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Sample records for citrate phosphate dextrose

  1. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  2. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  3. Citrate impairs the micropore diffusion of phosphate into pure and C-coated goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Lang, Friederike; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Anions of polycarboxylic low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) compete with phosphate for sorption sites of hydrous Fe and Al oxides. To test whether the sorption of LMWOA anions decreases the accessibility of micropores (citrate-induced changes in microporosity and the phosphate sorption kinetics of synthetic goethite in the presence and absence of citrate in batch systems for 3 weeks (500 μM of each ion, pH 5). We also used C-coated goethite obtained after sorption of dissolved organic matter in order to simulate organic coatings in the soil. We analyzed our samples with N 2 adsorption and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Citrate clogged the micropores of both adsorbents by up to 13% within 1 h of contact. The micropore volume decreased with increasing concentration and residence time of citrate. In the absence of citrate, phosphate diffused into micropores of the pure and C-coated goethite. The C coating (5.6 μmol C m -2) did not impair the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. In the presence of citrate, the diffusion of phosphate into the micropores of both adsorbents was strongly impaired. We attribute this to the micropore clogging and the ligand-induced dissolution of goethite by citrate. While the diffusion limitation of phosphate by citrate was stronger when citrate was added before phosphate to pure goethite, the order of addition of both ions to C-coated goethite had only a minor effect on the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. Micropore clogging and dissolution of microporous hydrous Fe and Al oxides may be regarded as potential strategies of plants to cope with phosphate deficiency in addition to ligand-exchange.

  4. Citrate adsorption can decrease soluble phosphate concentration in soil : experimental and modeling evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Duputel, M.; Van Hoye, F.; Toucet, Joële; F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption/desorption of phosphate (PO4) on soil minerals is a major process regulating soluble phosphate concentrations (i.e. phosphorus availability) and ultimately PO4 bio-availability. Release of citrate by roots is widely recognized as an effective biological mechanism for increasing available phosphorus (P) in soil. However, interactions between citrate and PO4 are poorly understood and little investigated in soils. Using surface complexation modeling we recently predicted that citr...

  5. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanta Adhikary

    Full Text Available Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1 and citrate transporter (citC genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  6. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  7. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  8. Potato Dextrose Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Yeasts and Molds: Evaluation of Phosphate Effect on Antifungal Activity of CMT-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Lorne M. Golub

    2002-01-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextros...

  9. Magnesium citrate with a single dose of sodium phosphate for colonoscopy bowel preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Sung Choi; Jung Pil Suh; Jong Kyu Kim; In Taek Lee; Eui Gon Youk; Doo Seok Lee; Do Sun Kim; Doo Han Lee

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of magnesium citrate and a single dose of oral sodium phosphate (45 mL) solution for morning colonoscopy bowel preparation.METHODS: A total of 159 patients were randomly assigned to receive two split doses of 90 mg of sodium phosphate (Group Ⅰ, n = 79) or magnesium citrate (250 mL,the day before the procedure) followed by 45 mL of sodium phosphate (the day of procedure, Group Ⅱ, n =80). The quality of bowel cleansing and the acceptability of each regimen were compared, including the satisfaction,taste, willing to repeat and adverse effects of each regimen.RESULTS: The quality of bowel cleansing of Group Ⅱ was as good as that of Group Ⅰ (An Aronchick scale score of good or excellent: 70.9% vs 81.0%, respectively,P = 0.34; the Ottawa system score: 4.4 ± 2.6 vs 3.8± 3.0, respectively, P = 0.76). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups with regard to acceptability, including the satisfaction, taste and willingness to repeat the regimen. A significantly greater number of older patients (over 65 years old) in Group Ⅱ graded the overall satisfaction as satisfactory (48.1%vs 78.1%, respectively; Group Ⅰ vs Group Ⅱ, P = 0.01).There were no significant adverse reactions. CONCLUSION: Magnesium citrate and a single dose of sodium phosphate was as effective and tolerable as the conventional sodium phosphate regimen and is a satisfactory option.

  10. Adsorption of Acid Phosphatase on Minerals and Soil Colloids in Presence of Citrate and Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of phosphate and citrate, which are common inorganic andorganic anions in soils, on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by kaolin, goethite and the colloids separatedfrom yellow-brown soil (YBS) and latosol (LS) in central-south China. The YBS colloid has the major claymineral composition of 1.4 nm mineral, illite and kaolinite while the LS colloid mainly contains kaolinite andoxides. The adsorption isotherm of acid phosphatase on the examined soil colloids and minerals fitted tothe Langmuir model. The amount of enzyme adsorbed in the absence of ligands was in the order of YBScolloid >LS colloid>kaolin≈goethite. In the presence of phosphate or citrate, the amounts of the enzymeadsorbed followed the sequence YBS colloid>kaolin>LS colloid>goethite. The presence of ligands alsodecreased the binding energy between the enzyme and soil colloids or minerals. With the increase of ligandconcentration from 10 mmol L-1 to 400 m mol L-1, different behaviors for the adsorption of enzyme werefound in the colloid and mineral systems studied. A sharp decrease in enzyme adsorption was observed ongoethite while gradual decreases of enzyme adsorption were recorded in the two soil colloid systems. However,no any decrease was found for the amount of enzyme adsorbed on kaolin at higher ligand concentrations.When phosphate or citrate was introduced to the system before the addition of enzyme, the ligands usuallyenhanced the adsorption of enzyme. The results obtained in this study suggested the important role ofkaolinite mineral in the adsorption of enzyme molecules in acidic soils in the presence of various ligands.

  11. Application of acid citrate dextrose in contiunous veno-venous hemofiltration%血液保存液在连续性血液滤过中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锴; 张田杰; 姜山; 詹周兵; 石永兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution in contiunous veno-venous hemofiltration (CWH). Methods A total of 77 patients with bleeding risk was divided into two groups of A( treated with regional heparin anticoagulation,31 cases) and B( treated with regional ACD anticoagulation, 46 cases). ACD was taken as anticoagulant to maintenance post-filter ionized calcium(iCa2+ ) 0. 25-0. 35 mmol/L. The dialyzer lifespan, anticoagulation effectiveness, adverse effects and costs were compared. Results The mean dialyzer lifespan in group A was shorter than that in group B[(17. 3±1. 4) h vs. (41. 5 ± 4. 6) h](P<0. 01). Compared with before, the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were not obvioulsy changed after treatment in groups of A and B,but platelet count was decreased in group A[(130. 50± 58. 20) ×109/L vs. (111. 10±45. 40) × 109/L](P<0. 01). The amount of blood transfusion and cost in group B were less than those in group A[(7. 4±2. 3) ml/h vs. (23. 4±4. 8) ml/h and (3371±249) RMB vs. (4334±1107) RMB](P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). The metabolic alkalosis occurred in 13 cases of group B, which was corrected by decreasing the concentration of sodium bicarbonate to 28 mmol/L in the hemofiltration solution. Conclusion ACD anticoagulation in CWH treatment is safe, effective, cheap and easy for clinical application. Metabolic alkalosis can be prevented by adjusting the concentration of sodium bicarbonate in replacement solution.%目的 评价血液保存液用于连续性血液滤过(CVVH)治疗的效果和安全性.方法 77例有出血倾向的重症患者行CVVH治疗,分为局部肝素抗凝组(A组,31例)和局部枸橼酸葡萄糖(ACD)抗凝组(B组,46例).B组用ACD作抗凝剂,维持滤器后离子钙(iCa2+)0.25-0.35 mmol/L.比较两组滤器的寿命、抗凝效果和不良反应,并进行经济学评价.结果 A组滤器使用寿命短于B组[(17.3±1.4)h vs.(41.5±4.6) h](P<0.01).两组治疗

  12. Citrate adsorption can decrease soluble phosphate concentration in soils : results of theoretical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Duputel, M.; Devau, N.; Brossard, Michel; Jaillard, B; Jones, D. L.; Hinsinger, P.; F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    A major problem for 21st century agriculture is the prospect of P scarcity. Adsorption of PO4 on the soil's solid phase is the primary mechanism regulating P availability. Release of citrate by roots is generally thought to increase the availability of P, which in turn improves P acquisition by plants. However, the interaction between citrate and PO4 remains poorly understood in soils and conflicting results are found in the literature. Here modeling is used to investigate the effects of citr...

  13. Optimization and validation of a rapid method to determine citrate and inorganic phosphate in milk by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izco, J M; Tormo, M; Harris, A; Tong, P S; Jimenez-Flores, R

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of phosphate and citrate compounds is very important because their distribution between soluble and colloidal phases of milk and their interactions with milk proteins influence the stability and some functional properties of dairy products. The aim of this work was to optimize and validate a capillary electrophoresis method for the rapid determination of these compounds in milk. Various parameters affecting analysis have been optimized, including type, composition, and pH of the electrolyte, and sample extraction. Ethanol, acetonitrile, sulfuric acid, water at 50 degrees C or at room temperature were tested as sample buffers (SB). Water at room temperature yielded the best overall results and was chosen for further validation. The extraction time was checked and could be shortened to less than 1 min. Also, sample preparation was simplified to pipet 12 microl of milk into 1 ml of water containing 20 ppm of tartaric acid as an internal standard. The linearity of the method was excellent (R2 > 0.999) with CV values of response factors yogurt, or Cheddar cheese were analyzed and accuracy was similar to milk in all products tested. The procedure is rapid and offers a very fast and simple sample preparation. Once the sample has arrived at the laboratory, less than 5 min (including handling, preparation, running, integration, and quantification) are necessary to determine the concentration of citric acid and inorganic phosphate. Because of the speed and accuracy of this method, it is promising as an analytical quantitative testing technique.

  14. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  15. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  16. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  17. Effect of water and citrate solubility on agronomic effectiveness of acidulated phosphates in three consecutive corn crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Prochnow

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of phosphate rock acidulation, several impure P compounds may be formed along with the desirable Ca and NH4 phosphates. Such compounds normally reduce the content of water-soluble P and thus the agronomic effectiveness of commercial fertilizers. In order to study this problem, a greenhouse experiment consisting of three consecutive corn crops was conducted in samples of a Red-Yellow Latosol (Typical Hapludox in a completely randomized design (6 x 2 x 2, with four replicates. Six commercial fertilizers were added to 2 kg of soil at a rate of 70 mg kg-1 P, based on the content of soluble P in neutral ammonium citrate plus water (NAC + H2O of the fertilizers. Fertilizer application occurred either in the original form or leached to remove the water-soluble fraction, either by mixing the fertilizer with the whole soil in the pots or with only 1 % of its volume. The corn plants were harvested 40 days after emergence to determine the shoot dry matter and accumulated P. For the first crop and localized application, the elimination of water-soluble P from the original fertilizers resulted in less bioavailable P for the plants. For the second and third crops, the effects of P source, leaching and application methods were not as evident as for the first, suggesting that the tested P sources may have similar efficiencies when considering successive cropping. The conclusion was drawn that the water-insoluble but NAC-soluble fractions of commercial P fertilizers are not necessarily inert because they can provide P in the long run.

  18. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca;

    2009-01-01

    the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation......,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift...... in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton...

  19. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate. PMID:22559064

  20. Phosphoric ore treatment by roasting it with sodium carbonate and leaching it with ammonium citrate for the recovery of soluble phosphate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By thermal treatment of phosphoric ore, with low phosphorus contents and iron, aluminum, and silicon impurities, basic fertilizers with P2O5 soluble in citric acid or ammonium citrate, can be produced. The phosphoric ore lightly grinded with alkaline salts like CO3Na2 y SiO2 is roasted between 800 to 1 000°C in rotary kilns. The roasted material contains from 25–30% of alkaline phosphates soluble in citrates. Phosphoric ore from the province of Napo-Ecuador with 24% of P2O5, 40% CaO in form of apatite, 20% of SiO2 and 7 g/ton U is tested by thermic differential analysis, roasting at 800°C for 2 hours with 50% w/w of sodium carbonate and 2% w/w of SiO2 by using a Nichols pilot furnace with 15 L of capacity which uses gas (propane-butane) as fuel, and agitated leaching with ammonium citrate (5% w/w). The initial ore and products are characterized by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer AA400) and x-ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance). In the best conditions, 32% of phosphorus soluble in water is obtained as well as 40% of phosphorus and 56% uranium soluble in ammonium citrate. (author)

  1. Correlation of biological value of feed phosphates with their solubility in water, dilute hydrogen chloride, dilute citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Gonzalez, N J; Bond, P L

    1992-12-01

    Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates (D-MCP, 18.5% phosphorus), and 14 defluorinated phosphates (DFP, 18.0% phosphorus) were evaluated. The average relative BV for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP samples were 97.6, 94.6, and 90.8%, respectively. Solubility of phosphates was determined by four recognized methods. The solvents were water, .4% HCl, 2.0% citric acid (CA), and neutral ammonium citrate (NAC). Water solubility of M-DCP samples was greater (67.5%) than that of D-MCP (38.8%) and DFP (8.9%) samples. Correlation of water solubility of phosphates to their relative BV was quite low, and water solubility was a poor indicator of BV. When .4% HCl was the solvent, correlation coefficients (r) were .55, .33, and .72 for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP, respectively. Based on these results and prediction equations, .4% HCl solubility would be inappropriate for estimating BV of M-DCP and D-MCP samples. Solubility of feed phosphates (mainly D-MCP and DFP) in 2.0% CA or NAC was positively correlated with BV; the r values were .87 to .95. Both of these solubility tests provided a good index of BV. However, it would seem inappropriate and risky to replace bioassays totally with these tests. Feed phosphate users could perform either the 2.0% CA or NAC solubility test easily as a screen for BV along with other quality control procedures (i.e., phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and fluoride determinations).

  2. Simulation of the effect of citrate exudation from roots on the plant availability of phosphate adsorbed on goethite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Findenegg, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes strongly influence the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants. Organic ligands that are exuded from the root surface mobilize phosphorus by dissolution of P minerals or by desorption of adsorbed phosphate. We developed a mechanistic model to study the mobilization of phosphat

  3. Role of citrate and phosphate anions in the mechanism of iron(III) sequestration by ferric binding protein: kinetic studies of the formation of the holoprotein of wild-type FbpA and its engineered mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Katherine D; Gabricević, Mario; Anderson, Damon S; Adhikari, Pratima; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2010-07-27

    Ferric binding protein A (FbpA) plays a central role in the iron acquisition processes of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrheae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. FbpA functions as an iron shuttle within the periplasmic space of these Gram-negative human pathogens. Iron is picked up by FbpA at the periplasmic aspect of the outer membrane with concomitant acquisition of a synergistic anion. Here we report the kinetics and mechanisms involved with loading of iron(III) into iron-free FbpA using iron(III) citrate as an iron source in the presence of excess citrate or phosphate (physiologically available anions) at pH 6.5. In the presence of excess phosphate, iron(III) citrate loads into apo-FbpA in three kinetically distinguishable steps, while in the presence of excess citrate, only two steps are discernible. A stable intermediate containing iron(III) citrate-bound FbpA is observed in each case. The observation of an additional kinetic step and moderate increase in apparent rate constants suggests an active role for phosphate in the iron insertion process. To further elucidate a mechanism for iron loading, we report on the sequestration kinetics of iron(III) citrate in the presence of phosphate with binding site mutant apo-FbpAs, H9E, E57D, E57Q, Q58A, Y195F, and Y196H. Tyrosine mutations drastically alter the kinetics and hamper iron sequestration ability. H9E, E57D, and E57Q have near native iron sequestration behavior; however, iron binding rates are altered, enabling assignment of sequential side chain interactions. Additionally, this investigation elaborates on the function of FbpA as a carrier for iron chelates as well as "naked" or free iron as originally proposed.

  4. Safety test of a supplement, 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate with sodium ferrous citrate, in diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamashita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid phosphate (5-ALA with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC in diabetic patients treated with one or more oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs. Background: Recent intervention studies performed in the USA and Japan have shown that a nutritional supplement of 5-ALA with SFC efficiently reduced blood glucose levels in pre-diabetic population without any adverse events. Thus, it was anticipated that 5-ALA with SFC may potentially be taken as a beneficial supplement by diabetic patients who were being treated with OHA therapy. Nevertheless, it is important to examine its safety and efficacy in diabetic population. Methods: This study was a prospective single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled and parallel-group comparison study. Medically treated diabetic patients between the ages of 30 and 75 were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan and 45 subjects were selected after screening. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: daily intake of 15mg 5-ALA, 50mg 5-ALA, and a placebo (n=15, respectively. The supplement or placebo was administered for 12 weeks followed by a four week washout period. The primary endpoint was safety and occurrence of hypoglycemic attack, while the secondary endpoint was changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Results: Adverse events related to 5-ALA with SFC were not observed in all the groups. Abnormalities in blood and urine tests were not observed either. Significant decrease in FBG was not detected in all the groups. However, there was a small but significant decrease in HbA1c at 4 and 8 week in the 15 mg 5-ALA group. Significant decrease in HbA1c was not observed in the 50 mg 5-ALA group, although a tendency to decrease after 4 weeks was apparent. Conclusion: 5-ALA with SFC is a safe and potentially beneficial supplement if taken by diabetic patients treated with OHAs.

  5. Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.

  6. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  7. Hypoglycaemia following treatment of hyperkalaemia with insulin and dextrose.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, P S; Davenport, A; Bone, J M

    1988-01-01

    We describe four patients who developed symptomatic hypoglycaemia following treatment of hyperkalaemia with insulin and dextrose. Two patients had a delayed onset of hypoglycaemia, between 5 and 6 hours after treatment despite use of a 'soluble' type of insulin. A review of the literature revealed a variety of insulin and dextrose regimes but no research to assess the metabolic effects of such therapy in patients with renal failure. The possibility of significant hypoglycaemia following use o...

  8. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence usi...

  9. Identification of highly concentrated dextrose solution (50% dextrose) extravasation and treatment--a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah L; Brady, William; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Treatment for significant hypoglycemia includes administration of dextrose containing agents, including 50% dextrose (D50%W) intravenously. Significant extravasation of D50%W can lead to complications, including skin and soft tissue injury, loss of limb, or death. The aim of this case report, using an interdisciplinary team approach, explores extravasation protocols as well as literature review, is to provide information about the proper use of hyaluronidase in patients with D50%W extravasations. A 46-year-old African American man presented to the emergency department (ED) after blood glucose level was initially 13 mg/dL. Emergency medical service established a large bore intravenous (IV) line in the right antecubital vein and administered a total of 50 g of D50%W. Upon arrival to the ED, the patient's level of consciousness had significantly improved. After arrival to the ED, the patient started complaining of pain in his right arm, near the site of the IV line insertion. On inspection, the IV site was grossly infiltrated. Hospital protocols for hyperosmolar infiltration were used. Extravasation is a common medical complication of infused medications and needs to be properly identified and treated. The multitude of skills from nursing, medicine, and pharmacy ensures that extravasation is managed appropriately and effectively to ensure safety to patients. Recognition, communication, and awareness of the institutional guidelines on how to treat infiltration and extravasation should be encouraged in all ED and intensive care unit medical personnel who deal with a variety of infusions and IV medications that have serious implications if not treated correctly. PMID:23602753

  10. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in a zero exchange system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Suita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT. Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+ ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic biometry. After 30 days, survival, final biomass, and feeding conversion rate (FCR were determined. Dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, floc volume, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and microorganisms (qualified by groups, were measured every three days. Water quality variables remained within acceptable levels throughout the experimental period, except for nitrite, which reached higher levels than recommended for this species. The use of dextrose resulted in higher water transparency, which influenced the remaining centric diatoms. A superior shrimp performance was observed at this treatment, presumably because of variations on the microbial community. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of dextrose results in a superior growth performance of L. vannamei when cultured in BFT systems.

  11. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saber, Feryal; Aldosari, Waleed; Alselaiti, Mariam; Khalfan, Hesham; Kaladari, Ahmed; Khan, Ghulam; Harb, George; Rehani, Riyadh; Kudo, Sizuka; Koda, Aya; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n = 53) from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (n = 35, 5-ALA-SFC; n = 18, placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141.

  12. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520.550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... first 12 hours is essential for healthy, vigorous calves. Antibacterial therapy is often indicated...

  13. Quantification of dextrose in model solution by 1H MR spectroscopy at 1.5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imager for quantification of the contents of model solutions. We prepared model solutions of dextrose +water and dextrose +water + ethanol at dextrose concentrations of 0.01% to 50% and 0.01% to 20%, respectively. Using these solutions and a 1.5T MR imager together with a high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscope, we calculated the ratios of dextrose to water peak, (dextrose +ethanol) to water peak, and (dextrose + ethanol) to ethanol peak, as seen on MR and NMR spectra, analysing the relationships between dextrose concentration and the ratios of peaks, and between the ratios of the peaks seen on MR spectra and those seen on NMR spectra. Changes in the ratios between dextrose concentration and dextrose to water peak, (dextrose + ethanol) to water peak and (dextrose + ethanol) to ethanol peak, as seen on MR spectra, were statistically significant, and there was good linear regression. There was also close correlation between the ratios of the observed on MR and NMR spectra. The results depict the quantification of dextrose concentration according to the ratios of spectral peaks obtained by proton MRS at 1.5T. Using proton MRS at 1.5T, and on the basis of the ratios of spectcal peaks, it was possible to quantify the concentration of dextrose in model solutions of dextrose + water and dextrose + water+ ethanol. The results of this study suggest that for quantifying the contents of biofluids, the use of low-tesla 1H-MRS is feasible

  14. Citrat og nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Citrate is an important naturally occurring inhibitor of calcium stone formation in urine. Urinary citrate excretion was examined in 43 consecutive patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 50 normal controls by a specific enzymatic technique. Hypocitraturia (<1.6 mmol/24h...

  15. Trisilver(I citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fischer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Trisilver(I citrate, 3Ag+·C6H5O73−, was obtained by evaporation of a saturated aqueous solution of the raw material that had been obtained from sodium dihydrogen citrate and silver nitrate. It features one formula unit in the asymmetric unit. There is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the OH group and one of the terminal carboxylate groups. Different citrate groups are linked via the three Ag+ ions, yielding a three-dimensional network with rather irregular [AgO4] polyhedra.

  16. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  17. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  18. Compatibility of esmolol hydrochloride with morphine sulfate and fentanyl citrate during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatz, N N; Wong, J; Kesler, H; Baaske, D M; Speicher, E R

    1988-02-01

    The compatibility and stability of esmolol hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site injection of morphine sulfate or fentanyl citrate was studied. One milliliter of either morphine sulfate (15 mg/mL) or fentanyl citrate (0.05 mg/mL) was injected into a running infusion of esmolol hydrochloride (10 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and the solution was visually observed for changes. To determine the stability of the drugs during Y-site injection, esmolol hydrochloride 4 mL (1000 mg) in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was combined with 100 mL of either morphine sulfate 15 mg/mL or fentanyl citrate 0.05 mg/mL to simulate concentrations of the drugs that might be expected during Y-site injection. The admixtures were stored at ambient room temperature under normal light, and drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography at time zero and at two, four, and eight hours. Admixtures were also tested for pH and observed for visual changes. No immediate changes were observed in any of the admixtures, and the concentrations of the drugs varied by less than 4% throughout the study period. No precipitate or color changes were noted during Y-site injection of either drug into the running esmolol infusion. Under all of the conditions studied, esmolol hydrochloride in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection is compatible with morphine sulfate or fentanyl citrate. PMID:2896460

  19. Hypocaloric Enteral Nutrition Protects Against Hypoglycemia Associated with Intensive Insulin Therapy Better Than Intravenous Dextrose

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Hayes, Rachel M; Vanlaeken, Amanda H.; Norris, Patrick R; Jose J Diaz; May, Addison K.; Collier, Bryan R.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the ...

  20. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Arhan; Seyfettin K(o)klü; Aydln S K(o)ksal; (O)mer F Yolcu; Senem Koruk; Irfan Koruk; Ertugrul Kayacetin

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment.Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity.

  1. Subcutaneous dextrose for rehydration of elderly patients – an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tari; Cassano, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Background In the Rehabilitation and Aged Care Services Program at Southern Health in Victoria, saline hypodermoclysis is a relatively common method of rehydration. However, there were questions about the safety and effectiveness of subcutaneous infusion of other fluids and, in particular, dextrose solutions. This review aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of rehydration of elderly patients with subcutaneous 5% dextrose solutions compared with intravenous 5% dextrose solutions. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, IDIS, CINAHL, Current Contents, Premedline, Australasian Medical Index, the Joanna Briggs Institute, the US National Guideline Clearinghouse and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Searching was undertaken in July 2003. Studies selected were primary studies (or systematic reviews of primary studies) providing evidence as to the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous infusion of dextrose solutions for rehydration of elderly patients. We included articles published in English in the last 10 years. Data were extracted by a single researcher. Results From our search we identified 15 potentially relevant articles. We obtained the full text of these articles to determine their relevance. After application of the inclusion criteria, four articles remained for appraisal including one systematic review, two randomised controlled trials and one cohort study. Conclusion The four studies appraised all provide evidence that appropriate volumes of subcutaneous dextrose infusions (in the form of half-normal saline-glucose 5%, 40 g/L dextrose and 30 mmol/L NaCl, or 5% dextrose solution and 4 g/L NaCl, or two-thirds 5% glucose and one-third normal saline) can be used effectively for the treatment of dehydration, with similar rates of adverse effects to intravenous infusion. The evidence in this area is limited, and larger randomised controlled trials using validated outcome measures would be useful to confirm these results. PMID:15086959

  2. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  3. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure in three large, randomized, comparative clinical studies. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is also an effective and generally well tolerated colorectal cleansing agent in children and adolescents; the preparation was more effective than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in this population. Further research is thus required to accurately position sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and fully establish its efficacy and tolerability prior to various

  4. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  5. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhan, Mehmet; Koklu, Seyfettin; Koksal, Aydln-S; Yolcu, Omer-F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-08-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  6. The effect of oral and intravenous dextrose on C-peptide secretion in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; van Haeften, J J; Sillence, M N

    2016-02-01

    Managing equine hyperinsulinemia is crucial for preventing laminitis, but our understanding of the mechanisms involved in insulin dysregulation in this species is incomplete. C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin but is resistant to hepatic metabolism and can be used to study insulin dysregulation. This study examined C-peptide secretion in serial blood samples collected after oral and i.v. dextrose (0.75 g/kg) administration to 9 ponies (BCS, 7.1 ± 0.5). The ponies were designated as hyperinsulinemic (HI) or normoinsulinemic (NI) responders before the study, using oral glucose tests and fasted glucose-to-insulin ratios, and responses were compared between the 2 groups. C-peptide concentrations increased ( < 0.01) rapidly from fasted levels after both oral and i.v. dextrose, with similar area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for both tests and a significant correlation with AUC. The AUC was similar in HI and NI ponies after i.v. dextrose, indicating similar pancreatic capacity for both groups. However, for oral dextrose, the AUC and the AUC were markedly higher ( < 0.05) in the HI ponies, indicating a greater secretion rate of these peptides. Slower insulin clearance might have also contributed to the larger AUC in HI ponies, but this hypothesis requires further investigation with specific measures of hepatic insulin clearance. PMID:27065127

  7. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtala, Jonathan G; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Max, Joann P.; Kadasala, Naveen; Zhao, Shou; Wei, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate)....

  8. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate. PMID:17559405

  9. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  10. Enhancement of Aminoacylase Activity by Sodium Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于范利; 曹志方; 李森; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Kidney and other tissues of animals and humans have a high concentration of citrate which is an important intermediate substance in the citrate cycle. Citrate may play an important physiological role in metabolism. In this paper, we studied the interaction of the sodium salt of citrate with aminoacylase which is an important enzyme in metabolism and found sodium citrate can enhance the activity of aminoacylase. The maximum enzyme activity induced by sodium citrate increased approximately 3 folds over the enzyme activity without sodium citrate. The initial reaction rates (Ⅴ) for different concentrations of sodium citrate were obtained, showing that sodium citrate is a non-competitive activator. The result of the ANS binding fluorescence measurements for aminoacylase indicated that increasing sodium citrate concentrations markedly increased the ANS binding fluorescence with a blue shift of the emission spectra peak. This suggests the formation of more hydrophobic regions. Aggregates formed quickly when aminoacylase was incubated with sodium citrate (0.3 mol/L) and guanidinium chloride (0- 3. 5 mol/L). Aminoacylase lost enzyme activity in the guanidinium chloride more quickly in the presence of sodium citrate than in the absence of sodium citrate. The intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity decreased more quickly and the red shift of the emission spectra peak was larger than that without sodium citrate.

  11. Faster onset time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using local anesthetic diluted with dextrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5 min for 60 min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Results: Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6 ± 12.9 min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2 ± 13.9 min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

  12. Can citrate efflux from roots improve phosphorus uptake by plants? Testing the hypothesis with near-isogenic lines of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; James, Richard A; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Rattey, Allan; Lewis, David C; Bovill, William D; McDonald, Glenn; Rathjen, Tina M; Wang, Enli; Fettell, Neil A; Richardson, Alan E

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency in some plant species triggers the release of organic anions such as citrate and malate from roots. These anions are widely suggested to enhance the availability of phosphate for plant uptake by mobilizing sparingly-soluble forms in the soil. Carazinho is an old wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar from Brazil, which secretes citrate constitutively from its root apices, and here we show that it also produces relatively more biomass on soils with low P availability than two recent Australian cultivars that lack citrate efflux. To test whether citrate efflux explains this phenotype, we generated two sets of near-isogenic lines that differ in citrate efflux and compared their biomass production in different soil types and with different P treatments in glasshouse experiments and field trials. Citrate efflux improved relative biomass production in two of six glasshouse trials but only at the lowest P treatments where growth was most severely limited by P availability. Furthermore, citrate efflux provided no consistent advantage for biomass production or yield in multiple field trials. Theoretical modeling indicates that the effectiveness of citrate efflux in mobilizing soil P is greater as the volume of soil into which it diffuses increases. As efflux from these wheat plants is restricted to the root apices, the potential for citrate to mobilize sufficient P to increase shoot biomass may be limited. We conclude that Carazinho has other attributes that contribute to its comparatively good performance in low-P soils.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium citrate to complete the reaction. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1298 Ferric citrate. (a) Ferric citrate (iron (III) citrate, C6H5FeO7, CAS Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. Field evaluation of water or citrate soluble phosphorus in modified phosphate rocks for soybean Avaliação agronômica do fósforo solúvel em água ou citrato de fosfatos de rocha acidulados para a soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ignácio Prochnow

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten P fertilizers were collected (commercial fertilizers or synthesized (experimental sources in order to obtain single superphosphates varying in water and citrate solubility. A standard source of P was also produced by crystallization of the water-soluble fraction of a triple superphosphate. Eleven P sources were band applied to a medium textured Xanthic Hapludox, in Bahia, Brazil (low content of resin-extractable P at a rate of 80 kg ha-1 of NAC + H2O (neutral ammonium citrate plus water soluble P2O5, with soybean as the crop which was grown to maturity. A check plot (control was included in the study. Three of the P sources [single superphosphate produced from Araxa phosphate rock (PR, low-grade single superphosphate produced from Lagamar PR and the standard source of P] were also applied at rates to provide 40 and 120 kg ha-1 of NAC + H2O soluble P2O5. Yield of soybean was evaluated by analysis of variance with mean comparison performed utilizing LSD lines, considering the P sources applied at a rate of 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5 + control. Regression procedures were used to study the relation between yield of soybean and rates of P2O5. The fertilizers tested performed equally well as a source of P for soybean. The level of water-soluble P did not influence fertilizer performance.Dez fontes de P foram coletadas em unidades revendedoras de fertilizantes comerciais ou produzidas em laboratório de tal forma a obter superfosfatos simples com variabilidade em água e citrato neutro de amônio + água (CNA + H2O. Utilizou-se como fonte padrão de fósforo a fração solubilizada, filtrada e cristalizada de um superfosfato triplo. As onze fontes de P foram aplicadas nas linhas de semeadura de soja de um Xanthic Hapludox textura média, localizado no Município de Barreiras, Bahia (baixo teor de fósforo resina na dose de 80 kg ha-1 de P2O5 solúvel em CNA + H2O. Três das fontes (superfosfatos simples produzido a partir da rocha fosfática de Araxá e

  1. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  2. Subculture on potato dextrose agar as a complement to the broth microdilution assay for Malassezia pachydermatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Marilena R; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Leite, João J G; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2008-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of subculture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a complement to the in vitro susceptibility test for Malassezia pachydermatis strains by a broth microdilution method, as well as to determine the MIC and MFC of azole derivatives, amphotericin B and caspofungin. The microdilution assay was performed in 96-well plates using a modified RPMI 1640 medium. The M. pachydermatis strains were resistant to caspofungin. All strains (n=50) had shown MIC values of subculture on PDA improved the analysis of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis.

  3. [Influence of PO4(3-) and citrate on REE accumulation and fractionation in wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-Cai; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Li; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2005-09-01

    This paper has studied the influence of phosphate (Pi, one of inorganic ligands) and citrate (Cit, one of organic ligands) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat based on aqueous culture, added with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE) and ICP-MS analysis technology. The results show that initial phosphate (Pi) solution of different levels followed by exposure to fixed-MRE solution has no significant effects on accumulation of the total concentrations of REEs (sigma REE) in the wheat roots, but it decrease the REE dramatically in the wheat leaves. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solution caused obvious decreases of the sigma REE both in wheat roots and leaves. Compared to the control (no Pi or citrate was added), the distribution and fractionation characters of MRE had M-type tetrad effect and MREE enrichment in wheat roots, and W-type tetrad effect and HREE enrichment in wheat leaves. Different levels of Pi had no significant effects on the tetrad effect of MRE, but it notable increased the enrichment of HREE in wheat leaves. Added with citrate of different levels led the fractionation of REE decreasing gradually in wheat roots and leaves, as the concentration of citrate > or = 150 micromol x L(-1), light REE (LREE) enrichment both existed in the roots and leaves.

  4. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduces the body's ability to absorb phosphate and iron. To avoid this interaction, phosphate should be taken at least 2 hours before or after taking iron.MagnesiumPhosphate can combine with magnesium. This reduces ... phosphate and magnesium. To avoid this interaction, phosphate should ...

  5. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  6. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development. PMID:26338058

  7. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  8. Comparative effect of 20% dextrose and breast milk on the pain caused by hepatitis B vaccine in term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Babaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Newborns are fully capable of pain perception, and uncontrolled pain, especially in the early life will impose unwanted effects on the child in the future. This study was performed to compare the analgesic effects of breast milk and 20% dextrose on the pain caused by hepatitis B vaccination in term neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 210 term neonates were recruited and divided into three groups. The first group was given 2 cc breast milk, the second group was given 2 cc 20% dextrose orally and the third group, as control ,was not given anything. Then, the neonates received hepatitis B vaccination. Pain intensity was measured in all three groups by DAN pain scoring system. The heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured in each group before and after injection. Results: Pain intensity levels by DAN pain score were 8.67 in the control group, 4.95 in breast milk and 5.78 in 20% dextrose, which showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results showed that both breast milk and 20% dextrose had analgesic effects, but breast milk was more effective to reduce pain than 20% dextrose.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  10. Effect of intravenous administration of dextrose or lactated Ringer's solution on seizure development in dogs after cervical myelography with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of fluid (5% dextrose in water or lactated Ringer's solution) administered intravenously on the development of seizures after cervical myelography with metrizamide was studied in 10 dogs. In a crossover experimental design, 8 dogs were used twice. Urine output was measured during the second part of the study to determine whether diuresis was a factor affecting seizure development. Dogs given 5% dextrose in water had significantly (P less than 0.05) fewer seizures than did dogs given lactated Ringer's solution. This was attributed to an increase in CSF glucose concentration and was not associated with diuresis

  11. Ranitidine bismuth citrate: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastroduodenal disease has increased greatly in recent years. To avoid complications of H pylori infection, such as the development of recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcers, effective therapies are required for eradication of the infection. This article reviews ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, a novel complex of ranitidine, bismuth and citrate, which was developed specifically for the purpose of eradicating H pylori. Dual therapy with RBC in combination with clarithromycin for 14 days yields eradication rates of 76%. Triple therapy bid for one week with a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or a nitroimidazole (tinidazole or metronidazole is advocated as the treatment of choice for H pylori eradication. Analogous regimens with RBC in place of proton pump inhibitors show effective eradication rates in comparative studies and with pooled data. RBC, used alone or in combination with other antibiotics, appears to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of H pylori infection. Bismuth levels do not appear to rise to toxic levels.

  12. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  13. Hypertonic Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Lateral Epicondylosis (Tennis Elbow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Lee, Ken S.; Ryan, Michael; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Sesto, Mary E.; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Kijowski, Rick; Grettie, Jessica; Wilson, John; Miller, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) is common, debilitating and often refractory. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy. The efficacy of two PrT solutions for CLE was evaluated. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial. 26 adults (32 elbows) with ≥3 months of CLE were randomized to ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose (PrT-D), PrT with dextrose-morrhuate (PrT-DM) or watchful waiting (Wait-and-see). The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE; 100-points) at 4, 8 and 16 weeks, (all groups) and 32 weeks (PrT groups). Secondary outcomes included pain-free grip strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score. Results PrT-D and PrT-DM participants reported improved PRTEE composite and subscale scores at 4, 8 and/or 16 weeks compared to Wait-and-see (p<0.05). At 16 weeks, compared to baseline, PrT-D and PrT-DM groups improved composite PRTEE scores by 18.7±9.6 (41.1%) and 17.5±11.6 (53.5%) points, respectively. Grip strength of PrT-D participants exceeded that of PrT-DM and Wait-and-see at 8 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). There were no differences in MRI scores. Satisfaction was high; there were no adverse events. Conclusions Prolotherapy resulted in safe, significant improvement of elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and wait-and-see control. This pilot study suggests the need for a definitive trial. PMID:23291605

  14. Phosphate sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. ...

  15. Retention of iron by rat intestine in vivo as affected by dietary fiber, ascorbate and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, J G; Garcia Estrada, J; Garcia, P M; Garzon, P

    1986-06-01

    The effects of pH, ascorbate, citrate and dietary fiber on retention of ferrous and ferric iron by jejuno-ileal segments of rat intestine were examined in vivo. Iron was introduced in an isosmotic solution of sodium chloride and dextrose buffered by 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (BES) and acetate. Stabilization of the iron solutions was aided by use of iron concentrations less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml injected into the intestine for 10-min periods. Iron retention was optimal over a broad pH range from 5 to 7.8. Inclusion of ascorbic acid in the solution injected (5, 25 or 75 micrograms/ml) did not increase retention of iron in either valence state. A low concentration of sodium citrate (2 mM) had no effect on iron retention, but increasing the concentration to 5 mM released iron from the mucosa. Maize and wheat fibers decreased the retention of ferrous iron by binding and by promoting autoxidation and formation of poorly soluble iron polymers. Bound ferrous iron was released completely at pH below 5. Retention of ferric iron was also lowered in the presence of fiber, presumably as a result of polymerization. Retention of iron by the rat in the absence of ligands was independent of valence state.

  16. Bio-inspired citrate functionalized apatite coating on rapid prototyped titanium scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Peng [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lu, Fang [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Wang, Di [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Xiaojing [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaolan [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhang, Yu; Li, Lihua [General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Designed and reproducible porous titanium scaffolds were produced. • Hydrophilic nanoporous film was built on scaffold. • Apatite coating was deposited on scaffold under the modulation of citrate ions. • Citrate ions could affect CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation in apatite coatings. - Abstract: Scaffold functionalized with appropriate osteogenic coatings can significantly improve implant-bone response. In this study, with designed model and optimized manufacture parameters, reproducible and precise titanium scaffolds were produced. Reconstructed three-dimensional image and sectional structure of the scaffold were examined by micro-computed tomography and relative software. Alkali treatment was carried out on these manufactured porous scaffolds to produce nanoporous hydrophilic film. After 6 days deposition in simulated body fluid (SBF) containing sodium citrate (SC-SBF), plate-like amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coating was deposited on scaffold surface. Ultrasonication tests qualitatively indicated an enhanced adhesion force of apatite coatings deposited in SC-SBF compared to that deposited in SBF. And the effect of citrate ions on the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation rate in apatite coating was quantitatively examined by bending vibration of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at ∼874 cm{sup −1}. Results indicated the highest carbonate content was obtained at the citrate ion concentration of 6 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in SC-SBF. These three-dimensional porous titanium-apatite hybrid scaffolds are expected to find application in bone tissue regeneration.

  17. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability. PMID:27268014

  18. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability.

  19. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  2. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

  3. Mean platelet volume measurement, EDTA or citrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Mansour Siavash; Emami, Tajolmolouk; Najafian, Alireza; Amini, Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Most laboratories use EDTA for anticoagulation of whole blood prior to automated cell counting but due to platelet swelling, mean platelet volume (MPV) values may increase with its use. MPV changes may be less with acid citrate based anticoagulation. As MPV is a marker of platelet function and its precise measurement is important in a number of clinical situations, this study was performed to assess if EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples can be used interchangeably for MPV measurement. In this cross sectional descriptive study, EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples of the same patients were assessed by auto-analyzer within 1 h of sampling. In the 61 evaluated patients, there was a close correlation between MPV as measured by EDTA and citrate, but mean MPV measured from EDTA samples was 0.66 fL (9%) more than citrate. There was also a significant negative correlation between platelets count and MPV by both methods. The results of our study reveal that MPV can be measured accurately by both methods of anticoagulation; EDTA and citrate if analysis be performed within 1 h of sampling. PMID:17607580

  4. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase in isolated hepatocytes. Stoichiometry and relation to the phosphoenzyme intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M C; Palmer, J L; Pointer, R H; Kowaloff, E M; Koumjian, L L; Avruch, J

    1982-02-25

    We have estimated the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase by two methods. Isolated hepatocytes incorporate extracellular 32P into [gamma-35P] ATP and immunoprecipitated ATP-citrate lyase to steady state levels by 1 h. The content of acid-stable 32P in hepatocyte ATP-citrate lyase at steady state is 0.33 +/- 0.038 mol of P/mol (tetrameric) holoenzyme. Insulin (1 milliunit/ml) increases the 32P content of immunoprecipitated lyase 2- to 3-fold in 10 min. Over 90% of acid-stable 32P on lyase is 32P-serine in enzyme isolated from both control and insulin-treated cells. ATP-citrate lyase isolated from hepatocytes contains 0.95 +/- 0.1 mol of alkali-labile phosphate/mol of holoenzyme. Insulin treatment of hepatocytes (1 milliunit/ml for 10 min) increases the alkali-labile P content by 45%. Evidence is presented which indicates that the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation does not arise by intramolecular migration from the catalytic phosphoenzyme intermediate. These observations support the conclusion that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase is mediated either by an insulin-induced increase in the activity of lyase kinase and/or decrease in a lyase phosphatase. The functional role of the substoichiometric phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase remains unknown.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. Methods PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection. Results Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.17), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40–1.27), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60–1.10), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53–1.21) after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10–0.63). Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07–0.70) and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30–1.11). There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, –0.18 to 0.80) which was only estimated from one study. Conclusion Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose–response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to provide a better therapeutic effect than exercise, local anesthetics, and probably corticosteroids when patients were retested 6 months following the initial injection. PMID:27799816

  6. Dextrose containing intravenous fluid impairs outcome and increases death after eight minutes of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alecy, L G; Lundy, E F; Barton, K J; Zelenock, G B

    1986-09-01

    Use of dextrose in intravenous resuscitation fluids is common practice; however, this study indicates that 5% dextrose solutions, even if administered in physiologic quantities, greatly worsens the outcome of survivable cardiac arrest. Twelve adult male mongrel dogs were premedicated with morphine, anesthetized with halothane, instrumented, intubated, and ventilated. Each dog was first given 500 ml of either lactated Ringer's (LR) (n = 6) or 5% dextrose in LR (D5LR) (n = 6). Halothane was stopped and fibrillation was induced (60 Hz). Blood glucose just before cardiac arrest was 129 mg/dl in the LR dogs and was increased to 335 mg/dl in the D5LR dogs. After eight minutes of arrest, resuscitation, including internal cardiac massage and standard advanced cardiac life support drug protocols (modified for dogs), was begun. When stable cardiac rhythm was obtained, the chest was closed, and LR or D5LR continued until a total of 1L was given. A neurologic score (0 = normal to 100 = dead) was assigned at 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The LR group did not differ statistically from the D5LR group in operative time, number of defibrillatory shocks, time to spontaneous ventilation, time to extubation, or drugs required. Resuscitation was successful in all six LR and five of six D5LR group; however, by 2 hours after resuscitation and thereafter, D5LR group had a significantly greater neurologic deficit (p less than 0.05) than did the LR group. By 9 hours, four of six D5LR dogs displayed convulsive activity and died. At 24 hours the D5LR group had a greater (p less than 0.008) neurologic deficit (82 +/- 11) than did the LR group (21 +/- 7), which walked and ate. We conclude that the addition of 5% dextrose to standard intravenous fluids greatly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac resuscitation. PMID:3738770

  7. Rerouting Citrate Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis to Citrate-Driven Transamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxaloacetate is an intermediate of the citrate fermentation pathway that accumulates in the cytoplasm of Lactococcus lactis ILCitM(pFL3) at a high concentration due to the inactivation of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. An excess of toxic oxaloacetate is excreted into the medium in exchange for citrate

  8. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

    2005-02-01

    Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

  9. Phosphate inhibits in vitro Fe3+ loading into transferrin by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex: a potential non-transferrin bound iron species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert J; Seare, Matthew C; Andros, N David; Kenealey, Zachary; Orozco, Catalina Matias; Webb, Michael; Watt, Richard K

    2012-05-01

    In chronic kidney diseases, NTBI can occur even when total iron levels in serum are low and transferrin is not saturated. We postulated that elevated serum phosphate concentrations, present in CKD patients, might disrupt Fe(3+) loading into apo-transferrin by forming Fe(III)-phosphate species. We report that phosphate competes with apo-transferrin for Fe(3+) by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex. Once formed, the Fe(III)-phosphate complex is not a substrate for donating Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin. Phosphate (1-10mM) does not chelate Fe(III) from diferric transferrin under the conditions examined. Complexed forms of Fe(3+), such as iron nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(3+)-NTA), and Fe(III)-citrate are not susceptible to this phosphate complexation reaction and efficiently deliver Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin in the presence of phosphate. This reaction suggests that citrate might play an important role in protecting against Fe(III), phosphate interactions in vivo. In contrast to the reactions of Fe(3+) and phosphate, the addition of Fe(2+) to a solution of apo-transferrin and phosphate lead to rapid oxidation and deposition of Fe(3+) into apo-transferrin. These in vitro data suggest that, in principle, elevated phosphate concentrations can influence the ability of apo-transferrin to bind iron, depending on the oxidation state of the iron.

  10. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  11. Effects of Acetate-Free Citrate Dialysate on Glycoxidation and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Masuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown the presence of high levels of glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products in association with atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Acetates are commonly used buffer for correcting metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. Since the toxic effects of acetates are well established, acetate-free citrate dialysate (AFD has become available in Japan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suppressive effects of AFD on oxidative stress in maintenance HD patients by measuring plasma pentosidine and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels as markers for glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products. Methods: Plasma pentosidine, MDA-LDL and other laboratory parameters were examined on maintenance HD at the Juntendo University Hospital before and after switching to AFD. Results: MDA-LDL levels divided by LDL cholesterol were significantly lower than those before switching to AFD. Furthermore, levels of plasma pentosidine were lower than those before switching to AFD. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the percent change of the calcium-phosphorus product in the nondiabetic group and that of phosphorus in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of MDA-LDL/LDL, whereas the percent change of log high-sensitive C-reactive protein and that of systolic blood pressure in the nondiabetic group and that of diastolic blood pressure in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of plasma pentosidine. Conclusions: It appears that AFD decreases glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products when compared with acid citrate dextrose in HD patients. The reduction of oxidative stress by AFD during HD may have possible beneficial effects on atherosclerosis through calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood pressure.

  12. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Influence of maltodextrin dextrose equivalent value on rheological and dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Petar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dextrose equivalent (DE of maltodextrin present in continuous phase on flow along with dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions has been investigated. Both, rheological and disperse characteristics of the emulsions were greatly influenced by continuous phase viscosity and thus by the DE value of maltodextrin.. The smaller DE value the greater high shear viscosity and the smaller the droplet size. Irrespective of the amount and DE value of maltodextrin used was, all the emulsions showed a pseudoplastic behaviour.

  14. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  15. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting approximately equimolecular quantities of ferric hydroxide, choline,...

  16. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made...

  17. Ventricular tachycardia after administration of sildenafil citrate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Jeppe G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has not previously been reported that sildenafil citrate causes malignant arrhythmias in humans. Case presentation A 41-year-old man developed sustained ventricular tachycardia following sildenafil citrate administration. Conclusion It cannot be dismissed that this patient experienced ventricular tachycardia as an adverse effect of sildenafil citrate administration.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid, followed by treatment with ammonium hydroxide, evaporating, and drying. The resulting product occurs in two forms depending on the stoichiometry of the initial reactants. (1) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron...

  19. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  20. Kinetics and Mechanism of Micellar Catalyzed Oxidation of Dextrose by N-Bromosuccinimide in H2SO4 Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and mechanism of micellar catalyzed N-bromosuccinimide oxidation of dextrose in H2SO4 medium was investigated under pseudo-first-order condition temperature of 40°C. The results of the reactions studied over a wide range of experimental conditions show that NBS shows a first order dependence, fractional order, on dextrose and negative fractional order dependence on sulfuric acid. The determined stoichiometric ratio was 1 : 1 (dextrose : N-bromosuccinimide. The variation of Hg(OAC2 and succinimide (reaction product has insignificant effect on reaction rate. Effects of surfactants, added acrylonitrile, added salts, and solvent composition variation have been studied. The Arrhenius activation energy and other thermodynamic activation parameters are evaluated. The rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained data. A plausible mechanism has been proposed from the results of kinetic studies, reaction stoichiometry, and product analysis. The role of anionic and nonionic micelle was best explained by the Berezin’s model.

  1. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nicole Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P=0.028. 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin.

  2. Pyrolytic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrolytic procedure is described that via a citrate synthesis allowed us to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, results already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcrystals. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurement show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  3. Pyrolitic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyrolytic procedure that via a citrate synthesis allowed to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, result already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcystals is described. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurements show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  4. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  5. Nickel electrodeposition from novel citrate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of electroplating bath suitable for nickel electrodeposition was developed. Trisodium citrate was used as a complexing agent and a buffer in the bath. The buffering capacity between trisodium citrate and boric acid were compared. The effects were investigated under different conditions of bath composition, current density, pH and temperature on the potentiodynamic cathodic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing index, as well as the electrical conductivity of these baths. The optimum conditions for producing sound and satisfactory nickel deposits were: NiSO4·6H2O 350 g/L, NiC12·6H2O 45 g/L and Na3C6H5O7 30 g/L at pH=4 and 55 ℃. The surface morphology of the as-plated Ni deposit was examined by SEM. The results reveal that the nickel deposition obtained from the optimum conditions are composed of compact, non-porous fine grains covering the entire surface. X-ray analysis shows that nickel deposits obtained from the citrate bath have a fine crystal structure compared with deposits from the Watts bath.

  6. Expanding the analytical toolbox for identity testing of pharmaceutical ingredients: Spectroscopic screening of dextrose using portable Raman and near infrared spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-03-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used as an active ingredient in parenteral solutions and as an inactive ingredient (excipient) in tablets and capsules. In order to address the need for more sophisticated analytical techniques, we report our efforts to develop enhanced identification methods to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution using field-deployable spectroscopic screening. In this paper, we report our results for a study designed to evaluate the performance of field-deployable Raman and near infrared (NIR) methods to identify dextrose samples. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods against current compendial identification tests that rely largely on a colorimetric assay. Our findings indicate that NIR and Raman spectroscopy are both able to distinguish dextrose by hydration state and from other sugar substitutes with 100% accuracy for all methods tested including spectral correlation based library methods, principal component analysis and classification methods. PMID:26965331

  7. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  8. Dietary citrate treatment of polycystic kidney disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, George A; Tanner, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    Progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the heterozygous male Han:SPRD rat is dramatically slowed by ingestion of potassium or sodium citrate. This study examined the efficacy of delayed therapy with sodium citrate, the effect of sodium citrate therapy on kidney cortex levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and the response to calcium citrate ingestion. Rats were provided with citrate salts in their food, and renal clearance, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and survival determinations were made. Sodium citrate therapy was most effective when started at age 1 month, and delay of therapy until age 3 months produced no benefit. Kidney cortex TGF-beta levels were elevated in 3- and 8-month-old rats with ADPKD, but not in 6-week-old rats. Sodium citrate treatment, started at age 1 month, lowered TGF-beta levels to normal in 3-month-old rats, but this is probably not the primary mechanism of citrate's beneficial effect. Calcium citrate had only a modest effect in preserving glomerular filtration rate. Effective treatment of ADPKD in this rat model requires early administration of a readily absorbed alkalinizing citrate salt. Existing data on ADPKD patients on vegetarian diets or with kidney stones should be studied in light of these findings.

  9. Is dextrose prolotherapy superior to placebo for the treatment of temporomandibular joint hypermobility? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert Kiliç, S; Güngörmüş, M

    2016-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial involving adult patients with bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility referred for treatment was implemented. The sample comprised 30 consecutive patients, who were divided randomly into two groups. The TMJ hypermobility was treated with either saline (placebo group) or dextrose injections (study group). The solution was injected into five different TMJ areas in three sessions at monthly intervals. The predictor variable was the treatment technique. The outcome variables were visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluations and maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO). Outcome variables were recorded preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at a P-value of hypermobility assessed. PMID:26846795

  10. Exploring plant factors for increasing phosphorus utilization from rock phosphates and native soil phosphates in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six plant species with contrasting capacity in utilizing rock phosphates were compared with regard to their responses to phosphorus starvation in hydroponic cultures. Radish, buckwheat and oil rapeseed are known to have strong ability to use rock phosphates while ryegrass, wheat and sesbania are less efficient. Whereas other plants acidified their culture solution under P starvation (-P), radish plants make alkaline the solution. When neutralizing the pH of the solutions cultured with plants under either -P or + P conditions, solutions with P starved buckwheat, rapeseed, and radish had a higher ability to solubilize Al and Fe phosphates than did those cultured with sesbania, ryegrass and wheat. Characterization of organic ligands in the solutions identified that citrate and malate were the major organic anions exuded by rapeseed and radish. Besides citrate and malate, buckwheat exuded a large amount of tartrate under P starvation. In contrast, ryegrass, wheat and sesbania secreted only a limited amount of oxalic acid, regardless of P status. Changes in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, acid phosphatase, and nitrate reductase in these plants were also compared under P- sufficient or -deficient conditions. The results indicated that plant ability to use rock phosphates or soil phosphates is closely related to their responses toward P starvation. The diversity of P starvation responses was discussed in the context of co-evolution between plants and their environment. Approaches to use plant factors to enhance the effectiveness of rock phosphates were also discussed. (author)

  11. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their... blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium...

  12. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their... blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium...

  13. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their... blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium...

  14. [A case report of alverine-citrate-induced acute hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Young; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Joon Mee; Joo, Kowoon; Chon, Ung; Lee, Jung Il; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Young Soo; Min, Kyung Sun

    2010-03-01

    Alverine citrate is one of the most commonly used antispasmodic drugs for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine-citrate-induced hepatotoxicity is extremely rare, with only a few cases having been reported worldwide. We present a case of a 75-year-old female patient who experienced complicated jaundice and abdominal discomfort after taking alverine citrate. Other causes of hepatitis were ruled out and the results of the liver function test returned to normal after ceasing the drug. This is the first case report in Korea of alverine-citrate-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:20375645

  15. Urinary Citrate: A view in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTHOSH KUMAR.N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective: To evaluate the 24 hour urinary citrate levels in chronic renal failure and healthy controls and to define the role of urinary citrates in the chronic renal failures. Materials and Methods: The 24 hours urinary citrates, Blood urea, Serum creatinine, Na+, K+were evaluated in 25 chronic renal failure patients and25 healthy subjects taken as controls. In both groups participants were on their usual diet. In addition, none of the participant was taking any drugs that could interfere with the citrate excretion. Results: The mean 24 hour urinary citrate excretion in patients and healthy controls was 296.3 ± 8.543mg and 323.9 ± 4.304mg respectively. Using previously defined values of normal urinary citrates as more than 320 mg.The difference in 24 hour urinary citrateexcretion in all patients and healthy control was statistically significant (

    citrate excretion in recurrent renal failures and healthy controls. Uniformly low citrate excretion in patients indicates that low citrate levels may be a feature seen in predisposing factor for renal failure

  16. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, D.; Tapia, A.; Real, A.; Morcillo, M.A. [Radiobiology Laboratory, Radiation Dosimetry Unit, Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  17. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  18. VIABILITY AND PLASMA MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF THE SPOTTED BUFFALO EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA AFTER THAWING WITH THE ADDITION OF DEXTROSE INTO THE EXTENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RIZAL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available h e objective of this study was to obtain the viability and plasma membrane integrity of the spotted buff alo epididymal sperm after addition of dextrose into Andromed® extender. Spermatozoa that have been collected from cauda epididymis were diluted with Andromed® extender as control (K and Andromed® + 0.2% dextrose (P1 and Andromed® + 0.4% dextrose (P2 as treatments. h e results showed that the quality of epididymal spermatozoa decreased during cryopreservation process. h e percentage of motility after thawing in P1 (46% and P2 (46.67% were signifi cantly higher (P<0.05 compared to K (41% as well as the percentage of live sperm in P1 (58.8% and P2 (60% compared to K (52.2%. h e percentage of membrane integrity in P1, P2 and K were 67.4; 66.8 and 68 %, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 0.2 and 0.4% of dextrose into Andromed® acted as an extra cellular cryoprotectant and could maintain the viability and membrane integrity of the spotted buff alo epididymal spermatozoa after thawing.

  19. Physical and sensory properties of low-salt phosphate-free frankfurters composed with various ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusunen, Marita; VainionpÀÀ, Jukka; Puolanne, Eero; Lyly, Marika; LÀhteenmÀki, Liisa; Niemistö, Markku; Ahvenainen, Raija

    2003-01-01

    http://www.elsevier.com/locate/meatsci The physical properties and sensory attributes of phosphate-free frankfurters were examined using response surface methodology by varying the amounts of five compositional variables: salt, modified tapioca starch-, sodium citrate (NaC)- and wheat bran and fat in the batter. Altogether, 20 different types of frankfurters were prepared. When the frankfurters were made without phosphate, additional non-meat ingredients were needed at salt contents of ...

  20. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-06-05

    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  2. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the well-s

  3. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  4. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIAID)

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  5. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  6. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  7. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended... citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended ] form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute...

  8. 76 FR 77772 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry..., sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more,...

  9. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  10. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subohi, Oroosa, E-mail: oroosa@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462051, M.P. (India); Shastri, Lokesh [Department of Physics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462051, M.P. (India); Kumar, G.S. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, A.P. (India); Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish [Department of Physics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462051, M.P. (India)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T{sub c} due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample.

  11. Role of Ga-67 citrate imaging in pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Kakuma, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    1988-11-01

    Two patients with pancreatitis in whom an area of predominant uptake of Ga-67 citrate was demonstrated involving the entire pancreas are presented. Ultrasound and x-ray CT did not reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas, whereas Ga-67 citrate imaging indicated the presence of active inflammatory change. Ga-67 citrate imaging may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and laboratory data, especially when ultrasound and/or x-ray CT cannot reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas.

  12. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5782... The scope of this order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and.... The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well...

  13. Role of phosphate in the regulation of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, R; Gancedo, C

    1983-12-15

    The occurrence of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several conditions has been examined. In these conditions measurements of a series of metabolites potentially involved in the regulation of the effect were performed. These included, among others, adenine nucleotides, citrate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Only phosphate changed in a consistent way, increasing in anaerobiosis when the Pasteur effect occurred. It is concluded that, with the available data, only phosphate may be considered as a regulator of the Pasteur effect in this microorganism.

  14. Phosphate Removal by Anion Binding on Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wasanna

    2010-03-26

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMS was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to ~ 10 µg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA’s established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorous (20 µg/L).

  15. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  16. Competitive and cooperative adsorption of arsenate and citrate on goethite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Rong; JIA Yongfeng; WANG Chengzhi

    2009-01-01

    The fate of arsenic in natural environments is influenced by adsorption onto metal (hydr)oxides. The extent of arsenic adsorption is strongly affected by coexisting dissolved natural organic acids. Recently, some studies reported that there existed competitive adsorption between arsenate and citrate on goethite. Humic acid is known to interact strongly with arsenate by forming complexes in aqueous solution, hence it is necessary to undertake a comprehensive study of the adsorption of arsenate/citrate onto goethite in the presence of one another. The results showed that at the arsenate concentrations used in this study (0.006--0.27 mmol/L), citrate decreased arsenate adsorption at acidic pH but no effect was observed at alkaline pH. In comparison, citrate adsorption was inhibited at acidic pH, but enhanced at alkaline pH by arsenate. This was probably due to the formation of complex between arsenate and citrate like the case of arsenate with humic acid. These results implied that the mechanism of the adsorption of arsenate and citrate onto goethite in the presence of one another involved not only competition for binding sites, but the cooperation between the two species at the water-goethite interface as well.

  17. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated ...

  18. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  19. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  20. Effects of Organic Anions on Phosphate Adsorption and Desorption from Variable—Charge Clay Minerals and Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEZHEN-LI; YUANKE-NENG; 等

    1992-01-01

    Effects of citrate and tartrate on phosphate adsorption and desorption from kaolinite,goethite,amorphous Al-oxide and Ultisol were studied.P adsorption was significantly decreased as the concentration of the organic anions increased from 10-5 to 10-1 M.At 0.1 M and pH 7.0,tartrate decreased P adsorption by 27.6%-50.6% and citrate by 37.9-80.4%,depending on the kinds of adsorbent.Little Al and/or Fe were detected in the equilibrium solutions,even at the highest concentration of the organic anions.Effects of the organic anions on phosphate adsorption follow essentially the competitive adsorption mechanism.The selectivity coefficients for competitive adsorption can be used to compare the effectiveness of different organic anions in reducing P adsorption under given gonditions. Phosphate desorption was increased by 3 to 100 times in the presence of 0.001 M citrate or tartrate compared to that in 0.02 M KCl solution alone.However,for all the soil and clay minerals studied the amount of P desorbed by citrate or tartrate was generally lower than or close to that of isotopically exchangeable P.The effect of organic anions on phosphate desorption arises primarily from ligand exchange.

  1. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 5000 C, 4500 C and 2500 C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 4500 C and 5000 C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 8000 C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 5000 C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 6000 C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 4000 C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 4000 C-8000 C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 11000 C and 12000 C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm-3 at 12000 C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs

  2. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  3. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K; Allred, Benjamin E; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-10-16

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up (55)Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations.

  4. 77 FR 33167 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution, and regardless of packaging type. The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate... form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by...

  5. 76 FR 34048 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their... blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium...

  6. 76 FR 33219 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ..., sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution, and regardless of packaging type. The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend....

  7. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ..., sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution, and regardless of packaging type. The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend....

  8. Characterization of cylindrical and strip-shaped tamoxifen citrate-loaded biodegradable implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh G Hiremath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare tamoxifen citrate (TC-loaded cylindrical and strip-shaped polymeric subdermal implants. The implant was based on poly(ε-caprolactone, a low-melting, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000 was used to enhance solubility and release of the drug in the phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. Implants were prepared by a standardized melt manufacturing method. The prepared implants were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters and drug content in implants by UV spectrophotometric method. PCL-based implants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction studies (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC studies showed that the TC in the implants was in the amorphous state. In vitro drug release studies were performed in methanol:phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4 at 37±2°C by using horizontal water bath shaker. Stability study was carried out for 90 days, there was no significant change in drug content and other parameters of the PCL-based formulations.

  9. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hamilton, William A [ORNL; Butler, Paul D [ORNL; Warr, G. G. [University of Sydney, Australia

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  11. Theoretical Study on Sulfur Dioxide Absorption with Citrate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛娟琴; 洪涛; 王召启; 李林波

    2006-01-01

    The citrate absorption of SO2 is currently one of the most successful and economic methods to harness sulfur dioxide pollution.In order to theoretically elucidate the mechanism of SO2 absorption by citrate solution and provide theoretical instruction for experiments and industrial process, the theory of multi-buffer solution, combined with computer numerical calculation methods, was applied to study the distribution parameters of the components of the citrate solution in the process of SO2 absorption and the following results were obtained: (1) HCi2- and H2Ci- in the citrate solution played the dominant role in the absorption and desorption processes; (2) Through the calculation for the buffer capacity of citrate solution, it was found that the pH of the absorption and desorption solution should be in the range of 2~8, while at pH=4.5 the buffer capacity reached its maximum. Some valuable parameters were obtained, which are instructive to the ensuing experiments and industrial design.

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs.

  13. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team. PMID:27615524

  14. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  15. Development of macroporous calcium phosphate scaffold processed via microwave rapid drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. A new method to fabricate macroporous calcium phosphate (CP) scaffold via microwave irradiation, followed by conventional sintering to form HA scaffold was developed. Incorporation of trisodium citrate dihydrate and citric acid in the CP mixture gave macroporous scaffolds upon microwave rapid drying. In this work, a mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), trisodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid and double distilled de-ionised water (DDI) was exposed to microwave radiation to form a macroporous structure. Based on gross eye examinations, addition of trisodium citrate at 30 and 40 wt.% in the CP mixture (β-TCP and CaCO3) without citric acid indicates increasing order of pore volume where the highest porosity yield was observed at 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate addition and the pore size was detected at several millimeters. Therefore, optimization of pore size was performed by adding 3-7 wt.% of citric acid in the CP mixture which was separately mixed with 30 and 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate for comparison purposes. Fabricated scaffolds were calcined at 600 deg. C and washed with DDI water to remove the sodium hydroxycarbonate and sintered at 1250 deg. C to form HA phase as confirmed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Based on Archimedes method, HA scaffolds prepared from 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate with 3-7 wt.% of citric acid added CP mixture have an open and interconnected porous structure ranging from 51 to 53 vol.% and observation using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the pore size distribution between 100 and 500 μm. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the porous HA scaffolds have no cytotoxic potential on MG63 osteoblast-like cells which might allow for their use as biomaterials.

  16. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation. PMID:22515732

  17. Effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-BinHuang; Cheng-LiangXiong; Cheng-GaoYu; Jie-LingZhou; Ji-YunShen

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of sildenafil citrate on penile erection of male rhesus macaque. Methods:Twenty Macaca mulatta were divided into the sildenafil treated and the control groups of l0 animals each. The penile size, the corpus cavernosal electromyogram (EMG) and the intra-corpus cavernosal pressure (ICP) were determined. Results: The diameter of penis and the ICP were significantly increased and the corpus cavernosal EMG significantly reduced in the sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate increases the penile size and ICP and reduces the corpus cavernosal EMG in male rhesus macaque. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 233-235)

  18. Enhancing the versatility of alternate current biosusceptometry (ACB) through the synthesis of a dextrose-modified tracer and a magnetic muco-adhesive cellulose gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: murillolongo@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, CP 510, 18618–970 Botucatu SP (Brazil); Calabresi, Marcos F.; Quini, Caio; Matos, Juliana F.; Miranda, José R.A.; Saeki, Margarida J. [Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, CP 510, 18618–970 Botucatu SP (Brazil); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-03-01

    Alternate Current Biosusceptometry (ACB) is a promising bio-magnetic method, radiation free and easily performed used for gastric emptying exams. Due to development on its sensitivity level, interesting nature, noninvasiveness and low cost it has attracted a lot of attention. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles of Mn–Zn ferrite as well as dextrose-modified nanoparticles were synthesized to be used as possible tracers in ACB gastric emptying exams. In addition, a magnetic muco-adhesive gel was obtained by modifying the ferrite nanoparticles with cellulose. Based on in-vivo tests in rats, we show that the pure ferrite nanoparticles, whose isoelectric point was found to be at pH = 3.2, present a great sensitivity to pH variations along the gastrointestinal tract, while the reduction of the isoelectric point by the dextrose modification leads to suitable nanoparticles for rapid gastric emptying examinations. On the other hand, the in-vivo tests show that the muco-adhesive cellulose gel presents substantial stomach adhesion and is a potential drug delivery system easily traceable by the ACB system.

  19. Hemodiafiltration using pre-dilutional on-line citrate dialysate: A new technique for regional citrate anticoagulation: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhouane Bousselmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, observational, feasibility study was carried out on four patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing bicarbonate hemodialysis to study the feasibility of an on-line hemodiafiltration technique using a citrate dialysate with pre-dilutional infusion of citrate as a technique for regional citrate anticoagulation. All patients had contraindication to systemic heparin anticoagulation. The dialysis technique consisted of an on-line hemodiafiltration with a citrate dialysate without calcium using a Fresenius 4008S dialysis machine and Fresenius Polysulfone F60 dialyzers. The infusion solution was procured directly from the dialysate and was infused into the arterial line. To avoid the risk of hypocalcemia, calcium gluconate was infused to the venous return line. The study was carried out in two stages. During the first stage, the citrate infusion rate was 80 mL/min and the calcium infusion rate was 9 mmol/h. At the second stage, the rates were 100 mL/min and 11 mmol/h, respectively. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of thrombosis in the extracorporeal blood circuit and/or the dialyzer. A total of 78 sessions were conducted. All the sessions were well tolerated clinically and there were no major incidents in any of the four patients. At the first stage of the study, there were five incidences of small clots in the venous blood chamber, an incidence of extracorporeal blood circuit thrombosis of 12.5%. At the second stage of the study, no cases of extracorporeal blood circuit or dialyzer thrombosis were noted. Hemodiafiltration with on-line citrate dialysate infusion to the arterial line is safe and allows an effective regional anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit without the need for systemic anticoagulation.

  20. Polymeric architectures of bismuth citrate based on dimeric building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Four bismuth complexes, (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)4/3]·(H2O)x (1), (H2En)3[Bi2(cit)2Cl4]·(H2O)x (2), (HPy)2[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)8/5]·(H2O)x (3) and (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2](H2O)x (4) [cit = citrate4-; En = ethylenediamine; Py = pyridine] have been synthesized and crystallized. The crystal structures reveal that the basic building blocks in all of these complexes are bismuth citrate dimeric units which combine to form polymeric architectures. The embedded protonated ethylenediamine and pyridine moieties in the polymeric frameworks have been identified by X-ray crystallography and solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR. Based on the framework of complex 1, a structural model of a clinically used antiulcer drug, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) was generated. The behavior of the protonated amine-bismuth citrate complexes in acidic aqueous solution has been studied by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  1. Genetics of mesophilic citrate fermenting lactic acid bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prerequisite for the stabilization of important features, such as aroma production, in starter strains used in dairy fermentations, is an extensive knowledge of the genetic basis of these properties. In this thesis the genetic basis of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. di

  2. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  3. Tumour imaging using technetium-99m-citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with soft tissue malignancy or fibroadenoma of the breast (Group A) were imaged using 99mTc-citrate. Majority of the patients (n=14) has new untreated lesions. Appreciable skeletal uptake of the tracer was serendipitously noticed in all cases. One of these had widespread bone metastases seen almost identically in 99mTc-citrate and 99mTc-MDP studies. Accordingly, 10 patients (Group B) having more than 40 malignant lesions on the bone scan underwent 99mTc-citrate study. In group A, accumulation of the tracer was seen in all malignant breast nodules and axillary lymphnode mass (n=4), medullary carcinoma of the thyroid along with its metastasis and a carcinoid (n=4) and an ovarian malignancy. Uptake and outflow pattern could differentiate fibroadenoma (n=3) from carcinoma of the breast. No significant uptake was seen in liver secondaries (n>10), lymphoma lesions (n=5), papillary carcinoma of thyroid, renal cell and embryonal cell carcinoma. In group B patients, the radiotracer accumulated well in the metastatic lesions while there was distinctly lesser uptake in normal/degenerated joints compared to the bone scan. The study shows potential of the tracer in imaging soft tissue malignancies. Bone scanning with 99mTc-citrate is an interesting possibility since mechanism of its uptake appears to be different to 99mTc-MDP. (author)

  4. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacill

  5. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  6. Enzyme Basis for pH Regulation of Citrate and Pyruvate Metabolism by Leuconostoc oenos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Ana; Lolkema, Juke S.; Konings, Wilhelmus; Santos, Helena

    1995-01-01

    Citrate and pyruvate metabolism by nongrowing cells of Leuconostoc oenos was investigated. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the pathway of citrate breakdown and to probe citrate or pyruvate utilization, noninvasively, in living cell suspensions. The utilization

  7. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal pho...

  8. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  9. DHEA-mediated inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway alters oocyte lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Patricia T; Frolova, Antonina I; Chi, Maggie M; Grindler, Natalia M; Willcockson, Alexandra R; Reynolds, Kasey A; Zhao, Quihong; Moley, Kelle H

    2013-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS.

  10. Parenteral amino acids v. dextrose infusion: an anabolic strategy to minimise the catabolic response to surgery while maintaining normoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Andrea Kopp; Donatelli, Francesco; Schricker, Thomas; Kindler, Christoph H; Wykes, Linda; Carli, Franco

    2012-02-01

    Loss of body protein and hyperglycaemia represent typical features of the stress response to surgery and anaesthesia. This appears to be particularly pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of the present study was to highlight the greater benefit of amino acids (AA) as represented by positive protein balance and maintenance of blood glucose homoeostasis compared with dextrose (DEX) in diabetic patients after colorectal surgery. A total of thirteen patients underwent a 5 h stable isotope infusion study (2 h fasted, 3 h fed with an infusion of AA (n 6) or DEX (n 7)) on the second post-operative day. Glucose and protein kinetics were assessed by using the stable isotopes l-[1-¹³C]leucine and [6,6-²H₂]glucose. The transition from fasted to fed state decreased endogenous glucose production (P surgery.

  11. Intraocular Irrigating Solutions. A Clinical Study of BSS Plus ® and Dextrose Bicarbonate Fortified BSS ® as an Infusate during Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effect of Balanced Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA and fortified regular BSS on the cornea and lens, when used for continuous irrigation in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV surgery. Methods: Prospective, investigator masked, randomised study. Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV using BSS Plus (n=20 or fortified BSS (n=20 [regular BSS, fortified with 10.5 cc. of dextrose in water (D5W and 13.1cc. of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate]. Intraoperative features of the corneal epithelium, postoperative changes in the corneal endothelial cell denstiy (ECD at 3 months, and clarity of the lens during surgery and postoperatively were evaluated. Results: Intraoperative epithelial changes were similar in both groups with 7 (35% of the cases having the epithelium removed in the BSS Plus group and 8 (40% in the BSS fortified group (P=0.23. The mean differences in ECD (3 months versus preoperative in the operated eyes when adjusted for changes in the control eye showed no difference with the type of BSS (P=0.98. Intraoperative lens changes were more significant (P=0.018 in the BSS fortified group. Postoperative lens status at 3 months was similar for both groups. Though there was a trend towards worse postoperative nuclear sclerosis change in the BSS fortified group, it was not significant (P=0.160. Conclusion: Standard BSS fortified with dextrose and bicarbonate is an efficacious infusion fluid during pars plana vitrectomy. Both solutions showed comparable effects on postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and corneal epithelial changes intraoperatively. BSS fortified has more lenticular changes intraoperatively than BSS Plus although no lens had to be removed in either group. The study implications are important since BSS fortified is significantly less expensive than BSS Plus.

  12. Metformin-clomiphene citrate vs. clomiphene citrate alone: Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women that is associated with reproductive and metabolic disorders. Objectives: We compared the ovulation and conception rates after the treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC alone and in combination with metformin in infertile patients presented with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial of independent cases and controls was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 01 to December 31, 2008. The 42 subjects diagnosed as PCOS were divided into group A and B (21 subjects in each for management with CC + metformin and CC alone, respectively. Group A received 500 mg three times a day of metformin continuously from the first cycle for 6 months or till pregnancy was confirmed. In both groups CC was started at a dose of 50 mg from day-2 till day-6 of the menstrual cycle. The dose of CC was increased to 100 mg in second and 150 mg in third cycle, and then remained 150 mg for the remaining three cycles. With ovulation the dose of CC was unaltered in both groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: More than 50% females in both groups were had body mass index > 25. Group A achieved high rate of regular cycles, ovulation success, and conception than group B (71.4% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.03, (76.2% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.021, and (66.6% vs. 28.6%; P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Management with metformin + CC increased the ovulation and conception rates.

  13. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%.

  14. The Australian national reactive phosphate rock project - Aims, experimental approach, and site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field-based cutting trials were established across Australia in a range of environments to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of 5 phosphate rocks, and 1 partially acidulated phosphate rock, relative to either single super-phosphate or triple superphosphate. The phosphate rocks differed in reactivity, as determined by the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure and solubility of phosphorus present in the fertilizers in 2% formic acid, 2% citric acid and neutral ammonium citrate. Sechura (Bayovar) and North Carolina phosphate rocks were highly reactive (>70% solubility in 2% formic acid), whilst Khouribja (Moroccan) and Hamrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock were moderately reactive. Duchess phosphate rock from Queensland was relatively unreactive (2, from 4.0 to 5.1, and Colwell extractable phosphorus ranged from 3 to 47 μg/g prior to fertilizer application. Two core experiments were established at each site. The first measured the effects of phosphate rock reactivity on agronomic effectiveness, while the second core experiment measured the effects of the degree of water solubility of the phosphorus source on agronomic effectiveness. The National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project trials provided the opportunity to confirm the suitability of accepted procedures to model fertilizer response and to develop new approaches for comparing different fertilizer responses. The Project also provided the framework for subsidiary studies such as the effect of fertilizer source on soil phosphorus extractability; cadmium and fluorine concentrations in herbage; evaluation of soil phosphorus tests; and the influence of particle size on phosphate rock effectiveness. The National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project presents a valuable model for a large, Australia-wide, collaborative team approach to an important agricultural issue. The use of standard and consistent experimental methodologies at every site ensured that maximum benefit was obtained from data

  15. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution,...

  16. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... the order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate,...

  17. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... dihydrate and anhydrous forms of sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\1\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium... monosodium salt, respectively. Citric acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and...

  18. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  19. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  20. Silver-YBCO composite through citrate gel decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver-YBCO composite containing upto 75% silver has been prepared by thermal decomposition of citrate gel. In this paper the morphological and structural changes taking place during the decomposition of the gel in the range 100--900 degrees C are presented. Heat treatment at 915 degrees C of the composite powder containing Ag2O above a critical limit has been found to impart superconductivity without any external oxygen annealing. The mechanical and microstructural features of the sintered composite are presented

  1. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  2. Electrodeposition of iron-molybdenum coatings from citrate electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Ved, M. V.; Sakhnenko, N. D.; Karakurkchi, A. V.; Zyubanova, S. I.

    2014-01-01

    Specifi c features of the electrodeposition of iron–molybdenum coatings from a citrate electrolyte based on iron(III) sulfate and sodium molybdate in dc and unipolar pulsed modes were studied. It was demonstrated that bright compact coatings with varied content of molybdenum can be produced by varying the relative concentrations of salts of the alloy-forming components and the solution pH. The current density ranges providing the high efficiency of the galvanostastic electrolysis were determi...

  3. Electrodeposition of iron-molybdenum-tungsten coatings from citrate electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurkchi, A. V.; Ved, M. V.; Sakhnenko, N. D.; Yermolenko, I. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of the electrodeposition of iron–molybdenum–tungsten coatings from citrate electrolytes based on iron(III) sulfate in the dc mode and with a unipolar pulsed current were studied. It was shown that varying the relative concentrations of salts of alloy-forming metals and the solution pH makes it possible to obtain lustrous compact coatings with low porosity and various contents of high-melting components. The effect of temperature on the coating composition and current efficie...

  4. Sildenafil citrate and uteroplacental perfusion in fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, Sildenafil citrate, affects uteroplacental perfusion. Materials and Methods: Based on a randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial, forty one pregnant women with documented intrauterine growth retardation at 24-37 weeks of gestation were evaluated for the effect of a single dose of Sildenafil citrate on uteroplacental circulation as determined by Doppler ultrasound study of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Statistical analysis included χ2 -test to compare proportions, and independent-samples t-test and paired student′s t-test to compare continuous variables. Results: Sildenafil group fetuses demonstrated a significant decrease in systolic/diastolic ratios (0.60 [SD 0.40] [95% Cl 0.37-0.84], P=0.000, and pulsatility index (0.12 [SD 0.15] [95% Cl 0.02-0.22], P=0.019 for the umbilical artery and a significant increase in middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI (0.51 [SD 0.60] [95% Cl 0.16-0.85], P=0.008. Conclusion: Doppler velocimetry index values reflect decreased placental bed vascular resistance after Sildenafil. Sildenafil citrate can improve fetoplacental perfusion in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. It could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve uteroplacental blood flow in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR.

  5. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  6. TRANSPORT OF CITRATE CATALYZED BY THE SODIUM-DEPENDENT CITRATE CARRIER OF KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE IS OBLIGATORILY COUPLED TO THE TRANSPORT OF 2 SODIUM-IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOLKEMA, JS; ENEQUIST, H; VANDERREST, ME

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this experimen

  7. Transport of citrate catalyzed by the sodium-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae is obligatorily coupled to the transport of two sodium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Enequist, Hans; Rest, Michel E. van der

    1994-01-01

    Aerobically grown Escherichia coli GM48 harboring plasmid pKScitS that codes for the sodium-dependent citrate carrier from Klebsiella pneumoniae (CitS) allows initial-rate measurements of citrate uptake in whole cells. The cation stoichiometry and selectivity of CitS was studied using this experimen

  8. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  9. 柠檬酸铅在柠檬酸钠溶液中溶解行为%Dissolution behavior of lead citrate in sodium citrate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东升; 李巧双; 杨典奇; 杨聪; 王贤晨; 杨家宽

    2014-01-01

    Lead citrate was prepared by the reaction of lead oxide and citrate. The effects of dissolution time, dissolution tempera-ture, sodium citrate concentration, and the addition amount of citric acid on the dissolution rate of lead citrate in sodium citrate solution were investigated. Experimental results show that, dissolution temperature, sodium citrate concentration, and the addition amount of citric acid are the main influencing factors. Increasing the dissolution temperature or the sodium citrate concentration can significantly improve the dissolution rate of lead citrate. The dissolution rate of lead citrate has a positive linear relation with the dissolution tempera-ture, and the fitted linear equation is Y=0.76+0.63T. Adding citric acid can inhibit the dissolution of lead citrate.%通过氧化铅与柠檬酸反应制备了柠檬酸铅,考察了溶解时间、溶解温度、柠檬酸钠浓度和柠檬酸加入量对柠檬酸铅在柠檬酸钠溶液中溶解率的影响.结果表明:温度、柠檬酸钠浓度及柠檬酸加入量是主要影响因素,升高温度和提高柠檬酸钠浓度可显著提高柠檬酸铅溶解率;温度和溶解率呈正线性关系,拟合的线性方程为Y=0.76+0.63T;加入柠檬酸则对柠檬酸铅溶解有抑制作用.

  10. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  11. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  12. Supplying dextrose before insemination and L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy in sow diets: effects on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H; Quiniou, N; Roy, H; Lottin, A; Boulot, S; Gondret, F

    2014-04-01

    Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P > 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6 ± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CV(BW0)) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CV(BW0) was less (P piglets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and litter size at weaning were not

  13. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition,...

  14. Hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite as an active filtration medium for phosphate capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lin, Yan; Wu, Deyi; Kong, Hainan

    2016-02-01

    A simple method to functionalize diatomite with hydrous iron oxide was attempted and its performance as a new active filtration material to remove and recover phosphate from water was investigated under varying solution conditions. The Langmuir phosphate adsorption capacity increased from 0.6 mgP/g for raw diatomite to 4.89, 14.71, 25.02 mgP/g for hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite (HIOMD), depending on the amount of iron loaded. Loading of hydrous iron oxide caused the increase in true and bulk density and a decline in filtration rate, but to a lesser extent. It was shown that the HIOMD product with suitable iron content could retain a good filtration performance with a greatly increased adsorption capacity for phosphate. The phosphate adsorption increased by decreasing pH and by increasing ionic strength at high pH levels. The adsorption process was interpreted by ligand exchange. Coexisting oxyanions of sulfate, nitrate, citrate, carbonate, silicate and humic acid showed different effects on phosphate fixation but it was presumed that their influence at their concentrations and pH levels commonly encountered in effluent or natural waters was limited, i.e., HIOMD had a reasonably good selectivity. Results in repeated adsorption, desorption and regeneration experiment showed that the adsorbed phosphate could be recovered and the material could be reused after regeneration. The column test showed that HIOMD could be potentially utilized as an adsorption filtration medium for phosphate removal and recovery from water.

  15. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, J.; Ito, A.; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemota...

  16. Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is critical for many biological processes, and both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have adverse clinical consequences. Only a very small percentage (1%) of total body phosphate is present in the extracellular fluid, which is measured by routine laboratory assays and does not reflect total body phosphate stores. Phosphate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the transcellular route [sodium phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b)] and acros...

  17. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  18. Renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate in renal amyloidosis due to Familiar Mediterranean Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo-Marraco, J.; Abos-Olivares, M.D.; Iribar-Ibabe, M.C.; Prats-Rivera, E.; Banzo-Marraco, J.I.; Teijeiro-Vidal, J.; Nerin-Mora, E.; Nerin de la Puerta, I.

    1981-06-01

    Renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate is described in a patient with biopsy-proven amyloidosis of the kidneys, due to Familiar Mediterranean Fever. After administration 150 MBq (4mCi) /sup 67/Ga-citrate, scans were done at 48, 72, and 120 h. Intense uptake was noted in both kidneys. A renal biopsy done 5 days after the /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan revealed a pattern typical of amyloidosis. Gallium scanning can be useful in patients with fever of unknown origin. Renal amyloidosis can be considered when renal uptake of /sup 67/Ga-citrate associated with nephrotic syndrome is observed.

  19. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Ewald

    Full Text Available Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation.

  20. Comparison of the efficiency of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in combination with metformin in moderately obese clomiphene citrate - resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductiveage. Therapy for those who want to get pregnant involves ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate, metformin, letrozole and gonadotropins. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of combinations of clomiphene citrate-metformin and letrozole-metformin in obese patients who are resistant to clomiphene citrate alone. Methods. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study involving 60 moderately obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Thirty-one of them received the clomiphene citrate-metformin, and 29 letrozole-metformin therapy. Stimulation was carried out for the procedures of intrauterine insemination (IUI. Results. The age of patients, duration of infertility, and body mass index in both groups were similar. There was statistically significant difference in the thickness of the endometrium in favor of the group having the letrozole-metformin therapy (8.9 ± 1.7 mm compared with the group receiving the clomiphene citrate-metformin treatment (6.3 ± 1.3 mm. The number of follicles was not statistically significantly different. Pregnancy rate in the first cycle of IUI in the clomiphene citrate group was 6.4%, and 17.2% in the letrozole group, which also was not statistically different. After the third IUI cycle, the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the letrozole group (20.6%, while in the clomiphene citrate group it was (9.6%. Conclusion. This retrospective study demonstrated the advantages of the use of letrozole over clomiphene citrate in combination with metformin in moderately obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who are resistant to stimulation with clomiphene citrate alone.

  1. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  2. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  3. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon and (strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.

  4. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

  6. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  7. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid)......

  8. Antiproliferative Effects of Zinc-Citrate Compound on Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Hoo Hong; Yong Sun Choi; Hyuk Jin Cho; Ji Youl Lee; Joon Chul Kim; Tae Kon Hwang; Sae Woong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antiproliferative effects of zinc-citrate compound on hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).Methods:HRPC cell line (DU145) and normal prostate cell line (RWPE-1) were treated with zinc,citrate and zinc-citrate compound at different time intervals and concentrations to investigate the effect of zinc-citrate compound.Mitochondrial (m)-aconitase activity was determined using aconitase assay.DNA laddering analysis was performed to investigate apoptosis of DU145 cells.Molecular mechanism of apoptosis was investigated by Western blot analys s of P53,P21waf1,Bcl-2,Bcl-xL and Bax,and also caspase-3 activity analysis.Results:Treatment with zinc-citrate compound resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell number of DU145 cells in comparison with RWPE-1.M-aconitase activity was significantly decreased.DNA laddering analysis indicated apoptosis of DU145 cells.Zinc-citrate compound increased the expression of P21waf1 and P53,and reduced the express on of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins but induced the expression of Bax protein.Zinc-citrate compound induced apoptosis of DU145 cells by activation of the caspase-3 pathway.Conclusion:Zinc-citrate compound can induce apoptotic cell death in DU145,by caspase-3 activation through up-regulation of apoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins.

  9. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  10. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stergios Vradelis; Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Yalda Sharifi; Otto Buchel; Satish Keshav; Roger W Chapman; Barbara Braden

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient's tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. METHODS: A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone ( n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules ( n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. RESULTS: The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group ( P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen ( P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). CONCLUSION: The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome.

  11. MECHANISM AND ENERGETICS OF A CITRATE-TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERREST, ME; ABEE, T; MOLENAAR, D; KONINGS, WN

    1991-01-01

    The citrate-transport determinant of plasmid pES1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae [Schwarz, E. & Oesterhelt, D. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 1599 - 1603] has been subcloned in Escherichia coli DH1. Uptake of citrate in E. coli membrane vesicles via this uptake system is an electrogenic process, although the pH grad

  12. Mechanism of Citrate Metabolism by an Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase-Deficient Mutant of Lactococcus lactis IL1403

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2011-01-01

    Citrate metabolism in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403(pFL3) results in the formation of two end products from the intermediate pyruvate, acetoin and acetate (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:706-714, 2011). Pyruvate is formed from citrate following uptake by the transport

  13. The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in isotonic glucose solution for intravenous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangsik; Lee, Yeonjin

    2013-01-01

    Citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in industry, consumer products, and medical appliances. However, information on the environmental toxicity and human health is not comprehensive. Further, the physicochemical properties of AgNP make it difficult to test toxicity, as nanosized particles, due to their size, may increase by aggregation or agglomeration in some administration vehicles. In this study, stability of AgNP was investigated in different types of isotonic solutions, which is important for in vitro testing or toxicokinetic studies using intravenous (iv) injection. Size, morphology, zeta potential, and ion formation were investigated in isotonic solutions for the physicochemical characterization of AgNP. Aggregation and precipitation of AgNP were observed in phosphate-buffered saline or 0.9% NaCl, while AgNP were stable without aggregation or precipitation in 5% glucose in isotonic solution. The average size of AgNP in 5% glucose was approximately 10 nm at different temperatures of 10, 25, or 36°C and at varying concentrations from 10 to 1000 ppm. It is noteworthy that this is almost the same size distribution as that in the water-based suspension of AgNP supplied by the manufacturer. Zeta potential ranged from -40 to -60 mV, suggesting that the repulsion forces of AgNP are not disturbed to a sufficient degree to aggregate while osmolarity is in the isotonic range of 290 ± 10 mOsm/kg in 5% glucose solution. Data suggest that AgNP in a 5% glucose solution may be used in the toxicity test via iv injection without adverse consequences in blood. PMID:24283395

  14. Facile synthesis of Ag2S nanoparticles functionalized by carbon-containing citrate shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silver sulfide nanoparticles with non-toxic citrate shell are synthesized by chemical bath deposition from aqueous mixtures of silver nitrate and sodium sulfide in the presence of sodium citrate used as a complexing and stabilizing agent. The prepared nanoparticles have Ag2S core with monoclinic crystal structure functionalized by a carbon-containing citrate shell. By varying the concentrations of reagents it was possible to prepare core-shell nanoparticles with pre-assigned size of Ag2S core from 10 and 50 nm and pre-assigned thickness from 1.5 to 10 nm of citrate shell. A probable mechanism of formation of carbon-containing citrate shell on Ag2S core has been proposed.

  15. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of 111In and 67Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of 67Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both 111In and 67Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of 67Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of 67Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of 67Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with 111In T4NMPYP and 67Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of 111In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  17. Research on Uncrystallized Phosphating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG En-jun; XING Ze-kuan

    2004-01-01

    This article excogitated a kind of uncrystallized phosphating film bears wearing capacity goodly by adding Ca2 + in normal phosphating solution. This technology is very useful to protect steel parts working in oil from abrasion.

  18. Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes driven by a transmembrane phosphate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Andreas; Hens, Felicitas; Kimpfler, Andrea; Schubert, Rolf; Peschka-Süss, Regine

    2006-10-01

    This study examines a new method for the remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes. It was shown that doxorubicin can be loaded to a level of up to 98% into large unilamellar vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (7/3 mol/mol) with a transmembrane phosphate gradient. The different encapsulation efficiencies which were achieved with ammonium salts (citrate 100%, phosphate 98%, sulfate 95%, acetate 77%) were significantly higher as compared to the loading via sodium salts (citrate 54%, phosphate 52%, sulfate 44%, acetate 16%). Various factors, including pH-value, buffer capacity, solubility of doxorubicin in different salt solutions and base counter-flow, which likely has an influence on drug accumulation in the intraliposomal interior are taken into account. In contrast to other methods, the newly developed remote loading method exhibits a pH-dependent drug release property which may be effective in tumor tissues. At physiological pH-value doxorubicin is retained in the liposomes, whereas drug release is achieved by lowering the pH to 5.5 (approximately 25% release at 25 degrees C or 30% at 37 degrees C within two h). The DXR release of liposomes which were loaded via a sulfate gradient showed a maximum of 3% at pH 5.5.

  19. Model‐Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Li; Erion, DM; Maurer, TS

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium‐coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical in...

  20. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compound is desirable. Aniline, sodium citrate, dextrose, phthalic acid and trimellitic acid will exhibit... test medium. Reference compounds which are positive for ultimate biodegradability include: sodium citrate, dextrose, phthalic acid, trimellitic acid, and aniline. (iv) For each test set,...

  1. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

  2. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  3. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  4. NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE AND FUNCTIONAL-PROPERTIES OF A SODIUM-DEPENDENT CITRATE TRANSPORT-SYSTEM FROM KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERREST, ME; SIEWE, RM; ABEE, T; SCHWARZ, E; OESTERHELT, D; KONINGS, WN

    1992-01-01

    The gene of the sodium-dependent citrate transport system from Klebsiella pneumoniae (citS) is located on plasmid pES3 (Schwarz, E., and Oesterhelt, D. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 1599-1603) and encodes a 446-amino acid protein. Transport of citrate via this citrate transport protein (CitS) is dependent on th

  5. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  6. Use of Blemaren citrate formula in gout patients with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Eliseev

    2008-01-01

    Results. After completion of a course of Blemaren therapy, there was an 8% reduction in the mean serum UA levels, which correlated with an increase in its daily excretion (by an average of 20%. The highest increase in UA excretion was observed in 20 patients with baseline hypoex-cretion (<700 mg/day: from 226,3 (range 201,6-436,8 to 635,0 (range 272,2-705,6 mg/day (p = 0,01. UA excretion substantially unchanged in patients with normal uricosuria (>700 mg/day. Side effects that could cause the agent to be discontinued were absent. Conclusion. The Blemaren citrate formula used in gout patients with nephrolithiasis causes a significant increase in the renal excretion of UA (p = 0,01, normalizes its metabolic parameters, and shows a high safety, without worsening hepatic and renal functions and electrolyte metabolism.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  8. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  9. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  10. Biochemical Characterization of Phosphate Degrading Pseudomonas Cichorii Isolated From Forest Soils In Seshachalam Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Prasada Babu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas cichoriiisolates were obtained from forest soils in Seshachalm hills using selective medium. The isolates were screened for phosphate activity and all the isolates were gram negative and showed bright fluorescence under UV light. The cultural and biochemical characteristics confirmed that the isolates were P.cichorii. Carbohydrates utilization profiles confirmed that the isolates were able to utilize Lactose, Xylose, Fructose, Glycerol, Trehalose, Mannitol and Ribose. However, the isolates were unable to utilize glucose and sucrose. The isolates showed positive results for levan production, oxidase and HCN. However they were negative for citrate utilization, ONPG and Gelatin hydrolysis.

  11. Effect of sodium citrate on preparation of nano-sized cobalt particles by organic colloidal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaping ZHU; Hao LI; Huiyu SONG; Shijun LIAO

    2009-01-01

    Nano-sized cobalt particles with the diameter of 2 nm were prepared via an organic colloidal process with sodium formate, ethylene glycol and sodium citrate as the reducing agent, the solvent and the complexing agent, respectively. The effects of sodium citrate on the yield, crystal structure, particle size and size distribution of the prepared nano-sized cobalt particles were then investigated. The results show that the average particle diameter decreases from 200 nm to 2 nm when the molar ratio of sodium citrate to cobalt chloride changes from 0 to 6. Furthermore, sodium citrate plays a crucial role in the controlling of size distribution of the nano-sized particles. The size distribution of the particle without sodium citrate addition is in range from tens of nanometers to 300 or 400 nm, while that with sodium citrate addition is limited in the range of (2±0.25) nm. Moreover, it is found that the addition of sodium citrate as a complex agent could decrease the yield of the nano-sized cobalt particle.

  12. Layered metal uranyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUO2PO4·4H2O (HUP) forms a laminar intercalate with butylamine, c = 29.30(5) angstrom, which accepts cationic metals in exchange for the n-butylammonium ions. Hydrated uranyl metal phosphates M(UO2PO4)2·nH2O (M=Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,Cd) are obtained by ionic exchange and were studied by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structures of all these product compounds are derived from HUP. The diffuse electronic reflectance spectra of every sample show characteristic UO22+ absorption bands. In the spectra of the Co, Ni and Cu phosphates there are other bands in the 500-800 nm zone compatible with their observed aquocation transitions

  13. The effect of individual phosphate emulsifying salts and their selected binary mixtures on hardness of processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of this work was to observe the effects of emulsifying salts composed of trisodium citrate and sodium phosphates with different chain length (disodium phosphate (DSP, tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP, pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP and sodium salts of polyphosphates with 5 different mean length (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, 28 on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Hardness of processed cheese spreads with selected binary mixtures of the above mentioned salts were also studied. Measurements were performed after 2, 9 and 30 days of storage at 6 °C. Hardness of processed cheese increased with increase in chain length of individually used phosphates.  Majority of applied binary mixtures of emulsifying salts had not significant influence on hardness charges in processed cheese spreads. On the other hand, a combination of phosphates salts (DSP with TSPP was found, which had specific effect on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Textural properties of samples with trisodium citrate were similar compared to samples with DSP.

  14. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  15. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  16. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation

    KAUST Repository

    Rose, Nicholas D.

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD+, respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP+, respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  17. Citrate-selective electrochemical μ-sensor for early stage detection of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouzi, Sawsen; Patra, Hirak K.; Ben Ali, Mounir; Abbas, Mohammed Nooredeen; Dridi, Cherif; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Turner, Anthony P. F.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely specialised anatomical function of citrate inside the prostate, make it one of the preferred biomarkers for early stage detection of prostate cancer. However, current detection methods are seriously limited due to the very low citrate concentrations that need to be measured in order to follow disease progression. In the present work, we report a novel citrate-selective μ-sensor based on iron (III) phthalocyanine chloride-C-monoamido-Poly-n-Butyl Acrylate (Fe(III)MAPcCl-P-n-BA) m...

  18. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice; II,b. uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ore and suggested flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking Safaga phosphate and Qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (UO3). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  19. Model‐Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erion, DM; Maurer, TS

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium‐coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  20. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  1. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer.

  2. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is an essential nutrient for plant growth, and inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored largely in the vacuole of plant cells. Thus, vacuolar Pi maintains homeostasis of cytosolic Pi to ensure an optimal Pi supply for plants under variable Pi status in the soil. This study uncovered in Arabidopsis a vacuolar phosphate transporter, VPT1, that mediates vacuolar Pi sequestration. Lack of VPT1 caused growth defects under both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, implicating VPT1 in plant adaptation...

  3. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  4. CcpA-independent regulation of expression of the Mg2+-citrate transporter gene citM by arginine metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, JB; Magni, C; Lolkema, JS; Warner, Jessica B.

    2003-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the Mg2+ -citrate transporter, CitM, the main citrate uptake system of Bacillus subtilis, was studied during growth in rich medium. Citrate in the growth medium was required for induction under all growth conditions. In Luria-Bertani medium containing citrate, citM expr

  5. Problems in the scintigraphic detection of osteomyelitis. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilday, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    Bone imaging has played a major role in the early detection of pediatric osteomyelitis. The single gamma camera view (rather than whole body imaging) successfully delineates the growth zones of the long bones and can detect subtle changes in these regions. If a high suspicion of osteomyelitis is entertained despite a normal bone scan, gallium imaging should be employed. Cases have been reported in which delayed scans were normal but the blood pool image was not.

  6. [Effect of citrate, tartrate, succinate and phosphate ions on the penetration of phosphorus-labelled anions into erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulkievich, Ia; Popdimitrova, N; Kunchev, N; Zlatarev, G

    1980-01-01

    Membrane permeability for different ions may successfully be evaluated under conditions of ionic equilibrium, which provides osmotic equilibrium in the cell and steadiness of its volume. The present investigation was promoted on red cells of experimental animals under conditions of ionic equilibrium, using P32 with up to 30 microCi activity. Unidirectional penetration of ions in the red cells was studied. The speed constant K0 was derived from the graphic relation InA=f(t) as an angular coefficient at the starting moment. The type of ions was shown to influence K0 value, which was maximal in the presence of tartarate ions in the suspension medium and minimal in the presence of succinate ions. This study demonstrated that the activation energy does not depend on the ions in the solution. The results are highly suggestive of the existence of differences in the mechanism of penetration of different ions through the red cell membrane.

  7. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, S.; Zschocke, J.; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T.; Klepper, J; Müller, A.; Heep, A; Bartmann, P.; Franz, A R

    2009-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unrespons...

  8. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  9. 77 FR 4895 - New Animal Drugs; Chloramphenicol, Diethylcarbamazine Citrate, Hygromycin B, Methoxyflurane...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Drugs; Chloramphenicol, Diethylcarbamazine Citrate, Hygromycin B, Methoxyflurane, Neomycin Sulfate... Affiliate of IGI, ane, prednisolone, Inc., Box 209, tetracaine, Harding Hwy., neomycin sulfate). Buena, NJ 08310. NADA 044-655 NEOMYCANE Ophthalmic Evsco Ointment (neomycin Pharmaceuticals, an...

  10. Electrodeposition and characterisation of Ni/Cu nanostructured multilayers from citrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Meuleman, W R A

    2002-01-01

    A study of the effect of chemical and electrochemical parameters such as solution composition, pH, and current and potential waveforms on magnetic metal multi-layers plated from citrate electrolytes was carried out. Until now, magnetic multilayers have usually been electrodeposited mainly form sulfamate electrolytes; far less information is available on Cu-Ni multilayers obtained from citrate electrolytes. Since copper is deposited at its diffusion limiting current during multilayer deposition from citrate electrolytes, a rotating disc electrode study was carried out. It was found that the apparent diffusion coefficient changes significantly depending on the citrate ion concentration and pH, indicating the importance of metal speciation. In order to identify the rate controlling species, speciation calculations were carried out in order to model the dependence of the limiting current on the solution composition. The model is based on the assumption that complexes in solution are either labile or inert. A vert...

  11. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation enhances rehydration and recovery from rapid body mass loss in trained wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Medijainen, Luule; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Vähi, Mare; Unt, Eve; Oöpik, Vahur

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary sodium citrate supplementation during a 16 h recovery from 5% rapid body mass loss (RBML) on physiological functions, affective state, and performance in trained wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers performed an upper body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test under three conditions: before RBML, after RBML, and after a 16 h recovery from RBML. During recovery, the subjects ate a prescribed diet supplemented with sodium citrate (600 mg·kg(-1); CIT group, N = 8) or placebo (PLC group, N = 8) and drank water ad libitum. RBML reduced (p sodium citrate increases blood buffering capacity and PV and stimulates BM regain during a 16 h recovery from RBML in trained wrestlers. However, sodium citrate does not improve UBISP nor does it have an impact on the affective state.

  12. Fingerprinting of sildenafil citrate and tadalafil tablets in pharmaceutical formulations via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rafael S; Mariotti, Kristiane C; Schwab, Nicolas V; Sabin, Guilherme P; Rocha, Werickson F C; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; Limberger, Renata P; Mayorga, Paulo; Bueno, Maria Izabel M S; Romão, Wanderson

    2012-01-25

    The production of counterfeited drugs is a criminal problem that carries serious risks to public health in the worldwide. In Brazil, Viagra and Cialis are the most counterfeit medicines, being used to inhibit the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5), treating thus, problems related to erectile dysfunction. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a suitable technique to control the quality of new pharmaceutical formulations and distinguish between authentic and counterfeit tablets. XRF has advantageous features like multielemental capability, good detectivity, high precision, short analysis times, and is nondestructive, which makes it suitable to be extended to a great variety of samples. In this work, the inorganic fingerprinting chemical of forty-one commercial samples (Viagra, Cialis, Lazar, Libiden, Maxfil, Plenovit, Potent 75, Rigix, V-50, Vimax and Pramil) and fifty-six counterfeit samples (Viagra and Cialis) were obtained from XRF data. XRF presented an excellent analytical methodology for semi-quantitative determination of active ingredient (in case of sildenafil citrate that presents S in its structure) and excipients such as calcium phosphate, titanium oxide and iron oxide (P, Ca, Ti and Fe). The matrix data were allied to chemometric methods (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) to classify the tablets investigated between authentic and counterfeit, grouping the samples into of seven groups: A, B, C, D and E (counterfeit group) and F and G (authentic group). PMID:22014651

  13. QbD-Driven Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Estimation of Tamoxifen Citrate with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, O P; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-09-01

    The current studies entail Quality by Design (QbD)-enabled development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatographic method for estimation of tamoxifen citrate (TMx). The factor screening studies were performed using a 7-factor 8-run Taguchi design. Systematic optimization was performed employing Box-Behnken design by selecting the mobile phase ratio, buffer pH and oven temperature as the critical method parameters (CMPs) identified from screening studies, thus evaluating the critical analytical attributes (CAAs), namely, peak area, retention time, theoretical plates and peak tailing as the parameters of method robustness. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved using acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 3.5) 52:48 v/v as the mobile phase with a flow rate 0.7 mL/min, an oven temperature 40°C and UV detection at 256 nm. The method was validated as per the ICH recommended conditions, which revealed high degree of linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and robustness over the existing liquid chromatographic methods of the drug. Also the method was applied for the estimation of TMx in nanostructured formulations, which indicated no significant change in the retention time. In a nutshell, the studies demonstrated successful development of the HPLC method of TMx with improved understanding of the relationship among the influential variables for enhancing the method performance. PMID:27226463

  14. Silicon Injection Granulomata: 67Ga Citrate Findings in Free Silicon Buttock Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Sara; Chun, Kwang; Benchekroun, Mohammed Taoudi; Akamnonu, Olisaemeka; Freeman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Ga citrate is frequently used in the workup of fever of unknown origin. Here, we report a case of avid Ga-citrate in bilateral gluteal regions of a patient with a history of free silicon injection buttock augmentation referred for suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis. CT findings were equivocal for inflammation/infection in the buttock region, and nuclear scintigraphy allowed for more definitive diagnosis. PMID:26953658

  15. Lifesaving citrate anticoagulation to bridge ineffective danaparoid [correction of to bridge to danaparoid] treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworschak, Martin; Hiesmayr, Jörg Michael; Lassnigg, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    A case of successful regional anticoagulation with trisodium citrate in a patient who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia while on continuous hemofiltration is described. Immediate citrate anticoagulation allowed for maintenance of extracorporeal circulation until effective danaparoid therapy could be established. Recommended plasma antifactor Xa levels for hemodialysis may be inadequate in some cases. Values similar to those in use during cardiopulmonary bypass could be required. PMID:12022563

  16. Triplet heterotopic pregnancy following ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate: a case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari S; Seetha Panicker

    2013-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy, though rare is a combined pregnancy in which synchronous intrauterine and extra uterine pregnancy occur. An estimated incidence of between 1/8000 to 1/30,000 has been reported following spontaneous conception. After artificial reproductive techniques, the incidence is as high as 1/100 and after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate, it is around 1/900. We are reporting a case of 26 year old gravida 2 who conceived after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate ...

  17. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanoplates by Citrate Reduction of AuCl4- at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan HUANG; Zhi Rui GUO; Meng WANG; Ning GU

    2006-01-01

    Single-crystalline, regular-edged gold nanoplates are synthesized through chemical reduction of AuCl4- by a suitable amount of citrate at room temperature, without additional capping agents or surfactants. The suitable molar ratio of sodium citrate to HAuCl4, low reaction temperature and the presence of natural light are critical factors for the formation of the regularly shaped nanoplates.

  18. Solute clearance effect of citrate anticoagulation hemodialysate for hemodialysis in patients with high risk of bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the solute clearance effect of the new concentrated anticoagulation hemodialysate of citrate for hemodialysis in patients with high risk of bleeding. Methods Forty-two kidney failure patients with high risk of bleeding were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B) according to their hemodialysis manners. Patients in Group A were hemodialyzed with bicarbonate hemodialysate with low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) anticoagulation and those in Group B with the new citrate anticoag...

  19. Phosphate Test 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Etienne; Zumbuehl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the phosphate content of a liposomal suspension is important when working with differential scanning calorimetry. Standard phosphate tests date back several decades and require extended hands-on time. Here, we present a rapid version of a phosphate test taking advantage of microwave-assisted chemical digestion and multiwell plate reading technology allowing for the fast and accurate testing of many samples in parallel.

  20. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  1. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  2. /sup 67/Ga citrate scintiscanning in active inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheingold, O.J.; Tedesco, F.J.; Block, F.E.; Maldonado, A.; Miale, A. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-five hospitalized patients were studied prospectively with /sup 67/Ga citrate (GA) abdominal scintillation scanning in an attempt to define its role in the evaluation of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were nine patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), seven with Crohn's disease (CD), and nine controls. In four patients, two with UC and two with CD, a tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio was obtained and compared to normals. All the UC patients had positive GA scans and only one of seven of the CD patients had a positive scan. There were no false positive scans. Scans performed after a 3- or 5-day delay were more accurate than 6-hr scans alone. Well-delineated colinic radioactivity 6 hr after injection which persists for 3 to 5 days indicates the presence of UC in patients with IBD, while a negative scan is more consistent with active CD. Colonic uptake at 6 hr which clears by 48 or 72 hr is not indicative of UC. This procedure aided in following the course of UC, delineating the extent of disease, and in differentiating active CD from an intraabdominal abscess. Tissues from UC patients had increased tissue/plasma ratioactivity ratios while tissues from CD patients had normal or decreased ratios which were consistent with the imaging data.

  3. Self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate of tamoxifen citrate for enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapse, Sonali V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

    2012-06-15

    We disclose a self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate (SNP) of tamoxifen citrate (TMX), which forms TMX loaded polymeric nanoparticles, on dilution with aqueous media. SNP comprised TMX, polymer (Kollidon SR) and surfactant/s dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle. Binary surfactant mixtures of Aerosol OT (AOT) with Tween 80 revealed synergistic reduction in surface tension to enable both high entrapment efficiency (EE) and low particle size (PS). Synergism of the surfactants was confirmed by molecular interaction parameter(β(σ)). Combination of AOT and Tween 80 resulted in EE (∼85%) and PS (nanoparticles in situ was reproducible under most experimental conditions and exhibited pH independent behavior. Dilution volume (>80mL) influenced both PS and EE while dilution temperature influenced only PS. Marginal increase in size was evident at the end of 1h nevertheless was not of concern as TMX SNP exhibited near complete release in 1h. DSC and XRD studies revealed amorphous nature of TMX in nanoparticles. FTIR imaging confirmed uniform distribution of TMX in nanoparticles. ESEM and TEM revealed spherical nanoparticles. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc labeled TMX SNP in rats revealed no significant absorption however oral pharmacokinetics revealed enhanced oral bioavailability of TMX (165%) compared to TMX suspension. SNP presents a new in situ approach, for design of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:22414426

  4. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  5. USE OF TRANSDERMAL GEL OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshid Patel , Amit Maniyar and Hiren Patel*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Premature Ejaculation (PE is one of the most common forms of Sexual Dysfunction and is thought to affect up to 30 % of men. This is the most frequently encountered sexual complaint of men and couples. The physical problem associated with premature ejaculation can be simply described as “over-sensitivity” of the penis. Psychological causes of PE are often associated with “performance anxiety” – anxiety relating to sexual intercourse. The most common treatment today is the oral treatment with phosphodiesterase -5 (PDE-5 inhibitors. There are currently three different inhibitors available Sildenafil, Vardenafil, and Tadalafil. Sildenafil citrate is a drug of choice used in the treatment of premature ejaculation disorder. It was licensed for use in the United States in 1998; Sildenafil has shown in studies that it improves ED in men regardless of disease etiology, severity of disease, or even age. Transdermal gel has gained more and more importance because the gel based formulations are better percutaneously absorbed than creams and ointment bases. Transdermal drug delivery systems are defined as self-contained, discrete dosage forms which, when applied to the intact skin, deliver the drug, through the skin, at a controlled rate to the systemic circulation. Present Status - A review by Barry in 2001 showed, the transdermal route has vied with oral treatment as the most successful innovative research area in drug delivery.

  6. Bench-to-bedside review: Citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy, from science to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Ostermann, Marlies

    2012-12-07

    To prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) anticoagulation is required. Heparin is still the most commonly used anticoagulant. However, heparins increase the risk of bleeding, especially in critically ill patients. Evidence has accumulated that regional anticoagulation of the CRRT circuit with citrate is feasible and safe. Compared to heparin, citrate anticoagulation reduces the risk of bleeding and requirement for blood products, not only in patients with coagulopathy, but also in those without. Metabolic complications are largely prevented by the use of a strict protocol, comprehensive training and integrated citrate software. Recent studies indicate that citrate can even be used in patients with significant liver disease provided that monitoring is intensified and the dose is carefully adjusted. Since the citric acid cycle is oxygen dependent, patients at greatest risk of accumulation seem to be those with persistent lactic acidosis due to poor tissue perfusion. The use of citrate may also be associated with less inflammation due to hypocalcemia-induced suppression of intracellular signaling at the membrane and avoidance of heparin, which may have proinflammatory properties. Whether these beneficial effects increase patient survival needs to be confirmed. However, other benefits are the reason that citrate should become the first choice anticoagulant for CRRT provided that its safe use can be guaranteed.

  7. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Aghanejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (68Ga citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC, chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS, radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe, and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC, specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM, chemical purity (Sn, FeConclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  8. Citrate versus unfractionated heparin for anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-jie; ZHANG Ling; ZENG Xiao-xi; FU Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Unfractionated heparin is the most commonly used anticoagulant in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT),but it can increase the risk of bleeding.Citrate is a promising substitute.Our study was to assess the efficacy and safety of citrate versus unfractionated heparin in CRRT.Methods We searched the MEDLINE,the EMBASE,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database until up to November 2011 for randomized controlled trials comparing citrate with unfractionated heparin in adult patients with acute kidney injury prescribed CRRT.The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes included circuit survival,control of uremia,risk of bleeding,transfusion rates,acid-base statuses,and disturbance of sodium and calcium homeostasis.Results Four trials met the inclusion criteria.Meta-analysis found no significant difference between two anticoagulants on mortality.Less bleeding and more hypocalcemic episodes were with citrate.Citrate was superior or comparable to unfractionated heparin in circuit life.Conclusions Citrate anticoagulation in CRRT seems to be superior in reducing bleeding risk and with a longer or similar circuit life,although there is more metabolic derangement.Mortality superiority has not been approved.

  9. Is it safe to prescribe clomiphene citrate without ultrasound monitoring facilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coughlan, C

    2010-05-01

    The majority of triplet and higher order multiple pregnancies now result from ovulation induction\\/superovulation rather than in vitro fertilisation. However, clomiphene citrate is still widely prescribed by gynaecologists and general practitioners who do not have access to ultrasound monitoring. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of multifollicular development with different doses of clomiphene citrate. A retrospective review of transvaginal ultrasound monitoring of 425 cycles in 182 women receiving clomiphene citrate from January 2002 to December 2003, was studied. Three or more follicles of >or= 14 mm were identified in 58 cycles (14%). Patients received 50 mg of clomiphene citrate in 52 of these 58 cycles and 25 mg in the remaining six. One patient was noted to have developed five follicles and 10 patients developed four follicles. One patient developed six follicles, despite receiving only 25 mg clomiphene citrate daily. It was concluded that a significant number of women (14%) developed three or more follicles, despite receiving low doses of clomiphene citrate.

  10. A second mechanism for aluminum resistance in wheat relies on the constitutive efflux of citrate from roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Harsh; Gupta, Sanjay; Horst, Walter J; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first confirmed mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in plants is encoded by the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene, TaALMT1, on chromosome 4DL. TaALMT1 controls the Al-activated efflux of malate from roots, and this mechanism is widespread among Al-resistant genotypes of diverse genetic origins. This study describes a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat that relies on citrate efflux. Citrate efflux occurred constitutively from the roots of Brazilian cultivars Carazinho, Maringa, Toropi, and Trintecinco. Examination of two populations segregating for this trait showed that citrate efflux was controlled by a single locus. Whole-genome linkage mapping using an F(2) population derived from a cross between Carazinho (citrate efflux) and the cultivar EGA-Burke (no citrate efflux) identified a major locus on chromosome 4BL, Xce(c), which accounts for more than 50% of the phenotypic variation in citrate efflux. Mendelizing the quantitative variation in citrate efflux into qualitative data, the Xce(c) locus was mapped within 6.3 cM of the microsatellite marker Xgwm495 locus. This linkage was validated in a second population of F(2:3) families derived from a cross between Carazinho and the cultivar Egret (no citrate efflux). We show that expression of an expressed sequence tag, belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family, correlates with the citrate efflux phenotype. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence that citrate efflux is a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat.

  11. A COMPARISON OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND SEQUENTIAL CLOMIPHENE CITRATE PLUS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rashidi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There are currently ‎many different protocols in use for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, but the optimal method has ‎not yet been determined. To compare the outcome of COH using ‎clomiphene citrate (CC versus CC plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in conjunction with intrauterine insemination (IUI, we studied 117 infertile couples‎. IUI with CC was used in 92 cycles ‎(group A and IUI with CC plus hMG was used in 66 cycles (group B. ‎Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the two ‎groups with respect to patients’ age, duration and type of infertility, prior COH and endometrial thickness and pattern. Group A had a little ‎longer follicular phase length than group B. ‎Pregnancy rate for group A and B were 6.52% and 12.12%, respectively (P= 0.22. ‎Endometrial pattern and thickness had no impact on pregnancy rate. ‎There were no multiple gestation and obvious hyperstimulation syndrome. ‎For patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI, ‎CC plus hMG protocol yields higher pregnancy rate than one using CC, although this ‎difference was not statistically significant because of limitation of number of ‎cycles.

  12. Redox properties and activity of iron-citrate complexes: evidence for redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fatima I; Bounds, Patricia L; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-04-20

    Iron in iron overload disease is present as non-transferrin-bound iron, consisting of iron, citrate, and albumin. We investigated the redox properties of iron citrate by electrochemistry, by the kinetics of its reaction with ascorbate, by ESR, and by analyzing the products of reactions of ascorbate with iron citrate complexes in the presence of H2O2 with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as a reporter molecule for hydroxylation. We report -0.03 V +0.01 V for the (Fe(3+)-cit/Fe(2+)-cit) couple. The first step in the reaction of iron citrate with ascorbate is the rapid formation of mixed complexes of iron with citrate and ascorbate, followed by slow reduction to Fe(2+)-citrate with k = ca. 3 M(-1) s(-1). The ascorbyl radical is formed by iron citrate oxidation of Hasc(-) with k = ca. 0.02 M(-1) s(-1); the majority of the ascorbyl radical formed is sequestered by complexation with iron and remains EPR silent. The hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid driven by the Fenton reduction of iron citrate by ascorbate in the presence of H2O2 proceeds in three phases: the first phase, which is independent of the presence of O2, is revealed as a nonzero intercept that reflects the rapid reaction of accumulated Fe(2+) with H2O2; the intermediate oxygen-dependent phase fits a first-order accumulation of product with k = 5 M(-1) s(-1) under aerobic and k = 13 M(-1) s(-1) under anaerobic conditions; the slope of the final linear phase is ca. k = 5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Product yields under aerobic conditions are greater than predicted from the initial concentration of iron, but they are less than predicted for continuous redox cycling in the presence of excess ascorbate. The ongoing formation of hydroxylated product supports slow redox cycling by iron citrate. Thus, when H2O2 is available, iron-citrate complexes may contribute to pathophysiological manifestations of iron overload diseases. PMID:25654270

  13. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  14. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  15. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  16. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  17. Dissolution kinetics and biodurability of tremolite particles in mimicked lung fluids: Effect of citrate and oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalen, Marisa; Ramos, M. Elena; Huertas, F. Javier; Fiore, Saverio; Gervilla, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    The effect of citrate and oxalate on tremolite dissolution rate was measured at 37 °C in non-stirred flow-through reactors, using modified Gamble's solutions at pH 4 (macrophages), 7.4 (interstitial fluids) and 5.5 (intermediate check point) containing 0, 0.15, 1.5 and 15 mmol L-1 of citrate or oxalate. The dissolution rates calculated from Si concentration in the output solutions without organic ligands depend on pH, decreasing when the pH increases from -13.00 (pH 4) to -13.35 (pH 7.4) mol g-1 s-1 and following a proton-promoted mechanism. The presence of both ligands enhances dissolution rates at every pH, increasing this effect when the ligand concentration increases. Citrate produces a stronger effect as a catalyst than oxalate, mainly at more acidic pHs and enhances dissolution rates until 20 times for solutions with 15 mmol L-1 citrate. However, at pH 7.4 the effect is lighter and oxalate solutions (15 mmol L-1) only enhances dissolution rates eight times respect to free organic ligand solutions. Dissolution is promoted by the attack to protons and organic ligands to the tremolite surface. Magnesium speciation in oxalate and citrate solutions shows that Mg citrate complexes are more effective than oxalate ones during the alteration of tremolite in magrophages, but this tendency is the opposite for interstitial fluids, being oxalate magnesium complexes stronger. The biodurability estimations show that the destruction of the fibers is faster in acidic conditions (macrophages) than in the neutral solutions (interstitial fluid). At pH 4, both ligands oxalate and citrate reduce the residence time of the fibers with respect to that calculated in absence of ligands. Nevertheless, at pH 7.4 the presence of ligands does not reduce significantly the lifetime of the fibers.

  18. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvat...

  19. Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Bergwitz; Wee, Mark J.; Sumi Sinha; Joanne Huang; Charles DeRobertis; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Jonathan Cohen; Adam Friedman; Meghana Kulkarni; Yanhui Hu; Arunachalam Vinayagam; Michael Schnall-Levin; Bonnie Berger; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. ...

  20. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.; Ryan, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al3+ tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al3+-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approa...

  1. Theoretical and experimental approach to test the cohesion of calcium phosphate pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bohner

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that the ability of a calcium phosphate cement paste to harden in a physiological environment without desintegrating into small particles might be a key property to ensure a safe and reliable clinical use of calcium phosphate cements. However, this property called cohesion is not well understood and has not been studied extensively. The goal of the present study was to better understand which factors affect the cohesion of a calcium phosphate paste using the combination of a theoretical and experimental approach. In the theoretical approach, factors expected to influence the paste cohesion such as Van der Waals forces, electrostatic and steric interactions, as well as osmotic effects were listed and discussed. In the experimental approach, a new method to measure the cohesion of a non-setting calcium phosphate paste was presented and used to assess the effects of various factors on this property. The new method allowed a continuous measurement of cohesion and gave reproducible results. The experimental results confirmed the theoretical predictions: an increase of the liquid-to-powder ratio of the paste and of the powder particle size, as well as the addition of citrate ions and in limited cases dissolved xanthan polymer chains reduced the paste cohesion.

  2. A comparison of two sodium citrate concentrations in two evacuated blood collection systems for prothrombin time and ISI determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M; Chantarangkul, V; Tripodi, A

    2000-10-01

    The prothrombin time is usually measured in citrated plasma. The W.H.O. recommended concentration of sodium citrate for blood collection for laboratory control of oral anticoagulant therapy is 0.109 M. Some evacuated blood collection systems include 0.105 M sodium citrate. The purpose of the present study was to establish the difference in ISI calibration between 0.109 and 0.105 M citrate, using 7 types of thromboplastin and various types of instrumentation. The two citrate concentrations were provided in both evacuated siliconised glass tubes and in evacuated polyethylene terephtalate (PET) tubes. The ISI difference between the two citrate concentrations was 5.4% for one system but not greater than 3% for all other systems when blood samples were collected with either siliconized glass or PET tubes. Most of the ISI differences between the two citrate concentrations were not significant at the 5% level. It is concluded that the ISI differences between 0.105 M and 0.109 M citrate are not of practical importance. In contrast, ISI differences between siliconised glass and PET tubes, using either 0.105 or 0.109 M citrate, were significant (p <0.05) for most thromboplastin systems and amounted to 7%. ISI interchange between these glass and PET tubes could induce INR differences amounting to 14%, which could affect clinical dosage of oral anticoagulants. PMID:11057867

  3. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC.

  4. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  5. Direct separation of 67Ga citrate from zinc and copper target materials by an ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of 67Ga from zinc and copper target materials using an anion- f:exchanger (Dowex21K) and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 6 is described. The gallium-67 was separated in citrate solution and can be directly used for medical applications. Gallium-67 with a half-life of 78.3 h and gamma-rays with energies of 93, 185 and 300 keV is a cyclotron produced radioisotope for which a considerable demand exists. 67Ga is frequently produced through proton or deuteron bombardment of natural or enriched Zn targets (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973). It is usually separated from Zn by ion exchange chromatography (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; van der Walt and Strelow, 1983) or by liquid extraction Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; Hupf and Beaver, 1970). The isotope is usually supplied in citrate solution which is widely used as 67Ga Gallium citrate which is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for imaging soft tissue tumors and abscesses. Several routes for large scale production of 67Ga and the development of medical applications have been reported (Silvester and Thakur, 1970; Dahl and Tilbury, 1972; Steyn and Meyer,1973; Vlatkovic et al., 1975; Neirinckx, 1976; Thakur, 1977). Various attempts were carried out to separate gallium-67 by using different ion exchange methods (Strelow et al., 1971; Das and Ramamoorthy, 1995; Boothe et al.,1991) through the labelling of citrate by using 67Ga was carried out for medical applications

  6. Concave Urinary Crystallines: Direct Evidence of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Dissolution by Citrate In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Feng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in urinary crystal properties in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi after oral administration of potassium citrate (K3cit were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD, and zeta potential analyzer. The AFM and SEM results showed that the surface of urinary crystals became concave, the edges and corners of crystals became blunt, the average size of urinary crystallines decreased significantly, and aggregation of urinary crystals was reduced. These changes were attributed to the significant increase in concentration of excreted citrate to  mg/L after K3cit intake from  mg/L before K3cit intake. After the amount of urinary citrate was increased, it complexed with Ca2+ ions on urinary crystals, which dissolved these crystals. Thus, the appearance of concave urinary crystals was a direct evidence of CaOx dissolution by citrate in vivo. The XRD results showed that the quantities and species of urinary crystals decreased after K3cit intake. The mechanism of inhibition of formation of CaOx stones by K3cit was possibly due to the complexation of Ca2+ with citrate, increase in urine pH, concentration of urinary inhibitor glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, and the absolute value of zeta potential after K3cit intake.

  7. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  8. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  9. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  10. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid. PMID:27287105

  11. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of /sup 67/Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with /sup 111/In T4NMPYP and /sup 67/Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of /sup 111/In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge;

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...... triphenyl phosphate allergy in our patient....

  13. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported. PMID:23656399

  14. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water with Sodium Citrate as Sole Carbon Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; ZHAO Lin; TAN Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of using sodium citrate(NaC6H5O6*2H2O)as sole carbon source for nitrate removal from drinking water.With sodium citrate as sole carbon source, batch experiments have been conducted to study the law of denitrification influenced by pH, C/N and temperature. Results show that a denitrification rate reaching 1.32 g NO-3-N /(g Biomass*d) was obtained when pH was at 7.5,C/N at 1.7(atom ratio), and temperature from 20 ℃ to 30 ℃. The results also show that denitrification rate with sodium citrate as carbon source approaches to that with methanol as carbon source.

  16. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  17. Online Hemoglobin and Oxygen Saturation Sensing During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessayan, Lenar T; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    Optical hemoglobin and oxygen saturation sensor (OHOS) monitor when used in combination with other hemodynamic tools may be useful for continuous hemodynamic monitoring during ultrafiltration. The stand-alone OHOS monitor can easily be deployed predialyzer into the extracorporeal circuit of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) systems. To maximize the accuracy of the OHOS in 24 hr CRRT systems, clotting in the optical blood chamber and the presensor dilution incurred by replacement fluid should be minimized. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) with regional citrate anticoagulation is a therapy that incorporates an OHOS and maintains the overall reliability of hemoglobin (Hb) and saturation sensing. The system operates at a blood flow rate of 60 ml/min and a fixed acid citrate infusion rate of 150 ml/hr. The presensor dilution incurred by concentrated citrate infusion would result in a minimal Hb dilution (<0.7 g/dl) while minimizing optical blood chamber clotting during 24 hr SLED.

  18. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, C.; Lozano, J.C. [Departamento de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodríguez, P. Blanco [Natural Radioactivity Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tomé, F. Vera, E-mail: fvt@unex.es [Natural Radioactivity Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The aim was to optimize radium solubilization for the purposes of remediation. ► The most important factor in radium solubilization was found to be the pH. ► Radium release increases with the reagent concentration. ► The largest release of radium is obtained with 50 mmol kg{sup −1} of citrate, at pH acid, and 4 days after incubation. ► The best conditions for the release of radium are the same as for uranium. -- Abstract: The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg{sup −1}). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg{sup −1} soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  19. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  20. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II--clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically significant. Letrozole can be preferred in clomiphene citrate resistant cases before starting other expensive therapies.

  1. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  2. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diammonium phosphate. 573.320 Section 573.320 Food... Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used... crude protein from diammonium phosphate, adequate directions for use and a prominent statement,...

  3. Sodium-coupled dicarboxylate and citrate transporters from the SLC13 family

    OpenAIRE

    Pajor, AM

    2014-01-01

    The SLC13 family in humans and other mammals consists of sodium-coupled transporters for anionic substrates: three transporters for dicarboxylates/ citrate and two transporters for sulfate. This review will focus on the di- and tricarboxylate transporters: NaDC1 (SLC13A2), NaDC3 (SLC13A3), and NaCT (SLC13A5). The substrates of these transporters are metabolic intermediates of the citric acid cycle, including citrate, succinate, and α-ketoglutarate, which can exert signaling effects through sp...

  4. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis;

    2013-01-01

    , and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time......, it also provides better quality images whose high resolution permits quantitative analyses, thus improving the management of patients suffering from infections or inflammation. The purpose of our study was to develop a fast and reliable synthesis protocol for the preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate under good...

  5. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis;

    , and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time......, it also provides better quality images whose high resolution permits quantitative analyses, thus improving the management of patients suffering from infections or inflammation. The purpose of our study was to develop a fast and reliable synthesis protocol for the preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate under good...

  6. Interfacial properties of asymmetrically functionalized citrate-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles related to molecular adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Won

    A detailed understanding of the conformation of adsorbed molecules and regional surface functionalization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is challenging for nanometer-size (10 -- 100 m) materials and necessary for fundamental studies and applications. The studies are motivated by open questions related to surface chemistry of noble MNPs. Although citrate-stabilized gold NPs (AuNPs) have been widely used, the citrate layer is not well-understood. Thiols have been suggested to displace citrate anions adsorbed on metal surfaces due to strong gold-sulfur interaction, but quantitative experimental evidence of the extent of ligand-exchange has not been reported. Whereas asymmetrically-functionalized AuNPs are utilized for nanoparticle assembly due to the interparticle coupling of localized surface plasmons, the interface between asymmetric nanoparticles in single assemblies has not been studied. Noble MNPs with sizes smaller than citrate-stabilized AuNPs also need to be surface-modified for stability in water for biological applications. The dissertation presents investigations of the chemical and physical properties of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) related to ligand adsorption at the metal surface. Firstly, self-assembled layers of citrate adsorbed on AuNP (111), (110), and (100) surfaces were proposed, based on geometric considerations and spectroscopic investigations by infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption characteristics of citrate are the unique structure of adsorbed species, intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals attractions, bilayer formation, surface coverage, nanoparticle-stabilization role, and chirality. Secondly, IR and XPS studies showed coadsorption of thiolate on the surface of citrate-stabilized AuNPs. Steric, chelating effects and intermolecular interactions are the origins of the strong adsorption of citrate on AuNP surfaces. Surface coverage was determined from XPS analyses. Thirdly, an

  7. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  8. Antitumor effect of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles on mice bearing breast cancer: a systemic toxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; de Souza Filho, José; Carneiro, Marcella Lemos' Brettas; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; da Silva, Matheus Oliveira; de Souza, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia Nair

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer types among women. The use of magnetic fluids for specific delivery of drugs represents an attractive platform for chemotherapy. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated that maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate (Magh-Rh2Cit) induced in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity, followed by intratumoral administration in breast carcinoma cells. In this study, our aim was to follow intravenous treatment to evaluate the systemic antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Female Balb/c mice were evaluated with regard to toxicity of intravenous treatments through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine and liver, kidney, and lung histology. The antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2Cit), Magh-Rh2Cit, and maghemite nanoparticles coated with citrate (Magh-Cit), used as control, was evaluated by tumor volume reduction, histology, and morphometric analysis. Magh-Rh2Cit and Magh-Cit promoted a significant decrease in tumor area, and no experimental groups presented hematotoxic effects or increased levels of serum ALT and creatinine. This observation was corroborated by the histopathological examination of the liver and kidney of mice. Furthermore, the presence of nanoparticles was verified in lung tissue with no morphological changes, supporting the idea that our nanoformulations did not induce toxicity effects. No studies about the systemic action of rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles have been carried out, making this report a suitable starting point for exploring the therapeutic potential of these compounds in treating breast cancer.

  9. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  10. Combretastatin A4 phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Catharine M L; Price, Pat

    2004-03-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) is a water-soluble prodrug of combretastatin A4 (CA4). The vascular targeting agent CA4 is a microtubule depolymerizing agent. The mechanism of action of the drug is thought to involve the binding of CA4 to tubulin leading to cytoskeletal and then morphological changes in endothelial cells. These changes increase vascular permeability and disrupt tumor blood flow. In experimental tumors, anti-vascular effects are seen within minutes of drug administration and rapidly lead to extensive ischemic necrosis in areas that are often resistant to conventional anti-cancer treatments. Following single-dose administration a viable tumor rim typically remains from which tumor regrowth occurs. When given in combination with therapies targeted at the proliferating viable rim, enhanced tumor responses are seen and in some cases cures. Results from the first clinical trials have shown that CA4P monotherapy is safe and reduces tumor blood flow. There has been some promising demonstration of efficacy. CA4P in combination with cisplatin is also safe. Functional imaging studies have been used to aid the selection of doses for phase II trials. Both dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and positron emission tomography can measure the anti-vascular effects of CA4P in humans. This review describes the background to the development of CA4P, its proposed mechanism of action, the results from the first clinical trials with CA4P and the role of imaging techniques in its clinical development.

  11. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  12. 75 FR 71078 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China...: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review--Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts (August 17, 2010). Partial... Biochemical Co., Ltd. Hunan Dongting Citric Acid Chemicals Co., Ltd. Hunan Yinhai Petrochemicals Group...

  13. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid...

  14. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review...

  15. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 25423 (May 1, 2013). \\2\\ Archer Daniels Midland...

  16. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time...

  17. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from..., 2011, Huangshi Xinghua Biochemical Co., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric...

  18. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric...

  19. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See... of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit....

  20. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...) has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified under the...

  1. Colloidal stability, surface characterisation and intracellular accumulation of Rhodium(II) citrate coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in breast tumour: a promising platform for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Nunes, Eloiza da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Lemos Brettas Carneiro, Marcella; Guirelli Simoes de Oliveira, Ricardo; Nair Bao, Sonia [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas (Brazil); Ribeiro de Souza, Aparecido, E-mail: ardsouza@quimica.ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The colloidal stability of a rhodium(II) citrate, Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4}, coating on the surface of maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles was studied and compared in different dispersion media. The adsorption of Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4} at the water-maghemite interface was evaluated as a function of pH and complex concentration. A slight pH-dependent adsorption of the complex was observed with a maximum at pH 3. The colloidal stability of the functionalised nanoparticles with different amounts of Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4} as a function of pH was evaluated using dynamic light scattering measurements. The particles have a mean magnetic core size of 5.6 nm and the hydrodynamic diameters are approximately 60 nm, which remained unchanged in the pH range in which the samples were a stable sol. The tolerance to different dispersion media, which were deionised water, saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), foetal bovine serum (FBS) and NaCl solutions with different concentrations, was investigated. At moderate ionic strength, the colloidal stability of the dispersions was similar in saline and in PBS compared to the stability of dispersions diluted in water. Moreover, the intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles in 4T1 breast tumour was examined by ultrastructural analysis performed by transmission electron microscopy. The rhodium(II) citrate-coated nanoparticles were found mostly in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Thus, we suggest that these SPIO nanoparticles functionalized with Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Cit){sub 4} can be potential tools for anticancer therapy.

  2. The impact of sodium citrate on dialysis catheter function and frequency of catheter-related bacteriemia and haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Szymczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is one of the most important problems of hemodialysis therapy. It is known that an arteriovenous fi sutla provides the best vascular access, but its creation is not always possible. Other solutions, such as the insertion of a central venous catheter, are then required. Adequate protection of such catheters by interdialytic fi ll with locking solution affects the frequency of hemodialysis-related complications. The most widespread catheter locking solution is heparin. Sodium citrate is being used more frequent recently. Available data indicate that hemorrhage is 11.9 times more frequent if the catheter locking solution is 5000 IU/ml heparin than if 4�0sodium citrate or 1000 IU/ml heparin is used. Other data indicate that the frequency of infection is statistically decreased when 30�0sodium citrate is used to fi ll the catheter instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin. Analogous data on 46.7�0sodium citrate are not consistent. It seems that the use of 4�0sodium citrate instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin does not decrease the frequency of infections. Numerous studies indicate that sodium citrate at various concentrations exerts a positive infl lence on catheter function. However, not all data are in accord. The spill of sodium citrate from the catheter to the systemic circulation is connected with a risk of adverse events. It may be dangerous if the citrate concentration is 46.7�20However, adequate fi lling of the catheter should prezent such events. Available data indicate that fi lling of the catheter with a solution of citrate of a concentration of no more than 30�0should be safe. Data on 46.7�0citrate are not conclusive, so precautions should be taken.

  3. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Huard; Janice Brown; Jessica C. Jones; Shawn Cabral; Kentaro Futatsugi; Matthew Gorgoglione; Adhiraj Lanba; Nicholas B. Vera; Yimin Zhu; Qingyun Yan; Yingjiang Zhou; Cecile Vernochet; Keith Riccardi; Angela Wolford; David Pirman

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterizati...

  4. Effect of trisodium citrate on rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan-Yilsay, T; Lee, W-J; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2007-04-01

    The effect of trisodium citrate (TSC) on the rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt was investigated. Reconstituted skim milk was heated at 85 degrees C for 30 min, and various concentrations (5 to 40 mM) of TSC were added to the milk, which was then readjusted to pH 6.50. Milk was inoculated with 2% yogurt culture and incubated at 42 degrees C until pH was 4.6. Acid-base titration was used to determine changes in the state of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in milk. Total and soluble Ca contents of the milk were determined. The storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values of yogurts were measured as a function of pH using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. Microstructure of yogurt was observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy, and whey separation was also determined. Addition of TSC reduced casein-bound Ca and increased the solubilization of CCP. The G' value of gels significantly increased with addition of low levels of TSC, and highest G' values were observed in samples with 10 to 20 mM TSC; higher (> 20 mM) TSC concentrations resulted in a large decrease in G' values. The LT of yogurts increased after gelation to attain a maximum at pH approximately 5.1, but no maximum was observed in yogurts made with > or = 25 mM of TSC because CCP was completely dissolved prior to gelation. Partial removal of CCP resulted in an increase in the LT value at pH 5.1. At low TSC levels, the removal of CCP crosslinks may have facilitated greater rearrangement and molecular mobility of the micelle structure, which may have helped to increase G' and LT values of gels by increasing the formation of crosslinks between strands. At high TSC concentrations the micelles were completely disrupted and CCP crosslinks were dissolved, both of which resulted in very weak yogurt gels with large pores obvious in confocal micrographs. Gelation pH and yield stress significantly decreased with the use of

  5. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte...

  6. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Period of Review...-others rate made effective by the LTFV investigation. See Citric Acid Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703. These... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results...

  7. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B;

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p

  8. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness (21 CFR 314.162). A person may... time after the drug has been withdrawn from sale, but must be made prior to approving an ANDA that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10...

  9. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  10. Synthesis of Ag Nanostructures by Photochemical Reduction Using Citrate-Capped Pt Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Ho Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis of Ag nanostructures such as nanorods and nanowires has been demonstrated with citrate-capped Pt seeds. UV-visible spectra and photographs of the synthesized solutions at different UV exposure times showed that the citrate-capped Pt seed played a crucial role in the growth of Ag nanostructures. After UV exposure of the colloidal solution for 60 min, the average diameter, length, and aspect ratio of the Ag nanostructures were about 95 nm, 2.1 μm, and 22, respectively. The photochemical reduction is hypothesized to result from photoelectron transfer from adsorbed citrate to Pt nanoparticle seed allowing Ag ions to form Ag nanostructures. Based on X-ray diffraction spectra and transmission electron microscope images, the synthesized Ag nanostructures were a face-centered cubic single crystal with good purity. These results suggest that the photochemical reduction method can provide Ag nanostructures in the presence of citrate-capped Pt seeds at room temperature for anisotropic Ag products.

  11. THE SURFACE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF PROCYMIDONE IN PRESENCE OF AMMONIUM FERRIC CITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Osipov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procymidone was chosen as the model compound and its phototransformation was followed under sunlight irradiation. The main photodegradation products on silica is 3,5-dichloroaniline and 3,5-diclorphenilisocyanate. The use of ammonium ferric citrate enhances the degradation of the procymidone.

  12. Calcium citrate improves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by acidosis in proximal tubular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodriguez Cabalgante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a key event in renal fibrosis. The aims of the study were to evaluate acidosis induced EMT, transforming-growth-factor (TGF β1 role and citrate effect on it. METHODS: HK2 cells (ATCC 2290 were cultured in DMEM/HAM F12 medium, pH 7.4. At 80% confluence, after 24 hr under serum free conditions, cells were distributed in three groups (24 hours: A Control: pH 7.4, B Acidosis: pH 7.0 and C Calcium citrate (0.2 mmol/L + pH 7.0. Change (Δ of intracellular calcium concentration, basal and after Angiotensin II (10-6M exposition, were measured to evaluate cellular performance. EMT was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and E-cadherin by immunocytochemistry and/or Western blot. TGF-β1 secretion was determined by ELISA in cell supernatant. RESULTS: At pH 7.0 HK2 cells significantly reduced E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expression (EMT. Supernatant TGF-β1 levels were higher than in control group. Calcium citrate decreased acidosis induced EMT and improved cells performance, without reduction of TGF-β production. CONCLUSIONS: Acidosis induces EMT and secretion of TGF-β1 in tubular proximal cells in culture and citrate improves cellular performance and ameliorates acidosis induced EMT.

  13. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chun eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate (POC showed approximately 70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers (CUPEs and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20% and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that they are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  14. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. This.... Ellison, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... notice published in the Federal Register of February 25, 2008 (73 FR 10035), FDA announced that a...

  15. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. DATES: The effective date for the final rule published in the Federal Register of March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14491... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy.,...

  16. The safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation in sustained low efficiency dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation in sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) .Methods A total of 45 patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) admitted in our hospital from August 2011 to

  17. On-chip recalcification of citrated whole blood using a microfluidic herringbone mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marcus; Wallbank, Alison M; Dennis, Kimberly A; Wufsus, Adam R; Davis, Kara M; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-11-01

    In vitro assays of platelet function and coagulation are typically performed in the presence of an anticoagulant. The divalent cation chelator sodium citrate is among the most common because its effect on coagulation is reversible upon reintroduction of divalent cations. Adding divalent cations into citrated blood by batch mixing leads to platelet activation and initiation of coagulation after several minutes, thus limiting the time blood can be used before spontaneously clotting. In this work, we describe a herringbone microfluidic mixer to continuously introduce divalent cations into citrated blood. The mixing ratio, defined as the ratio of the volumetric flow rates of citrated blood and recalcification buffer, can be adjusted by changing the relative inlet pressures of these two solutions. This feature is useful in whole blood assays in order to account for differences in hematocrit, and thus viscosity. The recalcification process in the herringbone mixer does not activate platelets. The advantage of this continuous mixing approach is demonstrated in microfluidic vascular injury model in which platelets and fibrin accumulate on a collagen-tissue factor surface under flow. Continuous recalcification with the herringbone mixer allowed for flow assay times of up to 30 min, more than three times longer than the time achieved by batch recalcification. This continuous mixer allows for measurements of thrombus formation, remodeling, and fibrinolysis in vitro over time scales that are relevant to these physiological processes. PMID:26634014

  18. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. Essential Oil Prepared from Cymbopogon citrates Exerted an Antimicrobial Activity Against Plant Pathogenic and Medical Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Mi-Ran; Park, Pyeong Beom; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Jang, Yong-Suk; Jeong, Han Sol; Choi, Sang-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils are mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Some essential oils have useful biological activities including antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiplasmodial, and insect-repelling activities. In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of essential oil prepared from the aromatic plant, Cymbopogon citrates, against three important plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Aspergillus ...

  20. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yíldíz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. METHODS: Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7, torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10, torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10 and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10. Unilateral testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720º in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. After torsion (2 h and detorsion (2 h periods, rats were killed. RESULTS: The level of reduced glutathion (GSH (p0.05. Histopathological changes were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that biochemically and histologically torsion/detorsion injury occurs in the contralateral testis following 2-h torsion and 2-h detorsion and that administration of low-dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular tissue.

  1. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na(+)-citrate transporter CitS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na(+)-citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly re

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON A NEW TYPE CONCENTRATED ANTICOAGULANT HEMODIALYSATE OF CITRATE IN DOGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂保松; 高卫华; 桂琳; 吕星; 王亮琪; 郭蕊军

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the hemodialysis effect of t he new type of concentrated anticoagulant hemodialysate of citrate. Methods Ten dogs were given intermittent hemodialysis and were divided into 3 groups according to hemodialysis manners. Group 1 was saline-flush hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodialysate; Group 2 was hemodialysed with citrate hemodialysis without any anticoagulant; Group 3 wa s hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodialysate and heparin .ACT, Ca2+, BUN, Cr,ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, Na+, Cl-, HCO3- and venous pressure were monitored in the animals of each group during hemodialysis. Results During the hemodialysis in Group 1,venous pressure increased lastingly, resulting in t he failure of hemodialysis for 2 hours. Hemodialysis for 2 hours in Group 2 were all finished successfully. ACT was extended and Ca2+ decreased obviously in the venous end during hemodialysis.And ALT、AST、Ca2+、K+、Na+、Cl -、HCO3- after the hemodialysis in Group 2 were not changed(P>0.05).Moreover, the clearance rat e of the dialyzers with citrate dialysate increased significantly compared with those of saline-flush and heparin anticoagulation.Conclusion The anticoagulant and dialytic effects of the new t ype citrate hemodialysis are satisfactory and better than that of saline-flush ..

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON A NEW TYPE CONCENTRATED ANTICOAGULANT HEMODIALYSATE OF CITRATE IN DOGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To observe the hemodialysis effcet of the new type of concentrated anticoagulant hemodialysate of citrate.Methods:Ten dogs were given intermittent hemodialysis and were divided into 3 groups according to hemodialysis manners.Group 1 was saline-flush hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodialysate;Group 2 was hemodialysed with citrate hemodialysis without any anticoagulant;Group 3 was hemodialysed with bicarbonate hemodlalysate and heparin,ACT,Ca2+,BUN,Cr,ALT,AST,TBIL,BDIL,Na+,Cl-,HCO3- and venous pressure were monitored in the animals of each group during hemodialysis.Results:During the hemodialysis in Group 1,venous pressure increased lastingly,resulting in the failure of hemodialysis for 2 hours.Hemodialysis for 2 hours in Group 2 were all finished successfully.ACT was extended and Ca2+ decreased obviously in the venous end during hemodialysis,And ALT,AST,Ca2+,K+,Na+,Cl-,HCO3- after the hemodialysis in Group 2 were not changed(P>0.05).Moreover,the clearance rate of the dialyzers with citrate dialysate increased significantly compared with those of saline-flush and heparin anticoagulation.Conclusion:The anticoagulant and dialytic effects of the new type citrate hemodialysis are satisfactory and better than that of saline-flush.

  4. Effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Aleem; Varsha Padwal; Jyoti Choudhari; Nafisa Balasinor; Priyanka Parte; Manjeet Gill-Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male decondensation, acridine orange (AO) dye uptake, concentration of thiol-groups, levels and/or expression of transition proteins 1, 2 (TP1, TP2), protamine 1 (P1), cyclic AMP response element modulator-τ (CREMτ), androgenbinding protein (ABP) and cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cAMP) were evaluated after 60 days of exposure in adult male rats. Controls received the vehicle. Results: Tamoxifen citrate enhanced the rates of chromatin decondensation, increased AO dye uptake and reduced free thiols in caput epididymal sperms and reduced the levels of TP1, TP2, P1, and CREMτ in the testis, while cAMP was unaffected. P1 deposition was absent in the sperm. The transcripts of TP1, TP2 were increased, of P1 and ABP decreased, while those of CREMτ unaffected in the testis.Conclusion: Tamoxifen citrate reduced caput epididymal sperm chromatin compaction by reducing the testicular levels of proteins TP1, TP2 and P1 and the CREMτ involved in chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis.Tamoxifen citrate affects the expression of these genes at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  5. Aggregation and adhesion of gold nanoparticles in phosphate buffered saline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Shangfeng, E-mail: s.du@bham.ac.uk; Kendall, Kevin; Toloueinia, Panteha; Mehrabadi, Yasamin; Gupta, Gaurav; Newton, Jill [University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    In applications in medicine and more specifically drug delivery, the dispersion stability of nanoparticles plays a significant role on their final performances. In this study, with the use of two laser technologies, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), we report a simple method to estimate the stability of nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Stability has two features: (1) self-aggregation as the particles tend to stick to each other; (2) disappearance of particles as they adhere to surrounding substrate surfaces such as glass, metal, or polymer. By investigating the effects of sonication treatment and surface modification by five types of surfactants, including nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP9), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), human serum albumin (HSA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and citrate ions on the dispersion stability, the varying self-aggregation and adhesion of gold nanoparticles dispersed in PBS are demonstrated. The results showed that PVP effectively prevented aggregation, while HSA exhibited the best performance in avoiding the adhesion of gold nanoparticle in PBS onto glass and metal. The simple principle of this method makes it a high potential to be applied to other nanoparticles, including virus particles, used in dispersing and processing.

  6. Comparison of sodium citrate with defibrination for the processing of blood for tsetse mass-rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various experimental bioassays comparing the use of sodium citrated bovine blood to defibrinated bovine blood were performed in order to reach an alternative anticoagulant procedure. Defibrination is the standard process to obtain blood, which is the only source of nutrients for tsetse flies. This process is time consuming, requires special equipment, trained personnel and could be an extra source of blood contamination. For the blood collection, special care was taken to rule out biological bias by using the same donor animal for both citrated and defibrinated collections. Contamination was avoided by sterile collection from the jugular vein. As the university owns these animals, their medical history is known and could be inspected prior to collection in order to rule out any recent antibiotic treatments, which could influence the results of the experiment. Both blood treatments were transported under refrigeration, irradiated in a Gammacell 220 Co60 irradiator with 1 kGy, stored at -20 deg. C and bacteriologically tested (nutrient agar plate test). All flies were kept under standard condition of temperature (24.5 ± 0.5 deg. C) and relative humidity (75 ± 5%). For the bioassays, flies from the Glossina pallidipes colony, Entomology Unit, Seibersdorf, were used. The flies were divided into 2 groups of males and females in a 1:4 ratio and each group was composed of 4 cages. The first experiment lasted for 37 days and the second 93 days. One group received defibrinated bovine blood and the other group received citrated bovine blood (0.02M final concentration). Survival, mortality and fecundity rates of the flies and pupal size category and weight were recorded for both groups and were analysed and compared. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two treatments for survival, mortality and fecundity and that the pupal size category and weight for the citrated group had slightly better results than the defibrinated group

  7. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  8. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia.

  9. Modifying effect of iron citrate to cardiotoxicity of lead acetate in an experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova E.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Generally recognized and urgent problem for industrial regions of Ukraine are heavy metal pollution, with priority toxicants are lead and its compounds. Search for new possible bioantohonists of lead compounds - a problem relevant to modern medicine. Objective. The aim of this experimental work was to study the effect of low doses of lead acetate alone and lead acetate in combination with iron citrate, obtained with nanotechnology, to the course of cardiogenesis of rats. Methods. The study conducted on embryos of white rats. In the experiment, there were 3 groups of animals: control group isolated administration of lead acetate group and the combined administration of lead acetate and iron citrate. Results. Experimental results showed cardiotoxicity of lead acetate, which was determined to reduce the thickness of the compact myocardium wall of ventricles of the heart, reducing thickness fibrillation, ventricular septal thinning. Violation of delamination processes and ventricular myocardium compaction, under the influence of isolated lead acetate, manifest violation of the formation of trabecular ventricular myocardium layer and formation of atrioventricular valve openings: shortening valves, change the content and scope of the atrioventricular valves accompanied by the formation of additional anomalous tendon chords. Conclusion. The influence on the course of cardiogenesis in the group combined effects of lead acetate and iron citrate showed recovery of myocardial thickness and ventricular fibrillation, no violations in the formation of valvular heart rat embryos, indicating a positive impact on iron citrate cardiotoxicityof lead acetate. Citation: Nefedova EA. [Modifying effect of iron citrate to cardiotoxicity of lead acetate in an experiment]. Morphologia. 2014;8(4:63-8. Russian.

  10. Enhancing uranium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, J.C. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vera Tome, F., E-mail: fvt@unex.es [Natural Radioactivity Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Calvo, C. Prieto [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aim was to optimize uranium solubilization for the purposes of remediation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citrate treatment was the most efficient, with 63% of uranium solubilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA. - Abstract: A systematic study was made of the effects of three soil amendments on the solubilization of uranium from a granitic soil. The aim was to optimize solubilization so as to enhance bioavailability for the purposes of remediation. The three amendments tested were with citrate, EDTA, and EDDS as chelating agents. The effects of pH, chelator concentration, and leaching time were studied. The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. In the absence of chelating agents, the greatest solubilization was obtained for alkaline conditions, with values representing about 15% of the total uranium activity in the bulk soil. There were major differences in uranium solubilization between the different amendments. The citrate treatment was the most efficient at acidic pH, particularly with the greatest concentration of citrate tested (50 mmol kg{sup -1}) after 6 days of treatment. Under these conditions, the uranium concentration in solution was greater by a factor of 356 than in the control suspension, and represented some 63% of the uranium concentration in the bulk soil. Under alkaline conditions, the EDTA and EDDS treatments gave the greatest uranium activity concentrations in solution, but these concentrations were much lower than those with the citrate amendment, and were not very different from the control results. The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA.

  11. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  12. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs.

  13. Evolution of allosteric citrate binding sites on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Usenik

    Full Text Available As an important part of metabolism, metabolic flux through the glycolytic pathway is tightly regulated. The most complex control is exerted on 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1 level; this control overrules the regulatory role of other allosteric enzymes. Among other effectors, citrate has been reported to play a vital role in the suppression of this enzyme's activity. In eukaryotes, amino acid residues forming the allosteric binding site for citrate are found both on the N- and the C-terminal region of the enzyme. These site has evolved from the phosphoenolpyruvate/ADP binding site of bacterial PFK1 due to the processes of duplication and tandem fusion of prokaryotic ancestor gene followed by the divergence of the catalytic and effector binding sites. Stricter inhibition of the PFK1 enzyme was needed during the evolution of multi-cellular organisms, and the most stringent control of PFK1 by citrate occurs in vertebrates. By substituting a single amino acid (K557R or K617A as a component of the allosteric binding site in the C-terminal region of human muscle type PFK-M with a residue found in the corresponding site of a fungal enzyme, the inhibitory effect of citrate was attenuated. Moreover, the proteins carrying these single mutations enabled growth of E. coli transformants encoding mutated human PFK-M in a glucose-containing medium that did not support the growth of E. coli transformed with native human PFK-M. Substitution of another residue at the citrate-binding site (D591V of human PFK-M resulted in the complete loss of activity. Detailed analyses revealed that the mutated PFK-M subunits formed dimers but were unable to associate into the active tetrameric holoenzyme. These results suggest that stricter control over glycolytic flux developed in metazoans, whose somatic cells are largely characterized by slow proliferation.

  14. Catalysis of Manganese(Ⅱ) on Chromium(Ⅵ) Reduction by Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chen; LAN Ye-Qing; DENG Bao-Lin

    2007-01-01

    The catalysis of manganese(Ⅱ) (Mn2+) on chromium(Ⅵ) (Cr6+) reduction by citrate was studied through batch experiments with the concentration of citrate greatly in excess of Cr6+ at 25℃ and in pH ranges of 4.0 to 5.0. Results showed that at pH 4.5 within 22 h direct reduction of Cr6+ by citrate was not observed, but for the same time when Mn2+ (50 to 200 μmol L-1 was added,nearly all Cr6+ was rdeuced ,with the higher initial Mn2+ concentration having faster Cr6+ reduction. In the initial stage of the reaction, the Cr6+ reduction could be described with a pseudo-first-order kinetics equation. In the later stage of the reaction, plots of lnc(Cr6+) versus t, where c(Cr6+) is the Cr6+ concentration in the reaction and t is the reaction time, deviated from the initial linear trend. The deviations suggested that the pseudo-first-order kinetics did not apply to the whole experimental period and that some reaction intermediates could have greatly accelerated Cr6+ reduction by citrate. The catalysis of the intermediates increased with the reaction time and gradually reached stability. Then, the plot of lnc(Cr6+) versus t in the presence of Mn2+ was linear again, with the rate constant increasing by 102 times compared with the absence of Mn2+. Complexation between Mn2+ and citrate was likely a prerequisite for the catalysis of Mn2+ on the reaction. Additional experiments showed that introducing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) into the reaction system strongly suppressed the catalysis of Mn2+.

  15. The Influence of Phosphate Buffer on the Formation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine from Dimethylamine Nitrosation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffer solutions were widely used for almost all the investigations concerning N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, a member of powerful mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds which are ubiquitous in the environment. However, whether or how the buffer matrixes influence NDMA formation is still unknown. The effect of buffer solutions on NDMA formation from the nitrosation of dimethylamine (DMA by nitrite (NaNO2 was investigated at pH 6.4 in four kinds of buffer solutions, that is, Na2HPO4/C6H8O7, Na3(C6H5O7/C6H8O7, NaH2PO4/NaOH, and NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4. Our observations demonstrate an unexpected inhibitory effect of the buffer solutions on NDMA formation and the phosphate buffer plays a more significant role in inhibiting NDMA formation compared to the citrate buffer. Moreover, the amount of the phosphate in the buffer was also found to greatly impact the formation of NDMA. A further investigation indicates that it is the interaction between NaH2PO4 and reactant NaNO2 rather than DMA that leads to the inhibitory effect of phosphate buffer during the DMA nitrosation reaction. This study expands the understanding of the influence of buffer solution on nitrosamines formation through the nitrosation pathway and further gives a hint for water plants to reduce the formation of nitrosamines.

  16. Phosphate Sorption Characteristics and External P Requirements of Selected South African Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gichangi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Transkei is the largest consolidated area in South Africa where land is held by smallholder farmers but little is known about the extent of phosphate fixation in the region. This study was conducted to determine the phosphate sorption properties and external P requirements (EPR of selected soils from the Transkei region, South Africa and to relate derived sorption values to selected soil parameters. The P sorption maxima and EPR values varied widely ranging from 192.3 to 909.1 mg P kg−1 and from 2 to 123 mg P kg−1−1 soil, respectively. Citrate dithionite bicarbonate-extractable aluminum explained most of the observed variations in P sorption. About 43% of the soils were found to be moderate P fixers and may need management interventions to ensure adequate P availability to crops. The single point sorption index accurately predicted the EPR of the soils obviating the need to use multiple point sorption isotherms. The results suggested that the use of blanket phosphate fertilizer recommendations may not be a good strategy for the region as it may lead to under-application or over-application of P in some areas.

  17. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  18. The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2014-07-01

    Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. PMID:24635386

  19. Availability of zinc and the ligands citrate and histidine to wheat: does uptake of entire complexes play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Anja; Tandy, Susan; Frossard, Emmanuel; Eikenberg, Jost; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Organic ligands in soils affect the availability of trace metals such as Zn to plants. This study investigated the effects of two of these ligands, citrate and histidine, on Zn uptake by wheat under hydroponic conditions. Uptake of (65)Zn in the presence of these ligands was compared to uptake in the presence of EDTA at the same free Zn concentration (Zn(2+) ~ 50 nM). In the presence of citrate Zn root uptake was enhanced ~3.5 times and in the presence of histidine, by a factor of ~9, compared to the EDTA treatments. Citrate uptake was slightly reduced in the treatment containing ligands and Zn compared to the treatment containing the same ligand concentration but no Zn. In addition, a higher uptake of Zn than of citrate was observed. This suggests that the enhanced Zn uptake was primarily due to increased supply of Zn(2+) by diffusion and dissociation of Zn-citrate complexes at the root surface. Histidine uptake was much higher than citrate uptake and not influenced by the presence of Zn. As histidine forms stronger complexes with Zn than citrate, the results suggest that the enhancement of Zn uptake in the presence of histidine was in part due to the uptake of undissociated Zn-histidine complexes.

  20. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren-kou; ZHU Yong-guan; David Chittleborough

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by Iow-molecular-weight organic acids.Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was not correlated with PKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearrly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  1. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeewa N. Senadheera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b, although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light.

  2. Inactivation of Bakers' yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sungwoo; Joshi, J.G. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

    1989-04-18

    Preincubation of yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with Al(III) produced an inactive enzyme containing 1 mol of Al(III)/mol of enzyme subunit. None of the enzyme-bound Al(III) was dissociated by dialysis against 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.0, containing 0.2 mM EDTA at 4{degree}C for 24 h. Citrate, NADP{sup +}, EDTA, or NaF protected the enzyme against the Al(III) inactivation. The Al(III)-inactivated enzyme, however, was completely reactivated only by citrate and NaF. The dissociation constant for the enzyme-aluminum complex was calculated to be 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M with NaF, a known reversible chelator for aluminum. Modification of histidine and lysine residues of the enzyme with diethyl pyrocarbonate and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively, inactivated the enzyme. However, the modified enzyme still bound 1 mol of Al(III)/mol of enzyme subunit. Circular dichroism studies showed that the binding of Al(III) to the enzyme induced a decrease in {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet and an increase in random coil. Therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of G6PD by Al(III) is due to the conformational change induced by Al(III) binding.

  3. Sorption properties of tantalum phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption properties of tantalum phosphate prepared from solution containing fluoride ions were studied using radioactivity measurements of trace constituents. It was found that this compound is a typical cation exchanger with the capacity of up to 1.6 mmolxg-1 in neutral solution. (author)

  4. Phosphate Recognition in Structural Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Anna K.H.; Fischer, Felix R.; Diederich, François

    2007-01-01

    Drug-discovery research in the past decade has seen an increased selection of targets with phosphate recognition sites, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, in the past decade. This review attempts, with the help of database-mining tools, to give an overview of the most important principles in

  5. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Title Other Names: G6PD ... G6PD deficiency Categories: Newborn Screening Summary Summary Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  6. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following: Monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, dipotassium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium metaphosphate (sodium hexametaphosphate), sodium acid pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium citrate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, sodium tartrate, and sodium...

  7. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Manali R Srinivasan; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium pho...

  8. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  9. Phosphate analogues in the dissection of mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi J. Korhonen; Conway, Louis P.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoryl group transfer is central to genetic replication, cellular signalling and many metabolic processes. Understanding the mechanisms of phosphorylation and phosphate ester and anhydride cleavage is key to efforts towards biotechnological and biomedical exploitation of phosphate-handling enzymes. Analogues of phosphate esters and anhydrides are indispensable tools, alongside protein mutagenesis and computational methods, for the dissection of phosphoryl transfer mechanisms. Hydrolysable...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. Phytate (Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soil and Phosphate Acquisition from Inositol Phosphates by Higher Plants. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Gerke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate (P fixation to the soil solid phase is considered to be important for P availability and is often attributed to the strong binding of orthophosphate anion species. However, the fixation and subsequent immobilization of inositolhexa and pentaphosphate isomers (phytate in soil is often much stronger than that of the orthosphate anion species. The result is that phytate is a main organic P form in soil and the dominating form of identifiable organic P. The reasons for the accumulation are not fully clear. Two hypothesis can be found in the literature in the last 20 years, the low activity of phytase (phosphatases in soil, which makes phytate P unavailable to the plant roots, and, on the other hand, the strong binding of phytate to the soil solid phase with its consequent stabilization and accumulation in soil. The hypothesis that low phytase activity is responsible for phytate accumulation led to the development of genetically modified plant genotypes with a higher expression of phytase activity at the root surface and research on the effect of a higher phytate activity on P acquisition. Obviously, this hypothesis has a basic assumption, that the phytate mobility in soil is not the limiting step for P acquisition of higher plants from soil phytate. This assumption is, however, not justified considering the results on the sorption, immobilization and fixation of phytate to the soil solid phase reported in the last two decades. Phytate is strongly bound, and the P sorption maximum and probably the sorption strength of phytate P to the soil solid phase is much higher, compared to that of orthophosphate P. Mobilization of phytate seems to be a promising step to make it available to the plant roots. The excretion of organic acid anions, citrate and to a lesser extend oxalate, seems to be an important way to make phytate P available to the plants. Phytase activity at the root surface seems not be the limiting step in P acquisition from phytate

  9. Calcium phosphate cements: study of the beta-tricalcium phosphate--monocalcium phosphate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtchi, A A; Lemaitre, J; Terao, N

    1989-09-01

    The possibility of making cements based on beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), a promising bone graft material, was investigated. Upon admixture with water, beta-TCP/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) mixtures were found to set and harden like conventional hydraulic cements. Beta-TCP powders with larger particle size, obtained by sintering at higher temperatures, increased the ultimate strength of the cement. Results show that setting occurs after dissolution of MCPM, as a result of the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) in the paste. The ultimate tensile strength of the hardened cement is proportional to the amount of DCPD formed. Upon ageing above 40 degrees C, DCPD transforms progressively into anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP), thereby decreasing the strength. Ageing of the pastes in 100% r.h. results in a decay of the mechanical properties. This can be ascribed to an intergranular dissolution of the beta-TCP aggregates as a result of the pH lowering brought about by the MCPM to DCPD conversion.

  10. Early detection of interstitial pneumonia by 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report our recent experience indicating usefulness of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy in 4 cases with inflammatory pulmonary diseases. These cases showed abnormal pulmonary 67Ga uptake with normal chest radiographs. The first case with malignant lymphoma and the second one with lung cancer suffered from pulmonary infection following secondary immuno-insufficiency due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Pneumocystis carinii was suspected as causative agent in the first case, and gram negative bacilli in the second case. The third case with lung cancer developed radiation pneumonia after radiotherapy. The fourth case with acute bronchitis developed drug induced interstitial pneumonia presumably due to minocycline administration. It is concluded that 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy is more sensitive for early detection of interstitial pneumonia than routine chest radiography. (author)

  11. Comparison of Ga-67 citrate images obtained with rectilinear scanner and large-field Anger camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for Ga-67 citrate imaging were compared on 20 patients. Scans were performed using approximately equal procedure time with two instruments: a dual 5-in. rectilinear scanner with medium-energy collimator, with a single window spanning both the 93-keV and the 185-keV spectral peaks; and a large-field (15-in. diam) Anger camera equipped with moving table, medium-energy collimator, and three windows covering the 93-keV, 185-keV, and 300-keV peaks separately. Sixteen abnormal sites and 24 normal sites were selected for comparison. Each site was evaluated by four physicians experienced in interpreting Ga-67 citrate images. The observers performed significantly better using the images obtained with the large-field camera (three windows) than with the dual 5-in. scanner

  12. Morphology controllable synthesis of yttrium oxide-based phosphors from yttrium citrate precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Manlian; GUO Kai; MAN Zhenyong; CHEN Haohong; YANG Xinxin; XU Fangfang; ZHAO Jingtai

    2011-01-01

    A novel yttrium citrate-templated conversion method for morphology controlled synthesis ofY2O3 microspheres,microflowers and microsheets was reported for the first time.The precursors with controllable morphologies were synthesized with a homogenous precipitation method in aqueous solution without any surfactant.Y2O3 samples with well-preserved morphological architectures were obtained by a subsequent thermal transformation strategy.The chemical formula of the precursor was identified and a two-stage growth mechanism was proposed.The effects of the aging time,reaction temperature,reactant concentration and molar ratio of yttrium nitrate to sodium citrate were discussed.The photoluminescence properties of the Y2O3∶Eu3+ microspheres,microflowers and microsheets prepared were also studied.

  13. Absorption of Sulphur Dioxide with Sodium Citrate Buffer Solution in a Rotating Packed Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiuping; LIU Youzhi; GU Meiduo

    2011-01-01

    Absorption of SO2 from a SO2/air mixture with sodium citrate buffer solution was investigated using a rotating packed bed(RPB) in laboratory scale.The effects of operating parameters,such as the rotation speed of RPB,liquid-gas ratio,inlet gas flow rate,inlet concentration of SO2 in flue gas,sodium citrate buffer concentration and initial pH of absorption solution,on the SO2 concentration in the absorption solution or removal efficiency of SO2 were examined.Incremental rate of sulfate radical ions in the absorption solution was also examined.Experimental results indicate that the efficiency of this regenerative process will be improved by using RPB under appropriate operating conditions,and the generation of SO2-4 will be restrained in the process in RPB.

  14. EFFECT OF ROSIGLITAZONE AND METFORMIN ON CLOMIPHENE CITRATE RESISTANCE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianhuai; Cao Zuansun; Zong Lu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of rosiglitazone and metformin on ovarian response, hirsutism and insulin action in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Ninety women resistant to clomiphene citrate with PCOS were randomized, 40 cases to rosiglitazone group, 50 cases to meformin group. Rosiglitazone and metformon were administered for 6 months in combination with clomiphene citrate on cycle day 5th to 9th, respectively. The clinical evaluations were performed monthly. Reproductive hormone, serum glucose and insulin levels were observed before and after treatment. The data were analyzed using repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results There were significant changes in reducing hirsutism score, serum testosterone level, LH/FSH ratio, and restoration of ovarian ovulation after metformin or rosiglitazone administration respectively (P0.05). Conclusion Rosiglitazone can increase insulin sensitivity. Metformon may reduce BMI. They all restore regular menstrual cycles, increase pregnancy rate, and reduce testosterone and LH concentration in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  15. Anti-Mullerian hormone and response to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Sweed

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Anti-Mullerian hormone is a very useful predictor of poor responders to clomiphene citrate among women with polycystic ovary disease. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 603-608

  16. The efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate and metformin on ovulation induction in patients suffering from anovulatory infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Patel

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Ovulation rate was significantly higher compared to pregnancy rate. We could not find any benefit of adding metformin to the standard treatment with clomiphene citrate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1241-1246

  17. Evidence for a signaling axis by which intestinal phosphate rapidly modulates renal phosphate reabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Theresa; Thomas, Leslie F.; Craig, Theodore A.; Sommer, Stacy; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms by which phosphorus homeostasis is preserved in mammals are not completely understood. We demonstrate the presence of a mechanism by which the intestine detects the presence of increased dietary phosphate and rapidly increases renal phosphate excretion. The mechanism is of physiological relevance because it maintains plasma phosphate concentrations in the normal range after ingestion of a phosphate-containing meal. When inorganic phosphate is infused into the duodenum, there is...

  18. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    OpenAIRE

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by ...

  19. Lattice Constant Dependence on Particle Size for Ceria prepared from a Citrate Sol-Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, V. N.; Farrell, R. A.; Sexton, A. M.; Morris, M. A.

    2006-02-01

    High surface area ceria nanoparticles have been prepared using a citrate solgel precipitation method. Changes to the particle size have been made by calcining the ceria powders at different temperatures, and X-ray methods used to determine their lattice parameters. The particle sizes have been assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameter found to fall with decreasing particle size. The results are discussed in the light of the role played by surface tension effects.

  20. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Al-doped barium ferrite with sodium citrate as chelate agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daming, E-mail: chendaming1986@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Yingli, E-mail: lyl@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Yuanxun; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, M-type Al-doped barium ferrites were successfully synthesized using sodium citrate (SC) as the chelate agent by a chemical process complemented by a suitable thermal treatment of the precursor. It was found in TGA/DTA and XRD analysis that the crystallization and formation of single phase BaM had completed before 860 °C. The XRD data also confirmed Al substituting into Fe sites. Meanwhile, it can be seen from the SEM images that the particle size and morphology were not affected by Al doping. However, Al substitution played an important role on the magnetic properties. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of BaAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} decreased from 51.43 emu/g for the sample with x=0 to 28.32 emu/g at x=1.5. The anisotropy field (H{sub a}), however, increased from 16.21 kOe to 25.01 kOe. In addition, M{sub s} increased with enhancing the ratio of SC/Ba{sup 2+}(molar ratio), reaching a maximum when SC/Ba{sup 2+} was 13. - Highlights: ► Doped barium ferrite was successfully synthesized using sodium citrate as chelate agent. ► Sodium citrate allows the mixing of metal cations in the as-synthesized barium ferrite. ► The radio of Sodium citrate/Ba{sup 2+} pay an important effect on magnetic properties.

  1. Effects of Sodium Citrate on Salt Sensitivity and Kidney Injury in Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sejoong; Yang, Jin Young; Jung, Eun Sook; Lee, Jeonghwan; Heo, Nam Ju; Lee, Jae Wook; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis, which is observed in salt-sensitive hypertension, is also associated with kidney injury. Alkali therapy in chronic renal failure (CRF) may ameliorate the progression of kidney disease; however, few studies have examined the effects of alkali therapy on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in CRF. We randomly administered standard diet (SD), sodium chloride with 20% casein diet (NACL), or sodium citrate with 20% casein diet (NACT) to Sprague-Dawley rats after a CRF or a sham ...

  2. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid; Hossam E ElHossary

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalini- zation medium, and this has been...

  3. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs

  4. Preparation and characterization of Tamoxifen citrate loaded nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maji R; Dey NS; Satapathy BS; Mukherjee B.; Mondal S

    2014-01-01

    Ruma Maji, Niladri Shekhar Dey, Bhabani Sankar Satapathy, Biswajit Mukherjee, Subhasish MondalDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (Calcutta), IndiaBackground: Four formulations of Tamoxifen citrate loaded polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) based nanoparticles (TNPs) were developed and characterized. Their internalization by Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells was also investigated.Methods: Nanoparticles were prepared by a multiple e...

  5. Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 μmol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 μmol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM.

  6. Effect of Ergotamine on Headache and Migraine Attack Induced by Sindenafil Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    Rayka Sharifian; Ayoub Barzgarnejad; Fatemeh Ghanbarpour; Mehrdad Taghipour

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a potent vasodilatation agent to treat male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Among its adverse effects, headache and migraine attack have been widely reported. Here we focus on the effect of sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of CGMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), on headache induction. PDEs are large families of enzyme that break down cyclic nucleotides CGMP. When PDEs are inhibited, the levels of CGMP increase within vascular smooth muscle cell...

  7. Effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Peng-Fei Nie; Xiu-Cui Li; Ferdinand An Rompis; Hang Huang; Hua Zhang; Zhong-Lin Mu; Lei Peng; Wei Wang; Qing-Yu Chen; Zhong-Qin Lin; Shao-Wen Cheng; Dong-Quan Kou; Xiao-Zhou Ying; Yue Shen; Xiao-Jie Cheng

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To explore effect of calcium citrate on bone integration in a rabbit femur defect model, and to compare the bone formation with different sizes by radiological and histological study. Methods:Twenty-four male Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (GroupA, B, C) in this study. Under anesthesia, defects of four sizes (1.2, 1.5, 2.0 and2.5 mm) were created in each of the rabbits. Commercially pure calcium citrate powder was placed inside the medullary compartment of the femur (Experimental), while in the contralateral femur (Control) nothing was implanted. The defects were analyzed using radiography and histological analysis by using Imagepro-Plus6.0 software after animal was sacrificed at 4th(GroupA), 6th(GroupB) and8th(GroupC) weeks postoperatively. Four samples were analyzed for each size of defect and each healing period.Results:The histological and the radiologic evaluation were performed after sacrification of all rabbits on postoperative4th and6th weeks, It showed significant difference between the experimental group and the control group when these defects were less than or equal to2.0 mm. No statistical difference was observed when these defects were larger than2.0 mm at all healing periods except at the4th week.Conclusions: Calcium citrate affects the early periods of bone defects healing mechanism in Japanese white rabbits positively, especially when the defect is not too large. We suggest further studies on calcium citrate to determine the effects of various dosages, administration ways and the experimental time on the bone defects.

  8. Functional Analysis of the Citrate Activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis Implicates a Divalent Metal in Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Magni, Christian; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2016-01-01

    The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM), while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation. PMID:26903980

  9. Functional analysis of the citrate activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis implicates a divalent metal in ligand binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Blancato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD= 1.2±0.2 µM, while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation.

  10. Stability of clavulanic acid in PEG/citrate and liquid–liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase system

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. N.; Souza, K. P. S.; Mota, A; J.A. Teixeira; Porto, C S; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana L. F.

    2014-01-01

    β-Lactamases are enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics, being produced by several pathogenic bacteria. Clavulanic acid is a commercially and clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor, its extraction being possible by the application of aqueous two-phase system. In this study, clavulanic acid stability was investigated at different molar mass PEG (400, 1 000 and 20 000 g mol−1) and at different citrate concentrations (5 and 20%) PEG/citrate aqueous-two phase systems (...

  11. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used

  12. Manganese(II)-catalyzed and clay-minerals-mediated reduction of chromium(VI) by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Binoy; Naidu, Ravi; Krishnamurti, Gummuluru S R; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2013-01-01

    Unlike lower valent iron (Fe), the potential role of lower valent manganese (Mn) in the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in soil is poorly documented. In this study, we report that citrate along with Mn(II) and clay minerals (montmorillonite and kaolinite) reduce Cr(VI) both in aqueous phase and in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (SDOC) extracted from a forest soil. The reduction was favorable at acidic pH (up to pH 5) and followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The citrate (10 mM) + Mn(II) (182.02 μM) + clay minerals (3% w/v) system in SDOC accounted for complete reduction of Cr(VI) (192.32 μM) in about 72 h at pH 4.9. In this system, citrate was the reductant, Mn(II) was a catalyst, and the clay minerals acted as an accelerator for both the reductant and catalyst. The clay minerals also serve as a sink for Cr(III). This study reveals the underlying mechanism of the Mn(II)-induced reduction of Cr(VI) by organic ligand in the presence of clay minerals under certain environmental conditions.

  13. Ytterbium 169 citrate in the diagnosis of lung opacities of cancerous origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung scintigraphy for tumour exploration has been widely studied for some years, but unfortunately with the many radioisotopes used at present this examination is not entirely reliable. It seemed interesting therefore to investigate a new tracer, 169Yb citrate, the properties of which were demonstrated recently by HISADA. To estimate the specificity of this tracer we chose 62 records of different bronchopulmonary diseases. After an introductory review of various diagnostic methods the physical and physiological characteristics of ytterbium citrate and its method of use are described, then the records examined are presented and our thoughts and conclusions discussed. 169Yb citrate possesses excellent biophysical properties for tumour scintigraphy but this isotope, though causing no radioactive pollution, delivers an appreciable irradiation dose to the patient examined. It has a positive tropism for pathological lung images. The fixation index of the documents taken separately, apart from that of the 14th day, cannot distinguish between benign and malignant diseases. This is possible with the kinetic uptake curve and the index ratios for the 2nd and 14th days. With these diagnostic criteria the overall results are better than those obtained with other commonly used radioisotopes: true positives 70%, false negatives 11%, false positives 4.5%

  14. Electroretinography and immunohistochemistry of retina in rabbits treated with sildenafil citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.C. Amaral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate is a type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE-5, able to inhibit type-6 phosphodiesterase (PDE-6 as well, providing clinical benefits and paraeffects, some of them potentially related to the retina. The effects of the sildenafil on the retrobulbar and retinal circulation were studied in 27 adult male rabbits of the White New Zealand breed. The electric activity of the retina was evaluated before and at the end of the treatments, and immunohistochemistry studies were conducted. An amplitude increase of the b wave was found in the mixed response of cones and rods after 7 days of treatment with sildenafil citrate. However, in the other evaluations and periods, the values did not differ from the basal ones. Through immunohistochemistry, no significant decrease of the expression of PDE-5 and PDE-6 proteins was observed. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to admit that the sildenafil citrate did not change the expression of PDE-5 and PDE-6, neither the electroretinographic activity of the retina of male rabbits of the White New Zealand breed.

  15. Sildenafil citrate protects skeletal muscle of ischemia-reperfusion injury: immunohistochemical study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira Armstrong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: vehicle-treated control (CTG, sildenafil citrate-treated (SCG, and sham group (SG. CTG and SCG had femoral artery occluded for 6 hours. Saline or 1 mg/kg of SC was given 5.5 hours after occlusion. SG had a similar procedure without artery occlusion. Soleus muscle samples were acquired 4 or 24h after the reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry caspase-3 analysis was used to estimate apoptosis using the apoptotic ratio (computed as positive/negative cells. Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Eighteen animals were included in the 4h reperfusion groups and 21 animals in the 24h reperfusion groups. The mean apoptotic ratio was 0.18±0.1 for the total cohort; 0.14±0.06 for the 4h reperfusion groups and 0.19±0.08 for the 24h groups (p<0.05. The SCG had lower caspase-3 ratio compared to the control groups at the 24h reperfusion time point (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate administration after the onset of the ischemic injury reduces IR-induced cellular damage in skeletal muscle in this rat hindlimb ischemia model.

  16. Effect of caffeine citrate on the blood gas indexes in newborns with apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yan Wu; Xiao-Jiao Wang; Yuan-Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of caffeine citrate on the blood gas indexes in newborns with apnea.Methods: A total of 108 primary premature infants diagnosed with apnea were included in the study and randomized into the caffeine citrate treatment group and the aminophylline control group with 54 cases in each group. The apnea episode duration 72 h after medication, and the blood gas before medication and 24, 48, 72 h after medication between the two groups were compared.Results: The apnea episode duration 24, 48, 72 h after medication in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group. PaO2 24, 48, 72 h after medication in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PaCO2 was significantly reduced when compared with the control group.Conclusions:Caffeine citrate has achieved a significantly clinical effect in the treatment of newborn apnea, as a new therapeutic drug, is worthy of being widely recommended in the clinic.

  17. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rana; Desai, Kavita; Parekh, Hetal; Ganla, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. PMID:27563258

  18. Plant uptake of depleted uranium from manure-amended and citrate treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostianova, Elena; Lindemann, William C; Ulery, April L; Remmenga, Marta D

    2010-08-01

    Six plant species were tested for their ability to accumulate depleted uranium in their above-ground biomass from deployed munitions contaminated soil in New Mexico. In greenhouse experiments, Kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L) were grown with steer manure added at rates of 22.4, 44.8, and 89.6 Mg ha(-1). Citric acid and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) applied at the end of the growing season increased DU concentrations from 2.5 to 17 times. Leaf and stem DU concentrations in kochia increased from 17.0 to 41.9 mg kg(-1) and from 3.5 to 18.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. In pigweed, leaf and stem DU concentrations increased from 1.0 to 17.3 and from 1.0 to 4.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. Manure generally decreased or had no effect on DU uptake. The effect of citric acid and ammonium citrate on DU uptake by kochia, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), and sweet corn (Zea mays L) was also studied. Ammonium citrate was just as effective in enhancing DU uptake as citric acid. This implies that the citrate ion is more important in DU uptake and translocation than the solubilization of DU through acidification. In both experiments, leaves had higher DU concentrations than stems. PMID:21166280

  19. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Pereira, Jorge F; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Ryan, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al(3+) tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al(3+)-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approach to increase the Al(3+) tolerance of barley by transforming it with two MATE genes that encode citrate transporters: SbMATE is the major Al(3+)-tolerance gene from sorghum whereas FRD3 is involved with Fe nutrition in Arabidopsis. Independent transgenic and null T3 lines were generated for both transgenes. Lines expressing SbMATE showed Al(3+)-activated citrate efflux from root apices and greater tolerance to Al(3+) toxicity than nulls in hydroponic and short-term soil trials. Transgenic lines expressing FRD3 exhibited similar phenotypes except citrate release from roots occurred constitutively. The Al(3+) tolerance of these lines was compared with previously generated transgenic barley lines overexpressing the endogenous HvAACT1 gene and the TaALMT1 gene from wheat. Barley lines expressing TaALMT1 showed significantly greater Al(3+) tolerance than all lines expressing MATE genes. This study highlights the relative efficacy of different organic anion transport proteins for increasing the Al(3+) tolerance of an important crop species.

  20. Accumulation of cadmium by durum wheat roots: bases for citrate-mediated exceptions to the free ion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelaar, Edward; Hale, Beverley A

    2003-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) roots from hydroponic solutions, with the proportion of total Cd (8.9-445 nM Cd) as Cd2+ varied by the addition of citrate, was determined to test the free-ion model (FIM) of metal bioavailability for higher plants. Calcium, Mg, and K were also varied. Citrate enhanced root-Cd accumulation at higher Cd2+ concentrations but not lower relative to the same Cd2+ concentrations in solutions containing 0 mM citrate. Elevating Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the citrate solution to the same as those in control solutions alleviated some of the citrate-mediated enhancement but not all. Solutions containing 66% less Ca or Mg than control but the same Cd2+ concentration and no citrate also resulted in increased root Cd. Elevated K+ did not influence Cd accumulation. Regression relationships between root-Cd accumulation and total Cd in solution were similar for the control and pooled amended solutions, whereas they were different for root-Cd accumulation and solution Cd2+. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that the FIM alone is likely insufficient to predict plant accumulation of metals from soils, although it may be a useful probe for the mechanistic bases of metal bioavailability.

  1. The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Senpei; Bai, Guangling; Chen, Lingli; Shen, Qun; Diao, Xianmin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-08-15

    Under physiological conditions, exogenous chelators such as polyphenols might interact with non-protein bound ferric complexes, such as Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, Fe(III) and citrate are widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables which are also rich in phenolic acids. In this study, we focus on the interaction between phenolic acids (gallic acid, methyl gallate and protocatechuic acid) and Fe(III) in the presence of excessive citrate by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for thermodynamic studies, and stopped-flow absorption spectrometry for fast kinetic studies. Results reveal that all of these three phenolic acids can bind to the Fe(III) with the same stoichiometry (3:1). Moreover, the binding constants of these three compounds with Fe(III) are greatly dependent on ligand structure, and are much higher than that of Fe(III)-citrate. Based on their stoichiometry and superhigh binding constants, it is most likely that these three phenolic acids can displace the citrate to bind with one iron(III) ion to form a stable octahedral geometric structure, albeit at different rates. These findings shed light on the interaction between phenolic acids and Fe(III) in the presence of citrate under either physiological conditions or in a food system.

  2. Phosphate uptake kinetics by Acinetobacter isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, A S; Kaitala, S

    1997-02-01

    Acinetobacter isolates from activated sludge treatment plants of forest industry were used as model organisms for polyphosphate accumulating bacteria to study excess phosphate uptake by the overplus phenomenon as well as luxury uptake of phosphate during growth. The initial, rapid phosphate uptake by the phosphorus-starved Acinetobacter isolates (the overplus phenomenon) followed the Michaelis-Menten model (maximum initial phosphate uptake rate 29 mg P g(-1) dry mass (DM) h(-1), half-saturation constant for excess phosphate uptake 17 mg P L(-1)). During the rapid uptake no growth was observed, but most cells contained polyphosphate granules. Also growth and luxury uptake of phosphate could be modeled with the Michaelis-Menten equation (maximum phosphate uptake rate 3.7-12 mg P g(-1) DM h(-1), half-saturation constant for growth 0.47-6.0 mg P L(-1), maximum specific growth rate 0.15-0.55 h(-1)). PMID:18633985

  3. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  4. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, Kim; Brown, Janice; Jones, Jessica C.; Cabral, Shawn; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Vera, Nicholas B.; Zhu, Yimin; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Yingjiang; Vernochet, Cecile; Riccardi, Keith; Wolford, Angela; Pirman, David; Niosi, Mark; Aspnes, Gary; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E.; Magee, Thomas V.; Uccello, Daniel P.; Loria, Paula; Di, Li; Gosset, James R.; Hepworth, David; Rolph, Timothy; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Erion, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints. PMID:26620127

  5. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, Kim; Brown, Janice; Jones, Jessica C; Cabral, Shawn; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Vera, Nicholas B; Zhu, Yimin; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Yingjiang; Vernochet, Cecile; Riccardi, Keith; Wolford, Angela; Pirman, David; Niosi, Mark; Aspnes, Gary; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E; Magee, Thomas V; Uccello, Daniel P; Loria, Paula; Di, Li; Gosset, James R; Hepworth, David; Rolph, Timothy; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Erion, Derek M

    2015-12-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints.

  6. Optimized sildenafil citrate fast orodissolvable film: a promising formula for overcoming the barriers hindering erectile dysfunction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; El-Say, Khalid Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate, a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays poor aqueous solubility, which delays its onset of action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of sildenafil citrate include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The objective of this study was to prepare sildenafil citrate using a fast orodissolvable film (ODF) containing the drug in a solid dispersion (SD) to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of sildenafil citrate in β-cyclodextrin derivatives was estimated, and SDs were prepared and characterized. To develop an ODF that disintegrates rapidly and releases the maximum amount of sildenafil citrate, a 3(3) Box-Behnken experimental design was used to estimate the effects of different concentrations of film forming polymer (X1), the film modifier (X2), and the plasticizer (X3) on the responses, i.e. the disintegration time (Y1) and the amount of drug released (Y2). Pharmacokinetic studies with the optimized (ODF) were conducted on human volunteers. SD prepared using hydroxybutyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced the solubility of sildenafil citrate by more than eightfold. The Y1 for the optimized ODF was 89 seconds, and the Y2 was 86%; this formula also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced by 2.25-fold compared with that of the marketed tablet. The ODF is a promising formulation for sildenafil citrate that results in higher solubility, a rapid onset of action, and enhanced systemic bioavailability.

  7. The role of VuMATE1 expression in aluminium-inducible citrate secretion in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei Ya; Chen, Wei Wei; Xu, Jia Meng; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-04-01

    Aluminium (Al)-activated citrate secretion plays an important role in Al resistance in a number of plant species, such as rice bean (Vigna umbellata). This study further characterized the regulation of VuMATE1, an aluminium-activated citrate transporter. Al stress induced VuMATE1 expression, followed by the secretion of citrate. Citrate secretion was specific to Al stress, whereas VuMATE1 expression was not, which could be explained by a combined regulation of VuMATE1 expression and Al-specific activation of VuMATE1 protein. Pre-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor suppressed VuMATE1 expression, indicating that de novo biosynthesis of proteins is required for gene expression. Furthermore, post-treatment with a protein translation inhibitor inhibited citrate secretion, indicating that post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 is critical for citrate secretion. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies showed that reversible phosphorylation was important not only for transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 expression but also for post-translational regulation of VuMATE1 protein activity. These results suggest that citrate secretion is dependent on both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1. Additionally, VuMATE1 promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion lines revealed that VuMATE1 expression was restricted to the root apex and was entirely Al induced, indicating the presence of cis-acting elements regulating root tip-specific and Al-inducible gene expression, which will be an important resource for genetic improvement of plant Al resistance.

  8. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates; Preparacao do titanato zirconato de chumbo a partir dos citratos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C.M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500{sup 0} C, 450{sup 0} C and 250{sup 0} C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450{sup 0} C and 500{sup 0} C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800{sup 0} C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500{sup 0} C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600{sup 0} C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400{sup 0} C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400{sup 0} C-800{sup 0} C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100{sup 0} C and 1200{sup 0} C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm{sup -3} at 1200{sup 0} C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs.

  9. The analysis of modifying effect of gold, silver and iron citrates on embryotoxicity of lead acetate in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatornaya V.F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metals and their nanoforms are widely used in modern medicine and veterinary as antimicrobial bandage and films in surgery (silver and also as an agent for targeted delivery of medicines in oncology (gold. At the same time their impact on embryogenesis and reproductive system is still poorly understood. Objective. The purpose of this experimental work was to investigate the possible modification effect of iron, gold and silver citrates on toxicity of low doses of lead acetate on reproductive function and embryogenesis of rats. Methods. 40 female rats were subdivided into 5 groups: 1st – administration of lead acetate; 2nd – lead acetate + gold citrate; 3rd – lead acetate + silver citrate; 4th – lead acetate + iron citrate; 5th – control. Solutions were administered to pregnant rats through a catheter once a day, daily from the 1st to the 19th days of pregnancy. Results. Introduction of ultra-low doses of lead acetate to pregnant female rats caused embryotoxicity; it resulted in significant decrease in the number of alive fetuses (17% and corpora lutea in ovaries. The combined administration of low doses of lead acetate + metal citrates resulted in the increased number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and percentage of alive fetuses, due to a decrease in general and pre-implantation embryonic mortality compared with the 1st experimental group at almost the same weight of fetuses. Conclusion. Results of the experiment have shown that the administration of gold, iron and silver citrates in combination with lead acetate prevents the negative impact of the latter on the reproductive system and on the processes of embryonic development. Citation: Shatornaya VF, Kaplunenko VG, Chekman IS, Garets VI, Beletskaya EN, Nefedova EA, Onul NM. [The analysis of modifying effect of gold, silver and iron citrates on embryotoxicity of lead acetate in experiment]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:99-103. Russian.

  10. Metformin-letrozole in comparison with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene-resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Fallahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Additionally, around 20– 25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be “clomiphene– resistant”. Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare results of Metformin-letrozole with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI.Materials and Methods: In this single blind randomized trial, ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistant patients with PCOS. The inclusion criteria were patients who received 150mg clomiphene citrate daily for 3 cycles and failed to become pregnant. The patients were matched for their age, body mass index (BMI, and infertility period. They were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n=50 and a metformin-clomiphene citrate group (n=50. Chemical and clinical pregnancies were assessed after IUI. Abortion rates were determined in both groups. Results: Regarding pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference between the two groups. One miscarriage (2% occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none was seen in the metformin-letrozole group. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rate between clomiphene citrate and letrozole groups although it has been 2% in the former and 5% in the latter.

  11. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  12. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  13. Alpha Klotho and phosphate homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Ao; Xing, Changying; Hu, Ming Chang

    2014-01-01

    The Klotho family consists of three single-pass transmembrane proteins—αKlotho, βKlotho and γKlotho. Each of them combines with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) to form receptor complexes for various FGF’s. αKlotho is a co-receptor for physiological FGF23 signaling and appears essential for FGF23-mediated regulation of mineral metabolism. αKlotho protein also plays a FGF23-independent role in phosphate homeostasis. Animal experimental studies and clinical observations have dem...

  14. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    as shown in the schedule in table 5.1. Samples were taken at seven stations (M1?M7) in the Mandovi and at five stations in Zuari (Z1?Z5) (Map B). The locations covered a stretch of about 50km in the Mandovi and 52km in the Zuari. Samples were also taken... mangroves, which harbour sediments rich in organic matter (Wafar 1987). Wafar et al. (1997) noted that the dissolved organic nitrates (DON) and dissolved organic phosphates (DOP) Table 5.1 Schedule of sample collection in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries...

  15. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  16. Mitochondrial citrate synthase crystals: novel finding in Sengers syndrome caused by acylglycerol kinase (AGK) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardena, Komudi; Mackay, Nevena; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian; Kantor, Paul F; Ackerley, Cameron; Robinson, Brian H; Schulze, Andreas; Cameron, Jessie M

    2013-01-01

    We report on two families with Sengers syndrome and mutations in the acylglycerol kinase gene (AGK). In the first family, two brothers presented with vascular strokes, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and cataracts, abnormal muscle cell histopathology and mitochondrial function. One proband had very abnormal mitochondria with citrate synthase crystals visible in electron micrographs, associated with markedly high citrate synthase activity. Exome sequencing was used to identify mutations in the AGK gene in the index patient. Targeted sequencing confirmed the same homozygous mutation (c.3G>A, p.M1I) in the brother. The second family had four affected members, of which we examined two. They also presented with similar clinical symptoms, but no strokes. Postmortem heart and skeletal muscle tissues showed low complex I, III and IV activities in the heart, but normal in the muscle. Skin fibroblasts showed elevated lactate/pyruvate ratios and low complex I+III activity. Targeted sequencing led to identification of a homozygous c.979A>T, p.K327* mutation. AGK is located in the mitochondria and phosphorylates monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid. Disruption of these signaling molecules affects the mitochondria's response to superoxide radicals, resulting in oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, lipids and proteins, and stimulation of cellular detoxification pathways. High levels of manganese superoxide dismutase protein were detected in all four affected individuals, consistent with increased free radical damage. Phosphatidic acid is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and its loss will result in changes to the lipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membrane. These effects manifest as cataract formation in the eye, respiratory chain dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in heart tissue. These two pedigrees confirm that mutation of AGK is responsible for the severe neonatal presentation of Sengers syndrome. The

  17. The effect of citric acid and citrate on protoplasmic droplet of bovine epididymal sperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Abdy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor evaluation of citric acid and citrate effects on bovine epididymal protoplasmic droplets, fifty bovine testes were collected in the October 2007 till June 2008 from Urmia slaughterhouse and transported to the laboratory in a cool container filled with 5 °C ice pack. Caudal epididymis was incised and sperm cells were put into Petri dishes containing hams f10 media with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS, which were kept in 37 °C, CO2 incubator. Then sperm cells were counted and 50-milion per mL concentration was prepared. After this stage, three dilutions of citric acid (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 N and one dilution of citrate (1N, based on normal osmolarity and normal pH were added to a micro tube containing 25 milion per mL sperm. Then one-step eosin-nigrosin staining in 30-60-120-240-360 minutes was performed and slides were evaluated with 1000-x phase contrast microscope and 200 sperm cells per slide were counted. The results revealed significant difference between blank and citric acid 0.3 N. The proportion of protoplasmic droplet in group consisting of 0.3 N acid citric in 120-240-360 minutes, was significantly lower than that of blank (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference between citrate – blank and citric acid 0.1N-blank groups, but after 240 minutes significant difference was observed between blank & citric acid 0.2 N (P < 0.05. In conclusions citric acid based on dilution and time duration can reduce the proportion of bovine epididymal sperm cytoplasmic droplets.

  18. Ferric ammonium citrate as a positive bowel contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelitz, D.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gehl, H.B. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Heuck, A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Krahe, T. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Lodemann, K.P. [Bracco-Byk Gulden GmbH, Konstanz (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of two different doses of ferric ammonium citrate as a paramagnetic oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen. Material and methods: Ninety-nine adult patients referred for MR imaging for a known or suspected upper abdominal pathology were included in this randomized multicenter double-blind clinical trial. Imaging was performed with spin-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) and gradient-echo (T1-weighted) techniques before and after administration of either 1200 mg or 2400 mg of ferric ammonium citrate dissolved in 600 ml of water. Safety analysis included monitoring of vital signs, assessment of adverse events, and laboratory testing. Efficacy with regard to organ distension, contrast distribution, bowel enhancement and delineation of adjacent structures was graded qualitatively. Results: No serious adverse events were reported for either of the two concentrations. A total of 31 minor side effects were noted, of which significantly more occurred in the higher dose group (p<0.01). The diagnostic confidence in defining or excluding disease was graded as better after contrast administration for 48% of all images. Marked or moderate enhancement of the upper gastrointestinal tract was achieved at both doses in 69.5% of cases with no evident difference between the two doses. The higher dose tended to show better results in terms of the contrast assessment parameters. Conclusion: Ferric ammonium citrate is a safe and effective oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen at two different dose levels. The higher dose showed a tendency toward better imaging results while the lower dose caused significantly fewer side effects. Therefore, the 1200 mg dose can be recommended in view of the risk-to-benefit ratio. (orig.)

  19. Regional citrate anticoagulation in critically ill patients during continuous blood purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚德华; 季大玺; 徐斌; 谢红浪; 刘云; 黎磊石

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and define the contraindication of regional citrate anticoagulation treatment on various critically ill patients being treated by continuous blood purification, who also had bleeding tendencies. Methods Forty critically ill patients being treated by continuous blood purification (CBP) were involved in this study. Due to their bleeding tendencies, regional citrate anticoagulation treatment was given to all of them. Those with hepatic function impairment (n=10) were classified as Group A, those with hypoxemia were classified as Group B (n=10), and the others as Group C (n=20). Blood samples were collected before treatment, and at 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hour intervals during CBP. These samples then were used arterial blood gas analysis, whole blood activated clotting time (WBACT) pre- and post-filter, and serum ionized calcium examination. Results WBACT pre-filter showed little fluctuant through the 48hr period of CBP, and WBACT post-filter showed obvious prolongation than that of the pre-filter (P<0.05) at all time points. Metabolic acidosis was found in Group A patients before CBP, and improved during CBP. Normal acid-base conditions of patients were disturbed and deteriorated in Group B during CBP, but not in Group C. Serum ionized calcium was maintained at a normal range during CBP in Group A and C patients, but declined significantly in Group B patients (vs. pre-treatment, P<0.05). Conclusions Regional citrate anticoagulation can be safely used in conjunction with CBP treatment for patients with hepatic function impairment , but may induce acidosis and a decline in serum ionized calcium when used with hypoxemic patients.

  20. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-07-31

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na+ solutions. However, Ca2+ ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na+ solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na+ concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest the importance

  1. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as posit...

  2. Effect of ionic strength on ligand exchange kinetics between a mononuclear ferric citrate complex and siderophore desferrioxamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Fujii, Manabu; Masago, Yoshifumi; Waite, T. David; Omura, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    The effect of ionic strength (I) on the ligand exchange reaction between a mononuclear ferric citrate complex and the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFB), was examined in the NaCl concentration range of 0.01-0.5 M, particularly focusing on the kinetics and mechanism of ligand exchange under environmentally relevant conditions. Overall ligand exchange rate constants were determined by spectrophotometrically measuring the time course of ferrioxamine B formation at a water temperature of 25 °C, pH 8.0, and citrate/Fe molar ratios of 500-5000. The overall ligand exchange rate decreased by 2-11-fold (depending on the citrate/Fe molar ratios) as I increased from approximately 0.01 to 0.5 M. In particular, a relatively large decrease was observed at lower I (dissociation of citrate from the parent complexes) dominates in ferrioxamine formation under the experimental conditions used. The model also predicts that the higher rate of ligand exchange at lower I is associated with the decrease in the ferric dicitrate complex stability because of the relatively high electrical repulsion between ferric monocitrate and free citrate at lower I (note that the reactivity of ferric dicitrate with DFB is smaller than that for the monocitrate complex). Overall, the findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the potential effect of I on ligand exchange kinetics in natural waters and provide fundamental knowledge on iron transformation and bioavailability.

  3. Role of Citrate Ions in the Phosphonate-based Inhibitor System for Mild Steel in Aqueous Chloride Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunasekaran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition efficiency of phosphonic acid and its derivatives for the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in neutral chloride media is decided by its ability to form protectivefilm over the surface. In this context, the effect of addition of metal cations and certain organic compounds, such as citrate in conjugation with phosphonic acid to impart synergistic corrosion inhibition has been explored. The experiments were carried out using various concentrations of trisodium citrate and zinc ions in an aqueous solution of 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid (2CEPA at 25 ppm. The corrosion characteristics have been determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with determination of corrosion rate by weight-loss method. It has been observed that a combination of inhibitive ions, namely citrate, ZCEPA, and zinc ions at 25 ppm gives 96 per cent inhibition efficiency and this corrosion inhibition is due to the formation of a protective film. By increasing the concentration of citrate beyond 25 ppm, the corrosion inhibition efficiency decreases. This paper discusses the role of citrate and zinc ions in imparting added corrosion inhibition ability using 2CEPA on the basis of experimental results.

  4. A Retrospective Review of the Use of Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration for Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kit-Hung Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of a commercially prepared citrate solution has revolutionized the use of RCA in the intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of a commercially prepared citrate solution. Method. Predilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH was performed using Prismocitrate 10/2 at 2500 mL/h and a blood flow rate of 150 mL/min. Calcium chloride solution was infused to maintain ionized calcium within 1.0–1.2 mmol/L. An 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution was infused separately. Treatment was stopped when the predefined clinical target was reached or the filter clotted. Result. 58 sessions of citrate RCA were analyzed. The median circuit lifetime was 26.0 h (interquartile range IQR 21.2–44.3. The percentage of circuits lasting more than 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h was 94.6%, 58.9%, and 16.1%, respectively. There was no incidence of hypernatremia and median pH was 2.5, only four patients had evidence of citrate accumulation. Conclusion. The commercially prepared citrate solution could be used safely in critically ill patients who required CVVH with no major adverse events.

  5. Citric acid and sodium citrate effects on pink color development of cooked ground turkey irradiated pre- and post-cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2006-03-01

    The effects of citric acid (0.15%, 0.3%) and sodium citrate (0.5%, 1.0%) on pink color development in ground turkey following irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0kGy) were examined. Citric acid and sodium citrate had little effect on pink color when samples were irradiated prior to cooking. In contrast, when samples were cooked prior to irradiation, citric acid (0.3%) and sodium citrate (1.0%) reduced redness as indicated by eliminating a reflectance minimum at approximately 571nm, lessening greater reflectance in the red wavelength region, and preventing greater reducing conditions caused by irradiation. Citric acid significantly reduced pH and yields whereas sodium citrate reduced pH and yields to a lesser extent. Both citric acid and sodium citrate are potential ingredients that can be added during processing to prevent undesirable pink color in precooked irradiated ground turkey and therefore can result in greater acceptance of irradiated products by consumers.

  6. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions: I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2011-06-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na(+) and K(+)) and divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or ZnCl(2) and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+), while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.

  7. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ahmed M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI. Methods Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles. Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Results Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76 and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = Conclusion The extended letrozole regimen had a superior efficacy as compared with clomiphene citrate in patients of unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and IUI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075

  8. Abnormal phase transition in BiNbO{sub 4} powders prepared by a citrate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Haifa; Qian Xu; Kong Jizhou [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Aidong, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gong Youpin [Nano Device and Material Division, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li Hui; Wu Di [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: > Pure BiNbO{sub 4} powders were successfully prepared by a citrate method using home-made Nb-citrate (Nb-CA) aqueous solution. > Abnormal phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} was first observed in BiNbO{sub 4} system. > The synthesis of Low-{beta} can be attributed to the formation of the intermediated phase Bi{sub 5}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 15} and the mechanism of the phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} was proposed. > We identified that the stress in pellet format can accelerate the phase transition compared with powder samples. - Abstract: Triclinic {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} prepared below 750 deg. C and above 1040 deg. C (denoted as Low-{beta} and High-{beta}, respectively) and pure orthorhombic {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} at 900 deg. C were successfully derived from a citrate method and the phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} was first observed in BiNbO{sub 4} powders. This phenomenon proves that the abnormal phase transition from {beta}-BiNbO{sub 4} to {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} exists in BiNbO{sub 4} powder system. The synthesis of Low-{beta} powders can be attributed to the formation of the intermediate phase of Bi{sub 5}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 15} by the citrate method. With increasing temperature, the Low-{beta} phase gradually turns into {alpha}-BiNbO{sub 4} due to the thermodynamically metastable state of Low-{beta}. We also identified that the stress in pellet format can accelerate the phase transition from Low-{beta} to {alpha} phase of BiNbO{sub 4} in comparison with powder samples. It brings us new understanding of the BiNbO{sub 4} system and also provides a simple way to obtain BiNbO{sub 4} for microwave and photocatalytic applications.

  9. Low sintering temperature of Mg-Cu-Zn ferrites prepared by the citrate precursor method

    CERN Document Server

    Atassi, Y; Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite was prepared through a wet synthetic method by a self-combustion reaction directly from a citrate precursor. The as-synthesized powders were sintered at for only 2h. XRD patterns and FTIR spectra confirm the formation of single phase Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite after combustion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite is sintered at such low temperature. The sintering process increased the crystallinity of the solid and the domain sizes.

  10. L'anticoagulation de l'hémofiltration continue: Citrate versus Héparine

    OpenAIRE

    Damas, Pierre; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    L'insuffisance rénale aiguë aux Soins Intensifs affecte un patient sur cinq et souvent nécessite le recours à une épuration extra-rénale. L'hémofiltration continue est choisie pour certains patients (instabilité hémodynamique, neurologique, mais nécessite, comme d'ailleurs l'hémodialyse, une anticoagulation. Le citrate, utilisé dans le travail publié, est sorti vainqueur de sa comparaison avec l'héparine non fractionnée. Son utilisation nécessite cependant une surveillance attentive. P...

  11. Alexander Fleming, citrated blood and penicillin: paths not pursued and applications delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, P P

    2009-12-01

    Ninety years ago Alexander Fleming (later to discover penicillin) jointly wrote a description of the use of indirect transfusions of citrated blood at a World War 1 (WW1) base hospital. It was the longest series yet to be published, incorporating what was then a novel procedure for treating war casualties. Returning to civilian life Fleming, a qualified surgeon and bacteriologist, chose a different career path, and not until the wars of the late 1930s were the advances in transfusion in WW1 fully incorporated into the management of trauma and haemorrhage. Like penicillin, the benefits of indirect transfusion were only slowly realised.

  12. A RARE CASE OF OVARIAN HYPERSTIMULATION AFTER CLOMIPHENE CITRATE RESULTING IN TORSION AND RUPTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukshana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation is a dreaded complication of ovarian stimulation protocols in infertility and is known to complicate about 5-10% of ART cycles. Following gonadotropin therapy, OHSS (Ovarian hyperstimulation usually develops several days after assisted ovulation or oocyte retrieval. But it is quite rare with clomiphene therapy which in general causes unifollicular development. Here we are presenting an interesting case of ovarian hyperstimulation which presented with rupture and massive hemoperitoneum resulting in hemodynamic instability. It is all the more rare because the agent used for ovarian stimulation was clomiphene citrate at its minimum dose.

  13. Abnormal phase transition in BiNbO4 powders prepared by a citrate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Pure BiNbO4 powders were successfully prepared by a citrate method using home-made Nb-citrate (Nb-CA) aqueous solution. → Abnormal phase transition from β-BiNbO4 to α-BiNbO4 was first observed in BiNbO4 system. → The synthesis of Low-β can be attributed to the formation of the intermediated phase Bi5Nb3O15 and the mechanism of the phase transition from β-BiNbO4 to α-BiNbO4 was proposed. → We identified that the stress in pellet format can accelerate the phase transition compared with powder samples. - Abstract: Triclinic β-BiNbO4 prepared below 750 deg. C and above 1040 deg. C (denoted as Low-β and High-β, respectively) and pure orthorhombic α-BiNbO4 at 900 deg. C were successfully derived from a citrate method and the phase transition from β-BiNbO4 to α-BiNbO4 was first observed in BiNbO4 powders. This phenomenon proves that the abnormal phase transition from β-BiNbO4 to α-BiNbO4 exists in BiNbO4 powder system. The synthesis of Low-β powders can be attributed to the formation of the intermediate phase of Bi5Nb3O15 by the citrate method. With increasing temperature, the Low-β phase gradually turns into α-BiNbO4 due to the thermodynamically metastable state of Low-β. We also identified that the stress in pellet format can accelerate the phase transition from Low-β to α phase of BiNbO4 in comparison with powder samples. It brings us new understanding of the BiNbO4 system and also provides a simple way to obtain BiNbO4 for microwave and photocatalytic applications.

  14. Effect of different lipids and surfactants on formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles incorporating tamoxifen citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S U; Patel, J K; Patel, V A; Saluja, A K

    2012-03-01

    Tamoxifen Citrate (TC) is an estrogen receptor antagonist and drug of choice for hormone sensitive breast cancer. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles loaded with TC were prepared by High Shear Homogenization followed by Ultrasonication. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of four different Solid Lipids and three Surfactants on Formulation and Stability of SLN. They were characterized for Particle size, Polydispersity Index and Zeta Potential by Zetasizer Nano. SLN prepared by Solid Lipid Compritol 888 (Glyceryldibehenate) and Tween 80 (1%) showed desired Particle Size of 206.9 nm, PDI of 0.046 and Zeta Potential of 9.32 mV. PMID:23066183

  15. A randomized study comparing IVF in the unstimulated cycle with IVF-following clomiphene citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Højgaard, A.; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl;

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of IVF in unstimulated cycles was compared with that following ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate in a simple protocol with ultrasound monitoring only. A total of 132 couples with no previous IVF attempts, selected by female age ... protocol, but not IVF in unstimulated cycles, seems compatible with the concept of `friendly IVF', yielding a fair pregnancy rate both per cycle started and per embryo transfer in selected patients. The results do not substantiate any important negative anti-oestrogenic effects of clomiphene....

  16. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ming; WANG Wei; LI Xiu-cui; PENG Lei; LIN Zhong-qin; X(ü) Hua-zi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model.Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citraterhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2) group and rhBMP-2 only group.Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respectively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits.Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg)combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg) or rhBMP-2 alone were implanted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab.Bone granules were obtained at 2,4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis.LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis.Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones,and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group.The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks,and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all).At 2 weeks,mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group.Conclusion: From this study,it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly enhances bone regeneration in bone defects.This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions.

  17. Effect of different lipids and surfactants on formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles incorporating tamoxifen citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S U Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen Citrate (TC is an estrogen receptor antagonist and drug of choice for hormone sensitive breast cancer. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles loaded with TC were prepared by High Shear Homogenization followed by Ultrasonication. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of four different Solid Lipids and three Surfactants on Formulation and Stability of SLN. They were characterized for Particle size, Polydispersity Index and Zeta Potential by Zetasizer Nano. SLN prepared by Solid Lipid Compritol 888 (Glyceryldibehenate and Tween 80 (1% showed desired Particle Size of 206.9 nm, PDI of 0.046 and Zeta Potential of 9.32 mV.

  18. Comparison of the success rate of letrozole and clomiphene citrate in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare the success rate of daily administration of aromatase inhibitor letrozole at a dose of 5 mg when administrating clomiphene citrate (CC 100 mg daily in women undergoing superovulation and IUI. METHODS: This prospective randomized trial was done in Research and Clinical Center for Infertility (Shahid Sadoughi University, Yazd, Iran. Ninety-five patients with unexplained and mild male factor infertility were studied. Using a computer-generated random table, the patients were randomized into two groups, which were treated with 5 mg of letrozole daily (42 patients, 42 cycles or 100 mg of CC daily (53 patients, 53 cycles. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test and chi square test. RESULTS: The mean age and duration of infertility in both groups were similar. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the total numbers of follicles during stimulation (5.45 ± 4.2 in CC group vs. 3.07 ± 2.1 in letrozole group (P = 0.01. No significant difference in the endometrial thickness was found between the two groups (letrozole group = 6.9 ± 2.2, CC group = 7.8 ± 1.8. The mean levels of LH and FSH in both groups were similar. P value of difference in hormone levels between two groups were 0.33 and 0.47, respectively, but there was a significant difference in mean E2 levels between the two groups (241.28 ± 167.537 in letrozole group vs. 867.34 ± 296.689 in CC group (P = 0.018. The mean number of gonadotropin ampules used in both groups was the same. Pregnancy rate per cycle was 9.5% in the letrozole group and 5.7% in the CC group (P = 0.6. Two out of the three pregnancies in the CC group (66.6% and one out of the four pregnancies in the letrozole group resulted in a miscarriage (25%. One twin pregnancy (33% occurred in the letrozole group and none in the CC group. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS did not occur in either of the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In IUI, superovulation

  19. Phosphate transporters and their function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Jürg; Hernando, Nati; Forster, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Plasma phosphate concentration is maintained within a relatively narrow range by control of renal reabsorption of filtered inorganic phosphate (P(i)). P(i) reabsorption is a transcellular process that occurs along the proximal tubule. P(i) flux at the apical (luminal) brush border membrane represents the rate-limiting step and is mediated by three Na(+)-dependent P(i) cotransporters (members of the SLC34 and SLC20 families). The putative proteins responsible for basolateral P(i) flux have not been identified. The transport mechanism of the two kidney-specific SLC34 proteins (NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc) and of the ubiquitously expressed SLC20 protein (PiT-2) has been studied by heterologous expression to reveal important differences in kinetics, stoichiometry, and substrate specificity. Studies on the regulation of the abundance of the respective proteins highlight significant differences in the temporal responses to various hormonal and nonhormonal factors that can influence P(i) homeostasis. The phenotypes of mice deficient in NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc indicate that NaPi-IIa is responsible for most P(i) renal reabsorption. In contrast, in the human kidney, NaPi-IIc appears to have a relatively greater role. The physiological relevance of PiT-2 to P(i) reabsorption remains to be elucidated. PMID:23398154

  20. Neuartige Glucose-6-Phosphat Isomerasen und Glucosamin-6-Phosphat Deaminasen in Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichting, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Glucose-6-Phosphat Isomerasen (PGIs) und archaeelle Glucosamin-6-Phosphat Deaminasen (GPDAs) untersucht sowie erstmalig die Aktivität einer archaeellen Glutamin:Fructose-6-Phosphat Transaminase nachgewiesen. Neuartige PGIs aus Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Thermoplasma acidophilum und Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sowie eine klassische PGI aus Thermotoga maritima wurden als rekombinante Proteine gereinigt und...

  1. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate on the levels of intermediates in bakers' yeast grown in continuous culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, C.M.M.; Smith, J.E.; Berry, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was grown in continuous culture using a control medium and media which contained low levels of NH4 and phosphate. The effects of medium composition and growth rate on the levels of intermediates of the glycolytic pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glyoxylate cycle were investigated. The energy charge varied only between 0.7 and 0.9 over the range of dilution rates studied; however, the level of ATP decreased by 50% at higher aerobic growth rates. Intermediates of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway were higher at the low aerobic growth rates and decreased as the dilution rate was increased. However, higher levels of these intermediates were also observed at even higher dilution rates at which EtOH formation and fermentative metabolism occurred. Significant differences in levels of intermediates were observed between control experiments and fermentations using the low N and phosphate media. The greatest differences were observed in the levels of glucose 6-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate, pyruvate, citrate and glyoxlate. Twenty-one different steady states were investigated and each had a unique composition.

  2. Interactive effects of redox intensity and phosphate availability on growth and nutrient relations of Cladium jamaicense (Cyperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lorenzen, B.; Brix, H.; McKee, K.L.; Miao, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of Typha domingensis into areas previously dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been linked to anthropogenic phosphorus (P) enrichment and increased hydroperiod. The principal stress factor for plants in flooded soils is biochemical reduction, the intensity of which is measured as redox potential (Eh). The objective of this study was to assess the growth response of C. jamaicense to Eh (-150, +150, and +600 mV) and P availability (10, 80, and 500 ??g P/L). Plants were grown hydroponically in a factorial experiment using titanium (Ti3+) citrate as an Eh buffer. Treatment effects on growth, biomass partitioning, and tissue nutrients were recorded. Growth approximately doubled in response to a 50-fold increase in P availability. Low redox significantly reduced growth and tissue P concentration. While plant P concentrations increased 20-fold between the 10 and 500 ??g P/L treatments, P concentrations were 50-100% higher at +600 mV than at -150 mV within each phosphate level. At high Eh, C. jamaicense appears well adapted to low nutrient environments because of its low P requirement and high retention of acquired E However, at low Eh the ability to acquire or conserve acquired P decreases and as a consequence, higher phosphate levels are required to sustain growth. Findings of this study indicate that young C. jamaicense exhibits low tolerance to strongly reducing conditions when phosphate is scarce.

  3. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  4. Optimization of a Dicarboxylic Series for in Vivo Inhibition of Citrate Transport by the Solute Carrier 13 (SLC13) Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, Kim; Gosset, James R; Montgomery, Justin I; Gilbert, Adam; Hayward, Matthew M; Magee, Thomas V; Cabral, Shawn; Uccello, Daniel P; Bahnck, Kevin; Brown, Janice; Purkal, Julie; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E; Aspnes, Gary; Polivkova, Jana; Garcia-Irizarry, Carmen N; Li, Qifang; Canterbury, Daniel; Niosi, Mark; Vera, Nicholas B; Li, Zhenhong; Khunte, Bhagyashree; Siderewicz, Jaclyn; Rolph, Timothy; Erion, Derek M

    2016-02-11

    Inhibition of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5) has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach for prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. In a previous report, we discovered dicarboxylate 1a (PF-06649298) which inhibits the transport of citrate in in vitro and in vivo settings via a specific interaction with NaCT. Herein, we report the optimization of this series leading to 4a (PF-06761281), a more potent inhibitor with suitable in vivo pharmacokinetic profile for assessment of in vivo pharmacodynamics. Compound 4a was used to demonstrate dose-dependent inhibition of radioactive [(14)C]citrate uptake in liver and kidney in vivo, resulting in modest reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. PMID:26734723

  5. Effects of acupuncture on the citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver under various types of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of the effect of acupuncture on citrate and glucose metabolism in the liver in terms of incorporation of /sup 14/C-1, 5-citric acid and /sup 14/C-u-glucose in some metabolites. The effect of acupuncture on citrate metabolism in the liver under control conditions was such as to increase production of G and reduce that of KB, FC and FFA. No effect of acupuncture on glucose metabolism in the liver under such conditions was observed. Both citrate and glucose metabolism were affected to a marked extent by immobilization stress or exposure to heat or cold. The deleterious effect of these types of stress was less prominent in animals receiving acupuncture at the Tsu-San-Li locus than in those treated otherwise or receiving no treatment.

  6. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  7. Development and testing of a Phosphate Rock Decision Support System (PRDSS) for direct application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system, the Phosphate Rock Decision Support System (PRDSS), was developed to provide users with the option to compare the agronomic and economic feasibility of direct application of phosphate rock (PR) with commercially available water-soluble phosphate (WSP) fertilizers. The PRDSS predicts the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of PR with respect to WSP for the initial PR application. The RAE as predicted by the PRDSS depends on: (1) PR sources as quantified by PR solubility determined using the second extraction with neutral ammonium citrate (NAC2); (2) soil pH; (3) crops as they influence the rhizosphere, root quantity and distribution, uptake of Ca, crop duration, Al toxicity/tolerance, etc.; (4) soil P-fixation capacity; (5) soil texture; (6) soil organic matter content; (7) Al saturation; (8) moisture and rainfall regime; and (9) free calcium carbonate content of the PR source. The current version as presented here is ready for future web application. The model does not predict the cumulative effect of annual PR application or the residual effect of PR. These features will be included in the next version of the PRDSS. The testing of the current version of PRDSS with available data from new and previously conducted field and greenhouse trials, in general, gave good agreement between observed and predicted RAE. As expected many of these trials were conducted with very different objectives; hence, all input information required for testing the PRDSS was not available. To further test the PRDSS with complete input data and also to generate more information for long-term PR use and residual effect, field trials are being conducted in six countries. In future, the linkage of PRDSS output with results from P simulation models would extend the applicability of the PRDSS beyond its current capability to the prediction of crop yield and P application rates for a given yield target. (author)

  8. Specificity of Campylobacter jejuni Adhesin PEB3 for Phosphates and Structural Differences among Its Ligand Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Tongpil; Vedadi, Masoud; Watson, David C.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Munger, Christine; Cygler, Miroslaw; Matte, Allan; Young, N. Martin; (NRCC); (McGill); (Toronto)

    2009-04-22

    PEB3 is a glycoprotein adhesin from Campylobacter jejuni whose structure suggested a role in transport. We have investigated potential ligands for PEB3 and characterized their binding properties using biophysical methods in solution and by X-ray crystallography. A thermal aggregation assay of PEB3 with a library of physiological compounds identified three possible ligands [3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and aconitate], which stabilized wild-type PEB3 but did not stabilize either a PEB3 form containing two mutations at the ligand-binding site, T138A/S139A, or a second PEB3 mutant, K135E, at a site {approx}14 {angstrom} away. Fluorescence titration experiments and cocrystal structures with various ligands were used to characterize the binding of 3-PG, PEP, and phosphate to PEB3. Further, a C. jejuni growth experiment in minimal medium supplemented with 3-PG showed that this molecule enhances the growth of wild-type C. jejuni, but not of the PEB3 mutants. Crystallographic analysis of PEB3 complexes revealed that the Ser171-Gln180 region in the presence of 3-PG or other phosphates is helical and similar to those of other transport proteins, but it is nonhelical when citrate is bound. The K135E mutation resulted in expression of a more highly glycosylated form of PEB3 in vivo, and its crystal structure showed the conformation of the first two residues of the glycan. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that PEB3 is a transport protein that may function in utilization of 3-PG or other phosphate-containing molecules from the host.

  9. Adsorption of Phosphate on Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG; ZHUZU-XIANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    The study about the adsorption of phosphate on four variable charge soils and some minerals revealed that two stage adsorption appeared in the adsorption isothems of phosphate on 4 soils and there was a maximum adsorption on Al-oxide-typed surfaces between pH 3.5 to pH 5.5 as suspension pH changed from 2 to 9,but the adsorption amount of phosphate decreased continually as pH rose on Fe-oxide typed surfaces.The adsorption amount of phosphate and the maximum phosphate adsorption pH decreased in the order of yellow-red soil> lateritic red soil> red soil> paddy soil,which was coincided with the content order of amorphous Al oxide.The removement of organic matter and Fe oxide made the maximum phosphate adsorption pH rise from 4.0 to 5.0 and 4.5,respectively.The desorption curves with pH of four soils showed that phosphate desorbed least at pH 5.Generally the desorption was contrary to the adsorption with pH changing.There was a good accordance between adsorption or desorption and the concentration of Al in the suspension.The possible mechanisms of phosphate adsorption are discussed.

  10. Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Yasadi, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Metz, S.J.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Nijmeijer, K.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to produc

  11. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the tre

  12. Stable Development of Phosphate Fertilizer Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth of China's economy in recent years gave rise to a sound external environment for the development of the phosphate fertilizer industry. With quite a few state agricultural incentives, the initiative of farmers in grain production is much higher, and consumption of phosphate fertilizers has increased constantly.

  13. Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lando Valeria

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

  14. An oral sodium citrate-citric acid non-particulate buffer in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptfleisch, J J; Payne, K A

    1996-11-01

    We have investigated the effect on the pH of the gastric fluid of a single dose of sodium citrate 0.3 mol litre-1 (antacid) and a solution containing sodium citrate dehydrate (100 mg ml-1) with citric acid monohydrate (66 mg ml-1) (buffer). The dose for both solutions was 0.4 ml kg-1 via a nasogastric tube. Each group comprised 10 patients undergoing neurosurgical operations of 5-7 h duration. A control group of 10 patients received no gastric solution. The pH of the gastric aspirate was measured hourly using a Metrohm 632 digital pH meter (Synectics Medical, Sweden). Mean baseline gastric pH was 2.64 (SD 1.71). In the control group, pH increased to 4.4 (1.51) at 5 h, returning to baseline at 7 h. In the antacid group, pH increased to 6.11 (0.47) at 15 min and decreased to 3.70 (1.94) at 7 h (P 0.01). Total mean gastric aspirate was 0.5 ml kg-1. PMID:8957982

  15. Decreased Warburg effect induced by ATP citrate lyase suppression inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Haifeng; Zhang, Yang; You, Yong; Cai, Tiantian; Wang, Yehuang

    2015-03-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is responsible for the conversion of cytosolic citrate into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, and the first rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of elevated ACLY results in growth arrest and apoptosis in a subset of cancers; however, the expression pattern and underlying biological function of ACLY in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In the current study, overexpressed ACLY was more commonly observed in PDAC compared to normal pancreatic tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high expression level of ACLY resulted in a poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Silencing of endogenous ACLY expression by siRNA in PANC-1 cells led to reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, significant decrease in glucose uptake and lactate production was observed after ACLY was knocked down, and this effect was blocked by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, indicating that ACLY functions in the Warburg effect affect PDAC cell growth. Collectively, this study reveals that suppression of ACLY plays an anti-tumor role through decreased Warburg effect, and ACLY-related inhibitors might be potential therapeutic approaches for PDAC. PMID:25701462

  16. Structural and electrical properties of nanometric Ni-Cu ferrites synthesized by citrate precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mansour, S.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt); Afifi, M. [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Nanometric nickel copper ferrites Ni{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 0{<=}x{<=}0.45 were prepared by the citrate precursor method. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter (a) is increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} ion substitution. The crystallite size was calculated from XRD data and compared with that obtained from TEM micrographs. A significant increase in the density is observed with increasing Cu content. The IR absorption spectra were used for the detection and confirmation of the chemical bonds in spinel ferrites. The dielectric constant {epsilon}' and dielectric loss showed a decrease with increasing frequency for all samples. The decrease in the ac conductivity was ascribed to the increase in hopping length. - Highlights: > Ni-Cu ferrite was successfully prepared using citrate auto combustion method. > The lattice parameter and the density increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} content. > We suggest the use of Ni ferrite with large Cu{sup 2+} content in electrical devices.

  17. Fe(III-Citrate-Complex-Induced Photooxidation of 3-Methylphenol in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Seraghni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation process of m-cresol (3-methylphenol, induced by Fe(III-Cit complex, was investigated upon irradiation at 365 nm in natural water. The composition and photochemical properties of Fe(III-Cit complex were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrophotometer for optimizing the stoichiometry of the complex and photolysis under irradiation at 365 nm, respectively. A dark investigation of the system was performed before studying the photochemical behavior. The photooxidation efficiencies of m-cresol were dependent on the pH value, optimized at pH 2.86, oxygen, initial concentrations of Fe(III-Cit complex, and m-cresol. Additionally, to look into the mechanism of m-cresol degradation using Fe(III-Cit, tertiobutanol alcohol was used as scavenger for hydroxyl radicals and the result suggested that hydroxyl radical attack was the main pathway of m-cresol degradation. Besides, oxygen can enhance the photolysis of Fe(III-Citrate complex by trapping the electron on the carbon centered radical formed after the photoredox process. Then O2•− formed reacts rapidly leading finally to formation of •OH radical. In absence of oxygen, less reactive species are formed; consequently the disappearance of m-cresol was strongly inhibited. Our work shows that the presence of Fe(III-Citrate complex could have a considerable impact on the fate of organic pollutant in aquatic environment.

  18. Selective photothermal efficiency of citrate capped gold nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raji, V. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India); Kumar, Jatish [Division of photochemistry and photobiology, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences and Technology (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, Kerala (India); Rejiya, C.S.; Vibin, M.; Shenoi, Vinesh N. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India); Abraham, Annie, E-mail: annieab2@yahoo.co.in [Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)

    2011-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles are recently having much attention because of their increased applications in biomedical fields. In this paper, we demonstrated the photothermal efficacy of citrate capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the destruction of A431 cancer cells. Citrate capped AuNPs were synthesized successfully and characterized by UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometry and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, AuNPs were conjugated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (anti-EGFR) and applied for the selective photothermal therapy (PTT) of human epithelial cancer cells, A431. PTT experiments were conducted in four groups, Group I-control cells, Group II-cells treated with laser light alone, Group III-cells treated with unconjugated AuNP and further laser irradiation and Group IV-anti-EGFR conjugated AuNP treated cells irradiated by laser light. After laser irradiation, cell morphology changes that were examined using phase contrast microscopy along with the relevant biochemical parameters like lactate dehydrogenase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-3 activity were studied for all the groups to determine whether cell death occurs due to necrosis or apoptosis. From these results we concluded that, these immunotargeted nanoparticles could selectively induce cell death via ROS mediated apoptosis when cells were exposed to a low power laser light.

  19. Gold/silver Core-shell 20 nm Nanoparticles Extracted from Citrate Solution Examined by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-16

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  20. Studies on ligand exchange reaction of functionalized mercaptothiadiazole compounds onto citrate capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercaptothiadiazole ligands functionalized with thiol (2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMT)) and methyl (5-methyl-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMT)) groups capped onto citrate capped gold nanoparticles (C-AuNPs) by ligand exchange reaction was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The surface plasmon resonance band at 522 nm for C-AuNPs was shifted to 530 nm after capping with DMT whereas an additional band was observed at 630 nm due to aggregation in addition to a shift in the band at 522 nm after capping of MMT onto C-AuNPs. Thus, capping of DMT onto C-AuNPs leads to the formation of stable AuNPs while capping of MMT leads to the formation of unstable AuNPs. FT-IR studies show that the citrate ions were completely replaced by both DMT and MMT ligands from the AuNPs. TEM images indicate that the size and shape of the AuNPs remain same after capping of these ligands.

  1. Triplet heterotopic pregnancy following ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy, though rare is a combined pregnancy in which synchronous intrauterine and extra uterine pregnancy occur. An estimated incidence of between 1/8000 to 1/30,000 has been reported following spontaneous conception. After artificial reproductive techniques, the incidence is as high as 1/100 and after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate, it is around 1/900. We are reporting a case of 26 year old gravida 2 who conceived after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate and presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Ultrasound pelvis showed viable twin intrauterine gestation of 8 weeks along with ruptured ectopic pregnancy on the right tube. After stabilizing the patient, emergency laparotomy and right salpingectomy was performed. Fortunately, the intrauterine twin fetuses grew satisfactorily and patient was delivered by caesarean section at 36 weeks in view of previous lower segment caesarean section with preterm labour. Heterotopic pregnancy must be considered in a patient with amenorrhea, abdominal pain, adnexal mass and enlarged uterus particularly, conception following artificial reproductive techniques or fertility drugs, even though the intrauterine pregnancy has been documented. A high index of suspicion is important to avoid maternal morbidity, sometimes mortality and loss of intrauterine pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 743-745

  2. A low-tech analytical method for diethylcarbamazine citrate in medicated salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Weaver

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has called for an effort to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF around the world. In regions where the disease is endemic, local production and distribution of medicated salt dosed with diethylcarbamazine (DEC has been an effective method for eradicating LF. A partner of the Notre Dame Haiti program, Group SPES in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, produces a medicated salt called Bon Sel. Coarse salt is pre-washed and sprayed with a solution of DEC citrate and potassium iodate. Iodine levels are routinely monitored on site by a titrimetric method. However, the factory had no method for monitoring DEC. Critical analytical issues include 1 determining whether the amount of DEC in each lot of Bon Sel is within safe and therapeutically useful limits, 2 monitoring variability within and between production runs, and 3 determining the effect of a common local practice (washing salt before use on the availability of DEC. This paper describes a novel titrimetric method for analysis of DEC citrate in medicated salt. The analysis needs no electrical power and requires only a balance, volumetric glassware, and burets that most salt production programs have on hand for monitoring iodine levels. The staff of the factory used this analysis method on site to detect underloading of DEC on the salt by their sprayer and to test a process change that fixed the problem.

  3. Short-term effects of CO(2) and O(2) on citrate metabolism in illuminated leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Mahé, Aline; Guérard, Florence; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard R A; Gout, Elisabeth; Lamothe, Marlène; Barbour, Margaret M; Bligny, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Although there is now a considerable literature on the inhibition of leaf respiration (CO(2) evolution) by light, little is known about the effect of other environmental conditions on day respiratory metabolism. In particular, CO(2) and O(2) mole fractions are assumed to cause changes in the tricarboxylic acid pathway (TCAP) but the amplitude and even the direction of such changes are still a matter of debate. Here, we took advantage of isotopic techniques, new simple equations and instant freeze sampling to follow respiratory metabolism in illuminated cocklebur leaves (Xanthium strumarium L.) under different CO(2) /O(2) conditions. Gas exchange coupled to online isotopic analysis showed that CO(2) evolved by leaves in the light came from 'old' carbon skeletons and there was a slight decrease in (13) C natural abundance when [CO(2) ] increased. This suggested the involvement of enzymatic steps fractionating more strongly against (13) C and thus increasingly limiting for the metabolic respiratory flux as [CO(2) ] increased. Isotopic labelling with (13) C(2) -2,4-citrate lead to (13) C-enriched Glu and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG), clearly demonstrating poor metabolism of citrate by the TCAP. There was a clear relationship between the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenation-to-carboxylation ratio (v(o) /v(c) ) and the (13) C commitment to 2OG, demonstrating that 2OG and Glu synthesis via the TCAP is positively influenced by photorespiration. PMID:22646810

  4. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4-1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  5. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle. PMID:22995463

  6. Rectal antinociceptive properties of alverine citrate are linked to antagonism at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, A M; Jacob, L; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2001-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is considered as a major mediator causing hyperalgesia and is involved in inflammatory reactions and irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine citrate may possess visceral antinociceptive properties in a rat model of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological properties of alverine citrate in a rat model of rectal hyperalgesia induced by 5-HTP (5-HT precursor) and by a selective 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and to compare this activity with a reference 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY 100635). At 4 h after their administration, 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT increased the number of abdominal contractions in response to rectal distension at the lowest volume of distension (0.4 mL). When injected intraperitoneally before 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HTP, WAY 100635 (1 mg kg(-1)) blocked their nociceptive effect, but also reduced the response to the highest volume of distension (1.6 mL). Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, alverine citrate (20 mg kg(-1)) suppressed the effect of 5-HTP, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT. However, when injected intracerebroventricularly (75 microg/rat) alverine citrate reduced 8-OH-DPAT-induced enhancement of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. In-vitro binding studies revealed that alverine citrate had a high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors and a weak affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 subtypes. These results suggest that 5-HTP-induced rectal hypersensitivity involves 5-TH1A receptors and that alverine citrate acts as a selective antagonist at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype to block both 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT-induced rectal hypersensitivity. PMID:11697552

  7. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction.

  8. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  10. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Král

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid andacetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification ofcitrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red electrodes arepresented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillaryelectrophoresis.

  11. Hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate to hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, M T; Brown, P W

    1998-04-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was hydrolysed in water and in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution at temperatures from 25-60 degrees C. Hydrolysis was incomplete in water. At 25 degrees C, DCPD partially hydrolysed to hydroxyapatite (HAp). Formation of HAp is indicative of incongruent DCPD dissolution. At the higher temperatures, hydrolysis to HAp was more extensive and was accompanied by the formation of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Both of these processes are endothermic. When hydrolysis was carried out in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution, heat absorption was greater at any given temperature than for hydrolysis in water. Complete hydrolysis to HAp occurred in this solution. The hydrolysis of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution was also endothermic. The complete conversion of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution would not be expected if the only effect of this solution was to cause DCPD dissolution to become congruent. Because of the buffering capacity of a dibasic sodium phosphate solution, DCPD hydrolysed completely to HAp. Complete conversion to HAp was accompanied by the conversion of dibasic sodium phosphate to monobasic sodium phosphate. The formation of DCP was not observed indicating that the sodium phosphate solution precluded the DCPD-to-DCP dehydration reaction. In addition to affecting the extent of hydrolysis, reaction in the sodium phosphate solution also caused a morphological change in the HAp which formed. HAp formed by hydrolysis in water was needle-like to globular while that formed in the sodium phosphate solution exhibited a florette-like morphology.

  12. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Zubkov; Martin, A. P.; Hartmann, M.; C. Grob; Scanlan, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellul...

  13. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, T.

    1988-01-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells. Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of Pi. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a ...

  14. Citrate Accumulation-Related Gene Expression and/or Enzyme Activity Analysis Combined With Metabolomics Provide a Novel Insight for an Orange Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Xia; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Ning, Dong-Yuan; Jing, Long-Fei; Yang, Huan; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    ‘Hong Anliu’ (HAL, Citrus sinensis cv. Hong Anliu) is a bud mutant of ‘Anliu’ (AL), characterized by a comprehensive metabolite alteration, such as lower accumulation of citrate, high accumulation of lycopene and soluble sugars in fruit juice sacs. Due to carboxylic acid metabolism connects other metabolite biosynthesis and/or catabolism networks, we therefore focused analyzing citrate accumulation-related gene expression profiles and/or enzyme activities, along with metabolic fingerprinting between ‘HAL’ and ‘AL’. Compared with ‘AL’, the transcript levels of citrate biosynthesis- and utilization-related genes and/or the activities of their respective enzymes such as citrate synthase, cytosol aconitase and ATP-citrate lyase were significantly higher in ‘HAL’. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial aconitase activity, the gene transcript levels of proton pumps, including vacuolar H+-ATPase, vacuolar H+-PPase, and the juice sac-predominant p-type proton pump gene (CsPH8) were significantly lower in ‘HAL’. These results implied that ‘HAL’ has higher abilities for citrate biosynthesis and utilization, but lower ability for the citrate uptake into vacuole compared with ‘AL’. Combined with the metabolites-analyzing results, a model was then established and suggested that the reduction in proton pump activity is the key factor for the low citrate accumulation and the comprehensive metabolite alterations as well in ‘HAL’. PMID:27385485

  15. Citrate Accumulation-Related Gene Expression and/or Enzyme Activity Analysis Combined With Metabolomics Provide a Novel Insight for an Orange Mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Xia; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Ning, Dong-Yuan; Jing, Long-Fei; Yang, Huan; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    'Hong Anliu' (HAL, Citrus sinensis cv. Hong Anliu) is a bud mutant of 'Anliu' (AL), characterized by a comprehensive metabolite alteration, such as lower accumulation of citrate, high accumulation of lycopene and soluble sugars in fruit juice sacs. Due to carboxylic acid metabolism connects other metabolite biosynthesis and/or catabolism networks, we therefore focused analyzing citrate accumulation-related gene expression profiles and/or enzyme activities, along with metabolic fingerprinting between 'HAL' and 'AL'. Compared with 'AL', the transcript levels of citrate biosynthesis- and utilization-related genes and/or the activities of their respective enzymes such as citrate synthase, cytosol aconitase and ATP-citrate lyase were significantly higher in 'HAL'. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial aconitase activity, the gene transcript levels of proton pumps, including vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, vacuolar H(+)-PPase, and the juice sac-predominant p-type proton pump gene (CsPH8) were significantly lower in 'HAL'. These results implied that 'HAL' has higher abilities for citrate biosynthesis and utilization, but lower ability for the citrate uptake into vacuole compared with 'AL'. Combined with the metabolites-analyzing results, a model was then established and suggested that the reduction in proton pump activity is the key factor for the low citrate accumulation and the comprehensive metabolite alterations as well in 'HAL'. PMID:27385485

  16. Loop VIII/IX of the Na+-citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae folds into an amphipathic surface helix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobczak, [No Value; Lolkema, JS; Sobczak, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    The sodium ion-dependent citrate transporter CitS of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a member of, the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2HCT) family whose members transport divalent citrate in symport with two sodium ions. Profiles of the hydrophobic moment suggested the presence of an amphipathic helical

  17. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  18. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  19. 复方枸橼酸阿尔维林用于结肠镜检查前肠道准备144例%Application of Compound Alverine Citrate in Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopic Examination in 144 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旻

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application and value of compound alverine citrate in the bowel preparation for colonoscopic ex-amination. Methods 288 patients requiring for colonoscopic examination were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. Before examination, the control group used sodium phosphate oral solution for cleaning the bowel, while on this basis the experimental group was added with oral compound alverine citrate. Results The intestinal bubble remaining of the experimental group was less than that of the control group ( P ﹤ 0. 05 ) , the patient ’ s tolerance degree in the observation group was higher than that in the control group ( P ﹤ 0. 05 ) , and the intestinal cleanliness had no statistically significant difference between the two groups ( P ﹥ 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Using compound alverine citrate before colonoscopic examination could mitigate discomfort degrees such as abdominal pain and abdominal distension, improves tolerance, reduces intestinal bubble remaining and is worthy of being clinically promoted and applied.%目的:探讨复方枸橼酸阿尔维林在结肠镜检查前肠道准备中的应用及价值。方法将288例需行结肠镜检查的患者随机均分为试验组和对照组,检查前对照组用磷酸钠盐口服溶液清洗肠道,试验组在此基础上加用复方枸橼酸阿尔维林。结果试验组肠道气泡存留少于对照组( P﹤0.05),患者检查耐受程度大于对照组( P﹤0.05),两组肠道清洁度无明显差异( P﹥0.05)。结论行结肠镜检查前应用复方枸橼酸阿尔维林,能减轻患者腹痛、腹胀等不适程度而提高耐受性,可减少肠道气泡存留,值得临床推广。

  20. Comparing of letrozole versus clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins in intrauterine insemination cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ayazi Roozbahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC an agonist and antagonist of estrogen, is the first line treatment in ovarian stimulation. Anti-estrogenic effect of CC in endometrial thickness and cervical mucus has negative effect on pregnancy rate. Letrozole is an Aromatase Inhibitor has been seen that has acceptable pregnancy rate compared to CC.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC with gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation in women candidate for intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients eligible to IUI therapy enrolled in this study. Patients randomized to two groups: group A (received letrozole-gonadotropin and group B (received CC-gonadotropin. In group A (n=80 letrozole was given on days 3-7 of the menstrual cycles. In group B clomiphen citrate was given like letrozole combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG administered every day starting on day 8. Ovulation was triggered with urinary HCG when the leading follicle (s reached 18 mm in diameter. A single IUI was performed 36-40 hours later. The ovarian stimulation response (E2 levels and number of follicles, clinical pregnancy and endometrial thickness was primary outcome.Results: Both groups were similar in demographic characteristics. There was a significantly lower peak serum E2 level in the letrozole group compared with CC. (236±86 Vs. 283±106 pg/mL, respectively; p18 mm preovulatory follicles was significantly higher in CC group than letrozole group (2.2±.68 Vs. 2.02±0.63 respectively; p=0.025. Endometrial thickness measured at the time of hCG administration was significantly higher in letrozole group. (9.08±1.2 mm Vs. 8.1±1.9 mm; p=0.0001. The clinical pregnancy rate was comparable between two groups.Conclusion: Letrozole is a good and cost-effective alternative to CC in IUI cycles