealed that VuMATE1 expression was restricted to the root apex and was entirely Al induced, indicating the presence of cis-acting elements regulating root tip-specific and Al-inducible gene expression, which will be an important resource for genetic improvement of plant Al resistance.

  19. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates; Preparacao do titanato zirconato de chumbo a partir dos citratos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C.M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500{sup 0} C, 450{sup 0} C and 250{sup 0} C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450{sup 0} C and 500{sup 0} C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800{sup 0} C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500{sup 0} C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600{sup 0} C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400{sup 0} C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400{sup 0} C-800{sup 0} C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100{sup 0} C and 1200{sup 0} C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm{sup -3} at 1200{sup 0} C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs.

  20. Magnesium citrate with a single dose of sodium phosphate for colonoscopy bowel preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Sung Choi; Jung Pil Suh; Jong Kyu Kim; In Taek Lee; Eui Gon Youk; Doo Seok Lee; Do Sun Kim; Doo Han Lee

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of magnesium citrate and a single dose of oral sodium phosphate (45 mL) solution for morning colonoscopy bowel preparation.METHODS: A total of 159 patients were randomly assigned to receive two split doses of 90 mg of sodium phosphate (Group Ⅰ, n = 79) or magnesium citrate (250 mL,the day before the procedure) followed by 45 mL of sodium phosphate (the day of procedure, Group Ⅱ, n =80). The quality of bowel cleansing and the acceptability of each regimen were compared, including the satisfaction,taste, willing to repeat and adverse effects of each regimen.RESULTS: The quality of bowel cleansing of Group Ⅱ was as good as that of Group Ⅰ (An Aronchick scale score of good or excellent: 70.9% vs 81.0%, respectively,P = 0.34; the Ottawa system score: 4.4 ± 2.6 vs 3.8± 3.0, respectively, P = 0.76). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups with regard to acceptability, including the satisfaction, taste and willingness to repeat the regimen. A significantly greater number of older patients (over 65 years old) in Group Ⅱ graded the overall satisfaction as satisfactory (48.1%vs 78.1%, respectively; Group Ⅰ vs Group Ⅱ, P = 0.01).There were no significant adverse reactions. CONCLUSION: Magnesium citrate and a single dose of sodium phosphate was as effective and tolerable as the conventional sodium phosphate regimen and is a satisfactory option.

  1. The effect of citric acid and citrate on protoplasmic droplet of bovine epididymal sperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Abdy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor evaluation of citric acid and citrate effects on bovine epididymal protoplasmic droplets, fifty bovine testes were collected in the October 2007 till June 2008 from Urmia slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory in a cool container filled with 5 °C ice pack. Caudal epididymis was incised and sperm cells were put into Petri dishes containing hams f10 media with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS, which were kept in 37 °C, CO2 incubator. Then sperm cells were counted and 50-milion per mL concentration was prepared. After this stage, three dilutions of citric acid (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 N and one dilution of citrate (1N, based on normal osmolarity and normal pH were added to a micro tube containing 25 milion per mL sperm. Then one-step eosin-nigrosin staining in 30-60-120-240-360 minutes was performed and slides were evaluated with 1000-x phase contrast microscope and 200 sperm cells per slide were counted. The results revealed significant difference between blank and citric acid 0.3 N. The proportion of protoplasmic droplet in group consisting of 0.3 N acid citric in 120-240-360 minutes, was significantly lower than that of blank (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference between citrate – blank and citric acid 0.1N-blank groups, but after 240 minutes significant difference was observed between blank & citric acid 0.2 N (P < 0.05. In conclusions citric acid based on dilution and time duration can reduce the proportion of bovine epididymal sperm cytoplasmic droplets.

  2. Ferric ammonium citrate as a positive bowel contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelitz, D.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gehl, H.B. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Heuck, A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Krahe, T. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Lodemann, K.P. [Bracco-Byk Gulden GmbH, Konstanz (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of two different doses of ferric ammonium citrate as a paramagnetic oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen. Material and methods: Ninety-nine adult patients referred for MR imaging for a known or suspected upper abdominal pathology were included in this randomized multicenter double-blind clinical trial. Imaging was performed with spin-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) and gradient-echo (T1-weighted) techniques before and after administration of either 1200 mg or 2400 mg of ferric ammonium citrate dissolved in 600 ml of water. Safety analysis included monitoring of vital signs, assessment of adverse events, and laboratory testing. Efficacy with regard to organ distension, contrast distribution, bowel enhancement and delineation of adjacent structures was graded qualitatively. Results: No serious adverse events were reported for either of the two concentrations. A total of 31 minor side effects were noted, of which significantly more occurred in the higher dose group (p<0.01). The diagnostic confidence in defining or excluding disease was graded as better after contrast administration for 48% of all images. Marked or moderate enhancement of the upper gastrointestinal tract was achieved at both doses in 69.5% of cases with no evident difference between the two doses. The higher dose tended to show better results in terms of the contrast assessment parameters. Conclusion: Ferric ammonium citrate is a safe and effective oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen at two different dose levels. The higher dose showed a tendency toward better imaging results while the lower dose caused significantly fewer side effects. Therefore, the 1200 mg dose can be recommended in view of the risk-to-benefit ratio. (orig.)

  3. Adsorption of Acid Phosphatase on Minerals and Soil Colloids in Presence of Citrate and Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of phosphate and citrate, which are common inorganic andorganic anions in soils, on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by kaolin, goethite and the colloids separatedfrom yellow-brown soil (YBS) and latosol (LS) in central-south China. The YBS colloid has the major claymineral composition of 1.4 nm mineral, illite and kaolinite while the LS colloid mainly contains kaolinite andoxides. The adsorption isotherm of acid phosphatase on the examined soil colloids and minerals fitted tothe Langmuir model. The amount of enzyme adsorbed in the absence of ligands was in the order of YBScolloid >LS colloid>kaolin≈goethite. In the presence of phosphate or citrate, the amounts of the enzymeadsorbed followed the sequence YBS colloid>kaolin>LS colloid>goethite. The presence of ligands alsodecreased the binding energy between the enzyme and soil colloids or minerals. With the increase of ligandconcentration from 10 mmol L-1 to 400 m mol L-1, different behaviors for the adsorption of enzyme werefound in the colloid and mineral systems studied. A sharp decrease in enzyme adsorption was observed ongoethite while gradual decreases of enzyme adsorption were recorded in the two soil colloid systems. However,no any decrease was found for the amount of enzyme adsorbed on kaolin at higher ligand concentrations.When phosphate or citrate was introduced to the system before the addition of enzyme, the ligands usuallyenhanced the adsorption of enzyme. The results obtained in this study suggested the important role ofkaolinite mineral in the adsorption of enzyme molecules in acidic soils in the presence of various ligands.

  4. Regional citrate anticoagulation in critically ill patients during continuous blood purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚德华; 季大玺; 徐斌; 谢红浪; 刘云; 黎磊石

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and define the contraindication of regional citrate anticoagulation treatment on various critically ill patients being treated by continuous blood purification, who also had bleeding tendencies. Methods Forty critically ill patients being treated by continuous blood purification (CBP) were involved in this study. Due to their bleeding tendencies, regional citrate anticoagulation treatment was given to all of them. Those with hepatic function impairment (n=10) were classified as Group A, those with hypoxemia were classified as Group B (n=10), and the others as Group C (n=20). Blood samples were collected before treatment, and at 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hour intervals during CBP. These samples then were used arterial blood gas analysis, whole blood activated clotting time (WBACT) pre- and post-filter, and serum ionized calcium examination. Results WBACT pre-filter showed little fluctuant through the 48hr period of CBP, and WBACT post-filter showed obvious prolongation than that of the pre-filter (P<0.05) at all time points. Metabolic acidosis was found in Group A patients before CBP, and improved during CBP. Normal acid-base conditions of patients were disturbed and deteriorated in Group B during CBP, but not in Group C. Serum ionized calcium was maintained at a normal range during CBP in Group A and C patients, but declined significantly in Group B patients (vs. pre-treatment, P<0.05). Conclusions Regional citrate anticoagulation can be safely used in conjunction with CBP treatment for patients with hepatic function impairment , but may induce acidosis and a decline in serum ionized calcium when used with hypoxemic patients.

  5. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-07-31

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na+ solutions. However, Ca2+ ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na+ solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na+ concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest the importance

  6. Determination of Zn-citrate in human milk by CIM monolithic chromatography with atomic and mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Ajlec, Dejan; Zuliani, Tea; Žigon, Dušan; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-11-15

    In human milk zinc (Zn) is bound to proteins and low molecular mass (LMM) ligands. Numerous investigations demonstrated that Zn bioavailability in human milk is for infant much higher than in cow's milk. It was presumed that in the LMM human milk fraction highly bioavailable Zn-citrate prevails. However, literature data are controversial regarding the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk since analytical procedures reported were not quantitative. So, complex investigation was carried out to develop analytical method for quantitative determination of this biologically important molecule. Studies were performed within the pH range 5-7 by the use of synthetic solutions of Zn-citrate prepared in HEPES, MOPS and MES buffers. Zn-citrate was separated on weak anion-exchange convective interaction media (CIM) diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) monolithic chromatographic column using NH(4)NO(3) as an eluent. Separated Zn species were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quantitative separation of Zn-citrate complexes ([Zn(Cit)](-) and [Zn(Cit)(2)](4-); column recoveries 94-102%) and good repeatability and reproducibility of results with relative standard deviation (RSD±3.0%) were obtained. In fractions under the chromatographic peaks Zn-binding ligand was identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). Limits of detection (LOD) for determination of Zn-citrate species by CIM DEAE-FAAS and CIM DEAE-ICP-MS were 0.01 μg Zn mL(-1) and 0.0005 μg Zn mL(-1), respectively. Both techniques were sensitive enough for quantification of Zn-citrate in human milk. Results demonstrated that about 23% of total Zn was present in the LMM milk fraction and that LMM-Zn corresponded to Zn-citrate. The developed speciation method represents a reliable analytical tool for investigation of the percentage and the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk.

  7. Adaptive responses of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in fast-twitch muscle of voluntary running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Halseth, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein, hexokinase, and citrate synthase (proteins involved in oxidative energy production from blood glucose catabolism) increase in response to chronically elevated neuromuscular activity. It is currently unclear whether these proteins increase in a coordinated manner in response to this stimulus. Therefore, voluntary wheel running (WR) was used to chronically overload the fast-twitch rat plantaris muscle and the myocardium, and the early time courses of adaptative responses of GLUT-4 protein and the activities of hexokinase and citrate synthase were characterized and compared. Plantaris hexokinase activity increased 51% after just 1 wk of WR, whereas GLUT-4 and citrate synthase were increased by 51 and 40%, respectively, only after 2 wk of WR. All three variables remained comparably elevated (+50-64%) through 4 wk of WR. Despite the overload of the myocardium with this protocol, no substantial elevations in these variables were observed. These findings are consistent with a coordinated upregulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in the fast-twitch plantaris, but not in the myocardium, in response to this increased neuromuscular activity. Regulation of hexokinase in fast-twitch muscle appears to be uncoupled from regulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase, as increases in the former are detectable well before increases in the latter.

  8. A Retrospective Review of the Use of Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration for Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kit-Hung Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of a commercially prepared citrate solution has revolutionized the use of RCA in the intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of a commercially prepared citrate solution. Method. Predilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH was performed using Prismocitrate 10/2 at 2500 mL/h and a blood flow rate of 150 mL/min. Calcium chloride solution was infused to maintain ionized calcium within 1.0–1.2 mmol/L. An 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution was infused separately. Treatment was stopped when the predefined clinical target was reached or the filter clotted. Result. 58 sessions of citrate RCA were analyzed. The median circuit lifetime was 26.0 h (interquartile range IQR 21.2–44.3. The percentage of circuits lasting more than 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h was 94.6%, 58.9%, and 16.1%, respectively. There was no incidence of hypernatremia and median pH was 2.5, only four patients had evidence of citrate accumulation. Conclusion. The commercially prepared citrate solution could be used safely in critically ill patients who required CVVH with no major adverse events.

  9. Citric acid and sodium citrate effects on pink color development of cooked ground turkey irradiated pre- and post-cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2006-03-01

    The effects of citric acid (0.15%, 0.3%) and sodium citrate (0.5%, 1.0%) on pink color development in ground turkey following irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0kGy) were examined. Citric acid and sodium citrate had little effect on pink color when samples were irradiated prior to cooking. In contrast, when samples were cooked prior to irradiation, citric acid (0.3%) and sodium citrate (1.0%) reduced redness as indicated by eliminating a reflectance minimum at approximately 571nm, lessening greater reflectance in the red wavelength region, and preventing greater reducing conditions caused by irradiation. Citric acid significantly reduced pH and yields whereas sodium citrate reduced pH and yields to a lesser extent. Both citric acid and sodium citrate are potential ingredients that can be added during processing to prevent undesirable pink color in precooked irradiated ground turkey and therefore can result in greater acceptance of irradiated products by consumers.

  10. Role of Citrate Ions in the Phosphonate-based Inhibitor System for Mild Steel in Aqueous Chloride Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunasekaran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition efficiency of phosphonic acid and its derivatives for the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in neutral chloride media is decided by its ability to form protectivefilm over the surface. In this context, the effect of addition of metal cations and certain organic compounds, such as citrate in conjugation with phosphonic acid to impart synergistic corrosion inhibition has been explored. The experiments were carried out using various concentrations of trisodium citrate and zinc ions in an aqueous solution of 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid (2CEPA at 25 ppm. The corrosion characteristics have been determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with determination of corrosion rate by weight-loss method. It has been observed that a combination of inhibitive ions, namely citrate, ZCEPA, and zinc ions at 25 ppm gives 96 per cent inhibition efficiency and this corrosion inhibition is due to the formation of a protective film. By increasing the concentration of citrate beyond 25 ppm, the corrosion inhibition efficiency decreases. This paper discusses the role of citrate and zinc ions in imparting added corrosion inhibition ability using 2CEPA on the basis of experimental results.

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) on Vertebral Artery Blood Flow in Patients with Vertebro-Basilar Insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Berilgen, Sait; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Ogur, Erkin [Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig(Turkmenistan); Tekatas, Aslan [Elazig Government Hospital, Elazig (Turkmenistan)

    2008-12-15

    To investigate the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the vertebral artery blood flow of patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI) using color duplex sonography (CDS). The study included 21 patients with VBI (aged 31-76; mean 61.0 +- 10.5 yrs). We administered a 50 mg oral dose of sildenafil citrate to all patients. Next, we measured the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end diastolic velocity (Vmin), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), diameter, area, and flow volume (FV) of vertebral arteries using CDS before the administration of sildenafil citrate; 45 minutes after, and 75 minutes after administration. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The statistical test used to determine the outcome of the analysis was the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Compared to the baseline values, the vertebral artery diameter, area, and FV increased significantly following the administration of sildenafil citrate. The diameter, area and FV increased from 3.39 mm at 45 minutes to 3.64 mm at 75 minutes, 9.43 cm{sup 2} to 10.80 cm{sup 2} at 45 minutes and 10.81 cm{sup 2} at 75 minutes, as well as from 0.07 L/min at baseline to 0.09 L/min at 45 minutes and unchanged at 75 minutes, respectively. Sildenafil citrate elicited a significant effect on vertebral artery diameter, area and FVs

  12. Effect of ionic strength on ligand exchange kinetics between a mononuclear ferric citrate complex and siderophore desferrioxamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Fujii, Manabu; Masago, Yoshifumi; Waite, T. David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    The effect of ionic strength (I) on the ligand exchange reaction between a mononuclear ferric citrate complex and the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFB), was examined in the NaCl concentration range of 0.01-0.5 M, particularly focusing on the kinetics and mechanism of ligand exchange under environmentally relevant conditions. Overall ligand exchange rate constants were determined by spectrophotometrically measuring the time course of ferrioxamine B formation at a water temperature of 25 °C, pH 8.0, and citrate/Fe molar ratios of 500-5000. The overall ligand exchange rate decreased by 2-11-fold (depending on the citrate/Fe molar ratios) as I increased from approximately 0.01 to 0.5 M. In particular, a relatively large decrease was observed at lower I (dissociation of citrate from the parent complexes) dominates in ferrioxamine formation under the experimental conditions used. The model also predicts that the higher rate of ligand exchange at lower I is associated with the decrease in the ferric dicitrate complex stability because of the relatively high electrical repulsion between ferric monocitrate and free citrate at lower I (note that the reactivity of ferric dicitrate with DFB is smaller than that for the monocitrate complex). Overall, the findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the potential effect of I on ligand exchange kinetics in natural waters and provide fundamental knowledge on iron transformation and bioavailability.

  13. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions: I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2011-06-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na(+) and K(+)) and divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or ZnCl(2) and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+), while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.

  14. Interactions of vanadium(V)-citrate complexes with the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Manuel; Tiago, Teresa; Gândara, Ricardo M C; Sousa, Andrea; Moderno, A; Kaliva, M; Salifoglou, A; Duarte, Rui O; Moura, José J G

    2005-12-01

    Among the biotargets interacting with vanadium is the calcium pump from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To this end, initial research efforts were launched with two vanadium(V)-citrate complexes, namely (NH(4))(6)[V(2)O(4)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(2)].6H(2)O and (NH(4))(6)[V(2)O(2)(O(2))(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(2)].4H(2)O, potentially capable of interacting with the SR calcium pump by combining kinetic studies with (51)V NMR spectroscopy. Upon dissolution in the reaction medium (concentration range: 4-0.5mM), both vanadium(V):citrate (VC) and peroxovanadium(V):citrate (PVC) complexes are partially converted into vanadate oligomers. A 1mM solution of the PVC complex, containing 184microM of the PVC complex, 94microM oxoperoxovanadium(V) (PV) species, 222microM monomeric (V1), 43microM dimeric (V2) and 53microM tetrameric (V4) species, inhibits Ca(2+) accumulation by 75 %, whereas a solution of the VC complex of the same vanadium concentration, containing 98microM of the VC complex, 263microM monomeric (V1), 64microM dimeric (V2) and 92microM tetrameric (V4) species inhibits the calcium pump activity by 33 %. In contrast, a 1 mM metavanadate solution, containing 460microM monomeric (V1), 90.2microM dimeric (V2) and 80microM tetrameric (V4) species, has no effect on Ca(2+) accumulation. The NMR signals from the VC complex (-548.0ppm), PVC complex (-551.5ppm) and PV (-611.1ppm) are broadened upon SR vesicle addition (2.5mg/ml total protein). The relative order for the half width line broadening of the NMR signals, which reflect the interaction with the protein, was found to be V4>PVC>VC>PV>V2=V1=1, with no effect observed for the V1 and V2 signals. Putting it all together the effects of two vanadium(V)-citrate complexes on the modulation of calcium accumulation and ATP hydrolysis by the SR calcium pump reflected the observed variable reactivity into the nature of key species forming upon dissolution of the title complexes in the reaction media.

  15. Effect of different lipids and surfactants on formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles incorporating tamoxifen citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S U Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen Citrate (TC is an estrogen receptor antagonist and drug of choice for hormone sensitive breast cancer. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles loaded with TC were prepared by High Shear Homogenization followed by Ultrasonication. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of four different Solid Lipids and three Surfactants on Formulation and Stability of SLN. They were characterized for Particle size, Polydispersity Index and Zeta Potential by Zetasizer Nano. SLN prepared by Solid Lipid Compritol 888 (Glyceryldibehenate and Tween 80 (1% showed desired Particle Size of 206.9 nm, PDI of 0.046 and Zeta Potential of 9.32 mV.

  16. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ming; WANG Wei; LI Xiu-cui; PENG Lei; LIN Zhong-qin; X(ü) Hua-zi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model.Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citraterhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2) group and rhBMP-2 only group.Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respectively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits.Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg)combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg) or rhBMP-2 alone were implanted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab.Bone granules were obtained at 2,4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis.LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis.Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones,and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group.The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks,and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all).At 2 weeks,mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group.Conclusion: From this study,it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly enhances bone regeneration in bone defects.This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions.

  17. A randomized study comparing IVF in the unstimulated cycle with IVF-following clomiphene citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Højgaard, A.; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl;

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of IVF in unstimulated cycles was compared with that following ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate in a simple protocol with ultrasound monitoring only. A total of 132 couples with no previous IVF attempts, selected by female age ... protocol, but not IVF in unstimulated cycles, seems compatible with the concept of `friendly IVF', yielding a fair pregnancy rate both per cycle started and per embryo transfer in selected patients. The results do not substantiate any important negative anti-oestrogenic effects of clomiphene....

  18. Alexander Fleming, citrated blood and penicillin: paths not pursued and applications delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, P P

    2009-12-01

    Ninety years ago Alexander Fleming (later to discover penicillin) jointly wrote a description of the use of indirect transfusions of citrated blood at a World War 1 (WW1) base hospital. It was the longest series yet to be published, incorporating what was then a novel procedure for treating war casualties. Returning to civilian life Fleming, a qualified surgeon and bacteriologist, chose a different career path, and not until the wars of the late 1930s were the advances in transfusion in WW1 fully incorporated into the management of trauma and haemorrhage. Like penicillin, the benefits of indirect transfusion were only slowly realised.

  19. L'anticoagulation de l'hémofiltration continue: Citrate versus Héparine

    OpenAIRE

    Damas, Pierre; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    L'insuffisance rénale aiguë aux Soins Intensifs affecte un patient sur cinq et souvent nécessite le recours à une épuration extra-rénale. L'hémofiltration continue est choisie pour certains patients (instabilité hémodynamique, neurologique, mais nécessite, comme d'ailleurs l'hémodialyse, une anticoagulation. Le citrate, utilisé dans le travail publié, est sorti vainqueur de sa comparaison avec l'héparine non fractionnée. Son utilisation nécessite cependant une surveillance attentive. P...

  20. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  1. Ab initio calculation of the Zn isotope effect in phosphates, citrates, and malates and applications to plants and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Albarède, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Stable Zn isotopes are fractionated in roots and leaves of plants. Analyses demonstrate that the heavy Zn isotopes are enriched in the root system of plants with respect to shoots and leaves as well as the host soil, but the fractionation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the origin of this isotope fractionation is due to a chemical isotope effect upon complexation by Zn malates and citrates in the aerial parts and by phosphates in the roots. We calculated the Zn isotope effect in aqueous citrates, malates, and phosphates by ab initio methods. For pHphosphates, with respect to leaves, which concentrate malates and citrates, by about one permil. It is proposed that Zn isotope fractionation represents a useful tracer of Zn availability and mobility in soils.

  2. Effects of acupuncture on the citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver under various types of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of the effect of acupuncture on citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver in terms of incorporation of /sup 14/C-1, 5-citric acid and /sup 14/C-u-glucose in some metabolites. The effect of acupuncture on citrate metabolism in the liver under control conditions was such as to increase production of G and reduce that of KB, FC and FFA. No effect of acupuncture on glucose metabolism in the liver under such conditions was observed. Both citrate and glucose metabolism were affected to a marked extent by immobilization stress or exposure to heat or cold. The deleterious effect of these types of stress was less prominent in animals receiving acupuncture at the Tsu-San-Li locus than in those treated otherwise or receiving no treatment.

  3. Structural and electrical properties of nanometric Ni-Cu ferrites synthesized by citrate precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mansour, S.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt); Afifi, M. [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Nanometric nickel copper ferrites Ni{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 0{<=}x{<=}0.45 were prepared by the citrate precursor method. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter (a) is increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} ion substitution. The crystallite size was calculated from XRD data and compared with that obtained from TEM micrographs. A significant increase in the density is observed with increasing Cu content. The IR absorption spectra were used for the detection and confirmation of the chemical bonds in spinel ferrites. The dielectric constant {epsilon}' and dielectric loss showed a decrease with increasing frequency for all samples. The decrease in the ac conductivity was ascribed to the increase in hopping length. - Highlights: > Ni-Cu ferrite was successfully prepared using citrate auto combustion method. > The lattice parameter and the density increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} content. > We suggest the use of Ni ferrite with large Cu{sup 2+} content in electrical devices.

  4. Fe(III-Citrate-Complex-Induced Photooxidation of 3-Methylphenol in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seraghni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation process of m-cresol (3-methylphenol, induced by Fe(III-Cit complex, was investigated upon irradiation at 365 nm in natural water. The composition and photochemical properties of Fe(III-Cit complex were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrophotometer for optimizing the stoichiometry of the complex and photolysis under irradiation at 365 nm, respectively. A dark investigation of the system was performed before studying the photochemical behavior. The photooxidation efficiencies of m-cresol were dependent on the pH value, optimized at pH 2.86, oxygen, initial concentrations of Fe(III-Cit complex, and m-cresol. Additionally, to look into the mechanism of m-cresol degradation using Fe(III-Cit, tertiobutanol alcohol was used as scavenger for hydroxyl radicals and the result suggested that hydroxyl radical attack was the main pathway of m-cresol degradation. Besides, oxygen can enhance the photolysis of Fe(III-Citrate complex by trapping the electron on the carbon centered radical formed after the photoredox process. Then O2•− formed reacts rapidly leading finally to formation of •OH radical. In absence of oxygen, less reactive species are formed; consequently the disappearance of m-cresol was strongly inhibited. Our work shows that the presence of Fe(III-Citrate complex could have a considerable impact on the fate of organic pollutant in aquatic environment.

  5. Size sorting of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles by sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2009-12-25

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized through the citrate reduction method; the citrate/gold(III) ratio was changed from 1:1 up to 10:1 and the size of the resulting nanoparticles was measured by sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). Experimental data showed that the GNPs size decreases in the ratio range 1:1-3:1 and then increases from 5:1 to 10:1 passing through a plateau region in between, and is almost independent of the precursor solution concentrations. In the zone of minimum diameters the synthetic process does not produce monodispersed GNPs but often multiple distributions, very close in size, are observed as evidenced by the particle size distributions (PSDs) derived from the SdFFF fractograms. UV-vis spectrophotometry, being the most common technique employed in the optical characterization of nanoparticles suspensions, was used throughout this work. A confirmation of the nucleation-aggregation-fragmentation mechanism was inferred from the cross-correlation between UV-vis and SdFFF results.

  6. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0...... to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution.......Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0.......25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm−2 did not increase removal and thus...

  7. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  8. Identification and validation of a factor of commutability between platelet counts performed on EDTA and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Pierre; Goussot, Vincent; David, Alice; Lizard, Sarab; Riedinger, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-01

    The anticoagulant mostly employed for platelet count is EDTA. The Francophone Group of Cellular Hematology recommends checking of blood smear stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa any thrombocytopenia less than 100 G/L without medical history or whether an alarm is generated by the cell counter. The pseudo-thrombocytopenia (PTP) with EDTA is the best known artifact in platelet count. A sample of blood on citrated tube is necessary to get rid of the interference. The objective of this study was to compare the platelet counts obtained on EDTA (numEDTA) and citrate (numCTAD) tubes and to define, then validate a factor of conversion between both methods. The prevalence of PTP EDTA is 0.26%. The PTP was transient in 80% of the patients. The numEDTA and numCTAD+10% (numCTAD increased by 10% to take dilution into account) are correlated but are not equivalent. The numCTAD+10% underestimate numEDTA significantly. The systematic bias is removed if we increase by 17% numCTAD. The factor of correction is stable over a period of 3 hours.

  9. Sildenafil citrate (viagra) induces cardioprotective effects after ischemia/reperfusion injury in infant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Yvonne A; Salloum, Fadi; Ockaili, Ramzi; Chou, Eric; Moskowitz, William B; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2005-01-01

    Infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease are at risk for myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass, circulatory arrest, or low-flow states. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor on myocardial functional improvement and infarct size reduction during ischemia/reperfusion injury in infant rabbits. Infant rabbits (aged 8 wk) were treated with sildenafil citrate (0.7 mg/kg i.v.) or normal saline 30 min before sustained ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 3 h. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to assess left ventricular cardiac output (LVCO) and aortic velocity time integral (VTI). After ischemia/reperfusion, risk area was demarcated by Evan's blue dye and infarct size determined by computer morphometry of triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained sections. The sildenafil-treated group had preservation and elevation in LVCO (143% of baseline, p sildenafil group compared with controls (n = 6/group, p sildenafil-treated group had significant reduction in infarct size (15.5 +/- 1.2 versus 33 +/- 2.3 in the saline group, % risk area, mean +/- SEM, n = 10-15/group, p sildenafil citrate promotes myocardial protection in infant rabbits as evidenced by postischemic preservation and elevation in LVCO and aortic VTI and reduction in infarct size.

  10. Retention of iron by rat intestine in vivo as affected by dietary fiber, ascorbate and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, J G; Garcia Estrada, J; Garcia, P M; Garzon, P

    1986-06-01

    The effects of pH, ascorbate, citrate and dietary fiber on retention of ferrous and ferric iron by jejuno-ileal segments of rat intestine were examined in vivo. Iron was introduced in an isosmotic solution of sodium chloride and dextrose buffered by 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (BES) and acetate. Stabilization of the iron solutions was aided by use of iron concentrations less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml injected into the intestine for 10-min periods. Iron retention was optimal over a broad pH range from 5 to 7.8. Inclusion of ascorbic acid in the solution injected (5, 25 or 75 micrograms/ml) did not increase retention of iron in either valence state. A low concentration of sodium citrate (2 mM) had no effect on iron retention, but increasing the concentration to 5 mM released iron from the mucosa. Maize and wheat fibers decreased the retention of ferrous iron by binding and by promoting autoxidation and formation of poorly soluble iron polymers. Bound ferrous iron was released completely at pH below 5. Retention of ferric iron was also lowered in the presence of fiber, presumably as a result of polymerization. Retention of iron by the rat in the absence of ligands was independent of valence state.

  11. A Taurolidine-Citrate-Heparin Lock Solution Effectively Eradicates Pathogens From the Catheter Biofilm in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiech, Rafał; Adelt, Maria; Chrul, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a typical complication of hemodialysis catheter use. Catheter lumen colonization by pathogens is regarded as a direct cause of CRB. Once settled, the catheter biofilm increases the risk of developing infection, thus necessitating insertion replacement and antibiotic treatment. The study assessed the self-sufficient efficacy of taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating catheter biofilm bacteria and keeping it sterile in patients on hemodialysis. Twenty-nine chronic patients on hemodialysis with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with a heparin filling (the mean time of heparin lock use -30.1 ± 2.0 days) and subsequently converted to a taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling were included. Peripheral vein and catheter lumen blood cultures were obtained before the filling change and after taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock use (mean time 33.8 ± 7.6 days). Twenty-four participants with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling served as the control group. During the heparin-locking period, CRB was diagnosed in 3 cases (only nontunneled catheters). The catheter blood cultures findings were positive in 23 patients (10 temporary and 13 permanent catheters), whereas both the catheter and peripheral vein blood cultures were sterile in 3 of 29 subjects (only permanent catheters). Irrespective of catheter type (tunneled or nontunneled), repeated culture revealed no pathogens in any of the 23 patients with initial positive catheter blood culture, after the use of taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling. No positive blood culture was noted in the control group. The taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution effectively eradicated pathogens from nontunneled and tunneled catheter biofilms and helped to maintain catheter lumen sterility.

  12. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction.

  13. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Král

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid andacetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification ofcitrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red electrodes arepresented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillaryelectrophoresis.

  14. Chemical controls on uranyl citrate speciation and the self-assembly of nanoscale macrocycles and sandwich complexes in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, M; Unruh, D K; Gojdas, K; Flores, E; Streicher, L; Forbes, T Z

    2015-03-28

    Uranyl citrate forms trimeric species at pH > 5.5, but exact structural characteristics of these important oligomers have not previously been reported. Crystallization and structural characterization of the trimers suggests the self-assembly of the 3 : 3 and 3 : 2 U : Cit complexes into larger sandwich and macrocyclic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and ESI-MS have been utilized to investigate the relative abundance of these species in solution under varying pH and citrate concentrations. Additional dynamic light scattering experiments indicate that self-assembly of the larger molecules does occur in aqueous solution.

  15. Loop VIII/IX of the Na+-citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae folds into an amphipathic surface helix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobczak, [No Value; Lolkema, JS; Sobczak, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    The sodium ion-dependent citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a member of, the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2HCT) family whose members transport divalent citrate in symport with two sodium ions. Profiles of the hydrophobic moment suggested the presence of an amphipathic helical

  16. Recessive mutations in SLC13A5 result in a loss of citrate transport and cause neonatal epilepsy, developmental delay and teeth hypoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardies, Katia; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    -dependent citrate transporter have a complete loss of citrate uptake due to various cellular loss-of-function mechanisms. In addition, we provide independent proof of the involvement of autosomal recessive SLC13A5 mutations in the development of neonatal epileptic encephalopathies, and highlight teeth hypoplasia...

  17. Comparing of letrozole versus clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins in intrauterine insemination cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ayazi Roozbahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC an agonist and antagonist of estrogen, is the first line treatment in ovarian stimulation. Anti-estrogenic effect of CC in endometrial thickness and cervical mucus has negative effect on pregnancy rate. Letrozole is an Aromatase Inhibitor has been seen that has acceptable pregnancy rate compared to CC.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC with gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation in women candidate for intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients eligible to IUI therapy enrolled in this study. Patients randomized to two groups: group A (received letrozole-gonadotropin and group B (received CC-gonadotropin. In group A (n=80 letrozole was given on days 3-7 of the menstrual cycles. In group B clomiphen citrate was given like letrozole combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG administered every day starting on day 8. Ovulation was triggered with urinary HCG when the leading follicle (s reached 18 mm in diameter. A single IUI was performed 36-40 hours later. The ovarian stimulation response (E2 levels and number of follicles, clinical pregnancy and endometrial thickness was primary outcome.Results: Both groups were similar in demographic characteristics. There was a significantly lower peak serum E2 level in the letrozole group compared with CC. (236±86 Vs. 283±106 pg/mL, respectively; p18 mm preovulatory follicles was significantly higher in CC group than letrozole group (2.2±.68 Vs. 2.02±0.63 respectively; p=0.025. Endometrial thickness measured at the time of hCG administration was significantly higher in letrozole group. (9.08±1.2 mm Vs. 8.1±1.9 mm; p=0.0001. The clinical pregnancy rate was comparable between two groups.Conclusion: Letrozole is a good and cost-effective alternative to CC in IUI cycles

  18. Morphology of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harets V.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological state of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication was studied. We found that values of the hepatofetal index in the groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au had significant differences as compared to the group exposed to lead intoxication, but did not differ significantly from the control group and made up 0,086±0,001 and 0,083±0,001, respectively. Value of the relative area of blood vessels in groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au was 13.08±0.53% and 16.83±0.53%, respectively, which had no significant difference as compared to control group, but differed from the value of lead intoxication group. Under the influence of silver citrate on a background of lead intoxication the relative area of hematopoietic cells was 52,5±0,95%; this indicates to modification action of silver on haematopoiesis. Thus, injection of silver and gold citrates prevents negative effect of lead on morphometric parameters of embryonic liver, relative area of blood vessels and hematopoietic cells. Experiment results showed protective effect of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication during hepatogenesis.

  19. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...

  20. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on rabbit urinary bladder citrate synthase activity in the presence and absence of a grape suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Venugopal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The etiology of obstructive bladder dysfunction includes free radical damage to mitochondria. Feeding rabbits a standardized grape suspension protects the ability of the bladder to contract and empty in part by preventing mitochondrial damage, thus maintaining smooth muscle and mucosal metabolism. The objective of the current study is to determine the direct effect of this grape suspension on the response of mitochondria to the oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rabbits were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the bladders excised. Four full thickness strips were obtained for contractile studies and the balance separated into smooth muscle and mucosa compartments by blunt dissection. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the contractile response to field stimulation was quantitated. Each tissue was homogenized and the effects of increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of grape suspension on citrate synthase activity was determined. RESULTS: Citrate synthase activity was significantly higher in the mucosa than in the muscle. The grape suspension had no effect on control citrate synthase activity. However, the grape suspension provided significant protection of both smooth muscle and mucosal citrate synthase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the conclusion that the grape suspension provides direct protection of mitochondrial function.

  1. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions : I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na+and K+) and divalent metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+) were tested all as chloride salts. The effec

  2. Membrane topology of the Na+/citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae by insertion mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, Marleen van; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2000-01-01

    The sodium ion dependent citrate transporter of Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) is a member of the bacterial 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family. Membrane topology models of the protein. largely based on reporter molecule fusions to C-terninally truncated CitS molecules, indicate that the protein t

  3. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Michael; Saad, Tomer; Shechter, Alon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Silver, Burton B; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2012-03-01

    The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg2+]i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53±8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg2+]i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg2+]i (34.4±3 versus 36.3±2 mEq/L, pmagnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg2+]i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.

  4. Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labanowski, Jerome [INRA, UR 251 Unite PESSAC, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Monna, Fabrice [ARTeHIS, UMR 5594 CNRS, Univ. de Bourgogne Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Bat. Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France); Bermond, Alain [AgroParis Tech., Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, 16 rue C. Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cambier, Philippe; Fernandez, Christelle; Lamy, Isabelle [INRA, UR 251 Unite PESSAC, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Oort, Folkert van [INRA, UR 251 Unite PESSAC, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France)], E-mail: vanoort@versailles.inra.fr

    2008-04-15

    Kinetic EDTA and citrate extractions were used to mimic metal mobilization in a soil contaminated by metallurgical fallout. Modeling of metal removal rates vs. time distinguished two metal pools: readily labile (Q{sub M1}) and less labile (Q{sub M2}). In citrate extractions, total extractability (Q{sub M1} + Q{sub M2}) of Zn and Cd was proportionally higher than for Pb and Cu. Proportions of Pb and Cu extracted with EDTA were three times higher than when using citrate. We observed similar Q{sub M1}/Q{sub M2} ratios for Zn and Cu regardless of the extractant, suggesting comparable binding energies to soil constituents. However, for Pb and Cd, more heterogeneous binding energies were hypothesized to explain different kinetic extraction behaviors. Proportions of citrate-labile metals were found consistent with their short-term, in-situ mobility assessed in the studied soil, i.e., metal amount released in the soil solution or extracted by cultivated plants. Kinetic EDTA extractions were hypothesized to be more predictive for long-term metal migration with depth. - Kinetically defined metal fractions mimic mobility aspects of heavy metals.

  5. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  6. Influence of concentration, time and method of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in root conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cavassim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the parameters of concentration, time and mode of application of citric acid and sodium citrate in relation to root conditioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 495 samples were obtained and equally distributed among 11 groups (5 for testing different concentrations of citric acid, 5 for testing different concentrations of sodium citrate and 1 control group. After laboratorial processing, the samples were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. A previously calibrated and blind examiner evaluated micrographs of the samples. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to analyze the data obtained. RESULTS: Brushing 25% citric acid for 3 min, promoted greater exposure of collagen fibers in comparison with the brushing of 1% citric acid for 1 minute and its topical application at 1% for 3 min. Sodium citrate exposed collagen fibers in a few number of samples. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of statistical significance, better results for collagen exposure were obtained with brushing application of 25% citric acid for 3 min than with other application parameter. Sodium citrate produced a few number of samples with collagen exposure, so it is not indicated for root conditioning.

  7. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on erectile dysfunction in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy ATTR Val30Met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, K; Ando, Y; Terazaki, H; Yamashita, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakamura, M; Yamashita, T; Suga, M; Ishizaki, T; Uchino, M; Ando, M

    2000-04-12

    A 34-year-old male patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) Valine30Methionine (Val30Met), who underwent a liver transplantation in Sweden in 1994, was treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) to ameliorate his erectile dysfunction (ED). Some clinical symptoms and the examination data for autonomic functions were improved after liver transplantation, but ED was never improved after the operation. Five years after liver transplantation, he requested a sildenafil citrate therapy to enhance his erectile potential. One and a half hours after the administration of 25 mg of sildenafil citrate, the skin surface temperature around the pelvic area increased and the penis became erect, though the postdose hemodynamic parameters did not significantly change from the respective baseline or predose values. He was able to have sexual intercourse, though ejaculation did not occur. This case report appears to suggest that sildenafil citrate is an effective drug to treat ED in patients with an organic impairment of the autonomic nervous system without altering systemic circulation.

  8. Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

    2014-02-15

    The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (μM). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 μM. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lake

  9. Implication of citrate, malate and histidine in the accumulation and transport of nickel in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Taoufik; Lutts, Stanley; Taamali, Manel; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    Citrate, malate and histidine have been involved in many processes including metal tolerance and accumulation in plants. These molecules have been frequently reported to be the potential nickel chelators, which most likely facilitate metal transport through xylem. In this context, we assess here, the relationship between organics acids and histidine content and nickel accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Brassica juncea grown in hydroponic media added with 25, 50 and 100 µM NiCl2. Results showed that M. crystallinum is relatively more tolerant to Ni toxicity than B. juncea. For both species, xylem transport rate of Ni increased with increasing Ni supply. A positive correlation was established between nickel and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap. In the shoot of B. juncea, citric and malic acids concentrations were significantly higher than in the shoot of M. crystallinum. Also, the shoots and roots of B. juncea accumulated much more histidine. In contrast, a higher root citrate concentration was observed in M. crystallinum. These findings suggest a specific involvement of malic and citric acid in Ni translocation and accumulation in M. crystallinum and B. juncea. The high citrate and histidine accumulation especially at 100µM NiCl2, in the roots of M. crystallinum might be among the important factors associated with the tolerance of this halophyte to toxic Ni levels.

  10. Successful Advanced Maternal Age Pregnancy with Mosaic Turner Syndrome Conceived after Ovulation Induction with Clomiphene Citrate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Murakami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC. The patient’s ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  11. Successful advanced maternal age pregnancy with mosaic turner syndrome conceived after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Hinokio, Kenji; Kiyokawa, Machiko; Morine, Mikio; Iwasa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). The patient's ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  12. Selective induction and subcellular distribution of ACONITASE 3 reveal the importance of cytosolic citrate metabolism during lipid mobilization in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Mark A; Allwood, J William; Harrison, Joanna K D; Kopka, Joachim; Erban, Alexander; Goodacre, Royston; Balk, Janneke

    2014-10-15

    Arabidopsis thaliana has three genes that encode distinct aconitases (ACO), but little is known about the function of each isoenzyme during plant development. In newly emerged seedlings of Arabidopsis, transcript and protein levels for ACO3 were selectively induced to yield more than 80% of total aconitase activity. Characterization of knockout mutants for each of the three ACOs suggests a major role for only ACO3 in citrate metabolism. The aco3 mutant showed delayed early seedling growth, altered assimilation of [14C]acetate feeding and elevated citrate levels, which were nearly 4-fold greater than in wild-type, aco1 or aco2. However, both ACO1 and ACO2 are active in seedlings as shown by inhibition of aco3 growth by the toxin monofluoroacetate, and altered [14C]acetate assimilation and metabolite levels in aco1 and aco2. Relative levels of fumarate and malate differed between aco2 and aco3, indicating metabolically isolated pools of these metabolites in seedlings. Our inability to enrich ACO protein through mitochondria isolation, and the reduced cytosolic ACO activity of the iron-sulfur centre assembly mutant atm3-1, indicated a cytosolic localization of ACO3 in 3-day-old seedlings. Subsequently, we determined that more than 90% of ACO3 was cytosolic. We conclude that ACO3 is cytosolic in young seedlings and functions in citrate catabolism consistent with the operation of the classic glyoxylate and not direct catabolism of citrate within mitochondria.

  13. Complex permittivity, permeability, and microwave absorption of barium ferrite by citrate sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    BaFe12O19 hexaferrites were prepared by citrate sol-gel process. The formation temperature was much lower thanthat of the conventional ceramic method. The complex dielectric constant and complex permeability of hexaferrite-paraffinwax composites had been measured by the transmission/reflection coaxial line method in the range from 200 MHz to 6 GHz.The measurement results showed that both the complex dielectric constant and dielectric loss exhibited no significant varia-tion with the measuring frequency increase. It also showed that the real part of permeability decreased as the frequency in-creasing for all samples, the resonance phenomena due to domain wall resonance was observed in μ" spectra, the calciningtemperature strongly affects the microwave properties of BaFe12O19 ferrites, the higher the calcining temperature, the lowerthe resonance frequency.

  14. Effects of clomiphene citrate on early pregnancy in guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Hutchinson, J S

    1991-05-01

    Clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg body wt) given on the day of mating can block or interrupt pregnancy in guinea-pigs. Corpus luteum function, uterine histology, implantation and embryo development were studied in clomiphene-treated and control animals on Days 5, 9 and 20 of pregnancy. Following treatment, only 25% of the females were regularly pregnant, presenting large and healthy foetuses. The other females examined showed either pregnancy with embryos undergoing resorption or no sign of pregnancy. In these females, corpus luteum size was reduced, progesterone concentrations were very low and the endometrial glands and the epithelium were often altered. It is concluded that clomiphene causes a reduction in fertility by altering the uterus and, by directly or indirectly inducing luteolysis, causes later pregnancy loss.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Citrate Synthase Gene in Rice( Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shan-shan; MING Feng; LU Qun; GUO Bin; SHEN Da-leng

    2005-01-01

    The full-length OsCS encoding citrate synthase was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica). OsCS is 1477-bp long and encodes a 474 amino acid polypeptide. Its putative protein sequence is highly identical to Daucus carota, Nicotiana tabacum,Beta vulgaris subsp., Arabidopsis thaliana, and Citrus junos (>70%). The deduced amino-terminal sequence of OsCS showes characteristics of mitochondrial targeting signal. Southern blot analysis using ORF of the OsCS as the probe indicated that this gene exists in multiple copies in rice genome. The band with predicated size of 82 kD was detected by Western blot after being induced by 0.4 mmol/L IPTG.

  16. Adsorption property of citrate dispersant on BaTiO3 particles in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tao-long; ZHUANG Zhi-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Dispersion behavior of ultra fine BaTiO3 particles in the aqueous solution of ammonium citrate (NH4-CA) or citric acid lanthanum chelate (NH4-La-CA) was investigated. The dispersion property was characterized with sedimentation value. It is easier to obtain well dispersed slurry with NH4La-CA than NH4-CA. In an attempt to better understand the role of citric acid radical,simulation of the dispersant adsorption on BaTiO3 particle was performed with universal force field (UFF). It is demonstrated that the interaction between citric acid radical and BaTiO3 particle surface is a weak chemical adsorption. Trivalent citric acid radical is adsorbed on BaTiO3 particle surface with maximal adsorption energy. And, larger molecules of NH4-La-CA formed by adding La3+ lead to better dispersion property than NH4-CA.

  17. Detailed enzyme kinetics in terms of biochemical species: study of citrate synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Beard

    Full Text Available The compulsory-ordered ternary catalytic mechanism for two-substrate two-product enzymes is analyzed to account for binding of inhibitors to each of the four enzyme states and to maintain the relationship between the kinetic constants and the reaction equilibrium constant. The developed quasi-steady flux expression is applied to the analysis of data from citrate synthase to determine and parameterize a kinetic scheme in terms of biochemical species, in which the effects of pH, ionic strength, and cation binding to biochemical species are explicitly accounted for in the analysis of the data. This analysis provides a mechanistic model that is consistent with the data that have been used support competing hypotheses regarding the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  18. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel via nitrate-citrate combustion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saberi, Ali [Ceramic Division, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ASaberi@IUST.ac.ir; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Sarpoolaky, Hosein [Ceramic Division, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Willert-Porada, Monika; Gerdes, Thorsten [Chair of Materials Processing, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Simon, Reinhard [Chair of Ceramic Materials Engineering, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2008-08-25

    Nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was synthesized using metal nitrates, citric acid and ammonium solutions. The precursor and the calcined powders at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combustion mechanism was also studied by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) which coupled to STA. The generated heat through the combustion of the mixture of ammonium nitrate and citrate based complexes decreased the synthesis temperature of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The synthesized MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel at 900 deg. C has faced shape with crystallite size in the range of 18-24 nm.

  19. An unusual adverse effect of sildenafil citrate: acute myocardial infarction in a nitrate-free patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Ikitimur, Baris; Karadag, Bilgehan; Ongen, Zeki

    2012-10-19

    Myocardial infarction (MI) associated with sildenafil citrate is seen rarely in patients without any history of coronary artery disease. We report a nitrate-free patient with a history of cardiovascular risk factors who developed acute MI after taking sildenafil. A 44-year-old man diagnosed with acute anterior ST segment elevation MI 120 min after self-administration of 150 mg sildenafil was admitted before attempting any sexual intercourse. The coronary angiography revealed 99% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and a bare-metal stent was implanted. He was discharged after 5 days without any complication. Sildenafil may cause coronary steal or may lead to vasodilation causing hypotension in patient with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, especially in patients on nitrate therapy. Our patient was nitrate free, with normal blood pressure values. Emotional stimulation associated with anticipated sexual activity may have been a triggering factor for vulnerable coronary plaque rupture.

  20. Clomiphene citrate reduces procarbazine-induced sterility in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, R; Lahav, M; Raanani, P; Singer, R; Regev, A; Sagiv, M; Giler, S; Theodor, E

    1995-01-01

    Chemotherapy with the cytotoxic drug procarbazine (PCB) causes permanent infertility in most male patients. Since many patients treated with this cytotoxic drug are of reproductive age, it is important to develop a method to protect spermatogenesis and fertility. It has been hypothesised that 'spermatogenic arrest' by pharmacological intervention may render the testes less susceptible to the effects of chemotherapy. The present study investigated whether recovery of fertility in a male rat model could be achieved by suppression of spermatogenesis with high doses of clomiphene citrate (CC) prior to PCB administration. It was demonstrated that young male rats treated with a combination of CC and PCB partially recovered spermatogenesis and achieved almost normal fertility. In contrast, animals treated with PCB alone exhibited abnormal spermatogenesis and remained infertile.

  1. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) treatment for erectile dysfunction: An updated profile of response and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma-Nathan, H

    2006-01-01

    In the 7 years since sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) was introduced as the first oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy for erectile dysfunction, it has been used to treat nearly 27 million men with erectile dysfunction worldwide. Patient populations with erectile dysfunction of varying etiologies and with diverse comorbidities have benefited from sildenafil treatment. This update focuses on relatively recent research that further defines the response and effectiveness profiles of sildenafil and provides additional insight into optimizing treatment. In addition to providing recent data on sildenafil efficacy and safety/tolerability, the update provides data on assessments of erection hardness, measures of psychosocial outcomes (e.g., emotional well-being and treatment satisfaction), and treatment approaches to maximize response and effectiveness (e.g., by titrating to the maximum tolerated dose). Increased understanding of the sildenafil response and effectiveness profiles and optimal sildenafil treatment are central to the appropriate management of erectile dysfunction using sildenafil.

  2. Strategically functionalized carbon nanotubes as the ultrasensitive electrochemical probe for picomolar detection of sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Lee, Kwang Pill; Komathi, Shanmugasundaram

    2011-02-15

    The present work demonstrates the utility of the functionalized carbon nanotubes, poly(4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) (PABS) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes, MWNT-g-PABS, as an electrode modifier towards achieving ultrasensitive detection of a model drug, sildenafil citrate (SC). PABS units in MWNT-g-PABS interact with SC, pre-concentrate and accumulate at the surface. The electron transduction from SC to electrode is augmented via MWNT-g-PABS. As a result, the MWNT-g-PABS modified electrode exhibited ultrasensitive (57.7 μA/nM) and selective detection of SC with a detection limit of 4.7 pM. The present work provides scope towards targeting ultrasensitivity for the detection of biomolecules/drug through rational design and incorporation of appropriate chemical components to carbon nanotubes.

  3. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  4. Crystal structure of trirubidium citrate from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of trirubidium citrate, 3Rb+·C6H5O7 3−, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The two independent Rb+ cations are seven- and eight-coordinate, with bond-valence sums of 0.99 and 0.92 valence units. The coordination polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. The only hydrogen bond is an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and the central carboxyl­ate, with graph set S(5). The hydro­phobic methyl­ene groups lie in pockets in the framework. PMID:28217353

  5. Preparation of iron oxides using ammonium iron citrate precursor: Thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangmoon

    2009-09-01

    Ammonium iron citrate (C 6H 8O 7·nFe ·nH 3N) was used as a precursor for preparing both iron-oxide thin films and nanoparticles. Thin films of iron oxides were fabricated on silicon (111) substrate using a successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction (SILAR) method and subsequent hydrothermal or furnace annealing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the iron-oxide films obtained under various annealing conditions show the changes of the micro-scale surface structures and the magnetic properties. Homogenous Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles around 4 nm in diameter were synthesized by hydrothermal reduction method at low temperature and investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  6. Crystal structure of trirubidium citrate from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structure of trirubidium citrate, 3Rb(+)·C6H5O7(3-), has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The two independent Rb(+) cations are seven- and eight-coordinate, with bond-valence sums of 0.99 and 0.92 valence units. The coordination polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. The only hydrogen bond is an intra-molecular one between the hy-droxy group and the central carboxyl-ate, with graph set S(5). The hydro-phobic methyl-ene groups lie in pockets in the framework.

  7. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  8. Magnetic studies of Li-Zn ferrites prepared by citrate precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soibam, Ibetombi, E-mail: ibetombi_phys@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003 (India); Phanjoubam, Sumitra; Sharma, H.B.; Sarma, H.N.K. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003 (India); Prakash, C. [Directorate of ER and IPR, DRDO Bhawan, Rajaji Marg, New Delhi 110 011 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Ferrites having the general formula Li{sub 0.5-0.5x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2.5-0.5x}O{sub 4} where 0<=x<=0.6 in steps of 0.2 were prepared by the citrate precursor method. The Curie temperature measured shows a decrease with increasing Zn concentration. Experimental results show that the room temperature initial permeability increases with the increase in the concentration of zinc. The initial permeability has also been studied as a function of frequency in the range of 100 Hz-1 MHz. The real part of initial permeability referred as initial permeability and the imaginary part of initial permeability better known as permeability loss show dispersion with frequency. Possible mechanism contributing to the above processes is discussed.

  9. Effects of Acetate-Free Citrate Dialysate on Glycoxidation and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Masuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown the presence of high levels of glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products in association with atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Acetates are commonly used buffer for correcting metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. Since the toxic effects of acetates are well established, acetate-free citrate dialysate (AFD has become available in Japan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suppressive effects of AFD on oxidative stress in maintenance HD patients by measuring plasma pentosidine and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels as markers for glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products. Methods: Plasma pentosidine, MDA-LDL and other laboratory parameters were examined on maintenance HD at the Juntendo University Hospital before and after switching to AFD. Results: MDA-LDL levels divided by LDL cholesterol were significantly lower than those before switching to AFD. Furthermore, levels of plasma pentosidine were lower than those before switching to AFD. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the percent change of the calcium-phosphorus product in the nondiabetic group and that of phosphorus in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of MDA-LDL/LDL, whereas the percent change of log high-sensitive C-reactive protein and that of systolic blood pressure in the nondiabetic group and that of diastolic blood pressure in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of plasma pentosidine. Conclusions: It appears that AFD decreases glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products when compared with acid citrate dextrose in HD patients. The reduction of oxidative stress by AFD during HD may have possible beneficial effects on atherosclerosis through calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood pressure.

  10. The effect of EDDS and citrate on the uptake of lead in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Ahmad; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Schat, Henk

    2013-10-01

    Root and shoot lead concentrations and the impact of chelating agents on these were investigated in two populations of the novel metallophyte Matthiola flavida. Plants were exposed in hydroponics to Pb(NO3)2, supplied alone, or in combination with citric acid, or EDDS. When supplied at concentrations expected to bind about 95% of the Pb in a solution containing 1-μM Pb (1000 μM citrate or 3.1 μM EDDS, respectively), the root and shoot Pb concentrations were dramatically lowered, in comparison with a 1-μM free ionic Pb control exposure. A 1-mM EDDS+1-μM Pb treatment decreased the plants' Pb concentrations further, even to undetectable levels in one population. At 100 μM Pb in a 1-mM EDDS-amended solution the Pb concentration increased strongly in shoots, but barely in roots, in comparison with the 1-μM Pb+1-mM EDDS treatment, without causing toxicity symptoms. Further increments of the Pb concentration in the 1-mM EDDS-amended solution, i.e. to 800 and 990 μM, caused Pb hyperaccumulation, both in roots and in shoots, associated with a complete arrest of root growth and foliar necrosis. M. flavida seemed to be devoid of constitutive mechanisms for uptake of Pb-citrate or Pb-EDDS complexes. Hyperaccumulation of Pb-EDDS occurred only at high exposure levels. Pb-EDDS was toxic, but is much less so than free Pb. Free EDDS did not seem to be toxic at the concentrations tested.

  11. Synthesis of ZnS thin films from aqueous caustic of trisodium citrate and their properties

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    Martyn A. Sozanskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide (ZnS thin films due to their properties are widely used in various electronic optical devices. They are produced by several methods, among which – vacuum sublimation, high frequency sputtering method, quasiclosed volume method, sol-gel method, electrodeposition. These methods have high energy consumption which increases the price of ZnS thin films. Aim: The aim of this work is to establish the optimal parameters of the synthesis of ZnS thin films of the aqueous caustic and the correlation between content of zinc in the synthesized films determined by the method of stripping voltammetry and thickness, structural, morphological and optical parameters. Materials and Methods: The ZnS thin films were obtained from aqueous caustics of zinc-containing salt using chemical deposition. Fresh solution of zinc-containing salt, trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7 as a complexing agent, thiourea ((NH22CS and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH was used for the synthesis of ZnS films by chemical deposition. The deposition was performed on prepared glass substrates with the area of 5,76 cm2. Results: The phase mixture of the films has been determined. It showed the presence of ZnS compounds in the cubic modification (sphalerite. Stripping voltammetry was used to determine the mass of zinc in the ZnS films on various conditions of synthesis, namely on the concentration of the initial zinc-containing salt, trisodium citrate, thiourea, deposition time and temperature. The surface morphology, optical properties, the thickness of the ZnS resulting films have been studied. Conclusions: The optimal conditions for the synthesis of ZnS films were found based on these data. Three-dimensional surface morphology of ZnS film studies showed its smoothness, uniformity, integrity and confirmed the correctness of determining the optimal synthesis parameters.

  12. The Histopathological Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Superior Colliculus of Adult Male Rat

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    Amany Shams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preclinical and very limited clinical studies suggest that sildenafil may have therapeutic potential in selected neurological disorders. However, many neurological side effects of sildenafil have been reported. This work aimed to clarify the histopathological effect of sildenafil citrate on the superior colliculus (SC of adult male albino rat. Material and methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were received respectively sildenafil citrate orally at doses 0.25, 0.70 and 1.43mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days while the 4th group was used as control. At end of the treatment, the superior colliculi were undergone light and electron microscopic investigation. Results: In the control group, superficial part of the SC has neural cells and myelinated nerve fibers. With least dose of sildenafil, the superficial part of SC revealed disturbance in neural tissue with dilated capillaries and vacuoles. Some neurons showed deeply stained nuclei shrunken cytoplasm. Some cells showed enlarged mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. With medium dose of sildenafil, SC showed more disturbances; stripped myelin sheaths or widely separated myelin lamellae, dilated blood vessels with large vacuoles around them and many neurons with apoptotic criteria. However, maximum dose of sildenafil induced massive destruction of edematous neural tissue; invasion of the surface with massive blood vessels, marked decrease in thickness of myelin sheaths and the neural cells revealed degenerative and apoptotic changes. The mean number and size of cells revealed significantly progressive decrease in all treated rats with increasing doses of the drug. Conclusion: Long-term, daily use of sildenafil can lead to pathological effect in the superior colliculus which may be implicated in visual disturbance and this effect is dose dependent, so neurological effect of sildenafil necessitates further investigations. [J

  13. Effect of sodium citrate plasma on growth and function of hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yong-bo; WANG Ying-jie; CHEN Zhi; ZHANG Shi-chang; CHEN Guo-zhi; LEI Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of sodium citrate plasma (scP) on the growth and function of hepatocytes. Methods: HepG2, fetus and porcine hepatocytes were cultured. The viability, cell cycle and apoptosis, the leakage of LDH, AFP, total protein, glutathione and the changes on morphology of hepatocytes exposured to scP were investigated. Results: (1)Cultured in 10%, 30%, 50%, 100% scP for 24 h,the viability of HepG2 cells was inhibited (F=40. 108, P=0. 001). After 48 h, nearly all cells died except10% scP group. (2)Exposured to scP for 24 h,the percentage of S phase of the cell cycle was significantly increased and apoptosis was also significantly increased compared to control cultures. (3) The leakages of LDH were increased in the HepG2, fetus and porcine hepatocytes following exposure to scP for 5 h. (4)The synthesis of AFP in fetus and porcine hepatocytes were inhibited in medium containing 10% scP for 3d (t values were 8.1902, 5. 1034 separately, P<0. 01). Exposure of HepG2 cells to scP within 24 h resulted in a decrease in the total protein synthesis and a increase inthe GSH content. (5)Most of HepG2, fetus and porcine hepatocytes died in all except 10% scP groups after 24 h exposed to scP. Conclusion :scP can damage hepatocytes, which results from citric acid and sodium citrate contained in the fluid of blood maintenance.

  14. Cardiac Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Following Instillation of 20 nm Citrate-capped Nanosilver

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    Becak DP, Holland NA; Shannahan, Jonathan H.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have garnered much interest due to their antimicrobial properties, becoming one of the most utilized nano scale materials. However, any potential evocable cardiovascular injury associated with exposure has not been previously reported. We have previously demonstrated expansion of myocardial infarction after intratracheal (IT) instillation of other nanomaterials. We hypothesized that pulmonary exposure to Ag core AgNP induces persistent increase in circulating cytokines, expansion of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with altered coronary vessel reactivity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 200 µg of 20 nm citrate capped Ag core AgNP, or a citrate vehicle intratracheally (IT). One and 7 days following IT instillation lungs were evaluated for inflammation and silver presence, serum was analyzed for concentrations of selected cytokines, and cardiac I/R injury and coronary artery reactivity was assessed. Results: AgNP instillation resulted in modest pulmonary injury with detection of silver in lung tissue and infiltrating cells, elevation of serum cytokines: G-CSF, MIP-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-10, IL-18, IL-17, TNFα, and RANTES, expansion of I/R injury and depression of the coronary vessel reactivity at 1 day post IT compared to vehicle treated rats. Seven days post IT instillation was associated with persistent detection of silver in lungs, elevation in cytokines: IL-2, IL-13, and TNFα and expansion of I/R injury. Conclusions: Based on these data, IT instillation of AgNP increases circulating levels of several cytokines, which may contribute to persistent expansion of I/R injury possibly through an impaired vascular responsiveness.

  15. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  16. Spermine and citrate as metabolic biomarkers for assessing prostate cancer aggressiveness.

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    Guro F Giskeødegård

    Full Text Available Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n = 158, 48 patients with a high cancer content (mean: 61.8% were obtained using a new harvesting method, and metabolic profiles of samples representing different Gleason scores (GS were acquired by high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS. Multivariate analysis (PLS, PLS-DA and absolute quantification (LCModel were used to examine the ability to predict cancer aggressiveness by comparing low grade (GS = 6, n = 30 and high grade (GS≥7, n = 81 cancer with normal adjacent tissue (n = 47. High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p = 0.0044 and citrate (p = 7.73·10(-4, and an increase in the clinically applied (total choline+creatine+polyamines/citrate (CCP/C ratio (p = 2.17·10(-4. The metabolic profiles were significantly correlated to the GS obtained from each tissue sample (r = 0.71, and cancer tissue could be distinguished from normal tissue with sensitivity 86.9% and specificity 85.2%. Overall, our findings show that metabolic profiling can separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. This holds promise for the benefit of applying in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS within clinical MR imaging investigations, and HR-MAS analysis of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies has a potential as an additional diagnostic tool.

  17. The efficacy of metformin and clomiphene citrate combination compared with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction in infertile patients with PCOS

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    Papa Dasari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Low ovulatory and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate (CC in anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Aim: To find out the ovulatory and pregnancy rates in infertile PCOS subjects who receive CC alone and a combination of metformin and CC. Setting and Design: A prospective controlled clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department from August 2003 to August 2005. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four infertile PCOS women received CC alone at incremental doses of 50 mg up to 150 mg for three cycles and then at a dose of 150 mg for another three cycles (control group. The study group (16 PCOS received the same dose of CC along with 1500mg of metformin. Ovulation was monitored by transvaginal sonography up to six cycles or till pregnancy occurred. Statistical Analysis: This was carried out using software SSPS, version 10. Fisher′s exact test was used to calculate the ovulatory rates. Nine subjects of the control group who failed to conceive with CC had opted for CC and metformin and their ovulatory rate was calculated using statistical software, namely SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, MedCalc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 using Fischer′s exact test. Results: The metformin and clomiphene combination resulted in a significantly higher rate of ovulation ( P = 0.0016. The pregnancy rate was 8% with CC and 24% with metformin and CC. The CC failure group also ovulated at a similar rate as that of the study group. Conclusions: The ovulatory rate and the pregnancy rate with the metformin-CC combination was found to be higher when compared with CC alone. Metformin increased the ovulatory rate in CC failures, also implying increased sensitivity to CC.

  18. Biological dosimetry after radiosynoviorthesis with rhenium-186 sulphide and erbium-169 citrate; Strahlenbiologische Effekte nach Radiosynoviorthese mit Rhenium-186-Sulfid und Erbium-169-Citrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurbus-Duhs, Annika Jeannine

    2013-08-16

    Aim. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the biological radiation effect of radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) with Re-186 and Er-169 in order to evaluate the safety of this procedure. Methods. RSO with rhenium-186 sulfide colloid (10 patients) or erbium-169 citrate colloid (13 patients) was carried out in a total of 23 patients. Afterwards, the treated joint was immobilised for three days using splints. From all patients, blood was drawn immediately before and 17 to 19 days (Re-186) or 45 to 50 days (Er-169) after RSO. To evaluate the radiation dose, the yield of dicentric chromosomes in lymphocytes was determined exclusively in metaphases of the first cell cycle in vitro. At least 1000 cells per patient have been analysed before and after RSO which is sufficient to find potential radiation effects after long-term exposure to low energy radiation such as to expect after RSO. In addition, for Re-186 the activity leakage from the treated joint was measured by whole-body scintigraphy. Results. In a total of 47017 cells analysed from 46 blood samples, 40 and 88 before and 59 and 105 dicentrics after RSO with Re-186 and Er-169 were found. This showed no statistically significant increase in the number of dicentric chromosomes. The measured average activity leakage of less than 5 % (less than 3 MBq) was considered to be low. Conclusion. The results of chromosome analysis and activity measurement after RSO prove that this procedure is associated with a low effective dose in treated patients and thus can be considered a safe treatment.

  19. The relationship between choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in magnetic resonance spectroscopy with the invasion of prostate cancer

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    M Ghafoori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second cause of cancer mortality in men. Although histopathological examination is the gold-standard for its diagnosis, tendency toward less invasive methods is growing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS with the invasion of prostate cancer in a series of patients with prostate cancer.Methods: Totally, 200 patients with pathologically proven prostate cancer were enrolled in this cross-sectional study by a non-probability sampling method in Hazrat Rasul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2009-2010. Pathological staging was the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer while the patients underwent MRS for choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio determination. MRS and pathological results were compared and analyzed.Results: The mean (±SD values of choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in patients with Gleason scores less than 3, 3 to 4 and greater than 4 were 245.8±146.8, 427.1±173.6 and 427.1±173.6, respectively (P<0.001. The mean (±SD values of choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in patients with PSA levels less than 4, 4 to 10 and greater than 10 were 180.7±58.3, 247±93.5 and 385.1±106.6, respectively (P<0.001.Conclusion: Choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy has a significant relationship with the degree of invasion of prostate cancer and can be used for the staging of the disease.

  20. Clomiphene citrate or letrozole as first-line ovulation induction drug in infertile PCOS women: A prospective randomized trial

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    Sujata Kar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare Letrozole (5 mg and clomiphene citrate (100 mg as first line ovulation induction drug in infertile PCOS women. Study Design: Prospective Randomised trial. Setting: A Tertiary level infertility centre. Patients: 103 infertile PCOS women Intervention(S: Treatment naοve infertile PCOS women were randomised to treatment with 5 mg letrozole (51 patients or 100 mg clomiphene citrate (52 patients daily starting day 2 to day 6 of menstrual cycle. Timed intercourse or Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI was advised 24 to 36 hours after Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG injection. Main Outcome Measures: Ovulation rate, mono or multi follicular rate, days to ovulation, endometrial thickness, serum progesterone, serum estrogen, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate. Results: The mean age, Body Mass Index (BMI, duration of infertility in both Clomiphene Citrate (CC and Letrozole groups were similar.Ovulation rate was 73.08% in letrozole group and 60.78% in CC, which was not statistically significant (P=0.398. There was no statistically significant difference between Endometrial thickness (CC 7.61 ±1.96, Let 7.65 ± 2.10, Sr E 2 on day of HCG (CC 178.3 ± 94.15, Let 162.09 ± 73.24, Days to ovulation (CC 14.2 ± 3.41; Let 13.13 ± 2.99 and Sr P 4 on D 21 (CC 10.58 ± 6.65; Let 11.86 ± 6.51. Monofolliculo genesis (CC 54.84, Let 79.49 %, P=0.027 and Pregnancy rate (CC 7.84%, Let 21.56% P=0.0125 were statistically significantly higher in letrozole group. Conclusion: Our study shows that letrozole has excellent pregnancy rates compared to clomiphene citrate. Letrozole should be considered at par with clomiphene citrate as first line drug for ovulation induction in infertile PCOS women.

  1. Mosapride citrate, a 5-HT₄ receptor agonist, increased the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in non-diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kiyomi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptaine (5-HT)₄ receptor, is typically used to treat heartburn, nausea, and vomiting associated with chronic gastritis or to prepare for a barium enema X-ray examination. Mosapride citrate reportedly improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. As mosapride citrate activates the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that mosapride citrate affects incretin secretion. We examined the effect of the administration of mosapride citrate on the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, and plasma incretin levels before breakfast and at 60, 120, and 180 min after breakfast in men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to exclude gastropathy. Mosapride citrate was administered according to two different intake schedules (C: control (no drug), M: mosapride citrate 20 mg) in each of the subject groups. The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose levels was smaller in the M group than in the C group. The time profiles for the serum insulin levels at 60 and 120 min after treatment with mosapride citrate tended to be higher, although the difference was not statistically significant. The AUCs of the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were significantly larger in the M group than in the C group. No significant difference in the AUC of the plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) level was observed between the two groups. Our results suggest that mosapride citrate may have an antidiabetic effect by increasing GLP-1 secretion.

  2. An ultrasensitive and highly selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for citrate ions based on rhodamine B and its application as the first molecular security keypad lock based on phosphomolybdic acid and citrate inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavallali, Hossein, E-mail: Tavallali@pnu.ac.ir; Baezzat, Mohammad-Reza; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-04-15

    Rhodamine B (Rh{sub B}) has been developed as novel and efficient colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensor for citrate ions (Cit{sup 3−}) in an absolutely aqueous media. The UV–vis absorption and fluorescent emission titrations experiments have been employed to study the sensing process. Rh{sub B} could act as an efficient “ON–OFF” fluorescent chemosensor for phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) based on an electron transfer (ET) process. Also (Rh{sub B}{sup +}){sub 3}.PMA{sup 3−} could operate as an “OFF–ON” fluorescent chemosensor for citrate ions based on a ligand substitution process. The chemosensor Rh{sub B} shows excellent fluorescence sensitivity and selectivity toward citrate in aqueous media, and displays ON–OFF–ON type fluorescence change with alternately adding PMA and citrate to the media along with reversible association–dissociation of the complex. The (Rh{sub B}{sup +}){sub 3}.PMA{sup 3−} can be applied to the quantification of citrate with a linear ranges covering from 0.053 to 0.83 and 0.08 to 1.6 µM by detection limits of 6.0 and 9.1 nM for fluorescence and colorimetric methods respectively. The keypad lock operation is particularly important, as the output of the system depends not only on the proper combination but also on the order of input signals, creating the correct password that can be used to “open” this molecular keypad lock through strong fluorescence emission at 575 nm. As a whole, its various logic gate properties may improve its impact for the development of new-generation “intelligence” digital devices. The ionic PMA and Cit{sup 3−} inputs to (Rh{sub B}{sup +}){sub 3}.PMA{sup 3−} have been mimicked as a superimposed electronic molecular keypad lock. Also indicates that Rh{sub B} is suitable for the detection of Cit{sup 3−} ions in the biological environment. - Highlights: • Our probe is commercially available with good photostability and high quantum yield. • Both color and fluorescence change

  3. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  4. The Effects of High Level Magnesium Dialysis/Substitution Fluid on Magnesium Homeostasis under Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill.

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    Mychajlo Zakharchenko

    Full Text Available The requirements for magnesium (Mg supplementation increase under regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA because citrate acts by chelation of bivalent cations within the blood circuit. The level of magnesium in commercially available fluids for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT may not be sufficient to prevent hypomagnesemia.Patients (n = 45 on CRRT (2,000 ml/h, blood flow (Qb 100 ml/min with RCA modality (4% trisodium citrate using calcium free fluid with 0.75 mmol/l of Mg with additional magnesium substitution were observed after switch to the calcium-free fluid with magnesium concentration of 1.50 mmol/l (n = 42 and no extra magnesium replenishment. All patients had renal indications for CRRT, were treated with the same devices, filters and the same postfilter ionized calcium endpoint (<0.4 mmol/l of prefilter citrate dosage. Under the high level Mg fluid the Qb, dosages of citrate and CRRT were consequently escalated in 9h steps to test various settings.Median balance of Mg was -0.91 (-1.18 to -0.53 mmol/h with Mg 0.75 mmol/l and 0.2 (0.06-0.35 mmol/h when fluid with Mg 1.50 mmol/l was used. It was close to zero (0.02 (-0.12-0.18 mmol/h with higher blood flow and dosage of citrate, increased again to 0.15 (-0.11-0.25 mmol/h with 3,000 ml/h of high magnesium containing fluid (p<0.001. The arterial levels of Mg were mildly increased after the change for high level magnesium containing fluid (p<0.01.Compared to ordinary dialysis fluid the mildly hypermagnesemic fluid provided even balances and adequate levels within ordinary configurations of CRRT with RCA and without a need for extra magnesium replenishment.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01361581.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA damage associated with lipid peroxidation of the mitochondrial membrane induced by Fe2+-citrate

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    Andréa M. Almeida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron imbalance/accumulation has been implicated in oxidative injury associated with many degenerative diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, beta-thalassemia, and Friedreich's ataxia. Mitochondria are particularly sensitive to iron-induced oxidative stress - high loads of iron cause extensive lipid peroxidation and membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria. Here we detected and characterized mitochondrial DNA damage in isolated rat liver mitochondria exposed to a Fe2+-citrate complex, a small molecular weight complex. Intense DNA fragmentation was induced after the incubation of mitochondria with the iron complex. The detection of 3' phosphoglycolate ends at the mtDNA strand breaks by a 32P-postlabeling assay, suggested the involvement of hydroxyl radical in the DNA fragmentation induced by Fe2+-citrate. Increased levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine also suggested that Fe2+-citrate-induced oxidative stress causes mitochondrial DNA damage. In conclusion, our results show that iron-mediated lipid peroxidation was associated with intense mtDNA damage derived from the direct attack of reactive oxygen species.Desequilíbrio/acúmulo de ferro tem sido implicado em injúria oxidativa associada a diversas doenças degenerativas tais como, hemocromatose hereditária, beta-talassemia e ataxia de Friedreich. As mitocôndrias são particularmente sensíveis a estresse oxidativo induzido por ferro - um carregamento alto de ferro em mitocôndrias isoladas pode causar uma extensiva peroxidação lipídica e a permeabilização de membrana. Nesse estudo, nós detectamos e caracterizamos danos do DNA mitocondrial em mitocôndrias isoladas de fígado de rato, expostas ao complexo Fe2+-citrato, um dos complexos de baixo peso molecular. A intensa fragmentação do DNA foi induzida após a incubação das mitocôndrias com o complexo de ferro. A detecção de finais 3' de fosfoglicolato nas quebras de fitas de DNA mitocondrial pelo ensaio 32

  6. One-week triple therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate, clarithromycin and metronidazole versus two-week dual therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori infection : A randomized, clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of l-wk triple therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) 400 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d., to 2-wk dual therapy with RBC 400 mg b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. for H.

  7. Sustainable Catalytic Process for Synthesis of Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer over Phosphonated USY Zeolite

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    Kakasaheb Y. Nandiwaleand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruits wastage is harmful to health and environment concerning spreading diseases and soil pollution, respectively. To avoid this issue, use of citrus fruit waste for the production of citric acid (CA is one of viable mean to obtain value added chemicals. Moreover, synthesis of triethyl citrate (TEC, a non-toxic plasticizer by esterification of CA with ethanol over heterogeneous catalyst would be renewable and sustainable catalytic process. In this context, parent Ultrastable Y (USY and different percentage phosphonated USY (P-USY zeolites were used for the synthesis of TEC in a closed batch reactor, for the first time. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2-adsorption desorption isotherm, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Effect of reaction conditions, such as the molar ratio of ethanol to CA (5:1 - 20:1, the catalyst to CA ratio (0.05 - 0.25 and reaction temperature (363-403 K, were studied in view to maximizing CA conversion and TEC yield. Phosphonated USY catalysts were found to be superior in activity (CA conversion and TEC yield than parent USY, which is attributed to the increased in total acidity with phosphonation. Among the studied catalysts, the P2USY (2% phosphorous loaded on USY was found to be an optimum catalyst with 99% CA conversion and 82% TEC yield, which is higher than the reported values. This study opens new avenues of research demonstrating principles of green chemistry such as easy separable and reusable catalyst, non-toxic product, bio-renewable synthetic route, milder operating parameters and waste minimization. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 12nd October 2015; Revised: 22nd December 2015; Accepted: 29th January 2016 How to Cite: Nandiwale, K.Y., Bokade, V.V. (2016. Sustainable Catalytic Process for Synthesis of Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer over Phosphonated USY Zeolite. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 292

  8. Neurophysiological role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on seminal parameters in diabetic males with and without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type-5 and represents a powerful therapy for male erectile and fertility dysfunctions of different etiologies. Present study demonstrates whether sildenafil administration modifies seminal parameters in diabetic neuropathic patients. In this investigation 50 insulin dependent (IDDM) and 50 non insulin dependent (NIDDM) diabetic male patients with and without an objective evidence of neuropathy and 50 age matched non diabetic male controls were selected. Every male had age between 20 to 65 years with duration of diabetes distributed over 1 to 20 years. Treatment with 100 mg of oral sildenafil citrate on seminal parameters was evaluated by semen analysis in these patients. In both IDDM and NIDDM diabetic neuropathic patients, chronic sildenafil treatment exhibited a significant decrease in total sperm output and sperm concentration (p<0.001). On the other hand, sperm motility and semen volume were found to be increased by about 40% and 48% respectively in these patients, where as sperm morphology and quality of sperm motility remained unaffected. However both types of non neuropathic diabetics showed a non significant difference in all the above mentioned parameters when compared with the untreated groups and their respective control subjects. A comparison between IDDM and NIDDM neuropathic and non neuropathic diabetic groups further indicated a non significant difference in all the parameters of semen analysis. These findings suggest a chronic neuro physiological effect of sildenafil treatment on male fertility profile exclusively in diabetic neuropathic condition with an improvement in testicular function which was probably arrested due to some kind of testicular hyperplasia resulted by testicular necrosis and promoted spermatogenesis. Sildenafil seems to be associated with an improvement in the entire smooth musculature of reproductive tract and testicular morphology which was altered due to

  9. Preparation, Characterization of Hydrophobic Drug in Combine Loaded Chitosan/Cyclodextrin/Trisodium Citrate Nanoparticles and in vitro Release Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jin-gou; ZHANG Jing-fen; HAO Shi-lei; WU Dan-jun; LIU Li; XU Yi

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan/cyclodextrin/trisodium citrate(CS/CD/TSC) nanoparticles with ibuprofen(IBU) loaded were prepared via the ionic cross-linking method,with trisodium citrate selected as the cross-linking agent.The drug-loading capacity,particle size,zeta potential and surface morphology of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated.The results show a good drug-loading capacity.The prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 293.7 nm and a zeta potential of +30.72 mV.The in vitro release studies show that the controlled release of IBU from the nanoparticles was followed.The drug release from CS/β-CD/TSC nanoparticles followed non-Fickian or anomalous diffusion.

  10. Uptake and cytotoxicity of citrate-coated gold nanospheres: Comparative studies on human endothelial and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freese Christian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs for diagnostic applications and for drug and gene-delivery is currently under intensive investigation. For such applications, biocompatibility and the absence of cytotoxicity of AuNPs is essential. Although generally considered as highly biocompatible, previous in vitro studies have shown that cytotoxicity of AuNPs in certain human epithelial cells was observed. In particular, the degree of purification of AuNPs (presence of sodium citrate residues on the particles was shown to affect the proliferation and induce cytotoxicity in these cells. To expand these studies, we have examined if the effects are related to nanoparticle size (10, 11 nm, 25 nm, to the presence of sodium citrate on the particles' surface or they are due to a varying degree of internalization of the AuNPs. Since two cell types are present in the major barriers to the outside in the human body, we have also included endothelial cells from the vasculature and blood brain barrier. Results Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the internalized gold nanoparticles are located within vesicles. Increased cytotoxicity was observed after exposure to AuNPs and was found to be concentration-dependent. In addition, cell viability and the proliferation of both endothelial cells decreased after exposure to gold nanoparticles, especially at high concentrations. Moreover, in contrast to the size of the particles (10 nm, 11 nm, 25 nm, the presence of sodium citrate on the nanoparticle surface appeared to enhance these effects. The effects on microvascular endothelial cells from blood vessels were slightly enhanced compared to the effects on brain-derived endothelial cells. A quantification of AuNPs within cells by ICP-AES showed that epithelial cells internalized a higher quantity of AuNPs compared to endothelial cells and that the quantity of uptake is not correlated with the amount of sodium citrate on the

  11. Optimization of the procedure for the synthesis of calcium and sodium citrate in laboratory and semi-industrial conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ušćumlić Gordana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is the development of the optimal laboratory procedure for the synthesis of calcium and sodium citrate and the application of obtained results in a project for a semi-industrial installation for its production. These salts are used as an additive in numerous food and pharmaceutical products. Basically, they have to satisfy quality requirements, which is the reason why the procedure for their synthesis needs to be optimized in aspects of selection of reactants, their molar ratio, necessary laboratory equipment, reactant addition order, working temperature, isolation of final product from the reaction mixture, yield and product quality. A semi-industrial installation for the production of calcium and sodium citrate will be projected on the basis of the results of this investigation. The importance of this investigation is the fact that these salts are not produced in our country and the entire quantity (about 20 t per year is imported.

  12. Removal of citrate and hypophosphite binary components using Fenton, photo-Fenton and electro-Fenton processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-Hui Huang; Hsiao-Ting Su; Li-Way Lin

    2009-01-01

    Both citrate and hypophosphite in aqueous solution were degraded by advanced oxidation processes (Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2, and electrolysis/ Fe2+/H2O2) in this study. Comparison of these techniques in oxidation efficiency was undertaken. It was found that Fenton process could not degrade completely citrate in the presence of hypophosphite since it caused a series inhibition. Therefore, UV light (photo-Fenton) or electron current (electro-Fenton) was applied to improve the degradation efficiency of the Fenton process. Results showed that both photo-Fenton and electro-Fenton processes could overcome the inhibition of hypophosphite, especially the electro-Fenton.

  13. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  14. Trisodium citrate, Na 3 (C 6 H 5 O 7 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-05-10

    The crystal structure of anhydrous trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+and one six-coordinate Na+cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to theaandbaxes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intramolecular one between the hydroxy group and one of the terminal carboxylate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom.

  15. Offline Controlling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistant to protein Inhibitor Antibiotics Using Combination of EDTA and Na- citrate or Disinfectant (s)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amro Abd Al Fattah Amara; Mohamed Zakaria Hussein

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa recognized as opportunistic pathogen causes severe infections for hospitalized patients, survive in and resist many antimicrobial agents like antibiotics and disinfectants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of EDTA in improving the sensitivity of resistant P. aeruginosa strains to disinfectants and Na-citrate. The strains used in this study were selected in house from Tanta University hospital, Egypt and tested for the synergistic effect of EDTA with Na-citrate or disinfectant (s). The results showed a significant effect ofEDTA in improving P. aeruginosa sensitivity. In conclusion, we proposed that using EDTA in combination with different sanitization compounds and antimicrobial agentsespecially in hospitals aiming to control the spreading of infections.

  16. The effect of citrate and sulfate of copper on the biomass composition of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (Polyporales, Polyporaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Al-Maali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study the influence of citrate and sulfate of copper on the biomass composition of the mycelium of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (L. Lloyd, (1920 cultivated in a liquid medium. The studied strain of Trametes versicolor 353 was obtained from the Culture Collection of Mushrooms (IBK from M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Copper citrate was obtained from the Institute of Nanobiotechnologies and Resource Conservation of Ukraine, Kyiv. In this study we used glucose-peptone-yeast extract medium. Cu2+ (sulfate or citrate form was added to the medium in concentration 4 mg/L. Mycelium was grown in a submerged culture on a rotary shaker (120 rpm at 26 °C in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 50 ml of liquid media. The biomass was harvested after 9 days of cultivation in the liquid medium, filtered, washed, dried to a constant weight at 105 °C and weighed. Total nitrogen content (Ntotal in the mycelium determined by the Kjeldahl method, crude protein content was determined as Ntotal x 6.25. The ash was obtained by the standard method. Total lipids were extracted from undried mycelium by a modified method of Bligh and Dyer. Amino acid composition was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography Agilent 1200 (Agilent technologies, USA. The methyl ethers of fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS Agilent 6890N/5973 inert. The results of our research demonstrated that sulfates and citrates of copper increased the amount of crude protein on the mycelium of T. versicolor 353. Also both form of copper increased the amount of ash by a third relative to the control medium. At the same time, both forms of copper reduced the amount of total carbohydrates on mycelial biomass. But copper sulfate reduced the amount of total lipids relative to the control medium and medium with copper citrate. It should be noted, that given the significant

  17. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O1.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagappa Rammohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2+·C6H6O72−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carboxylic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O...O distances of 2.46 Å.

  18. Preparation and in vitro characterization of poly (epsilon-caprolactone-based tamoxifen citrate-loaded cylindrical subdermal implant for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath Jagadeesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study cylindrical poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL-based biodegradable polymeric tamoxifen citrate-loaded subdermal implants were prepared by laboratory-based modified melt extrusion technique. The prepared implants were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Drug content in implants by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM studies of tamoxifen citrate-loaded implants. Determination of in vitro hydrolytic degradation of polymeric and tamoxifen citrate-loaded implants and in vitro drug release was carried out by using indigenously developed dissolution apparatus. DSC and XRD studies proved that the drug is entrapped in the implant. The highest rate of hydrolytic degradation (weight loss was observed in blank implants when compared to tamoxifen citrate-loaded implants. The studies proved that the developed method have potential in terms of industrial feasibility.

  19. Transposon-mediated alteration of TaMATE1B expression in wheat confers constitutive citrate efflux from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, Andriy; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Lewis, David C; Rathjen, Tina M; Ramesh, Sunita; Tyerman, Stephen D; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    The TaMATE1B gene (for multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) was isolated and shown to encode a citrate transporter that is located on the plasma membrane. TaMATE1B expression in roots was induced by iron deficiency but not by phosphorus deficiency or aluminum treatment. The coding region of TaMATE1B was identical in a genotype showing citrate efflux from root apices (cv Carazinho) to one that lacked citrate efflux (cv Egret). However, sequence upstream of the coding region differed between these two genotypes in two ways. The first difference was a single-nucleotide polymorphism located approximately 2 kb upstream from the start codon in cv Egret. The second difference was an 11.1-kb transposon-like element located 25 bp upstream of the start codon in cv Carazinho that was absent from cv Egret. The influence of these polymorphisms on TaMATE1B expression was investigated using fusions to green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa). Fluorescence measurements in roots of rice indicated that 1.5- and 2.3-kb regions upstream of TaMATE1B in cv Carazinho (which incorporated 3' regions of the transposon-like element) generated 20-fold greater expression in the apical 1 mm of root compared with the native promoter in cv Egret. By contrast, fluorescence in more mature tissues was similar in both cultivars. The presence of the single-nucleotide polymorphism alone consistently generated 2-fold greater fluorescence than the cv Egret promoter. We conclude that the transposon-like element in cv Carazinho extends TaMATE1B expression to the root apex, where it confers citrate efflux and enhanced aluminum tolerance.

  20. Citrate and malonate increase microbial activity and alter microbial community composition in uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated soil microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belinda C.; George, Suman J.; Price, Charles A.; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Ball, Andrew S.; Tibbett, Mark; Ryan, Megan H.

    2016-09-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the most prevalent sources of environmental contamination. It has been hypothesized that plant root exudation of low molecular weight organic acid anions (carboxylates) may aid degradation of PHCs by stimulating heterotrophic microbial activity. To test their potential implication for bioremediation, we applied two commonly exuded carboxylates (citrate and malonate) to uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated microcosms (10 000 mg kg-1; aged 40 days) and determined their impact on the microbial community and PHC degradation. Every 48 h for 18 days, soil received 5 µmol g-1 of (i) citrate, (ii) malonate, (iii) citrate + malonate or (iv) water. Microbial activity was measured daily as the flux of CO2. After 18 days, changes in the microbial community were assessed by a community-level physiological profile (CLPP) and 16S rRNA bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Saturated PHCs remaining in the soil were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Cumulative soil respiration increased 4- to 6-fold with the addition of carboxylates, while diesel contamination resulted in a small, but similar, increase across all carboxylate treatments. The addition of carboxylates resulted in distinct changes to the microbial community in both contaminated and uncontaminated soils but only a small increase in the biodegradation of saturated PHCs as measured by the n-C17 : pristane biomarker. We conclude that while the addition of citrate and malonate had little direct effect on the biodegradation of saturated hydrocarbons present in diesel, their effect on the microbial community leads us to suggest further studies using a variety of soils and organic acids, and linked to in situ studies of plants, to investigate the role of carboxylates in microbial community dynamics.

  1. Exploring geometric properties of gold nanoparticles using TEM images to explain their chaperone like activity for citrate synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Vikas; Lahiri, Tapobrata; Singha, Shantiswaroop; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Mishra, Hrishikesh; Kumar, Upendra; Kumar, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Study on geometric properties of nanoparticles and their relation with biomolecular activities, especially protein is quite a new field to explore. This work was carried out towards this direction where images of gold nanoparticles obtained from transmission electron microscopy were processed to extract their size and area profile at different experimental conditions including and excluding a protein, citrate synthase. Since the images were ill-posed, texture of a context-window for each pixe...

  2. Root Cluster Formation and Citrate Exudation of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as Related to Phosphorus Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jian LI; Rui-Xia LIANG

    2005-01-01

    A split-root system was used to investigate whether the external or internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown under controlled conditions. In spite of low P concentrations in the shoots and roots of the -P plant, its dry weight was not reduced compared with the +P plant. Supplying external P (0.25 mmol/L) to one root halfresulted in an increase in P concentration not only in the shoot, but also in the P-deprived root half, indicating P cycling within the plants. Omitting P from both split-root pots stimulated root cluster formation in both root halves,whereas P supply to one root halfstimulated root cluster formation at the beginning of the treatment. Neither P supply to just one root half continuously nor resupply of P to one root half after 19 d of P starvation inhibited root cluster formation on the P-deprived side, although the concentration of P in this root half and shoot increased markedly. The results indicate that root cluster formation in L. albus is controlled by both shoot and root P concentrations. The rates of citrate exudation by both root halves with P deficiency were higher than those of the one root half supplied with P only. In the treatment with one root half supplied with P, the rates of citrate exudation by either the P-supplied or -deprived root halves were almost the same,regardless of P concentration in the roots. The results suggest that internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin, but these processes may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  3. Metformin versus chromium picolinate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOs: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromium picolinate could be effective in clomiphen citrate resistant PCOS patients. Objective: To compare the effects of chromium picolinate vs. metformin in clomiphen citrate resistant PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was performed on 92 women with clomiphen citrate-resistant PCOS at the clinics which were affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups receiving either chromium picolinate (200μg daily or metformin (1500mg daily for 3 months. Anthropometric and hormonal profile were measured and compared both before and after the treatment. Ovulation and pregnancy rate was measured in the two study groups, as well. Results: Chromium picolinate significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS after 3 months of treatment (p=0.042. In the same way, the serum levels of fasting insulin had significantly decreased leading to an increase in insulin sensitivity as measured by QUICKI index (p=0.014. In comparison to the patients who received chromium picolinate, those who received metformin had significantly lower levels of testosterone (p=0.001 and free testosterone (p=0.001 after 3 months of treatment. Nevertheless, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding ovulation (p=0.417 and pregnancy rates (p=0.500. Conclusion: Chromium picolinate decreased FBS and insulin levels and, thus, increased insulin sensitivity in clomiphene citrate-resistance PCOS women. These effects were comparable with metformin; however, metformin treatment was associated with decreased hyperandrogenism. Overall, chromium picolinate was better tolerated compared to metformin; nonetheless, the two study groups were not significantly different regarding ovulation and pregnancy rates.

  4. A comparative randomized double-blind clinical trial of isoaminile citrate and chlophedianol hydrochloride as antitussive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, J; Dhand, R; Jindal, S K; Malik, S K; Sharma, P L

    1982-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of a new centrally acting antitussive agent, isoaminile citrate, was compared with that of chlophedianol hydrochloride in a double-blind, randomized interpatient study. A total of 66 patients participated, two and four patients were lost to follow-up with isoaminile and chlophedianol, respectively. In the experimentally induced cough in 12 normal human subjects, isoaminile (40 mg) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg), but its duration of action was somewhat longer. One subject developed allergic skin rash with chlophedianol and was withdrawn from the study. In 60 patients with cough associated with chest diseases, isoaminile (40 mg, 3 x daily) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg, 3 x daily) in suppressing cough as judged from the 3-h and 24-h cough counts. The increase in PEFR at day 7 of treatment was somewhat more marked with chlophedianol as compared with isoaminile. None of the drugs interfered with the expectoration process. The side effects observed were few, mild in nature, and did not require a decrease in dose or withdrawal of treatment in any of the patients. Isoaminile citrate was concluded to be an effective and relatively safe antitussive agent. Isoaminile citrate, alpha(isopropyl)-alpha-(beta-dimethylaminoproyl) phenylacetonitrile citrate, is a centrally acting antitussive agent. In animal experiments this drug was as efficacious as codeine but was devoid of any respiratory depressant effect [Krause 1958, Kuroda et al. 1971]. This controlled double-randomized interpatient study was designed to test the comparative efficacy and safety of isoaminile and chlophedianol, another centrally acting antitussive, in humans.

  5. Electrical properties of sodium beta-alumina ceramics synthesized by citrate sol-gel route using glycerine

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep P. Butee; Kaustubh R. Kambale; Mayur Firodiya

    2016-01-01

    Sodium beta-alumina is an efficient ion conducting solid electrolyte due to fast ionic conductivity arising from its favourable crystal structure. Other main requirements of a material to serve as solid electrolyte are fine grain structure, minimum porosity and good electrical properties at the operating temperature, which is usually about 300 °C. Mg-doped sodium beta-alumina powder was synthesized using citrate sol-gel route (wherein glycerine was used as a fuel) and calcined at different te...

  6. Tris(triazole) tripodal receptors as selective probes for citrate anion recognition and multichannel transition and heavy metal cation sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María del Carmen; Otón, Francisco; Espinosa, Arturo; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2015-02-01

    The three-armed pyrenyl-triazole receptor 1 behaves as a highly selective fluorescent molecular sensor for citrate anions over similar carboxylates such as malate or tartrate. In addition, this receptor senses Cu(2+) cations through absorption and emission channels even in the presence of Hg(2+) metal cations. The related three-armed ferrocenyl-triazole receptor 2 behaves as a highly selective dual (redox and chromogenic) chemosensor molecule for Pb(2+) metal cations.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of poly(glycerol citrate/sebacate); Preparacao de caracterizacao do poli(glicerol citrato/sebacato)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, Michel M.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Fiuza, Raigenis P.; Boaventura, Jaime S.; Jose, Nadia M., E-mail: mbrioude@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA, Instituto de Quimica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work were prepared and characterized the poly(glycerol citrate/sebacate) in three different ratios between acids. The polymers were prepared by a polycondensation reaction between glycerol and citric/sebacic acids and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning differential calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the polymers are polyesters and its crystallinity, thermal and morphological properties were modified by sebacic acid adding. (author)

  8. Inhibition of flower formation by antisense repression of mitochondrial citrate synthase in transgenic potato plants leads to a specific disintegration of the ovary tissues of flowers.

    OpenAIRE

    Landschütze, V; Willmitzer, L.; Müller-Röber, B

    1995-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle constitutes a major component of the mitochondrial metabolism of eucaryotes, including higher plants. To analyze the importance of this pathway, we down-regulated mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS; EC 4.1.3.7), the first enzyme of the TCA cycle, in transgenic potato plants using an antisense RNA approach. Several transformants were identified with reduced citrate synthase activity (down to approximately 6% of wild-type activity). These plants were indistin...

  9. ATP-Citrate Lyase Controls a Glucose-to-Acetate Metabolic Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of metabolic flexibility enable cells to survive under stressful conditions and can thwart therapeutic responses. Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA plays central roles in energy production, lipid metabolism, and epigenomic modifications. Here, we show that, upon genetic deletion of Acly, the gene coding for ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY, cells remain viable and proliferate, although at an impaired rate. In the absence of ACLY, cells upregulate ACSS2 and utilize exogenous acetate to provide acetyl-CoA for de novo lipogenesis (DNL and histone acetylation. A physiological level of acetate is sufficient for cell viability and abundant acetyl-CoA production, although histone acetylation levels remain low in ACLY-deficient cells unless supplemented with high levels of acetate. ACLY-deficient adipocytes accumulate lipid in vivo, exhibit increased acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA production from acetate, and display some differences in fatty acid content and synthesis. Together, these data indicate that engagement of acetate metabolism is a crucial, although partial, mechanism of compensation for ACLY deficiency.

  10. Ultrastructural effect of sildenafil citrate on corpus cavernosum and other genital organs in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kilinc; M.I.Guenduez; B.H.Guemues; S.Vatansever; F.Kaymaz

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To determine the ultrastructural effects of sildenafil on the female genital organs.Methods:Twenty female cycling Wistar albino rats weighing 250±20 g were randomly divided into two groups of 10 each.Rats of one group were gavaged with 0.5mg·kg-1·d-1 of sildenafil 3 days in a week for 4 weeks and the other served as the controls.After cessation of treatment animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under methoxyflurane anaesthesia.The clitoris,vagina,uterus and bartholin glands were taken at the estrous and were fixed with 10% formalin solution for light microscopy and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and osmic acid for electron microscopy.Results:Under the light microscope,the fibrocollageous tissue was found increased,the capillaries enlarged and the connecting tissue elements increased in the corpus cavernosum in the treated group.On electron microscopy,increased connective tissue,fibroblasts with notched nucleus,shorten immature collagen fibers without striation were seen.Abundant foldings and penetration with collagen bundles were observed in the basal membrane.Large connection complexes,especially gap junctions among the wide capillary endothelial cells were observed.Conclusion:There are evident histological changes due to sildenafil citrate in female rat corpus cavernosum.The clitoris and bartholin glands were the most effected organs.While the histopathological changes of clitoral tissue could be expected,and increase in the mass of bartholin gland was surprised.

  11. Effects of sodium citrate on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sejoong; Yang, Jin Young; Jung, Eun Sook; Lee, Jeonghwan; Heo, Nam Ju; Lee, Jae Wook; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis, which is observed in salt-sensitive hypertension, is also associated with kidney injury. Alkali therapy in chronic renal failure (CRF) may ameliorate the progression of kidney disease; however, few studies have examined the effects of alkali therapy on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in CRF. We randomly administered standard diet (SD), sodium chloride with 20% casein diet (NACL), or sodium citrate with 20% casein diet (NACT) to Sprague-Dawley rats after a CRF or a sham operation. Four weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, serum bicarbonate levels were higher in the NACT-treated group. On the pressure-natriuresis curve, NACT-treated CRF rats were more salt-resistant than NACL-treated CRF rats. Additionally, the NACT-treated CRF group showed less tubulointerstitial damage than the NACL-treated CRF group. The expression and immunoreactivity of NHE3 in the kidney in the NACT-treated CRF group were lower than those in the NACL-treated CRF group. We observed that dietary NACT as alkali therapy in CRF might improve the altered salt-sensitivity and ameliorate the progression of kidney injury compared to the NACL diet, which may be related to reduced renal NHE3 expression.

  12. Characterization of citrate capped gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex: Experimental and quantum chemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rajat; Panigrahi, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2013-08-01

    Quercetin and several other bioflavonoids possess antioxidant property. These biomolecules can reduce the diabetic complications, but metabolize very easily in the body. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of a flavonoid may further increase its efficacy. Gold nanoparticle is used by different groups as vehicle for drug delivery, as it is least toxic to human body. Prior to search for the enhanced efficacy, the gold nanoparticle-flavonoid complex should be prepared and well characterized. In this article, we report the interaction of gold nanoparticle with quercetin. The interaction is confirmed by different biophysical techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Circular Dichroism (CD), Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and cross checked by quantum chemical calculations. These studies indicate that gold clusters are covered by citrate groups, which are hydrogen bonded to the quercetin molecules in the complex. We have also provided evidences how capping is important in stabilizing the gold nanoparticle and further enhances its interaction with other molecules, such as drugs. Our finding also suggests that gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex can pass through the membranes of human red blood cells.

  13. Ethylene glycol assisted low-temperature synthesis of boron carbide powder from borate citrate precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi-ud-din

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available B4C powders were synthesized by carbothermal reduction of ethylene glycol (EG added borate citrate precursors, and effects of EG additions (0–50 mol% based on citric acid on the morphologies and yields of synthesized B4C powders were investigated. The conditions most suitable for the preparation of precursor were optimized and optimum temperature for precursor formation was 650 °C. EG additions facilitated low-temperature synthesis of B4C at 1350 °C, which was around 100–300 °C lower temperature compared to that without EG additions. The lowering of synthesis temperature was ascribed to the enlargement of interfacial area caused by superior homogeneity and dispersibility of precursors enabling the diffusion of reacting species facile. The 20% EG addition was optimal with free residual carbon lowered to 4%. For smaller EG additions, the polyhedral and rod-like particles of synthesized product co-existed. With higher EG additions, the morphology of synthesized product was transformed into needle and blade-like structure.

  14. Optimization of citrate complex combustion for synthesis of transition metal oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, V.M. [Dept. of Physics, University College, University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695 034 (India); Jose, R., E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26300 (Malaysia); Raju, K.; Wariar, P.R.S. [Dept. of Physics, University College, University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695 034 (India)

    2013-03-05

    Highlights: ► We optimized citric acid in a solution combustion process using DFT calculations. ► The amount of citric acid can be reduced than that is conventionally used. ► Complex perovskite ceramic oxides were synthesized to validate the calculations. ► Single phase nanoparticles were obtained using the optimized process. ► Temperature of the combustion flame was much lower for the optimized amount. -- Abstract: Combustion of citrate complex is a popular choice to synthesize nanocrystals of transition metal oxides in a single-step process. The amount of citric acid used for combustion is conventionally calculated based on the total valence of the oxidizing and reducing agents while keeping the equivalent ratio unity such that combustion energy is a maximum. This paper demonstrates by employing quantum chemical calculations that the amount of citric acid could be reduced to nearly two-third if prepared for appreciable amounts. Transition metal oxides belong to quaternary double perovskite has been synthesized as nanocrystals as examples to validate the calculations.

  15. Phase transfer of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles using nonspecifically adsorbed polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Caravana, Aidan C; Hamaly, Majd A; Lerner, Kevin T; Thompson, Lucas B

    2016-01-01

    Many synthetic approaches for gold nanoparticles rely on an aqueous media, resulting in water-soluble nanoparticles, which limits the ability to incorporate gold nanoparticles into other organic solvents or hydrophobic polymeric composites. Surface functionalization and phase transfer approaches using alkylthiols or alkylamines, which strongly bind the gold surface, are common routes to overcome this limitation, however they are typically challenging methods. In this paper we report an approach to transport citrate capped gold nanoparticles into a variety of solvents, including ones that are hydrophobic and not miscible with water without the need for phase transfer agents. We suspend gold nanoparticles in a water-miscible polar organic solvent that also is a solvent for a hydrophobic polymer. After drying, polymer-stabilized gold nanoparticles were found to be dispersible in various hydrophobic solvents with maintained colloidal stability. This work investigates two hydrophobic polymers, namely (polymethylmethacrylate and polyvinylacetate), which share common chemical motifs but have significantly different physiochemical properties. Interestingly, a significant difference in their ability to stabilize the transferred gold nanoparticles is observed and discussed.

  16. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  17. Hemocompatibility evaluation of poly(diol citrate) in vitro for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Delara; Allen, Josephine; Hoshi, Ryan; Yang, Jian; Lui, Karen; Ameer, Guillermo

    2007-09-15

    One of the ongoing challenges in tissue engineering is the synthesis of a hemocompatible vascular graft. Specifically, the material used in the construct should have antithrombogenic properties and support the growth of vascular cells. Our laboratory has designed a novel biodegradable, elastomeric copolymer, poly(1,8-octanediol citrate) (POC), with mechanical and degradation properties suitable for vascular tissue engineering. The hemocompatibility of POC in vitro and its ability to support the attachment and differentiation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) was assessed. The thrombogenicity and inflammatory potential of POC were assessed relative to poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) and expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), as they have been used in FDA-approved devices for blood contact. Specifically, platelet aggregation and activation, protein adsorption, plasma clotting, and hemolysis were investigated. To assess the inflammatory potential of POC, the release of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha from THP-1 cells was measured. The cell compatibility of POC was assessed by confirming HAEC differentiation and attachment under flow conditions. POC exhibited decreased platelet adhesion and clotting relative to control materials. Hemolysis was negligible and protein adsorption was comparable to reference materials. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release from THP-1 cells was comparable among all materials tested, suggesting minimal inflammatory potential. POC supported HAEC differentiation and attachment without any premodification of the surface. The results described herein are encouraging and suggest that POC is hemocompatible and an adequate candidate biomaterial for in vivo vascular tissue engineering.

  18. Kinetic simulation of malate-aspartate and citrate-pyruvate shuttles in association with Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Kalyani; Vadlakonda, Lakshmipathi; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we have kinetically simulated two mitochondrial shuttles, malate-aspartate shuttle (used for transferring reducing equivalents) and citrate-pyruvate shuttle (used for transferring carbon skeletons). However, the functions of these shuttles are not limited to the points mentioned above, and they can be used in different arrangements to meet different cellular requirements. Both the shuttles are intricately associated with Krebs cycle through the metabolites involved. The study of this system of shuttles and Krebs cycle explores the response of the system in different metabolic environments. Here, we have simulated these subsets individually and then combined them to study the interactions among them and to bring out the dynamics of these pathways in focus. Four antiports and a pyruvate pump were modelled along with the metabolic reactions on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Michaelis-Menten approach was extended for deriving rate equations of every component of the system. Kinetic simulation was carried out using ordinary differential equation solver in GNU Octave. It was observed that all the components attained steady state, sooner or later, depending on the system conditions. Progress curves and phase plots were plotted to understand the steady state behaviour of the metabolites involved. A comparative analysis between experimental and simulated data show fair agreement thus validating the usefulness and applicability of the model.

  19. Synthesis of potassium sodium niobate powders using an EDTA/citrate complexing sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Cao; Kongjun Zhu; Hongjuan Zheng; Jinhao Qiu; Honghui Gu

    2012-01-01

    Potassium sodium niobate (KNN) powders were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method,using as starting chemicals potassium carbonate,sodium carbonate,and niobium hydroxide,and,as esterification and chelating agents,respectively,ethylene glycol (EG) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)/citrate.The effects of citric acid (CA),EG,and EDTA on the stability of the precursor sol were systemically investigated.The powders and gels were characterized by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC).The results indicated that a stable precursor sol was formed when n(CA)∶n(Mn+)=3∶1,n(EDTA)∶n(NH4OH) =1∶3.5,and n(CA)∶n(EG) =1∶2.The xerogel was calcined at 500-950 ℃ to prepare the KNN powder.Pure KNN perovskite phase with a cube-like structure was synthesized at 850 ℃ from the precursor sol for a K/Na molar ratio of 1.2.The formation mechanism of the KNN perovskite phase was also discussed.

  20. Experimental study of modifying influence of nanoaquachelate gold citrate on embryotoxicity of lead acetate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatorna V.F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among modern investigations in nanobiotechnology, only a small part of them is devoted to the influence of nanometals on reproductive organs and embryogenesis. Thus, if functions of the separate trace metals are studied well enough, the physiological role of such ultramicroelements as gold is still poorly studied especially in the field of its interaction with other metals. The aim of the research was an experimental study of peculiarities of gold aquananocitrate and lead acetate interaction and their impact on rats’ embryogenesis under condition of combined administration. There were used solutions of lead acetate and citrate gold in experimental models obtained by aquananotehnology. Solutions of metals and nanometals were injected perorally once a day during 19 days of pregnancy: solution of lead acetate in the dose of 0.05 mg/kg and gold aquananocitrate solution in the dose of 1.5 mg/kg. 3 group - control group. Influence of tested substances was assessed by integral and specific indicators using physiological, morphological and quantitative analysis methods. It was established that lead acetate in the dose of 0.05 mg/kg is characterized by severe embryotoxic effect manifested by total embryonic mortality, and reducing number of live fetuses in the offspring. Combined introduction of gold aquananocitrate and lead acetate weakens embryotoxic effect of lead, manifested by increase of corpora lutea number by 30.4%, increase of offspring number by 53.3% and decrease of fetal mortality by 2.3 times.

  1. [Biochemical effects of potassium citrate in the treatment of calcium oxalate lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte Visús, A; Ibarz Servio, L; Arrabal Martín, M; Ibarz Navarro, J M; Ruiz Marcellán, F J

    1994-03-01

    The serum and urinary biochemical changes observed one month and six months after oral potassium citrate therapy (600 mEq/day) in 119 patients with calcium oxalate calculi were compared with those of 16 untreated cases with lithiasis. The patients that received treatment were previously divided into two groups: group A comprised 61 hypocitraturic patients and group B comprised 58 patients with other urinary disorders who were normo or hypocitraturic. The urinary pH increased by approximately half a point in both treated groups. In group A calciuria increased slightly from 180 +/- 8 to 216 +/- 10 mg/24 h but remained within the normal ranges. Creatinuria, oxaluria, uricosuria and diuresis showed no changes. Citraturia increased very significantly in both groups and more markedly in the hypocitraturic group of patients (from 198 +/- 13 to 476 +/- 35 mg/24 h). The LRC (lithogenic risk coefficient = Ca/Cit x Diu) dropped by 50%. The patients tolerated the treatment regimen well; of the 119 treated patients, only 11 abandoned treatment due to GI intolerance.

  2. Selective nanopatterning using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles and cystein-modified amphiphilic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Päivi; Kivioja, Jani; Paananen, Arja; Kainlauri, Markku; Kontturi, Kyösti; Ahopelto, Jouni; Linder, Markus B

    2009-05-05

    We present an approach where biomolecular self-assembly is used in combination with lithography to produce patterns of metallic nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. This is achieved through a two-step method, resulting in attachment of nanoparticles on desired sites on the sample surfaces, which allowed a detailed characterization. First, a genetically modified hydrophobin protein, NCysHFBI, was attached by self-assembly on a hydrophobic surface or a surface patterned with hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains. The next step was to label the protein layers with 17.8 nm gold nanoparticles, to allow microscopic characterization of the films. Kinetics and extent of attachment of nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the attachment of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the electrostatic properties of the capping ligand layer and the density of nanoparticles in the monolayer could be controlled via pH. The resulting nanoparticle assemblies followed the original pattern created by optical lithography in high accuracy. We demonstrate that combining bottom-up and top-down nanotechnological approaches in a good balance can provide very effective ways to produce nanoscale components providing a functional interface between electronics and the biological world.

  3. "Green" nanocomposites from cellulose acetate bioplastic and clay: effect of eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Man; Misra, Manjusri; Drzal, Lawrence T; Mohanty, Amar K

    2004-01-01

    "Green" nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated from cellulose acetate (CA) powder, eco-friendly triethyl citrate (TEC) plasticizer and organically modified clay. The effect of the amount of plasticizer varying from 15 to 40 wt % on the performance of the nanocomposites has been evaluated. The morphologies of these nanocomposites were evaluated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites are correlated with the XRD and TEM observations. Cellulosic plastic-based nanocomposites with 20 wt % TEC plasticizer and 5 wt % organoclay showed better intercalation and an exfoliated structure than the counterpart having 30/40 wt % plasticizers. The tensile strength, modulus and thermal stability of cellulosic plastic reinforced with organoclay showed a decreasing trend with an increase of plasticizer content from 20 to 40 wt %. The nano-reinforcement at the lower volume fractions (phi < or = 0.02) reduced the water vapor permeability of cellulosic plastic by 2 times and the relative permeability better fits with larger platelet aspect ratios (alpha = 150).

  4. Reduced expression of citrate synthase leads to excessive superoxide formation and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Quanxiang; Zhao, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Xiaochun; Nie, Yao; Li, Ping; Liu, Tingyan; Ge, Ruli; Han, Fengchan

    2017-02-16

    A/J mice are a mouse model of age-related hearing loss. It has been demonstrated that a mutation in gene of citrate synthase (CS) contributes to the early onset of hearing loss occurring at about one month of age. To understand the effects of a decreased CS activity that results from the mutation in Cs gene on hearing loss in A/J mice, human kidney cell line (293T) was transiently transfected with short hairpin RNA for Cs (shRNA-Cs) to reduce expression of CS. In comparison with those of cells transfected with a scrambled sequence (shRNA-NC), the oxygen consumption rate and adenosine trisphosphate (ATP) production level were decreased in 293T cells transfected with shRNA-Cs. Meanwhile, excessive superoxide production was induced as determined by mitochondrial superoxide formation assay (MitoSOX) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) detection. Moreover, the expression levels of BIP (binding immunoglobulin protein) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein), markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, were upregulated. Furthermore, apoptosis related molecule caspase-3 and the mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced. It is therefore concluded that downregulation of Cs expression in 293T cells leads to low level of ATP production, excessive superoxide formation and cell apoptosis, which implies a possible mechanism for hearing loss in A/J mice.

  5. Efficacy of albendazole:β-cyclodextrin citrate in the parenteral stage of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Ana V; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Vasconi, María D; Di Masso, Ricardo J; Lamas, María C; Hinrichsen, Lucila I

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole-β-cyclodextrin citrate (ABZ:C-β-CD) inclusion complex in vivo antiparasitic activity was evaluated in the parenteral phase of Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. An equimolar complex of ABZ:C-β-CD was prepared by spray-drying and tested in CBi-IGE male mice orally infected with L1 infective larvae. Infected animals were treated with 50 or 30mg/kg albendazole, (ABZ) equivalent amounts of the ABZ:C-β-CD complex and non treated (controls). Mice received a daily dose on days 28, 29 and 30 post-infection. A week later, larval burden and percentage of encysted dead larvae were assessed in the host by counting viable and non-viable larvae in the tongue. Complexation of ABZ with C-β-CD increased the drug dissolution efficiency nearly eightfold. At 37 days p-i, the reduction percentage in muscle larval load was 35% in mice treated with 50mg/kg/day ABZ and 68% in those given the complex. Treatment with the lower dose showed a similar decrease in parasite burden. Treated animals showed a high percentage of nonviable larvae, the proportion being significantly higher in mice receiving the complex than in control animals (72-88% vs. 11%, P=0.0032). These data indicate that ABZ:C-β-CD increases bioavailability and effectiveness of ABZ against encapsulated Trichinella larvae, thus allowing the use of small doses.

  6. Colorimetric determination of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) through ion-associate complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; Moustafa, Moustafa E; El-Dosoky, Reham

    2009-01-01

    A simple, quick, accurate, and sensitive colorimetric method is described for the determination of sildenafil citrate (SLD). The method is based on the reaction of SLD with Congo Red, Sudan II, and Gentian Violet in buffered aqueous solutions at pH 2.5, 6.5, and 11.0, respectively, to give highly colored soluble ion-associate complex species; the colored products are quantitated colorimetrically at 523, 554, and 569 nm, respectively. The various experimental conditions were optimized. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1 for all ion associates; the calculated logarithmic stability constants were 8.51, 7.79, and 5.58, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.2-7.0 microg/mL, whereas the Ringbom optimum concentration range was 0.4-6.5 microg/mL. Values for molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, and detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SLD in Viagra tablets and in serum samples by using the technique of standard additions with mean accuracy values of 100.06 +/- 1.14, 99.87 +/- 0.70, and 99.86 +/- 0.97% for Viagra tablets and 99.88 +/- 0.60, 99.90 +/- 0.90, and 100.24 +/- 0.80% for serum samples, respectively.

  7. Prevention of valproic acid-induced neural tube defects by sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2015-08-15

    This study was undertaken to test the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC), a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced teratogenesis. On gestation day (GD) 8, ICR (CD-1) mice were treated by gastric intubation with SC at 0 (vehicle), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg. One hour later, animals received a teratogenic dose of VPA (600mg/kg) or vehicle. Developmental endpoints were evaluated near the end of gestation. Twenty-eighth percent of fetuses exposed to VPA had neural tube defects (exencephaly). Pretreatment with SC at 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg significantly reduced the rate of VPA-induced exencephaly to 15.9%, 13.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. Axial skeletal defects were observed in 75.8% of VPA-exposed fetuses. Pre-treatment with SC at 10mg/kg, but not at lower doses, significantly decreased the rate of skeletally affected fetuses to 61.6%. These results show that SC, which prolongs nitric oxide (NO) signaling action protects from VPA-induced teratogenesis.

  8. Comparative proteomics analysis of lanthanum citrate complex-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study,the lanthanum citrate complex([LaCit2]3-) has been found to induce apoptosis in the human HeLa cervical cancer cell line.To clarify the mechanism,we carried out comparative proteomics analysis between treated and control cells.Differentially expressed proteins were separated electrophoretically and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry.There were profound changes in 14 proteins related to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress,suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in [LaCit2]3--induced apoptosis.This was confirmed by a decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential,and increases in cytochrome c release and reactive oxygen species generation in [LaCit2]3--treated cells.Western blotting analyses show that [LaCit2]3--induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of caspase-9 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of PARP,leading to an increase in the proapoptotic protein Bax and a decrease in the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2.These results suggest that [LaCit2]3-induced the apoptosis of HeLa cells through oxidative stress mediated pathway involving MT participation.

  9. Effect of regional citrate anticoagulation on critical patients with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li You

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for critical patients.Methods:A total of 83 critical patients need CRRT in the intensive care units of our hospital from July 2012 to June 2016 were recruited in the study, and the patients were divided into two groups randomly, the patients in observation group received the RCA treatment, and the patients in control group received traditional low molecular heparin anticoagulation. The difference of safety indicators, biochemical indicators, extracorporeal circulation blood coagulation condition and complications in patients were determined between two groups.Results: Compared with control group, the patients in observation group had an elevated level of iCa2+, the level of chloride ion reduced, the use time of filter increased, the bleeding cases reduced, the concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and NO were all significantly downregulated, the data have a significant difference (P < 0.05).Conclusions:RCA is a safe and effective method for CRRT in patients with a high risk of bleeding.

  10. Anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of polycystic ovary syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Yuwono Sri; Afrita, Yohana; Wiweko, Budi; Sumapradja, Kanadi; Natadisastra, Muharam

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the threshold of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of follicular growth failure in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients treated with clomiphene citrate (CC). Methods Fifty female subjects with PCOS were recruited and divided into two groups based on successful and unsuccessful follicular growth. Related variables such as age, infertility duration, cigarette smoking, use of Moslem hijab, sunlight exposure, fiber intake, body mass index, waist circumference, AMH level, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, and growth of dominant follicles were obtained, assessed, and statistically analyzed. Results The AMH levels of patients with successful follicular growth were significantly lower (p=0.001) than those with unsuccessful follicular growth (6.10±3.52 vs. 10.43±4.78 ng/mL). A higher volume of fiber intake was also observed in the successful follicular growth group compared to unsuccessful follicular growth group (p=0.001). Our study found the probability of successful follicle growth was a function of AMH level and the amount of fiber intake, expressed as Y=–2.35+(–0.312×AMH level)+(0.464×fiber intake) (area under the curve, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.98; p<0.001). Conclusion The optimal threshold of AMH level in predicting the failure of follicle growth in patients with PCOS treated with CC was 8.58 ng/mL. PMID:28090459

  11. Sildenafil citrate vs intracavernous alprostadil for patients with arteriogenic erectile dysfunction: a randomised placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, M; Raina, R; Agarwal, A; Nerva, F; Colpi, G M

    2004-02-01

    We compared the effectiveness of sildenafil citrate and alprostadil in improving arterial penile inflow (peak systolic velocity (PSV)) and penile rigidity in 55 patients with erectile dysfunction caused by atherosclerosis. A total of 35 patients with pure vasculogenic impotency were randomly assigned to alprostadil (Av group; n=11), sildenafil (Sv group; n=12), or placebo (P group; n=12), and 20 patients with nonvasculogenic impotency were randomly assigned to alprostadil (A group; n=10) or Sildenafil (S group; n=10): Av and A used alprostadil injection (capable of giving a full erection) once a week for 1 month, Sv and S took daily oral sildenafil (25 mg) for 1 month, and P took daily oral placebo for one month. The PSV was measured with Duplex sonography and penile rigidity was assessed using the IIEF-15 questionnaire, both of which were administered before and after treatment. Although both treatments improved penile rigidity, they increased PSV only in the Av and Sv groups. Our results suggest that alprostadil and oral therapy should be the starting therapy in men with vasculogenic impotency, whereas alprostadil should be avoided as the first-line approach in men with nonvasculogenic impotency.

  12. Citrate sol-gel combustion preparation and photoluminescence properties of YAG:Ce phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Le; LU Zhou; ZHU Jinzhen; YANG Hao; HAN Pengde; CHEN Yan; ZHANG Qitu

    2012-01-01

    Yellow-emitting YAG:Ce3+ nanocrystalline phosphors were prepared by citrate sol-gel combustion method using citric acid as the fuel and chelating agent.The influence of mole ratio of citric acid to metallic ions (MRCM),pH value of the solution,calcination temperature and Ce-doped concentration on the structures and properties of as-prepared powders were investigated in detail.Higher crystallinity and better luminescence performance powders were obtained at MRCM=2,pH=3 and the calcination temperature of 1200 ℃.The phosphors exhibited the characteristic broadband visible luminescence of YAG:Ce.The optimum concentration of Ce3+ was 1.0 mol.%,and the concentration quenching was derived from the reciprocity between electric dipole and electric quadrupole (d-q).Especially,the pH value of the solution was a key factor to obtain a stable sol-gel system and then obtain pure and homogeneous rare earth ions doped YAG phosphors at a lower temperature.The Y3Al5O12:Ce0.03 phosphor with optimized synthesis-condition and composition had a similar luminescence intensity with the commercial phosphor YAG:Ce.

  13. N-acetyl cysteine in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) has been the gold-standard drug for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but still CC resistance is seen in approximately 15-40% in women with PCOS. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe and cheap drug available in the market many years ago as mucolytic agent, was found to have a role in infertility management. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of NAC on ovulation. The biological properties of the NAC make this drug a potential candidate for its use in the infertility treatment, especially in the PCOS in inducing or augmenting ovulation. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, full text, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for role of NAC in CC-resistant PCOS. Thorough search through all the clinical studies showed mixed results. Studies with positive results showed improvement in induction of ovulation as compared to negative studies showing contrary results. More randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish its definitive role in CC-resistant PCOS.

  14. N -acetyl cysteine in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of reported outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clomiphene citrate (CC has been the gold-standard drug for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but still CC resistance is seen in approximately 15-40% in women with PCOS. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a safe and cheap drug available in the market many years ago as mucolytic agent, was found to have a role in infertility management. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of NAC on ovulation. The biological properties of the NAC make this drug a potential candidate for its use in the infertility treatment, especially in the PCOS in inducing or augmenting ovulation. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, full text, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for role of NAC in CC-resistant PCOS. Thorough search through all the clinical studies showed mixed results. Studies with positive results showed improvement in induction of ovulation as compared to negative studies showing contrary results. More randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish its definitive role in CC-resistant PCOS.

  15. Kinetics of induced electrodeposition of alloys containing Mo from citrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Cracow (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of Ni-Mo alloy electrodeposition from complex citrate-sulphate baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarization measurements in a system with a rotating disk electrode (RDE). The partial current densities for deposition of Ni and Mo as a function of the solution composition, the cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. Strong interaction between the discharging metal ions occur: nickel induces molybdenum deposition, but its discharge is markedly inhibited by molybdenum. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides, becomes less pronounced when the rotation speed was increased. Hydrogen evolution is associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport lead to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The surface morphology as a function of the content of molybdenum in the alloy were also investigated. Crack-free, compact, semi-bright Ni-Mo coatings, containing up to about 40 wt% of Mo, characterized by good adhesion to steel substrate were obtained. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  17. Improvement of bacterial cellulose production by manipulating the metabolic pathways in which ethanol and sodium citrate involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Jiliang; He, Xin; Ping, Wenxiang; Lei, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, bacterial cellulose has played more and more important role as new biological material for food industry and medical and industrial products based on its unique properties. However, it is still a difficult task to improve the production of bacterial cellulose, especially a large number of byproducts are produced in the metabolic biosynthesis processes. To improve bacterial cellulose production, ethanol and sodium citrate are added into the medium during the fermentation, and the activities of key enzymes and concentration of extracellular metabolites are measured to assess the changes of the metabolic flux of the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP), the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Our results indicate that ethanol functions as energy source for ATP generation at the early stage of the fermentation in the HMP pathway and the supplementation of ethanol significantly reduces glycerol generation (a major byproduct). While in the EMP pathway, sodium citrate plays a key role, and its supplementation results in the byproducts (mainly acetic acid and pyruvic acid) entering the gluconeogenesis pathway for cellulose synthesis. Furthermore, by adding ethanol and sodium citrate, the main byproduct citric acid in the TCA cycle is also reduced significantly. It is concluded that bacterial cellulose production can be improved by increasing energy metabolism and reducing the formation of metabolic byproducts through the metabolic regulations of the bypasses.

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of Weekly Paclitaxel in Combination with High-dose Toremifene Citrate in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okita,Riki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Toremifene citrate is expected to prevent drug resistance in cancer patients by inhibiting p-glycoprotein activity. The safety and efficacy of combination therapy with high-dose toremifene citrate and paclitaxel were investigated. Between December 2003 and June 2004, 15 women with a mean age of 53 years old with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled. The administration schedule was 80mg/m2 of paclitaxel given on Days 1, 8, and 15, and 120mg/day of toremifene citrate orally administered starting on Day 18. On Days 32 and 39, paclitaxel was concurrently administered again. Toxicities, response rate, and time to treatment failure were assessed. All patients had been treated with endocrine or chemotherapy. Grade 3 leukopenia occurred in 2 patients on the administration of paclitaxel alone, and grade 3 febrile neutropenia occurred in 1 patient given the combination therapy. There was no grade 3 or greater non-hematological toxicity. There was no complete response and 1 partial response, producing a response rate of 6.7%. Median time to treatment failure was 2.7 months. Combination therapy of paclitaxel and toremifene was safe and well tolerated with minimal toxicity. Further clinical trials targeting patients with functional p-glycoprotein are warranted.

  19. Controlled drug release under a low frequency magnetic field: effect of the citrate coating on magnetoliposomes stability

    KAUST Repository

    Nappini, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of a low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LF-AMF) on the permeability and release properties of large (LUVs) and giant (GUVs) unilamellar vesicles loaded with citrate coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs). The citrate shell allows a high loading of NPs in lipid vesicles without modifying their magnetic properties. The increase of magnetic LUVs permeability upon exposure to LF-AMF has been evaluated as the fluorescence self-quenching of carboxyfluorescein (CF) entrapped inside the liposome aqueous pool. Liposome leakage has been monitored as a function of field frequency, time exposure and concentration of the citrate coated NPs. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) experiments performed on magnetic GUVs labeled with the fluorescent probe DiIC18 and loaded with Alexa 488-C5-maleimide fluorescent dye provided insights on the release mechanism induced by LF-AMF. The results show that LF-AMF strongly affects vesicles permeability, suggesting the formation of pores in the lipid bilayer due to both hyperthermic effects and nanoparticle oscillations in the vesicles pool at the applied frequency. The behaviour of these magnetic vesicles in the presence of LF-AMF makes this system a good candidate for controlled drug delivery. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Ab initio calculation of the Zn isotope effect in phosphates, citrates, and malates and applications to plants and soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fujii

    Full Text Available Stable Zn isotopes are fractionated in roots and leaves of plants. Analyses demonstrate that the heavy Zn isotopes are enriched in the root system of plants with respect to shoots and leaves as well as the host soil, but the fractionation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the origin of this isotope fractionation is due to a chemical isotope effect upon complexation by Zn malates and citrates in the aerial parts and by phosphates in the roots. We calculated the Zn isotope effect in aqueous citrates, malates, and phosphates by ab initio methods. For pH<5, the Zn isotopic compositions of the various parts of the plants are expected to be similar to those of groundwater. In the neutral to alkaline region, the calculations correctly predict that (66Zn is enriched over (64Zn in roots, which concentrate phosphates, with respect to leaves, which concentrate malates and citrates, by about one permil. It is proposed that Zn isotope fractionation represents a useful tracer of Zn availability and mobility in soils.

  1. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells.

  2. Citrate content of bone for time since death estimation: results from burials with different physical characteristics and known PMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, Fabian; Reiter, Christian; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-05-01

    A recently introduced method to determine the postmortem interval (PMI) based on quantification of the citrate content in bone was applied on the temporal bones and femora of 20 individuals buried in wooden coffins (WO) and body bags (BB), respectively. Concerning known vs. calculated PMI, a significant difference between the temporal and the femur bone samples of the same individuals was observed in the BB group (p = 0.012). In contrast, differences were insignificant for the WO group (p = 0.400). Moreover, similar levels of underestimation of PMIs resulted from the analysis of the femora for both burial groups (p = 0.247). Also, there was consistently less citrate preserved in the flat temporal bones as compared to the femora, indicating that the cortical layer of the long bones should be preferentially employed for citrate-based PMI estimations. The results call for additional research on subsurface-buried and surface-deposited remains to enhance the accuracy of the published PMI equation.

  3. The significance of anthropometric and endocrine parameters in ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Funda; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya A.; Yılmaz, Saynur; Kıykac, Sadıman; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate factors associated with the response to ovarian stimulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: The records of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility who underwent ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate were reviwed between January 2011 and December 2014 in Etlik Zübeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey. The anthropometric and endocrine factors of patients who were resistant to treatment at a dose of 150 mg/day (n=84) were compared with those who responded with growth of at least one graaffian follicle at a dose of 50 mg/day (n=342). Results: Of the parameters examined, body mass index, luteinizing hormone level, and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio were significantly higher in the clomiphene citrate-resistant group compared with the responsive group. Conclusion: Reproductive treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome show different outcomes. Significantly higher body mass index, luteinizing hormone level, and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio observed in clomiphene citrate resistant group can be a possible explanation for this impedance. PMID:27761570

  4. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H, E-mail: whchang@cycu.edu.t [Center for Nano Bioengineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-16

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg{sup -1} body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  5. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H.

    2009-09-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  6. Citrate-Linked Keto- and Aldo-Hexose Monosaccharide Cellulose Conjugates Demonstrate Selective Human Neutrophil Elastase-Lowering Activity in Cotton Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Caston-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequestration of harmful proteases as human neutrophil elastase (HNE from the chronic wound environment is an important goal of wound dressing design and function. Monosaccharides attached to cellulose conjugates as ester-appended aldohexoses and ketohexoses were prepared on cotton gauze as monosccharide-citrate-cellulose-esters for HNE sequestration. The monosaccharide-cellulose analogs demonstrated selective binding when the derivatized cotton dressings were measured for sequestration of HNE. Each monosaccharide-cellulose conjugate was prepared as a cellulose citrate-linked monosaccharide ester on the cotton wound dressing, and assayed under wound exudate-mimicked conditions for elastase sequestration activity. A series of three aldohexose and four ketohexose ester cellulose conjugates were prepared on cotton gauze through citric acid-cellulose cross linking esterification. The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and subsequent analysis of the free monosaccharide with high performance anion exchange chromatography. The ketohexose and aldohexose conjugate levels on cotton were quantified on cotton using chromatography and found to be present in milligram/gram amounts. The citrate-cellulose ester bonds were characterized with FTIR. Ketohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates sequestered more elastase activity than aldohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates. The monosaccharide cellulose conjugate families each gave distinctive profiles in elastase-lowering effects. Possible mechanisms of elastase binding to the monosaccharide-cellulose conjugates are discussed.

  7. The influence of ferric (III citrate on ATP-hydrolases of Desulfuromonas acetoxidans ІМV В-7384

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maslovska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Desulfuromonas acetoxidans obtains energy for growth by the anaerobic oxidation of organic compounds with the carbon dioxide formation. It was found that ferrum and manganese are used as terminal electron acceptors in the processes of anaerobic respiration, such as dissimilative Fe3+- and Mn4+-reduction, carried out by these bacteria (Lovely, 1991. D. acetoxidans ІМV B-7384 can be used as anode biocatalyst in microbial fuel cell with high electron recovery through acetate oxidation to the electric current as a result of electron transfer to the anode or 3d-type transition metals, such as ferrum and manganese, in the process of their reduction. Investigation of biochemical changes of D. acetoxidans ІМV B-7384 under the influence of Fe (III compounds is important for optimization of the process of bacterial electricity generation. ATP-hydrolase is located in cytoplasmic membrane, and its subunits are exposed to both the cytoplasm and the external environment. Therefore, the changes of that enzyme activity can be used as an indicator of various stress exposure. Presence of ferric iron ions in the bacterial growth medium could catalyze generation of organic reactive oxygen species, such as peroxyl (ROO- and alkoxyl (RO- radicals. Lipid peroxidation is one of the main reasons of cell damage and it’s following death under the influence of reactive oxygen metabolites. It is known that lipid peroxidation and membrane transport processes are somehow interrelated, but mechanisms of such interaction are still unidentified. In our previous researche we have shown the influence of ferric (III citrate on the intensity of lipid peroxidation of D. аcetoxidans ІМV В-7384. Significant increase of the content of lipid peroxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde in bacterial cells has been observed under the addition of ferric (III citrate into the cultural medium. The increase of the concentration of lipid

  8. Structural and Electrical Properties of Li–Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aravind

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to synthesize nanocrystalline lithium-nickel ferrites with a compositional formula Li0.5−0.5xNixFe2.5−0.5xO4 (where x=0.0 to 1.0 with step of 0.2 by a low temperature citrate gel autocombustion method. Single phase cubic structure is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. This result demonstrates that the prepared samples are homogeneous and the sharp peaks reveal that the samples are in good crystalline form. As the Ni concentration is increased, various interesting changes in the values of the structural parameters like lattice parameter, X-ray density, bulk density, and porosity have been observed. The surface morphology of the prepared samples was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The DC resistivity measurements were carried out using two-probe method from 200°C to 600°C. The variation of log⁡(σT with reciprocal of temperature shows a discontinuity at Curie temperature. log⁡(σT versus 1/T plot of the pure lithium ferrites is almost linear which indicates the Curie temperature of the pure lithium ferrites was beyond our measured temperature. The dielectric properties of these ferrites have been studied using a LCR meter from the room temperature to 700 K at various frequencies up to 5 MHz, which reveals that all the prepared samples have dielectric transition temperature around 600 K.

  9. Past, present, and future: a 7-year update of Viagra (sildenafil citrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G; Gillies, H; Osterloh, I

    2005-06-01

    More than 30 million men are estimated to have erectile dysfunction (ED) in the United States. Worldwide, ED is estimated to affect more than 150 million men, and that number is expected to exceed 300 million men by the year 2025. The prevalence of ED ranges from 7% in men aged 18-29 years to 85% in men aged 76-85 years. In addition, a recent report showed that 68% of patients with ED aged 18 years and older have at least one comorbid diagnosis of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes or depression, and research suggests that ED may be an early indicator of systemic vascular disease. Viagra (sildenafil citrate), the first-in-class phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, was introduced in 1998 for the treatment of ED. In the 7 years since its market launch, more than 750,000 physicians have prescribed sildenafil to more than 23 million men, helping establish an excellent safety and efficacy record. Clinical studies have demonstrated that sildenafil successfully treats ED of varied organic, psychogenic or mixed aetiology, and is effective in men with ED and comorbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes or depression. Sildenafil was a breakthrough medication that addressed a previously unfulfilled medical need. The impact of sildenafil has stimulated academic, clinical and industrial research to better understand the nature of sexual function and develop better treatment and management for sexual dysfunctions such as ED. With the advent of other erectogenic therapies for the treatment of ED, this 7-year update will focus on the unique history and development of sildenafil, its current use and applications and its future directions and indications. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of sildenafil on our understanding of sexual health and on the extensive safety and efficacy data that have been amassed from numerous clinical trials.

  10. The safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate in hypoandrogenic and subfertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D P; Brant, W O; Myers, J B; Presson, A P; Johnstone, E B; Dorais, J A; Aston, K I; Carrell, D T; Hotaling, J M

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) in infertile and hypoandrogenic men through a retrospective study between September 2013 and May 2014. We identified 47 men between 18 and 55 years placed on 50 mg CC every other day. We evaluated the effect of CC on testosterone after 2 weeks, rates of adverse effects and predictors of CC response. Mean baseline testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and estradiol were 246.8 ng dl(-1), 125.5 ng dl(-1) and 20.8 pg dl(-1), respectively. At 2 weeks, mean testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and estradiol increased to 527.6 ng dl(-1), 281.8 ng dl(-1) and 32.0 pg dl(-1) (all P<0.001). Two patients at 2 weeks and one patient at 3 months had a paradoxical decrease in testosterone. Mean total motile count (TMC) and concentration increased from 59.7 million (s.e.m.: 16.5) and 50.7 millions ml(-1) (s.e.m.: 11.1) at baseline to 90.9 million (s.e.m.: 25.9) and 72.5 millions ml(-1) (s.e.m.: 17.5), respectively, at 3 months, although this was nonsignificant (P=0.09, 0.09). No patient on CC experienced a paradoxical decrease in TMC or sperm concentration. On age-adjusted regression analysis, age, BMI, longitudinal testis axis, baseline follicle-stimulating hormone, LH and estradiol did not correlate with improvement in bioavailable testosterone at 2 weeks. CC improves testosterone and may improve semen parameters, although a small percentage of men may not demonstrate improvement in testosterone.

  11. Nonstoichiometry and phase stability of Al and Cr substituted Mg ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by citrate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateia, Ebtesam. E.; Mohamed, Amira. T.

    2017-03-01

    The spinel ferrite Mg0.7Cr0.3Fe2O4, and Mg0.7Al0.3Fe2O4 were prepared by the citrate technique. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Micrographs (HRTEM), Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). XRD confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of the investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes were found to be between 24.7 and 27.5 nm for Al3+ and Mg2+ respectively. The substitution of Cr3+/Al3+ in place of Mg2+ ion initiates a crystalline anisotropy due to large size mismatch between Cr /Al and Mg2+, which creates strain inside the crystal volume. According to VSM results, by adding Al3+ or Cr3+ ions at the expense of Mg2+, the saturation magnetization increased. The narrow hysteresis loop of the samples indicates that the amount of dissipated energy is small, which is desirable for soft magnetic applications. Magnetic dynamics of the samples were studied by measuring magnetic susceptibility versus temperature at different magnetic fields. The band gap energy, which was calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function, decreases with increasing the particle size. Furthermore, the band gaps were quite narrow (1.5-1.7 eV), hence the investigated samples could act as visible light driven photo catalysts. To sum up the addition of trivalent Al3+, and Cr3+ ions enhanced the optical, magnetic and structure properties of the samples. Mg0.7 Cr0.3Fe2O4 sample will be a better candidate for the optical applications and will also be a guaranteeing hopeful for technological applications.

  12. Anxiolytic-like effects of alverine citrate in experimental mouse models of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-11-05

    Anxiety disorders are widely spread psychiatric illnesses that are a cause of major concern. Despite a consistent increase in anxiolytics, the prevalence of anxiety is static; this necessitates the development of new compounds with potential activity and minimum unwanted effects. A serotonergic (5HT) system plays an important role in pathogenesis of anxiety and predominantly involves 5HT1A receptor action in mediating anxiety-like behavior; the antagonism of 5HT1A receptor has demonstrated to produce anxiolytic-like effects. Alverine citrate (AVC) is reported as a 5HT1A antagonist; however, its effects on anxiety-like behavior are not investigated. Thus, the present study, by utilizing a neurobehavioral approach, examined the anxiolytic-like effects of AVC in experimental mouse models of anxiety. Mice were acutely treated with AVC (5-20mg/kg, i.p.)/diazepam (DIA, 2mg/kg, i.p.) and subjected to four validated anxiety models viz. elevated plus-maze (EPM), light/dark (L/D), hole-board (HB) and marble burying (MB) tests. AVC (15-20mg/kg) and DIA significantly increased open arm activity in EPM, exploration in light chamber in L/D test, exploratory behavior in HB and reduced MB behavior in marble burying test. AVC (5mg/kg) had no effect on all behavioral tests, while AVC (10mg/kg) produced partial effects. It revealed anxiolytic-like effects of AVC. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like effects of AVC at higher doses (15-20mg/kg) were more pronounced than lower doses (10mg/kg) and were quite similar to the standard drug DIA. The present finding demonstrates, for the first time, the anxiolytic-like effects of AVC, which may be an alternative approach for management of anxiety-related disorders.

  13. Preparation, characterization and in-vivo evaluation of microemulsions containing tamoxifen citrate anti-cancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Faranak; Farhadian, Nafiseh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Biriaee, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a new nanocarrier for oral delivery of tamoxifen citrate (TMC) as a lipophilic oral administrated drug. This drug has low oral bioavailability due to its low aqueous solubility. To enhance the solubility of this drug, the microemulsion system was applied in form of oil-in-water. Sesame oil and Tween 80 were used as drug solvent oil and surfactant, respectively. Two different formulations were prepared for this purpose. The first formulation contained edible glycerin as co-surfactant and the second formulation contained Span 80 as a mixed surfactant. The results of characterization showed that the mean droplet size of drug-free samples was in the range of 16.64-64.62nm with a PDI value of <0.5. In a period of 6months after the preparation of samples, no phase sedimentation was observed, which confirmed the high stability of samples. TMC with a mass ratio of 1% was loaded in the selected samples. No significant size enlargement and drug precipitation were observed 6months after drug loading. In addition, the drug release profile at experimental environments in buffers with pH=7.4 and 5.5 showed that in the first 24h, 85.79 and 100% of the drug were released through the first formulation and 76.63 and 66.42% through the second formulation, respectively. The in-vivo results in BALB/c female mice showed that taking microemulsion form of drug caused a significant reduction in the growth rate of cancerous tumor and weight loss of the mice compared to the consumption of commercial drug tablets. The results confirmed that the new formulation of TMC could be useful for breast cancer treatment.

  14. Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Interaction Between Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase and Citrate Synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-chen; WANG Juan; SU Pei-ying; MA Chun-mei; ZHU Shu-hua

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and citrate synthase (CS) are sequential enzymes in Krebs cycle. mMDH, CS and the complex between mMDH and CS (mMDH+CS) were treated with nitric oxide solution. The roles of notric oxide (NO) on the secondary structures and the interactions between mMDH and CS were studied using circular diehroism (CD) and Fourier transform surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR), respectivley. The effects of NO on the activities of mMDH, CS and mMDH+CS were also studied. And the regulations by NO on mMDH and CS were simulated by PyMOL software. The results of SPR conifrmed that strong interaction between mMDH and CS existed and NO could signiifcantly regulate the interaction between the two enzymes. NO reduced the mass percents ofα-helix and increased that of random in mMDH, CS and mMDH+CS. NO increased the activities of CS and mMDH+CS, and inhibited the activity of mMDH. Graphic simulation indicated that covalent bond was formed between NO and Asn242 in active site of CS. However, there was no direct bond between NO and mMDH. The increase in activity of mMDH+CS complex depended mostly on the interaction between NO and CS. All the results suggested that the regulations by NO on the activity and interaction between mMDH and CS were accord with the changes in mMDH, CS and mMDH+CS caused by NO.

  15. Voltammetric method for the determination of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszczuk, Katarzyna; Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw

    2010-06-01

    A highly sensitive and simple voltammetric method for the determination of sildenafil citrate (SC) was developed. The method is based on the accumulation by adsorption of SC on a lead film modified glassy carbon electrode (LF/GCE) and then the reduction of SC throughout the stripping step. During the determinations of SC at the lead film electrode three adsorptive stripping voltammetric peaks at -1.2, -1.33 and -1.45V were observed. The respective response selected for identification and quantification has been evaluated with respect to the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte, the potential and the time of the lead film formation, the potential and the time of the SC accumulation and other variables. Experimental results indicate an excellent linear correlation between the peak current and concentration in the range of 2x10(-9)-1.5x10(-7)mol/L (for peaks 1 and 2) and 1x10(-8)-1.5x10(-7)mol/L (for the peak 3). The detection limits (LOD) for SC following 30s of accumulation time were equal to 9x10(-10)mol/L (for peaks 1 and 2) and 4.5x10(-9)mol/L (for the peak 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of SC in the tablets (Viagra 25 and Viagra 50) and average the contents were in close agreement with those quoted by the manufacturer and with those obtained by the reported spectrophotometric method and voltammetric method using a hanging mercury drop electrode.

  16. Thermal Instability and Microstructure of Strontium M-type Hexaferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Citrate Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenyu; ZHANG Qingjie; GUAN Jianguo

    2006-01-01

    The dried gel of SrFe12O19, prepared by citrate approach, was investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis(TG), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), X-ray diffraction(XRD) techniques, energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS), and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The thermal instability and the thermal decomposition of low-temperature strontium M-type hexaferrite crystallized at about 600 ℃ were confirmed for the first time by XRD method. The decomposition of the low-temperature strontium M-type hexaferrite took place at about 688.6 ℃ determined by DSC investigation. The low-temperature strontium M-type hexaferrite nanoparticles were decomposed into SrFeO2.5 with an orthorthombic cell and Fe2O3 with a tetragonal cell as well as possibl α-Fe2O3. The agglomerated particles with sizes less than 200 nm obtained at 800 ℃ were plesiomorphous to strontium M-type hexaferrite. The thermally stable strontium M-type hexaferrite nanoparticles with sizes less than 100nm could take place at 900 ℃. Up to 1000 ℃, the phase transformation to form strontium M-type hexaferrite was ended, the calcinations with the sizes more than 1μm were composed of α-Fe2O3 and strontium M-type hexaferrite. The method of distinguishing γ-Fe2O3 with a spinel structure from Fe2O3 with tetragonal cells by using powder XRD method was proposed. Fe2O3 with tetragonal cells to be crystallized before the crystallization of thermally stable strontium M-type hexaferrite was confirmed for the first time. The reason why α-Fe2O3 as an additional phase appears in the calcinations is the cationic vacancy of strontium M-type hexaferrite, SrFe12-x()xO19 (0≤x≤0.5).

  17. Identification and characterization of the mitochondrial targeting sequence and mechanism in human citrate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Liao, Ching-Chun; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Lin, Chin-Chih; Yeh, Chin-Wei; Teng, Chiao-Fang; Chang, Wen-Tsan

    2009-08-01

    Citrate synthase (CS), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays a decisive role in regulating energy generation of mitochondrial respiration. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm as preproteins with an amino (N)-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) that directs mitochondria-specific sorting of the preprotein. However, the MTS and targeting mechanism of the human CS protein are not fully characterized. The human CS gene is a single nuclear gene which transcribes into two mRNA variants, isoform a (CSa) and b (CSb), by alternative splicing of exon 2. CSa encodes 466 amino acids, including a putative N-terminal MTS, while CSb expresses 400 residues with a shorter N terminus, lacking the MTS. Our results indicated that CSa is localized in the mitochondria and the N-terminal 27 amino acids, including a well-conserved RXY downward arrow (S/A) motif (the RHAS sequence), can efficiently target the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into the mitochondria. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the conserved basic amino acids and serine/threonine residues revealed that the R9 residue is essential but all serine/threonine residues are dispensable in the mitochondrial targeting function. Moreover, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of the preprotein import receptors, including TOM20, TOM22, and TOM70, showed that all three preprotein import receptors are required for transporting CSa into the mitochondria. In conclusion, we have experimentally identified the mitochondrial targeting sequence of human CSa and elucidated its targeting mechanism. These results provide an important basis for the study of mitochondrial dysfunction due to aberrant CSa trafficking.

  18. Mixed Mg-Mn ferrites for high frequency applications processed by citrate precursor technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Gagan; Chand, Jagdish; Verma, Satish; Singh, M, E-mail: bhargava_phy_hpu@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, 171005 India (India)

    2009-08-07

    Mg{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}In{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x} O{sub 4} (x = 0.1 and 0.2) and Mg{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}Al{sub y}Fe{sub 2-y} O{sub 4} (y = 0.1, 0.5 and 0.7) ferrites, with improved initial permeability and extremely low relative loss factor (RLF), were synthesized by the citrate precursor technique. Structural studies were made by using the x-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which confirm the formation of single-phase spinel structure. The size of the particle was of the order of {approx}0.5 {mu}m for the samples sintered at 1200 {sup 0}C, which is smaller than that obtained for ferrite powders by the conventional ceramic method. The magnetic properties such as initial permeability and RLF with frequency, in the range 0.1-20 MHz, at different temperatures have been investigated. Initial permeability ({mu}{sub i}) attains a very high value, 17342, for the In{sup 3+} doped ferrite series and for the Al{sup 3+} doped ferrite series the maximum value is 3785. The RLF was found to have low values and is of the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} in the frequency range 0.1-20 MHz. In addition to this, an increase in the value of {mu}{sub i} was observed with the rise in the temperature for all the series of ferrites.

  19. Structures of mesophilic and extremophilic citrate synthases reveal rigidity and flexibility for function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stephen A; Crennell, Susan J; Danson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) catalyses the entry of carbon into the citric acid cycle and is highly-conserved structurally across the tree of life. Crystal structures of dimeric CSs are known in both "open" and "closed" forms, which differ by a substantial domain motion that closes the substrate-binding clefts. We explore both the static rigidity and the dynamic flexibility of CS structures from mesophilic and extremophilic organisms from all three evolutionary domains. The computational expense of this wide-ranging exploration is kept to a minimum by the use of rigidity analysis and rapid all-atom simulations of flexible motion, combining geometric simulation and elastic network modeling. CS structures from thermophiles display increased structural rigidity compared with the mesophilic enzyme. A CS structure from a psychrophile, stabilized by strong ionic interactions, appears to display likewise increased rigidity in conventional rigidity analysis; however, a novel modified analysis, taking into account the weakening of the hydrophobic effect at low temperatures, shows a more appropriate decreased rigidity. These rigidity variations do not, however, affect the character of the flexible dynamics, which are well conserved across all the structures studied. Simulation trajectories not only duplicate the crystallographically observed symmetric open-to-closed transitions, but also identify motions describing a previously unidentified antisymmetric functional motion. This antisymmetric motion would not be directly observed in crystallography but is revealed as an intrinsic property of the CS structure by modeling of flexible motion. This suggests that the functional motion closing the binding clefts in CS may be independent rather than symmetric and cooperative.

  20. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of diethylcarbamazine citrate in formulations using iodate and iodide mixture as reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC in bulk drug and in formulations using potassium iodate and potassium iodide as reagent. The methods employ the well-known analytical reaction between iodate and iodide in the presence of acid. In titrimetry (method A, the drug was treated with a measured excess of thiosulfate in the presence of unmeasured excess of iodate-iodide mixture and after a standing time of 10 min, the surplus thiosulfate was determined by back titration with iodine towards starch end point. Titrimetric assay is based on a 1:3 reaction stoichiometry between DEC and iodine and the method is applicable over 2.0-10.0 mg range. The liberated iodine is measured spectrophotometrically at 370 nm (method B or the iodine-starch complex measured at 570 nm (method C. In both methods, the absorbance is found to be linearly dependent on the concentration of iodine, which in turn is related to DEC concentration. The calibration curves are linear over 2.5-50 and 2.5-30 µg mL-1 DEC for method B and method C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values were 6.48×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0604 µg cm-2, respectively, for method B, and their respective values for method C are 9.96×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0393 µg cm-2. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision studies were carried out according to the ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of DEC formulations.

  1. Kinetics of Ni-Mo electrodeposition from Ni-rich citrate baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E., E-mail: nmbeltow@imim-pan.krakow.pl; Indyka, P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni-Mo alloy electrodeposition on steel substrates from an aqueous citrate-ammonia complex baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarisation measurements in a system with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Partial current densities for discharge of Ni(II) and Mo(VI) ions and hydrogen evolution as a function of molybdate concentration in the bath, cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. It has been shown that - under all investigated conditions - Ni-Mo alloy deposition is more favourable than pure nickel and the cathodic process is strongly influenced by the Mo(VI) content in the solution. The Ni(II) electroreduction rate initially increases, as the cathode potential shifts towards more negative values and the concentration of molybdate grows in the solution. However, for the highest examined MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} content, a considerable decrease in the rate of the process is subsequently observed at certain limit potentials, the values of which depend on molybdate concentration and hydrodynamic conditions. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides (characterised by very low overvoltage for hydrogen evolution), becomes less pronounced when the RDE rotation speed is increased. Hydrogen evolution is strongly associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport, leads to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The Ni-Mo coatings electrodeposited from the designed bath (with the current efficiency of about 70%) containing about 30 wt.% Mo, are characterised by a shiny-grey appearance and good adhesion to the steel substrate. They are characterised by column growth and amorphous microstructure with randomly distributed nanocrystallites of the MoNi{sub 4} intermetallic phase.

  2. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  3. Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III-citrate fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III reduction to Fe(II and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source; ii under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I-citrate or Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains.

  4. Effect of tri-sodium citrate concentration on structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited tin sulfide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, F., E-mail: ftmgode@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 15030 Burdur (Turkey); Guneri, E. [Department of Primary Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Baglayan, O. [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SnS thin films grown by CBD in different concentration of tri-sodium citrate. • Grain size increases, while surface roughness decreases, with concentration. • Optical band gap decreases from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV with increasing concentration. • Electrical conductivity improves with increasing concentration. - Abstract: Tin sulfide thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The effects of molar concentration of the complexing agent, tri-sodium citrate, on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Polycrystalline film structure in orthorhombic phase was determined. Flower-like spherical grains are observed on the surface. While their average size increased from 345 nm to 750 nm when the tri-sodium citrate concentration was increased from 6.4 × 10{sup −3} M to 8.0 × 10{sup −3} M, the surface roughness varied in an opposite manner from approximately 120.18 nm to 29.36 nm. For these concentrations, optical band gap of the films decreased from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV, whereas the Hall conductivity, mobility and carrier concentration of the films increased slightly from 5.91 × 10{sup −5} to 8.78 × 10{sup −5} (Ω cm){sup −1}, from 148 to 228 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and from 1.73 × 10{sup 12} to 3.59 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  5. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischhack Gudrun

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™, a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or/Broviac-/Hickman-catheter type. Methods In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy from April 2003 to March 2005 (group 1, heparin lock with 200 IU/ml sterile normal saline 0.9%; Canusal® Wockhardt UK Ltd, Wrexham, Wales and all patients from April 2005 to March 2007 (group 2; taurolidine 1.35%/Sodium Citrate 4%; TauroLock™, Tauropharm, Waldbüttelbrunn, Germany. Results In group 1 (heparin, 90 patients had 98 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 14 of 30 (47% BSI were 'primary Gram positive BSI due to CoNS (n = 4 or MRSE (n = 10' [incidence density (ID; 2.30 per 1000 inpatient CVAD-utilization days]. In group 2 (TauroLock™, 89 patients had 95 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 3 of 25 (12% BSI were caused by CoNS. (ID, 0.45. The difference in the ID between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004. Conclusion The use of Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™ significantly reduced the number and incidence density of primary catheter-associated BSI due to CoNS and MRSE in pediatric cancer patients.

  6. Identification of three relationships linking cadmium accumulation to cadmium tolerance and zinc and citrate accumulation in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrig, Walid; Rouached, Aïda; Shahzad, Zaigham; Abdelly, Chedly; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a plant species that shows high accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Lettuce is therefore a good model both for identifying determinants controlling cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in edible tissues. In this work, 14-day-old plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for 8 days on media supplemented with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 microM. Growth, as well as Cd(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), phosphate, malate and citrate root an shoot contents were analyzed. The three lettuce varieties Paris Island Cos, Red Salad Bowl and Kordaat displayed differential abilities to accumulate cadmium in roots and shoots, Paris Island Cos displaying the lowest cadmium content and Kordaat the highest. From the global analysis of the three varieties, three main trends were identified. First, a common negative correlation linked cadmium tissue content and relative dry weight reduction in response to cadmium treatments in the three varieties. Second, increasing cadmium concentration in the culture medium resulted in a parallel increase in zinc tissue content in all lettuce varieties. A common strong positive correlation between cadmium and zinc contents was observed for all varieties. This suggested that systems enabling zinc and cadmium transport were induced by cadmium. Finally, the cadmium treatments had a contrasting effect on anion contents in tissues. Interestingly, citrate content in shoots was correlated with cadmium translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting that citrate might play a role in cadmium transport in the xylem vessels. Altogether, these results shed light on three main strategies developed by lettuce to cope with cadmium, which could help to develop breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in lettuce.

  7. Effects of plant food potassium salts (citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) on acid-base status and digestive fermentations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabboh, Houda; Coxam, Véronique; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Potassium (K) organic anion salts, such as potassium citrate or potassium malate in plant foods, may counteract low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by western diets, but little is known about the effect of other minor plant anions. Effects of K salts (chloride, citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) were thus studied on the mineral balance and digestive fermentations in groups of 6-week-old rats adapted to an acidogenic/5 % inulin diet. In all diet groups, substantial amounts of lactate and succinate were present in the caecum, besides SCFA. SCFA were poorly affected by K salts conditions. The KCl-supplemented diet elicited an accumulation of lactate in the caecum; whereas the lactate caecal pool was low in rats fed the potassium tartrate-supplemented (K TAR) diet. A fraction of tartrate (around 50 %) was recovered in urine of rats fed the K TAR diet. Potassium citrate and potassium galacturonate diets exerted a marked alkalinizing effect on urine pH and promoted a notable citraturia (around 0.5 micro mol/24 h). All the K organic anion salts counteracted Ca and Mg hyperexcretion in urine, especially potassium tartrate as to magnesuria. The present findings indicate that K salts of unabsorbed organic anions exert alkalinizing effects when metabolizable in the large intestine, even if K and finally available anions (likely SCFA) are not simultaneously bioavailable. Whether this observation is also relevant for a fraction of SCFA arising from dietary fibre breakdown (which represents the major organic anions absorbed in the digestive tract in man) deserves further investigation.

  8. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  9. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-16

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g(-1). The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  10. [Regulation of citrate synthese in bacteria: Comparison of the action of various effectors on the enzymes of Rhodospirillum rurbum and Bacillus stearothermophilus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, A I; Massarini, E; Cazzulo, J J

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the citrate synthases purified from the facultatively photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (Gram negative) and the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus (Gram positive) was made. The citrate synthase from R. rubrum was activated by KCl (6-fold at 0.1 M KCl) and, less effectively, by NaCl and NH4Cl. Its molecular weight was about 300,000. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by NADH, and this inhibition was counteracted by AMP. The citrate synthase from B. stearothermophilus was little affected by KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl, all of which activated by about 25% at 0.1 M. Its molecular weight was ca 100,000. The enzyme was not affected by NADH or AMP. Both citrate synthases were insensitive to alpah-oxoglutarate concentrations up to 5 mM, and were inhibited by ATP; the B. stearothermophilus enzyme was more strongly inhibited than the R. rubrum enzyme. In both cases the ATP inhibition was strictly competitive towards acetyl-CoA and non-competitive towards oxaloacetate. Both enzymes, in spite of the peculiar physiological properties of their bacterial sources, followed the close correlation between the properties of the citrate synthase and the taxonomical position of the microorganism, proposed by Weitzman and his co-workers.

  11. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g-1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  12. Exogenous thyroid hormones regulate the activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in warm- but not cold-acclimated lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Megan A; Regish, Amy M; McCormick, Stephen D; Manzon, Richard G

    2017-02-14

    Thermal acclimation is known to elicit metabolic adjustments in ectotherms, but the cellular mechanisms and endocrine control of these shifts have not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between thermal acclimation, thyroid hormones and oxidative metabolism in juvenile lake whitefish. Impacts of thermal acclimation above (19 °C) or below (8 °C) the thermal optimum (13 °C) and exposure to exogenous thyroid hormone (60 µg T4/g body weight) were assessed by quantifying citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in liver, red muscle, white muscle and heart. Warm acclimation decreased citrate synthase activity in liver and elevated both citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities in red muscle. In contrast, induction of hyperthyroidism in warm-acclimated fish stimulated a significant increase in liver citrate synthase and heart cytochrome c oxidase activities, and a decrease in the activity of both enzymes in red muscle. No change in citrate synthase or cytochrome c oxidase activities was observed following cold acclimation in either the presence or absence of exogenous thyroid hormones. Collectively, our results indicate that thyroid hormones influence the activity of oxidative enzymes more strongly in warm-acclimated than in cold-acclimated lake whitefish, and they may play a role in mediating metabolic adjustments observed during thermal acclimation.

  13. Synthesis of PVP stabilized Cu/Pd nanoparticles with citrate complexing agent and its application as an activator for electroless copper deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sylvia H Y; Wang, Yung-Yun; Wan, Chi-Chao

    2007-06-01

    A simple method has been developed to synthesize Cu/Pd nanoparticles in aqueous solution in ambient condition with the addition of complexing agent, trisodium citrate. UV-vis spectra confirmed the complexing behavior of trisodium citrate and metal ions. The particles synthesized with trisodium citrate were well dispersed with particle size ranging between 3-4 nm while the particles without trisodium citrate were larger and aggregated, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles without impurities in the complexing agent-supplemented system. In contrast, large amounts of PdO and Cu(OH)(2) were precipitated along with the formation of particles in the complexing agent-free system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed small amounts of oxidized Pd on the surface of particles and the existence of zerovalent Cu and oxidized Cu in particles with trisodium citrate. With a simpler process for electroless copper deposition, the Cu/Pd nanoparticle activator with less Pd metal used exhibited comparable catalytic activity to conventional Pd/Sn colloidal activator. In summary, application of Cu/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with the complexing agent as an activator suggested a novel, simpler and inexpensive process in PCB industry.

  14. Influence of current density on surface morphology and properties of pulse plated tin films from citrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Bulk polycrystalline tin films have been processed by pulse electrodeposition technique from a simple solution containing triammonium citrate and stannous chloride. The cathodic investigations have been carried out by galvanostatic methods. As deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of the deposited films shows microcrystalline grains having β-Sn form. The surface morphology is very rough at lower current density, but becomes smooth at higher current density, and exhibits pyramid type morphology at all the current densities. The effect of current density on microhardness, melting behavior, and electrical resistivity are also reported here.

  15. Crystal structure of caesium dihydrogen citrate from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagappa Rammohan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of caesium dihydrogen citrate, Cs+·H2C6H5O7−, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The coordination polyhedra of the nine-coordinate Cs+ cations share edges to form chains along the a-axis. These chains are linked by corners along the c-axis. The un-ionized carboxylic acid groups form two different types of hydrogen bonds; one forms a helical chain along the c-axis, and the other is discrete. The hydroxy group participates in both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  16. Ingestion of sodium citrate suppresses aldosterone level in blood at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oöpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Hackney, Anthony C; Kadak, Kadri; Medijainen, Luule; Karelson, Kalle

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the ingestion of sodium citrate (CIT) alters blood levels of fluid and electrolyte regulatory hormones at rest and during exercise. Using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design, 13 young, male well-trained runners performed continuous incremental running tests to volitional exhaustion on a treadmill 2 h after ingestion of 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass of CIT or placebo (PLC) in 1000 mL of solution. These trials were separated by 2 weeks. Baseline (before ingestion) aldosterone concentration did not differ between the 2 trials; however, it was 36.5% (p = 0.003) lower in the CIT trial compared with the PLC trial before the running test (i.e., after ingestion). The extent of the running-induced increase in aldosterone was 33% (p = 0.009) smaller in the CIT trial. There were no between-trial differences in the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, or renin activity at any stage of the study. However, a greater relative increase in plasma volume (mean +/- SD, 6.41% +/- 3.78% vs. 4.08% +/- 3.33%; p = 0.042) was observed after administering the CIT compared with the PLC drink. Serum Na+ concentration increased (by 3.1 +/- 1.2 mmol.L-1; p < 0.0001) after ingestion of the CIT but not the PLC drink. A higher Na+ level was observed in the CIT trial than in the PLC trial (142.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 139.3 +/- 1.4 mmol.L-1, p = 0.00001) after completion of the run. In conclusion, pre-exercise ingestion of CIT induces a decrease in serum aldosterone concentration in the resting condition and a blunting of the aldosterone response during incremental running exercise to volitional exhaustion. The observed effect of CIT on the serum aldosterone level may be mediated by an acute increase in plasma volume and serum Na+ concentration alterations.

  17. Transformations of citrate and Tween coated silver nanoparticles reacted with Na{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalousha, M. [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29028 (United States); Arkill, K.P. [School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Romer, I. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Palmer, R.E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, J.R. [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29028 (United States); School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are susceptible to transformations in environmental and biological media such as aggregation, oxidation, dissolution, chlorination, sulfidation, formation/replacement of surface coatings following interaction with natural organic matter (NOM). This paper investigates the impact of surface coating and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) on the transformations and behavior of Ag NPs (citrate coated and Tween coated; cit-Ag NPs and Tween-Ag NPs, respectively), following reaction with different concentrations of Na{sub 2}S solution (as a source of sulfide species, H{sub 2}S and HS{sup −}). These transformations and the dominant mechanisms of transformations were investigated using UV–vis and scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Here, we have shown that Ag NP surface coating impacts their dissolution following dilution in ultrahigh purity water, with higher extent of dissolution of Tween-Ag NPs compared with cit-Ag NPs. Tween-Ag NPs are susceptible to dissolution following their sulfidation at low S/Ag molar ratio. Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) slows down the dissolution of Tween-Ag NPs at low sulfide concentrations and reduces the aggregation of cit-Ag NP in the presence of sodium sulfide. Sulfidation appears to occur by direct interaction of sulfide species with Ag NPs rather than by indirect reaction of sulfide with dissolved Ag species subsequent to dissolution. Furthermore, the sulfidation process results in the formation of partially sulfidized Ag NPs containing unreacted (metallic) subgrains at the edge of the NPs for Tween-Ag NPs in the presence of high sulfide concentration (2000 nM Na{sub 2}S), which occurred to less extent at lower Na{sub 2}S concentration for Tween-Ag NPs and at all concentrations of Na{sub 2}S for cit-Ag NPs. Thus, sulfidized Ag NPs may preserve some of the properties of the Ag NPs such as their potential to shed Ag{sup +} ions and their toxic potential

  18. Therapeutic effects of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate on melamine-induced urinary calculi in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie; SHEN Ying; SUN Ning; JIA Li-qun; PAN Yue-song; SUN Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2008, a sharp increase of the number of children diagnosed with urinary calculi was observed in China, 9433 children were diagnosed as having melamine-induced urinary calculi at outpatient clinic in Beijing Children's Hospital. This study examined the therapeutic efficacy of potassium sodium hydrogen citrate (PSHC) used to treat melamine-induced urinary stones in Chinese children who consumed melamine-containing infant formula. Methods Seventy-two infants and children (average age (18.2±7.7) months) who were diagnosed with urinary calculi were icuidomly divided into three treatment groups using the SAS Plan program. Group 1 was given a low dose (1 g/d) of PSHC, group 2 was given high dose of PSHC (2 g/d) and group 3 was given no PSHC (control group). The dose of drug was adjusted according to the baseline urinary pH. This study analyzed the influence of the dose of PSHC, the age of patients, stone size and position, and urinary pH on the level of efficacy of PSHC (cured, effectively treated or not cured).Results After 1-6 months of therapy, 19 patients from group 1, five patients from group 2 and six patients from group 3 were cured. Five patients from group 1, five patients from group 2 and four patients from group 3 were effectively treated. There were significant differences in therapeutic efficacy between the two treatment doses after 3 and 6 months as measured by the increase in the successful expulsion rate and time of melamine-induced urinary calculi. After 6 months the mean time of expulsion of urinary calculi in groups 1 and 2 was significantly shorter than in the control group. Conclusions PSHC can significantly increase the successful expulsion rate and time of melamine-induced urinary calculi. The therapeutic efficacy is affected by PSHC dose, treatment duration, calculi position, and urinary pH. There is no relationship between the therapeutic efficacy and the stone size or patient age.

  19. Preparation and characterization of Tamoxifen citrate loaded nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maji R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruma Maji, Niladri Shekhar Dey, Bhabani Sankar Satapathy, Biswajit Mukherjee, Subhasish MondalDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (Calcutta, IndiaBackground: Four formulations of Tamoxifen citrate loaded polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA based nanoparticles (TNPs were developed and characterized. Their internalization by Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7 breast cancer cells was also investigated.Methods: Nanoparticles were prepared by a multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method. Then the following studies were carried out: drug-excipients interaction using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, surface morphology by field emission scanning electron micro­scopy (FESEM, zeta potential and size distribution using a Zetasizer Nano ZS90 and particle size analyzer, and in vitro drug release. In vitro cellular uptake of nanoparticles was assessed by confocal microscopy and their cell viability (% was studied.Results: No chemical interaction was observed between the drug and the selected excipients. TNPs had a smooth surface, and a nanosize range (250–380 nm with a negative surface charge. Drug loadings of the prepared particles were 1.5%±0.02% weight/weight (w/w, 2.68%±0.5% w/w, 4.09%±0.2% w/w, 27.16%±2.08% w/w for NP1–NP4, respectively. A sustained drug release pattern from the nanoparticles was observed for the entire period of study, ie, up to 60 days. Further, nanoparticles were internalized well by the MCF-7 breast cancer cells on a concentration dependent manner and were present in the cytoplasm. The nucleus was free from nanoparticle entry. Drug loaded nanoparticles were found to be more cytotoxic than the free drug.Conclusion: TNPs (NP4 showed the highest drug loading, released the drug in a sustained manner for a prolonged period of time and were taken up well by the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro. Thus the formulation may be suitable for breast cancer treatment due to the

  20. Adsorption of doxorubicin on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles: insights into engineering potent chemotherapeutic delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dennis; Cameron, Amanda; MacDonald, Bruce; Nganou, Collins; Scheller, Hope; Marsh, James; Beale, Stefanie; Lu, Mingsheng; Shan, Zhi; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Xu, Heping; Servos, Mark; Bennett, Craig; Macquarrie, Stephanie; Oakes, Ken D.; Mkandawire, Martin; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    . Here, for the first time, we propose empirical and theoretical evidence suggestive of the main adsorption process where (1) hydrophobic forces drive doxorubicin towards the gold nanoparticle surface before (2) cation-π interactions and gold-carbonyl coordination between the drug molecule and the cations on AuNP surface facilitate DOX adsorption. In addition, biologically relevant compounds, such as serum albumin and glutathione, were shown to enhance desorption of loaded drug molecules from AuNP at physiologically relevant concentrations, providing insight into the drug release and in vivo stability of such drug conjugates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DOX-AuNP absorption spectra and colored solution images, citrate displacement data, original DOX-AuNP loading isotherm, XPS data and TEM micrographs, modelling data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05826k

  1. Aqueous complexation of citrate with neodymium(III) and americium(III): a study by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Kropf, A Jeremy; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2014-05-07

    The aqueous complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) with anions of citrate was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Using potentiometric titration data fitting the metal-ligand (L) complexes that were identified for Nd(III) were NdHL, NdL, NdHL2, and NdL2; a review of trivalent metal-citrate complexes is also included. Stability constants for these complexes were calculated from potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. Microcalorimetric results concluded that the entropy term of complex formation is much more dominant than the enthalpy. XAFS results showed a dependence in the Debye-Waller factor that indicated Nd(iii)-citrate complexation over the pH range of 1.56-6.12.

  2. [Humidity as a necessary condition for latent fingerprint detection with ninhydrin--a practice-oriented and inexpensive method using potassium citrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lothar; Hermanowski, Mona-Lena

    2010-01-01

    Ninhydrin is a common reagent for latent fingerprint detection on porous surfaces, and water in the form of humidity is an essential factor in the developing process. Beside climatic chambers running on electricity, the required humidity can also be reached by using saturated salt solution. The influence of different climatic conditions on the developing process is shown by using test strips (as analytical standards). For the developing process, a saturated solution of tripotassium citrate at room temperature proved to be particularly suitable. Tripotassium citrate is a non-hazardous compound, which is also used as a food additive without quantitative limitation, is environmentally safe and produced from renewable resources. In a closed box, a saturated tripotassium citrate solution generates a relative humidity of about 64% in a temperature range of 15 to 35 degrees C.

  3. The crystal structure of Sporosarcina pasteurii urease in a complex with citrate provides new hints for inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Stefano; Kosikowska, Paulina; Cianci, Michele; Mazzei, Luca; Vara, Antonio Gonzalez; Berlicki, Łukasz; Ciurli, Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Urease, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of urea, is a virulence factor for a large number of ureolytic bacterial human pathogens. The increasing resistance of these pathogens to common antibiotics as well as the need to control urease activity to improve the yield of soil nitrogen fertilization in agricultural applications has stimulated the development of novel classes of molecules that target urease as enzyme inhibitors. We report on the crystal structure at 1.50-Å resolution of a complex formed between citrate and urease from Sporosarcina pasteurii, a widespread and highly ureolytic soil bacterium. The fit of the ligand to the active site involves stabilizing interactions, such as a carboxylate group that binds the nickel ions at the active site and several hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues. The citrate ligand has a significantly extended structure compared with previously reported ligands co-crystallized with urease and thus represents a unique and promising scaffold for the design of new, highly active, stable, selective inhibitors.

  4. Effect of 8-Hydroxyquinoline Citrate, Sucrose and Peroxidase Inhibitors on Vase Life of Lisianthus (EUSTOMA GRANDIFLORUM L. Cut Flowers

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    Sharifzadeh Kamaladin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut lisianthus flowers have a short vase life, possibly due to blockage of xylem vessels. The effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, sucrose and peroxidase inhibitors on delaying senescence and extending vase life of cut lisianthus flowers was tested. The peroxidase inhibitors used in this experiment were catechol (CH (5, 10, 15 mM and p-phenylenediamine (PD (5, 10, 15 mM. All vase solutions contained 200 mg-dm-3 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC and 3% sucrose. 10 mM CH treatment was the most effective for vase life extension (13.3 days, increasing water uptake, and delaying fresh weight loss. The vase solution containing 10 mM CH significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased peroxidase (POD activities. Similarly, 10 mM PD increased anthocyanin content more than the other treat–ments. Protein degradation was significantly delayed by application of 5 mM PD. The malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation was reduced when CH at 5 mM and PD in 5 and 15 mM were added to the vase solution. Results indicated that peroxidase inhibitors in combination with 8-HQC and sucrose increase vase life of lisianthus by improving water uptake and delaying fresh weight loss.

  5. A prospective comparison of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline as haemostatic agent in hypospadias surgery in children

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    Ashok Kumar Laddha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A comparative study of topical feracrylum citrate versus adrenaline to minimise haemorrhage-related complications in paediatric hypospadiac patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 108 consecutive paediatric hypospadiac patients (48 in the study group and 60 control - random allocation were studied. In the study group, 1% feracrylum citrate solution was used and adrenaline (1:100,000 in controls. Results: Among the study group, average number of blood-soaked gauge pieces were 2.95/patient, correlating with average intraoperative blood loss of 14.74 ml. In controls, average blood-soaked gauge pieces were 4.83/patient corresponding to an average blood loss of 24.13 ml. The average amount of blood loss during surgery in the <5 years was 13.70 ml/patient in the feracrylum group, while the same in the adrenaline group was 23.45 ml. Average duration of surgery was 79 min in the study group, while the same in controls was 94 min/patient. Average number of cauterisations was 0.255/patient in the study group and 0.583/patient among controls. Postoperative haematoma was seen in 8% study group compared with 18% controls. Wound oedema appeared in 4.17% study group and 11.67% controls. Postoperative complications were higher among controls. Conclusions: Feracrylum is more efficient and safer topical haemostatic agent than adrenaline. It reduced the frequency of cauterisation and tissue damage, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications.

  6. Effect of tri-sodium citrate concentration on structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited tin sulfide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, F.; Guneri, E.; Baglayan, O.

    2014-11-01

    Tin sulfide thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The effects of molar concentration of the complexing agent, tri-sodium citrate, on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Polycrystalline film structure in orthorhombic phase was determined. Flower-like spherical grains are observed on the surface. While their average size increased from 345 nm to 750 nm when the tri-sodium citrate concentration was increased from 6.4 × 10-3 M to 8.0 × 10-3 M, the surface roughness varied in an opposite manner from approximately 120.18 nm to 29.36 nm. For these concentrations, optical band gap of the films decreased from 1.40 eV to 1.17 eV, whereas the Hall conductivity, mobility and carrier concentration of the films increased slightly from 5.91 × 10-5 to 8.78 × 10-5 (Ω cm)-1, from 148 to 228 cm2 V-1 s-1 and from 1.73 × 1012 to 3.59 × 1012 cm-1, respectively.

  7. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  8. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

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    Anna M. Giudetti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs. The citrate carrier (CiC and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  9. Synthesis of Spin-ladder Sr14Cu24O41 Material by Citrates Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lili; WEI Hui; HU Ni; XIONG Rui; YU Zuxing; TANG Wufeng; SHI Jing

    2008-01-01

    A new process to synthesize polycrystailine samples of Sr14Cu24O41 was presented. Firstly, dry gel powder of Sr14Cu24O41 was synthesized by the citrates sol-gel method, using Sr(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2, ethylene glycol and citrate acid as raw materials. Then, polycrystalline samples of Sr14Cu24O41 were prepared by solid-state reaction. Thermal Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis(TG-DTA) showed that the temperature for solid-state reaction is at 942 ℃. The samples are identified to be single phase by X-ray Diffraction(XRD)and Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). The SEM pictures showed that the first-step particles were at even size of about 100 nm'by this technique. The electronic transport measurements showed that the doping compound were semiconductor with a crossover temperature Tρin the Arrhenius plot of the resistivity versus temprature.

  10. Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate

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    Natacha M. M. da Costa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II, a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter.

  11. Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI uptake by T lymphocytes: evidence for the selective acquisition of oligomeric ferric citrate species.

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    Joao Arezes

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient in several biological processes such as oxygen transport, DNA replication and erythropoiesis. Plasma iron normally circulates bound to transferrin. In iron overload disorders, however, iron concentrations exceed transferrin binding capacity and iron appears complexed with low molecular weight molecules, known as non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI. NTBI is responsible for the toxicity associated with iron-overload pathologies but the mechanisms leading to NTBI uptake are not fully understood. Here we show for the first time that T lymphocytes are able to take up and accumulate NTBI in a manner that resembles that of hepatocytes. Moreover, we show that both hepatocytes and T lymphocytes take up the oligomeric Fe3Cit3 preferentially to other iron-citrate species, suggesting the existence of a selective NTBI carrier. These results provide a tool for the identification of the still elusive ferric-citrate cellular carrier and may also open a new pathway towards the design of more efficient iron chelators for the treatment of iron overload disorders.

  12. Regulation of expression of citrate synthase by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα.

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    Christine Crumbley

    Full Text Available The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors that plays an important role in regulation of the circadian rhythm and metabolism. Mice lacking a functional RORα display a range of metabolic abnormalities including decreased serum cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Citrate synthase (CS is a key enzyme of the citric acid cycle that provides energy for cellular function. Additionally, CS plays a critical role in providing citrate derived acetyl-CoA for lipogenesis and cholesterologenesis. Here, we identified a functional RORα response element (RORE in the promoter of the CS gene. ChIP analysis demonstrates RORα occupancy of the CS promoter and a putative RORE binds to RORα effectively in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and confers RORα responsiveness to a reporter gene in a cotransfection assay. We also observed a decrease in CS gene expression and CS enzymatic activity in the staggerer mouse, which has a mutation of in the Rora gene resulting in nonfunctional RORα protein. Furthermore, we found that SR1001 a RORα inverse agonist eliminated the circadian pattern of expression of CS mRNA in mice. These data suggest that CS is a direct RORα target gene and one mechanism by which RORα regulates lipid metabolism is via regulation of CS expression.

  13. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  14. Transformation of pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles in a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Lauren E; Auffan, Melanie; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Santaella, Catherine; Masion, Armand; Borschneck, Daniel; Olivi, Luca; Roche, Nicolas; Wiesner, Mark R; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used to enhance the properties of many manufactured products and technologies. Increased use of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. An important route of exposure is through the waste stream, where ENMs will enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), undergo transformations, and be discharged with treated effluent or biosolids. To better understand the fate of a common ENM in WWTPs, experiments with laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors and pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were conducted. Greater than 90% of the CeO2 introduced was observed to associate with biosolids. This association was accompanied by reduction of the Ce(IV) NPs to Ce(III). After 5 weeks in the reactor, 44 ± 4% reduction was observed for the pristine NPs and 31 ± 3% for the citrate-functionalized NPs, illustrating surface functionality dependence. Thermodynamic arguments suggest that the likely Ce(III) phase generated would be Ce2S3. This study indicates that the majority of CeO2 NPs (>90% by mass) entering WWTPs will be associated with the solid phase, and a significant portion will be present as Ce(III). At maximum, 10% of the CeO2 will remain in the effluent and be discharged as a Ce(IV) phase, governed by cerianite (CeO2).

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium-Doped Lutetium Aluminum Garnet Phosphors by Nitrate-citrate Sol-Gel Combustion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huili; Liu Xuejian; Zhang Qitu; Huang Liping

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized cerium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG:Ce) phosphors were prepared by nitrate-citrate sol-gel combustion process using 1:1 ratio of the citrate:nitrate. The prepared LuAG:Ce phosphors were characterized by XRD, TEM, photoluminescence and radioluminescence spectra excited by UV and X-ray, respectively. The purified crystalline phase of LuAG:Ce was obtained at 900 ℃ by directly crystallizing from amorphous materials. The resultant LuAG:Ce phosphors were uniform and had good dispersivity with an average particle size of about 30 nm. Both photoluminescence and radioluminescence were well-known Ce3+ emissions located in the range of 470~600 nm consisting of two emission bands because of the transition from the lowest 5d excited state (2D) to the 4f ground state of Ce3+, which matched well with the sensitivity curve of the Si-photodiode. There was a little red shift for the emission components from the UV-excited emission spectrum to the X-ray-excited emission spectrum. The fast scintillation decay component of 26 ns satisfies the requirements of fast scintillators.

  16. Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melkani, Girish C.; Lee, Chi F.; Cammarato, Anthony [Department of Biology and the Molecular Biology Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4614 (United States); Bernstein, Sanford I., E-mail: sbernst@sciences.sdsu.edu [Department of Biology and the Molecular Biology Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4614 (United States)

    2010-05-28

    UNC-45 belongs to the UCS (UNC-45, CRO1, She4p) domain protein family, whose members interact with various classes of myosin. Here we provide structural and biochemical evidence that Escherichia coli-expressed Drosophila UNC-45 (DUNC-45) maintains the integrity of several substrates during heat-induced stress in vitro. DUNC-45 displays chaperone function in suppressing aggregation of the muscle myosin heavy meromyosin fragment, the myosin S-1 motor domain, {alpha}-lactalbumin and citrate synthase. Biochemical evidence is supported by electron microscopy, which reveals the first structural evidence that DUNC-45 prevents inter- or intra-molecular aggregates of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin caused by elevated temperatures. We also demonstrate for the first time that UNC-45 is able to refold a denatured substrate, urea-unfolded citrate synthase. Overall, this in vitro study provides insight into the fate of muscle myosin under stress conditions and suggests that UNC-45 protects and maintains the contractile machinery during in vivo stress.

  17. Development and validation of a simple determination of urine metabolites (oxalate, citrate, uric acid and creatinine) by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jose A; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2010-04-15

    Oxalate, citrate, uric acid and creatinine are important urine markers for the evaluation and treatment of urolithiasic patients. They have been traditionally analysed by enzymatic and chromatographic techniques which present practical drawbacks, mainly in the sample pre-treatment step. The purpose of this study was to evaluate those markers in urine samples, by an easy multi-analyte assay using capillary zone electrophoresis. The four urine metabolites were determined, at 25 degrees C, by using a 50 cm x 75 microm capillary in 50 mmol l(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), at constant voltage of -30 kV and UV detection at 195 nm (for oxalate and citrate) or 30 kV and 234 nm (for creatinine and uric acid). The sample pre-treatment was minimum, 5- and 20-fold dilution of the urine sample and acidification to pH 3-4. Validation parameters (linear range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and detection limits) were statistically comparable to those obtained with the official methods normally used in the clinical practice. The effect of freezing as a conservation method of urine samples is also discussed in terms of recoveries of the analytes. The analytical method developed is highly useful as a diagnostic tool for detecting metabolic renal disorders due to its simplicity, time consuming, easy automation, cost efficiency and analytical effectiveness, accomplishing with the clinical requirements.

  18. Influence of caffeine and sodium citrate ingestion on 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine and sodium citrate. Nine healthy, elite wheelchair-racing athletes (median: [min; max] age: 28 y [23; 54]; height: 173 cm [165; 188]; weight: 62.9 kg [48.9; 68.4], category T53/54) completed the study. All athletes were national team members, including several Paralympic Games, World and European Championship medalists. The athletes performed a 1,500-m time trial four times on a wheelchair training roller. Time to complete 1,500-m, pH, bicarbonate and sodium concentration as well as lactate concentration were measured. The time to complete 1,500-m was not significantly different between the four treatments (placebo: 170.6 s [141.7; 232.0]; caffeine: 179.5 s [134.8; 239.6]; sodium citrate: 178.3 s [136.4; 247.1]; combination: 177.6 s [136.1; 256.2]). However, pH and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly increased with sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo. Moreover, maximal lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the caffeine and the combination treatment compared with placebo. The supplementation with sodium citrate and/or caffeine did not provide an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in wheelchair elite athletes.

  19. Energy content, sensory properties, and microbiological shelf life of German bologna-type sausages produced with citrate or phosphate and with inulin as fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, B; von Mueffling, T; Grotheer, J; Klein, G; Watkinson, B-M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of reducing energy content (9% to 48%) in bologna-type sausages by replacing fat with inulin and to study the effects of substituting citrate for phosphate in the traditional sausage formula. German-type mortadella was produced, and fat was replaced with increasing amounts of inulin as a frozen gel to yield 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% inulin in the final product. In another part of the study, citrate was substituted for the phosphate in the recipe. All sausages produced were sliced, packaged under a modified atmosphere (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)), and stored for 23 d at +7 degrees C. Sausage quality was determined by chemical and instrumental texture profile analyses, color measurement, sensory evaluation, and microbiological testing. Replacing fat with inulin led to significant energy content reductions of up to 47.5% (with 12% inulin). However, the sensory properties of these sausages were also different from those of the control mortadella: fracturability fell, hardness and adhesiveness rose, and color became darker. In general, the substitution of citrate for phosphate significantly reduced the negative effects of inulin. There were no significant differences in microbiological stability between different inulin batches but there were significant differences between phosphate and citrate batches. Overall, the energy content of bologna-type sausages produced with citrate and with up to 6% inulin as a fat replacer was 22% lower than that of the control sausages. Furthermore, the sensory attributes (texture, color) of these 6% inulin-citrate sausages were comparable to the control sausages, and the sausages were microbiologically stable for 23 d of storage.

  20. THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KOLAVIRON ON THE RENAL FUNCTIONS OF FEMALE WISTAR RATS TREATED WITH CLOMIPHENE CITRATE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi Sunday A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work accessed the effects of kolaviron (a methanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds on microanatomy of kidneys and biochemical parameters with a view to determining its relationship to renal functions treated with clomiphene citrate. A total of thirty adult female Wistar rats were used for this experiment. The animals were randomly divided into six (6 groups: A, B, C, D, E and F with five (5 animals in each group. Group A, were the control group that were given distilled water orally once daily for 14 days; Group B were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 14 days; Group C were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 100 mg/kg twice daily for 14 days; Group D were given clomiphene citrate orally at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days; Group E were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 14 days after which clomiphene citrate were administered at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days; Group F were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 100 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 14 days after which clomiphene citrate were administered at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days. Five milliliters (5 ml of blood were collected by occular puncture with the aid of capillary tubes from the animals for biochemical analysis. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were anaesthesized by chloroform inhalation. The kidneys were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. The results showed that Relative kidney weight (f=1.595, df=5, P<0.05 was not increased significantly across the groups. Potassium (f=0.754, df=5, chloride (f=0.529, df=5, interstitial calcium (f=0.835, df=5, total calcium (f=0.840, df=5, silver ions (f=0.517, df=5, and pH (f=0.785, df=5 were not reduced significantly (p< 0.05 when group A was compared with all the groups but sodium ions reduced significantly (f=1

  1. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. CONCLUSION: The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except......:42,500 was used. The CV for the different variables varied from 3 to 13 percent with no significant differences between assays. Storage of citrated WB significantly affected the TEG variables in a hypercoagulable direction. Only the R, however, was significantly affected (12%) when samples rested for 0 and 30...

  2. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao do composto de associacao entre citrato de rodio(II) e {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ana E.; Okio, Coco K.Y.A., E-mail: aeburgosc@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with{beta}-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and {sup 1}H-NMR with {sup 1}H spin lattice relaxation ({sup 1}H T{sub 1}) measurements and {sup 13}C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin. (author)

  3. Effect of trisodium citrate on rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan-Yilsay, T; Lee, W-J; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2007-04-01

    The effect of trisodium citrate (TSC) on the rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt was investigated. Reconstituted skim milk was heated at 85 degrees C for 30 min, and various concentrations (5 to 40 mM) of TSC were added to the milk, which was then readjusted to pH 6.50. Milk was inoculated with 2% yogurt culture and incubated at 42 degrees C until pH was 4.6. Acid-base titration was used to determine changes in the state of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in milk. Total and soluble Ca contents of the milk were determined. The storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values of yogurts were measured as a function of pH using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. Microstructure of yogurt was observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy, and whey separation was also determined. Addition of TSC reduced casein-bound Ca and increased the solubilization of CCP. The G' value of gels significantly increased with addition of low levels of TSC, and highest G' values were observed in samples with 10 to 20 mM TSC; higher (> 20 mM) TSC concentrations resulted in a large decrease in G' values. The LT of yogurts increased after gelation to attain a maximum at pH approximately 5.1, but no maximum was observed in yogurts made with > or = 25 mM of TSC because CCP was completely dissolved prior to gelation. Partial removal of CCP resulted in an increase in the LT value at pH 5.1. At low TSC levels, the removal of CCP crosslinks may have facilitated greater rearrangement and molecular mobility of the micelle structure, which may have helped to increase G' and LT values of gels by increasing the formation of crosslinks between strands. At high TSC concentrations the micelles were completely disrupted and CCP crosslinks were dissolved, both of which resulted in very weak yogurt gels with large pores obvious in confocal micrographs. Gelation pH and yield stress significantly decreased with the use of

  4. THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM CITRATE INGESTION ON METABOLISM AND 1500-M RACING TIME IN TRAINED FEMALE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahur Ööpik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of sodium citrate ingestion on the metabolic response to exercise and performance in a 1500-m competitive run in trained female middle-distance runners in field conditions. Seventeen athletes (mean (± SD aged 18.6 ± 2.5 years, VO2max 55.2 ± 7.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 competed in two 1500-m races following ingestion of 0.4 g·kg-1 body mass of sodium citrate (CIT and placebo (PLC - 1.0% solution of NaCl. The two substances, CIT and PLC were administered in 800 ml of solution in a randomly assigned double-blind crossover manner. Capillary blood samples were analysed for lactate, glucose, haemoglobin and haematocrit before administering the solutions (baseline as well as before and after both 1500-m races. The athletes' times for trials CIT and PLC were 321.4 ± 26.4 and 317.4 ± 22.5 s, respectively (p > 0.05. A greater relative increase in plasma volume after administering the experimental solution, an increased body mass (by 0.4 kg; p = 0.006 immediately before the race and a restrained increase in blood glucose concentration (by 2.5 ± 1.2 mmol·l-1 vs 3.4 ± 0.8 mmol·l-1; p = 0.002 during the race were observed in the CIT trial compared to the PLC. A significant relationship was observed between body mass of the subjects immediately before the race and performance time (r = 0.374; p = 0.029. There were no between-treatment differences in heart rate in any stage of the run or in blood lactate accumulation during the race (final concentration of lactate was 14.4 ± 3.0 mmol·l-1 and 13.4 ± 2.5 mmol·l-1 (p > 0.05 in the CIT and PLC trials, respectively. The results suggest that sodium citrate induces an increase in water retention before exercise and may modify carbohydrate metabolism in high intensity running, but does not improve performance in 1500-m competitive run in female middle-distance runners

  5. Evaluation of Tris-citric acid, skim milk and sodium citrate extenders for liquid storage of Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Bushra A; Hussain, Iftikhar; Akhter, Shamim; Ullah, Nemat; Andrabi, Syed M H; Ansari, Muhammad S

    2013-09-01

    The Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is an endangered subspecie of ovidae, distributed as small scattered populations in the forest belt of the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan and in the areas enclosed by the Indus and the Jhelum rivers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the liquid storage of Punjab Urial spermatozoa in different extenders for use in future in situ conservation activities. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation from three captive Punjab Urial rams. Suitable ejaculates of individual animals were pooled and divided into three aliquots for dilution with the experimental extenders (Tris-citric acid, skim milk and sodium citrate) at 37°C. Extended semen was cooled from 37°C to 5°C in 2h, and stored for three days at 5°C. Sperm motility (%), viability (%; live/dead), acrosome integrity (%) and plasma membrane integrity (%) were assessed on days 1, 2 and 3 of storage. On day 1, sperm motility, viability as well as acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were similar (p>0.05) in all three experimental extenders. On day 2, sperm motility, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were higher (psodium citrate based extender. On day 3 of storage, the values of motility, viability and acrosome integrity were higher (psodium citrate based extenders. In conclusion, Tris-citric acid extender appears to be a better option compared with skim milk and sodium citrate extenders for liquid storage of Punjab Urial semen.

  6. Transmembrane segment (TMS) VIII of the Na+/citrate transporter CitS requires downstream TMS IX for insertion in the Escherichia coli membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, M; Lolkema, JS

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the sodium ion-dependent citrate transporter CitS of IL pneumoniae contains 12 hydrophobic stretches that could form membrane-spanning segments. A previous analysis of the membrane topology in Escherichia coli using the PhoA gene fusion technique indicated that only nine o

  7. Membrane topology of the sodium ion-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae - Evidence for a new structural class of secondary transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanGeest, M; Lolkema, JS

    1996-01-01

    The predicted secondary structure model of the sodium ion-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) presents the la-transmembrane helix motif observed for many secondary transporters, Biochemical evidence presented in this paper is not consistent with this model. N-terminal and C-ter

  8. 枸橼酸盐合剂含量测定方法的改进%Improvement on the determination of citrate mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏曙辉; 费建红; 刘铮; 谈恒山

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To improve the method of content determination of citrates mixtures.METHODS Using a “improved nonaqueous titration" as the method of content determination of total citrates and "Sodium tetraphenylborion titrations" for potassium citrate, separately.RESULTS The contents of main composition in ctrate mixtures could be accurately determined.The average recovery of ctrate was 99.56% (RSD=2.13%) and the average recovery of potassium citrate,was 100.2%(RSD=1.34%).CONCLUSIONS This method was simple, accurate and spesific.%目的:研究改进枸橼酸盐合剂含量测定的方法。方法:用改进的非水滴定法测定总枸橼酸盐含量,用四苯硼钠法测定枸橼酸钾含量。结果:能准确测定出枸橼酸盐合剂中各主要成分的含量,总枸橼酸盐及枸橼酸钾的平均回收率分别为99.56%(RSD=2.13%)和100.2%(RSD=1.34%)。结论:方法简便、可靠、快速,专属性强,适合于医院枸橼酸盐合剂的快速测定。

  9. Membrane Topology of the Sodium Ion-dependent Citrate Carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Evidence for a New Structural Class of Secondary Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, Marleen van; Lolkema, Juke S.

    1996-01-01

    The predicted secondary structure model of the sodium ion-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) presents the 12-transmembrane helix motif observed for many secondary transporters. Biochemical evidence presented in this paper is not consistent with this model. N-terminal and C-ter

  10. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  11. A novel mechanism for the pyruvate protection against zinc-induced cytotoxicity: mediation by the chelating effect of citrate and isocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Jee-Won; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jean; Suh, Young-Ah; Hwang, Jung Jin; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular accumulation of free zinc contributes to neuronal death in brain injuries such as ischemia and epilepsy. Pyruvate, a glucose metabolite, has been shown to block zinc neurotoxicity. However, it is largely unknown how pyruvate shows such a selective and remarkable protective effect. In this study, we sought to find a plausible mechanism of pyruvate protection against zinc toxicity. Pyruvate almost completely blocked cortical neuronal death induced by zinc, yet showed no protective effects against death induced by calcium (ionomycin, NMDA) or ferrous iron. Of the TCA cycle intermediates, citrate, isocitrate, and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate, protected against zinc toxicity. We then noted with LC-MS/MS assay that exposure to pyruvate, and to a lesser degree oxaloacetate, increased levels of citrate and isocitrate, which are known zinc chelators. While pyruvate added only during zinc exposure did not reduce zinc toxicity, citrate and isocitrate added only during zinc exposure, as did extracellular zinc chelator CaEDTA, completely blocked it. Furthermore, addition of pyruvate after zinc exposure substantially reduced intracellular zinc levels. Our results suggest that the remarkable protective effect of pyruvate against zinc cytotoxicity may be mediated indirectly by the accumulation of intracellular citrate and isocitrate, which act as intracellular zinc chelators.

  12. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  13. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627.

  14. „Mid-stimulation psychosis” in the course of in vitro fertilization procedure with the use of clomiphene citrate and bromocriptine – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holka-Pokorska, Justyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A few cases of psychosis induced by clomiphene citrate have been described so far. However, data on the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among women treated for infertility are inconclusive. Still a little is known about possible psychiatric complications of medications used in assisted reproduction techniques (ART. We present a case of a patient who developed transient psychotic symptoms in the course of the in vitro fertilization procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ‘mid-stimulation psychosis’, which has been observed during ART using clomiphene citrate and bromocriptine. The aim of this study is to describe the determinants of pharmacotherapy undertaken in ART, which can result in the development of psychotic symptoms. Methods. The case presentation Conclusions. The use of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in combination with bromocriptine used for chronic hyperprolactinemia is a likely mechanism that might have triggered psychotic symptoms in the case presented. However, combination therapy with clomiphen citrate and bromocriptine may be the pharmacological model of hyper-dopaminergia followed by chaotic changes in serum estrogen levels and might lead to an increased sensitivity of dopamine receptors. The above therapeutic schema may increase susceptibility to the development of psychotic symptoms in treated women. This impact should be considered in the case of any psychotic complications in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques.

  15. Phenotypes of gene disruptants in relation to a putative mitochondrial malate-citrate shuttle protein in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Ueda, Yuka; Hattori, Takasumi

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP) functions as a malate-citrate shuttle catalyzing the exchange of citrate plus a proton for malate between mitochondria and cytosol across the inner mitochondrial membrane in higher eukaryotic organisms. In this study, for functional analysis, we cloned the gene encoding putative CTP (ctpA) of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L. The gene ctpA encodes a polypeptide consisting 296 amino acids conserved active residues required for citrate transport function. Only in early-log phase, the ctpA disruptant DCTPA-1 showed growth delay, and the amount of citric acid produced by strain DCTPA-1 was smaller than that by parental strain WU-2223L. These results indicate that the CTPA affects growth and thereby citric acid metabolism of A. niger changes, especially in early-log phase, but not citric acid-producing period. This is the first report showing that disruption of ctpA causes changes of phenotypes in relation to citric acid production in A. niger.

  16. Preparation and in vitro characterization of the transdermal drug delivery system containing tamoxifen citrate for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhyapak Anjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A matrix-type transdermal drug delivery system of tamoxifen citrate was developed by using a different ratio of eudragit-RL100, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K15, and ethyl cellulose (EC, by the solvent evaporation technique. The effect of the binary mixture of polymers with a penetration enhancer on the physical chemical parameters including, thickness, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, moisture content, moisture uptake, tensile strength, and in vitro drug permeation were evaluated. The in vitro drug permeation studies were conducted by using modified Keshary-Chein diffusion cells through female Sprague Dawley rat skin using pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline (PBS. The selected formulation′s stability studies were conducted as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines, and did not show any degradation of the drug.

  17. Manufacture of Zn-Co Substituted Y-Type Barium Hexagonal Ferrites by Citrate Precursor Route and Their Microwave Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军; 贾晓林; 姚熹; 张良莹

    2004-01-01

    Ba2ZnxCo2-xFe12O22 hexaferrites with x=0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 were prepared by citrate sol-gel process. The complex dielectric constant and complex permeability of hexaferrites were studied as functions of the measuring frequency, composition and sintering temperature in the range 100 MHz~6 GHz. The natural resonance phenomenon is observed in μ″ spectrum for all Y-type hexaferrites, which resonance frequency is dependent on zinc content and firing temperature. The natural resonance frequencies of Co2Y hexaferrite were calculated, which is in agreement with the measuring results. The reflection loss of those ferrites is measuring frequency as well as absorber thickness dependent, and the higher the frequency and the thickness are, the higher the reflection loss is.

  18. Exploring geometric properties of gold nanoparticles using TEM images to explain their chaperone like activity for citrate synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Vikas; Lahiri, Tapobrata; Singha, Shantiswaroop; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Mishra, Hrishikesh; Kumar, Upendra; Kumar, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Study on geometric properties of nanoparticles and their relation with biomolecular activities, especially protein is quite a new field to explore. This work was carried out towards this direction where images of gold nanoparticles obtained from transmission electron microscopy were processed to extract their size and area profile at different experimental conditions including and excluding a protein, citrate synthase. Since the images were ill-posed, texture of a context-window for each pixel was used as input to a back-propagation network architecture to obtain decision on its membership as nanoparticle. The segmented images were further analysed by k-means clustering to derive geometric properties of individual nanoparticles even from their assembled form. The extracted geometric information was found to be crucial to give a model featuring porous cage like configuration of nanoparticle assembly using which the chaperone like activity of gold nanoparticles can be explained. PMID:22355230

  19. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline RuO2(60%)-SnO2(40%)Powders by Amorphous Citrate Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanometer RuO2-SnO2was synthesized by the citrate-gel method using RuCl3, SnCl4 as cation sources, citric acid as complexing agent and anhydrous ethanol as solvent. The structures of the derived powders were characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement. The pure, fine and amorphous powders was obtained at 160℃. The materials calcined at above 400 ℃ were composed of rutile-type oxide phases having particle sizes of fairly narrow distribution and good thermal resistant properties. By adding SnO2 to RUO2, the Ru metallic phase can be effectively controlled under a traditional temperature of preparation for dimensional stable anode.

  20. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate.......4). Training induced changes in whole body oxidative capacity is matched by changes in muscle CS activity in a nearly 1:1 relationship. Absolute values of CS across different studies cannot be compared unless a standardized analytical method is used by all laboratories...... and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P values of CS and V.O2max did not correlate (r =- 0.07, n = 148, P = 0...

  1. Reduced insulin-mediated citrate synthase activity in cultured skeletal muscle cells from patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Mogensen, Martin; Petersen, Ingrid;

    2005-01-01

    responded to high levels of insulin and/or palmitate. These results provide evidence for an intrinsic defect in CS activity, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D. Moreover, the data suggest that insulin resistance at the CS level can be induced by exposure to high free fatty acid levels.......In myotubes established from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid oxidation and insulin-mediated glucose oxidation are reduced, whereas in myotubes from obese non-diabetic subjects, exposure to palmitate impairs insulin-mediated glucose oxidation. To determine the underlying mechanisms...... of these metabolic malfunctions, we studied mitochondrial respiration, uncoupled respiration and oxidative enzyme activities (citrate synthase (CS), 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity (HAD)) before and after acute exposure to insulin and/or palmitate in myotubes established from healthy lean and obese...

  2. Efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men in Egypt and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, I P; Khalaf, I M; Shaeer, K Z M; Smart, D O

    2003-04-01

    The efficacy of sildenafil citrate (Viagra), an oral agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), has been demonstrated in global studies. This 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study assessed the efficacy and safety of sildenafil to treat ED in men in Egypt and South Africa. Men with ED of varied etiology were randomized to receive sildenafil 50 mg (n=128) or placebo (n=126); doses could be adjusted to 100 or 25 mg. Questions from the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) assessing the ability to achieve (Q3) and maintain (Q4) erections demonstrated a significant improvement with sildenafil compared with placebo (PEgypt and South Africa.

  3. Crystal structure of dirubidium hydrogen citrate from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of dirubidium hydrogen citrate, 2Rb(+)·HC6H5O7(2-), has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The un-ionized carb-oxy-lic acid group forms helical chains of very strong hydrogen bonds (O⋯O ∼ 2.42 Å) along the b axis. The hy-droxy group participates in a chain of intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds along the c axis. These hydrogen bonds result in corrugated hydrogen-bonded layers in the bc plane. The Rb(+) cations are six-coordinate, and share edges and corners to form layers in the ab plane. The inter-layer contacts are composed of the hydro-phobic methyl-ene groups.

  4. Crystal structure of caesium di-hydrogen citrate from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structure of caesium di-hydrogen citrate, Cs(+)·H2C6H5O7(-), has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The coordination polyhedra of the nine-coordinate Cs(+) cations share edges to form chains along the a-axis. These chains are linked by corners along the c-axis. The un-ionized carb-oxy-lic acid groups form two different types of hydrogen bonds; one forms a helical chain along the c-axis, and the other is discrete. The hy-droxy group participates in both intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds.

  5. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM.

  6. [Dose-finding for treatment with a transdermal fentanyl patch : Titration with oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate and morphine sulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, M; Conrad, R; Marinova, M; Cuhls, H; Elsner, F; Rolke, R; Radbruch, L

    2016-12-01

    To date, no studies investigating titration with oral transmucosal fentanyl for the dose-finding of transdermal fentanyl treatment have been published. In an open randomized study 60 patients with chronic malignant (n = 39) or nonmalignant pain (n = 21), who required opioid therapy according to step three of the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), were investigated. In two groups of 30 patients each titration with immediate release morphine (IRM) or oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) was undertaken. For measurement purposes the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Minimal Documentation System (MIDOS) were used. After a 24-h titration phase, in which patients documented the intensity of pain, nausea, and tiredness, treatment with transdermal fentanyl was evaluated over a 10-day period by means of the necessary dose adaptation (responder ≤ 1 dose adaptation; conversion formula 1:1 [OTFC group] vs 100:1 [IRM group]).The pain reduction over the first 24 h (titration phase) did not differ significantly between the groups. The number of responders (17 OTFC vs. 21 IRM) over the 10-day period did not show any difference either. In both groups there was a significant reduction in pain intensity (p IRM group (8 vs 1, p = 0.028).Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate can be applied for the titration of transdermal fentanyl, but it does not show any clinically relevant advantage. For example, the risk of side effects-induced drop-outs was greater in the present study. Whether the unnecessary opioid switching to treat chronic pain and breakthrough pain is advantageous with regard to minimizing conversion errors cannot be definitively answered within the scope of this study.

  7. Experiences with continuous venovenous hemofiltration using 18mmol/l predilution citrate anticoagulation and a phosphate containing replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Henry Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy is associated with a longer filter-life, less bleeding events and improved mortality. Problems associated with using Prismocitrate 10/2 solution in continuous renal replacement therapy, include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia and the need for additional bicarbonate infusion. Aims: This study uses the new Prismocitrate 18/0 solution for improved buffer balance and Phoxilium solution for a more favourable electrolyte profile. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH using Prismocitrate 18/0 and Phoxilium in our 21-bed ICU was conducted from March to July 2014. Methods and Material: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH was performed at fixed rate by using Prismocitrate 18/0 predilution at 1250 ml/hour, a blood flow rate of 110 ml/min and post-replacement with Phoxilium at 1250 ml/hr. CVVH was run for 72 h or until filter clotting, transportation, or achievement of the clinical target. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were displayed as the median with the interquartile range (IQR. The trend in pH, electrolytes, and base excess are shown using a standard box plot. All analyses were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows, version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Forty-five CVVH episodes were analysed. The median circuit lifetime was 44 h (interquartile range, IQR 29-55. Metabolic alkalosis, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia occurred in 8.3%, 3.5% and 40.2% of the blood samples, respectively. No patient developed hypokalemia or citrate toxicity. Conclusions: This new CVVH regime is safe and easy to administer for critically ill patients.

  8. Inflammatory responses of a human keratinocyte cell line to 10 nm citrate- and PEG-coated silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, V.; Brown, D.; Johnston, H.; Daniel-da-Silva, A. L.; Duarte, I. F.; Santos, C.; Oliveira, H.

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most commonly used engineered NPs and various commercially available products are designed to come in direct contact with the skin (wound dressings, textiles, creams, among others). Currently, there is limited understanding of the influence of coatings on the toxicity of AgNPs and in particular their ability to impact on AgNP's mediated inflammatory responses. As AgNPs are often stabilized by different coatings, including citrate and polyethyleneglycol (PEG), in this study we investigate the influence of citrate (Cit10) or PEG (PEG10) coatings to 10 nm AgNP on skin, using human HaCaT keratinocytes. AgNPs cytotoxicity and inflammatory response (nuclear factor (NF)-κB induction and cytokine production) of HaCaT were assessed after in vitro exposure to 10 and 40 µg/mL after 4, 24, and 48 h. Results showed that although both types of coated AgNPs decreased cell proliferation and viability, Cit10 AgNPs were more toxic. NF-κB inhibition was observed for the highest concentration (40 µg/mL) of PEG10 AgNPs, and the putative link to early apoptotic pathways observed in these cells is discussed. No production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα was stimulated by AgNPs. Furthermore, Cit10 and PEG10 AgNPs decreased the release of MCP-1 by HaCaT cells after 48 h of exposure. As cytokines are vital for the immunologic regulation in the human body, and it is demonstrated that they may interfere with NPs, more research is needed to understand how different AgNPs affect the immune system.

  9. A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of mosapride citrate in bulk drug samples and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Y S R; Murthy, T K; Sankar, D G; Satyanarayana, V

    2002-12-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective serotonin 5-HT4 agonist, is a novel and potent gastroprokinetic drug. So far no assay procedure has been reported for the estimation of this drug either in bulk drug samples, pharmaceutical formulations or in biological samples. A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of mosapride citrate in bulk drug samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Risperidone was used as an internal standard (ISD). A HPLC system consisting of gradient pump, reverse phase C-18 analytical column, a variable UV-visible detector set at 274 nm and an integrator was used. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 4.0 with o-phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v), and was pumped at 1 ml/min at 40 degrees C. The drug and ISD were eluted at 8.10 and 2.27 min, respectively. The peak drug/ISD area ratio versus drug concentration relationship was linear (r = 0.9998). The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5 to 30 micrograms/ml. The lower detection limit was found to be 0.23 microgram/ml. The intra- and inter-day variation was found to be less than 1% showing high precision of the assay method. The mean recovery of the drug from the solutions containing 2, 4 or 10 micrograms/ml was 101.55 +/- 0.97% indicating high accuracy of the proposed HPLC method.

  10. Experiences with Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration using 18mmol/L predilution Citrate anticoagulation and a Phosphate Containing Replacement Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Yuen Henry; Hoi-Ping, Shum; Kit Hung, Anne Leung; Chung-Ling, Lam; Wing-Wa, Yan; King-Yiu, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Context: Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy is associated with a longer filter-life, less bleeding events and improved mortality. Problems associated with using Prismocitrate 10/2 solution in continuous renal replacement therapy, include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia and the need for additional bicarbonate infusion. Aims: This study uses the new Prismocitrate 18/0 solution for improved buffer balance and Phoxilium solution for a more favourable electrolyte profile. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) using Prismocitrate 18/0 and Phoxilium in our 21-bed ICU was conducted from March to July 2014. Methods and Material: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) was performed at fixed rate by using Prismocitrate 18/0 predilution at 1250 ml/hour, a blood flow rate of 110 ml/min and post-replacement with Phoxilium at 1250 ml/hr. CVVH was run for 72 h or until filter clotting, transportation, or achievement of the clinical target. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were displayed as the median with the interquartile range (IQR). The trend in pH, electrolytes, and base excess are shown using a standard box plot. All analyses were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows, version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Forty-five CVVH episodes were analysed. The median circuit lifetime was 44 h (interquartile range, IQR 29-55). Metabolic alkalosis, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia occurred in 8.3%, 3.5% and 40.2% of the blood samples, respectively. No patient developed hypokalemia or citrate toxicity. Conclusions: This new CVVH regime is safe and easy to administer for critically ill patients. PMID:28197045

  11. Influence of cathodic current density and mechanical stirring on the electrodeposition of Cu-Co alloys in citrate bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Trinta de Farias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cathodic polarization curves of Cu-Co alloys were galvanostatically obtained on a platinum net, using electrolytes containing copper and cobalt sulfates, sodium citrate and boric acid (pH values ranging from 4.88 to 6.00, with different mechanical stirring conditions. In order to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the applied current density and the mechanical stirring on the cathodic efficiency, the alloy composition for the Cu-Co alloy deposition process, and the average deposition potential, an experimental central composite design 2² was employed, and three current density intervals (0.11 to 0.60, 0.50 to 1.98 and 2.44 to 9.94 mA.cm-2 were chosen from the polarization curves for this purpose. The results indicated that the current density (mainly in the range between 0.11 and 0.60 mA.cm-2 affected significantly all the studied variables. In the intermediate range (0.50 to 1.98 mA.cm-2, only the average potential was influenced by the current density. On the other hand, the mechanical stirring had a significant effect only on the copper content, for both the lowest (0.11 to 0.60 mA.cm-2 and the highest current density range (2.44 to 9.94 mA.cm-2. Indeed, in the last range, none of the studied deposition parameters presented significant influence on the studied variables, except for the copper content. This could probably be explained by the direct incorporation of Cu-Citrate complexes in the coating, which was enhanced at high current values.

  12. A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy of Letrozole and Clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Kumar Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC in patients of anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 204 patients of PCOS. 98 patients (294 cycles received 2.5-5 mg of letrozole; 106 patients (318 cycles received 50-100 mg of CC (both orally from Days 3-7 of menstrual cycle. The treatment continued for three cycles in both the groups. Main outcome measures: ovulation rate, endometrial thickness, and pregnancy rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13 software. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean number of dominant follicles in letrozole groups and CC groups was 1.86±0.26 and 1.92±0.17, respectively (P=0.126. Number of ovulatory cycle in letrozole group was 196 (66.6% versus 216 (67.9% in CC group (P=0.712. The mean mid-cycle endometrial thickness was 9.1±0.3 mm in letrozole group and 6.3±1.1 in CC group, which was statistically significant (P=0.014. The mean Estradiol [E2] level in clomiphene citrate group was significantly higher in CC group (364.2±71.4 pg/mL than letrozole group (248.2± 42.2 pg/mL. 43 patients from the letrozole group (43.8% and 28 patients from the CC group (26.4% became pregnant. Conclusion: Letrozole and CC have comparable ovulation rate. The effect of letrozole showed a better endometrial response and pregnancy rate compared with CC.

  13. In vitro evidence that D-serine disturbs the citric acid cycle through inhibition of citrate synthase activity in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Angela; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Knebel, Lisiane Aurélio; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Wajner, Moacir

    2009-11-17

    The present work investigated the in vitro effects of D-serine (D-Ser) on important parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of young rats. The parameters analyzed were CO(2) generation from glucose and acetate, glucose uptake and the activities of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, of the citric acid cycle enzymes citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase and malate dehydrogenase and of creatine kinase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Our results show that D-Ser significantly reduced CO(2) production from acetate, but not from glucose, reflecting an impairment of the citric acid cycle function. Furthermore, D-Ser did not affect glucose uptake. We also observed that the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase from mitochondrial preparations and purified citrate synthase was significantly inhibited by D-Ser, whereas the other activities of the citric acid cycle as well as the activities of complexes I-III, II-III, II and IV of the respiratory chain, creatine kinase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were not affected by this D-amino acid. We also found that L-serine did not affect citrate synthase activity from mitochondrial preparations and purified enzyme. The data indicate that D-Ser impairs the citric acid cycle activity via citrate synthase inhibition, therefore compromising energy metabolism production in cerebral cortex of young rats. Therefore, it is presumed that this mechanism may be involved at least in part in the neurological damage found in patients affected by disorders in which D-Ser metabolism is impaired, with altered cerebral concentrations of this D-amino acid.

  14. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  15. RP-HPLC法定量测定枸橼酸离子含量%RP-HPLC method for quantitative analysis of citration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏力; 杨鹏云; 侯继锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish the quantitative determination method of sodium citrate by HPLC in citrate and sucrose containing blood products or dry - heat treated intermediate products. Comparison was also carried out between the developed method and ion exchange HPLC method published in ChP 2005. Methods : An HPLC method was developed to specifically determine sodium citrate on reversed - phase chromatography column with UV detection at 210 nm. The separations were performed at 40℃ on a Waters Symmetry sheild RP - C18 column with a mobile phase of phosphoric acid solution as elution. In each experiment 5 mmol · L-1 sodium citrate standard solution was detected with external standard method to mensurate recovery rate. Five kinds of blood products with a total of 20 batches derived from different manufactures were selected for sodium citrate determination. These products only contain sodium citrate but do not contain sucrose which makes it possible to use IEC - HPLC method issued in ChP 2005 and make it easier to do methodology comparison with RP - HPLC method. Samples were divided into two parts after pre - treatment to do comparison in the recovery rate,linear and consistency. Results : The results showed that the retention time of sodium citrate was in about 5 minutes. Sodium citrate standard solution was injected for 5 times to get recovery results which indicate that RSD( n = 5) was 0. 0% ( calculated by retention time) and 0. 1% ( calculated by peak area ) , respectively. The average recovery was over 99. 0% and linear correlation r was over 0. 999. Statistical data showed that the amount of sodium citrate in 20 batches of blood products determined by RP - HPLC method and IEC - HPLC method has no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ) and the correlation coefficient r was 0. 9994. These results demonstrated that RP - HPLC method and IEC - HPLC method are highly consistent in sodium citrate quantitative determination. Conclusion : The proposed RP - HPLC

  16. Comparison of sup 99 Tc sup m -HMPAO-labelled white blood cells and sup 67 Ga citrate scans to detect myocarditis in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Hsieh, K.S.; Wang, Y.L.; Chen, C.W.; Liao, S.Q.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China))

    1991-11-01

    Myocardial imaging with {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMPAO-labelled white blood cells (WBC) and {sup 67}Ga citrate was used to detect myocarditis in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease among 22 infants and children; 18 cases of myocarditis were detected by {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMPAO-labelled WBC heart scans, but only one case was detected by {sup 67}Ga citrate heart scans. In conclusion, {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMPAO-labelled WBC scanning provides a more sensitive method than {sup 67}Ga citrate scanning in the detection of myocarditis in Kawasaki disease. (author).

  17. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  18. Determinants of Calcium Infusion Rate During Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ⅲ Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Lin Liu; Li-Feng Huang; Wen-Liang Ma; Qi Ding; Yue Han; Yue Zheng; Wen-Xiong Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:It is unclear that how to decide the calcium infusion rate during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA).This study aimed to assess the determinants of calcium infusion rate during CVVH with RCA in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI).Methods:A total of 18 patients with AKI requiring CVVH were prospectively analyzed.Postdilution CVVH was performed with a fixed blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a replacement fluid flow rate of 2000 ml/h for each new circuit.The infusion of 4% trisodium citrate was started at a rate of 29.9 mmol/h prefilter and adjusted according to postfilter ionized calcium.The infusion of 10% calcium gluconate was initiated at a rate of 5.5 mmol/h and adjusted according to systemic ionized calcium.The infusion rate oftrisodium citrate and calcium gluconate as well as ultrafiltrate flow rate were recorded at 1,2,4,6,12,and 24 h after starting CVVH,respectively.The calcium loss rate by CVVH was also calculated.Results:Fifty-seven sessions of CVVH were performed in 18 AKI patients.The citrate infusion rate,calcium loss rate by CVVH,and calcium infusion rate were 31.30 (interquartile range:2.70),4.60 ± 0.48,and 5.50 ± 0.35 mmol/h,respectively.The calcium infusion rate was significantly higher than that of calcium loss rate by CVVH (P < 0.01).The correlation coefficient between the calcium and citrate infusion rates,and calcium infusion and calcium loss rates by CVVH was-0.031 (P > 0.05) and 0.932 (P < 0.01),respectively.In addition,calcium infusion rate (mmol/h) =1.77 + 0.8 × (calcium loss rate by CVVH,mmol/h).Conclusions:The calcium infusion rate correlates significantly with the calcium loss rate by CVVH but not with the citrate infusion rate in a fixed blood flow rate during CVVH with RCA.

  19. Study on physicochemical characteristics of citrate sago starch%西米柠檬酸酯淀粉物化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芬芬

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of citrate sago starch were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),IR spectrum,focus beam reflectance measurement(FBRM), X–ray diffractometry(XRD),the Brabender rheological method.,and comparitions were made with raw sago starch.The results showed that sago starch was damaged after modified by citric acid and the surface of some citrate sago starch granules was eroded.The mean volume diameter of citrate sago starch decreased from 30.8 μm(raw sago starch)to 27.1 μm. The X–ray diffraction pattern showed that the crystalline region of citrate sago starch was damaged and the relative crystallinity decreased significantly from 24.5%(raw sago starch)to 11.6%. Citrate sago starch did not swell and gelatinize during the pasting test process and starch granules with citrate substitution resist granular swelling.%  利用扫描电子显微镜、红外光谱仪、聚焦光束反射测量仪、X射线衍射仪和布拉班德粘度计对西米柠檬酸酯淀粉性质进行测定和分析,并与西米原淀粉进行比较.结果表明,西米淀粉经柠檬酸酯化后,其表面被侵蚀,甚至有颗粒已破碎;酯化后淀粉颗粒平均粒径从30.8μm减至27.1μm;柠檬酸酰基引入会破坏淀粉颗粒结晶,淀粉相对结晶度从24.5%显著降至11.6%;通过对淀粉糊粘度分析发现,西米淀粉与柠檬酸在酯化作用下发生交联,其浆液在粘度测定过程中不发生糊化和胶凝.

  20. Immobilization of free-ranging male pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) with carfentanil citrate and naltrexone hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tuomi, P.A.; Garner, Gerald W.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2003-01-01

    The major challenges in immobilization of free-ranging walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are to produce a deep level of anesthesia very quickly (to avoid darted animals from entering the water and drowning), and to find a drug or drug combination that requires only a small volume to be delivered by dart, is safe, reversible, and that provides an adequate period of immobilization to permit attachment of instruments, phlebotomy, and measuring. Tiletamine-zolazepam is recommended for immobilization of pinnipeds, with inhalant anesthesia recommended for more extensive procedures requiring better analgesia (Gales 1989). Drugs that have been used on free-ranging walruses include ketamine (Hagenbeck et al. 1975), phencyclidine combined with acepromazine (DeMaster et al. 1981), etorphine (Born and Knutsen 1990, Hills 1992, Griffiths et al. 1993), tiletamine-zolazepam (Stirling and Sjare 1988, Griffiths et al. 1993), medetomidine and ketamine (Lydersen et al. 1992), and carfentanil (Hills 1992, Lanthier et al. 1999). Carfentanil but not etorphine is presently licensed and available in the United States.Forty-eight adult male walruses were immobilized with carfentanil citrate in the summers of 1995-1997 at Maggy Beach (58°57’N, 161°76’W), a land haul-out located at Cape Peirce within the Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in southwest Alaska. The number of animals present during immobilizations ranged from three to several thousand. Criteria for choosing individual walruses included good body condition, the presence of two tusks of sufficient diameter for the attachment of radio transmitters, and presence of the animal at the edge of the herd. In addition, we chose animals that were resting quietly and which had not recently hauled out (as judged by skin color). Walruses were darted from ranges of approximately 10-15 m using a Cap-Chur rifle (Palmer Chemical and Equipment Co., Douglasville, Georgia, GA 30133). Carfentanil citrate (Wildlife Pharmaceuticals, Fort